Publications by authors named "Xiaoling Gong"

15 Publications

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Isolation of prolactin gene and its differential expression during metamorphosis involving eye migration of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

Gene 2021 May 23;780:145522. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources (Shanghai Ocean University), Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201306, China; International Research Center for Marine Biosciences at Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Science and Technology, Shanghai 201306, China; National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China. Electronic address:

Eye migration during flatfish metamorphosis is driven by asymmetrical cell proliferation. To figure out Prolactin (PRL) function in this process, the full-length cDNA of prl was cloned from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in our study. The deduced PRL protein shares highly conserved sequence with other teleosts, but has several amino acids loss compared with higher vertebrates, including amphibians, reptiles, avian and mammals. Spatio-temporal expression of prl gene displayed its extensive expression in the early development stages, while the limited expression of prl was observed in the pituitary, brain, and intestine of adult fish. In situ hybridization showed the asymmetrical distribution patterns of prl gene around the eyes during metamorphosis, which was coincident with the cell proliferation signals. Colchicine inhibited cell proliferation and reduced the prl gene expression, which indicates that PRL was involved in cell proliferation in the suborbital area of the migrating eye. The treatment of methimazole and 9-cis-retinoic acid respectively led to a reduction in the number of proliferating cells and the downregulation of prl expression, suggesting PRL was regulated by thyroid hormone signaling pathway and retinoic acid related signaling pathways. The results gave us a basic understanding of PRL function during flatfish metamorphosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145522DOI Listing
May 2021

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms responsible for pseudo-albinism and hypermelanosis in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) and reveal two genes related to malpigmentation.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 6;47(2):339-350. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources (Shanghai Ocean University), Shanghai, China.

Paralichthys olivaceus is the kind of cold-water benthic marine fish. In the early stages of development, the symmetrical juveniles transform into an asymmetrical body shape through metamorphosis for adapting benthic life. After that, one side of the fish body is attached to the ground, and the eyes turn to the opposite side which is called ocular side. The body color also appears asymmetry. The skin on the ocular side is dark brown, and the skin on the blind side is white without pigmentation. Pseudo-albinism and hypermelanosis have been considered distinct body color disorders in flatfish. Pseudo-albinism and hypermelanosis in Paralichthys olivaceus are due to abnormal or uneven pigment distribution, due to the interaction of hereditary and environmental factors, rather than a single-nucleotide mutation of a specific gene. Here, we report three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) responsible for both pseudo-albinism and hypermelanosis, which are located on two body color-related genes involved in melanogenesis-related pathways. c.2440C>A (P. V605I) and c.2271-96T>C are located on the Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 2-like (ITPR2) (Gene ID: 109624047), they are located in exon 16 and the non-coding region, respectively, and c.2406C>A (P.H798N) is located in exon 13 of the adenylate cyclase type 6-like (AC6) gene(Gene ID: 109630770). ITPR2 and AC6 expression, which both participate in the thyroid hormone synthesis pathway associated with pseudo-albinism and hypermelanosis in P. olivaceus, were also investigated using qRT-PCR. In hypermelanotic fish, there were relatively higher levels of expression in ITPR2 and AC6 mRNA of hyper-pigmented skin of blind side than that of non-pigmented skin on the blind side and pigmented skin on the ocular side, while in pseudo-albino fish, expression level of ITPR2 and AC6 mRNA in pigmented skin of ocular side was significantly higher than that in non-pigmented skin both ocular and blind side. The results indicated that the expression of the two genes in abnormal parts of body color is positively correlated with pigmentation, suggesting that the influence of abnormal expression of two genes on the pigmentation in abnormal parts of body color deserves further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-020-00916-3DOI Listing
April 2021

CRISPR/Cas9-induced nos2b mutant zebrafish display behavioral abnormalities.

Genes Brain Behav 2020 Nov 16:e12716. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources (Shanghai Ocean University), Ministry of Education, International Research Center for Marine Biosciences at Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Science and Technology, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai, China.

The immunomodulatory function of nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) has been extensively studied. However, some behavioral abnormalities caused by its mutations have been found in a few rodent studies, of which the molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this research, we generated nos2b gene knockout zebrafish (nos2b ) using CRISPR/Cas9 approach and investigated their behavioral and molecular changes by doing a series of behavioral detections, morphological measurements, and molecular analyses. We found that, compared with nos2b zebrafish, nos2b zebrafish exhibited enhanced motor activity; additionally, nos2b zebrafish were characterized by smaller brain size, abnormal structure of optic tectum, reduced mRNA level of presynaptic synaptophysin and postsynaptic homer1, and altered response to sodium nitroprusside/methylphenidate hydrochloride treatment. These findings will likely contribute to future studies of behavioral regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gbb.12716DOI Listing
November 2020

Mechanism of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and host pathogen interplay in bovine mastitis.

Microb Pathog 2018 Jul 7;120:64-70. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430071, China. Electronic address:

Bacterial infection in the mammary gland parenchyma induces local and subsequently systemic inflammation that results in a complex disease. Mastitis in bovine is the result of various factors which function together. This review is aimed to analyze the factors involved in the pathogenesis of common bacterial species for bovine mastitis. The bacterial growth patterns, signaling pathway and the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) which activate immune responses is discussed. Clear differences in bacterial infection pattern are shown between bacterial species and illustrated TLRs, NLRs and RLGs molecular mechanism for the initiation of intramammary infection. The underlying reasons for the differences and the resulting host response are analyzed. Understandings of the mechanisms that activate and regulate these responses are central to the development of efficient anticipatory and treatment management. The knowledge of bovine mammary gland to common mastitis causing pathogens with possible immune mechanism could be a new conceptual understanding for the prospect of mastitis control program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.04.010DOI Listing
July 2018

Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of globe fish (Linnaeus, 1758) and the phylogenetic analysis of tetraodontidae.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2016 Nov 21;1(1):781-782. Epub 2016 Nov 21.

College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, No. 999 Hucheng Ring Road, Shanghai, China.

Globe fish, (Linnaeus, 1758) is an ornamental freshwater fish in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of globe fish was first determined. The entire mitochondrial DNA sequence (mtDNA) sequence was 164595bp in length and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) and a control region (CR). Its mitochondrial genome had the common features with those of other bony fishes with respect to gene arrangement, base composition, and tRNA structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2016.1186512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7800345PMC
November 2016

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Yongeichthys criniger and phylogenetic studies of Gobiidae.

Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal 2017 03 29;28(2):281-282. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

a Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources , Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Education , Shanghai , China.

Yongeichthys criniger belongs to Gobiidae, Gobioidei, and Perciformes in taxonomy. Its mitochondrial genome was first determined, which consists of 13 typical vertebrate protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes, and 1 control region. The mitogenome base's composition is 27.28% for A, 26.12% for T, 28.98% for C, and 17.62% for G. The phylogenic analysis involves 32 Gobiidae species in GenBank database. The results will provide more molecular information for the further studies on species identification and phylogenic evolution of Gobiidae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19401736.2015.1118080DOI Listing
March 2017

Different ossification patterns of intermuscular bones in fish with different swimming modes.

Biol Open 2015 Nov 24;4(12):1727-32. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

The Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201306, China

Intermuscular bones are found in the myosepta in teleosts. However, there is very little information on the development and ossification of these intermuscular bones. In this study, we performed an in-depth investigation of the ossification process during development in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). In Japanese eel, a typical anguilliform swimmer, the intermuscular bones ossified predominantly from the anterior to the posterior. By contrast, in the zebrafish, a sub-carangiform or carangiform swimmer, the intermuscular bones ossified predominantly from the posterior to the anterior regions of the fish. Furthermore, tail amputation affected the ossification of the intermuscular bones. The length of the intermuscular bones in the posterior area became significantly shorter in tail-amputated zebrafish and Japanese eels, and both had less active and lower swimming speeds; this indicates that swimming might induce the ossification of the intermuscular bones. Moreover, when a greater length of tail was amputated in the zebrafish, the intermuscular bones became even shorter. Tail amputation affected the length and ossification of intermuscular bones in the anterior part of the fish, close to the head, differently between the two fish: they became significantly shorter in the zebrafish, but did not in the Japanese eel. This might be because tail amputation did not significantly affect the undulations in the anterior of the Japanese eel, especially near the head. This study shows that the ossification of intermuscular bones might be induced through mechanical force loadings that are produced by swimming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.012856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4736024PMC
November 2015

Identification of tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria from goby Yongeichthys criniger.

Toxicon 2015 Sep 1;104:46-51. Epub 2015 Aug 1.

The Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201306, China. Electronic address:

Toxic goby fish (Yongeichthys criniger) containing tetrodotoxin (TTX), from Zhanjiang, Guangdong province, China, were screened for TTX-producing bacteria. Two toxic bacterial strains were isolated from the liver of Y. criniger and respectively denoted XC3-3 and XL-1. TTX production by the strains was confirmed by mouse bioassay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis, strain XC3-3 was identified as Enterobacter cloaca and XL-1 was closely related to Rahnella aquatilis. These findings show for the first time that TTX-producing bacteria are symbiotic bacteria in goby and suggest that bacterial strains are at least partially responsible for TTX accumulation in Y. criniger.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.07.335DOI Listing
September 2015

Production level of tetrodotoxin in Aeromonas is associated with the copy number of a plasmid.

Toxicon 2015 Jul 23;101:27-34. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201306, China. Electronic address:

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) has been identified from taxonomically diverse organisms. Artificial synthesis of TTX has been reported, but the biosynthetic pathway of TTX remains elusive. In this study, we found TTX producing ability was associated with the copy number of plasmid pNe-1 in Aeromonas strain Ne-1 during fermentation, suggesting that at least one gene encoding a TTX-synthesis enzyme is located on this plasmid. Compared with bacterial genomes, plasmids are small and easier to screen for genes associated with TTX biosynthesis. The approximately 100 kb genome of pNe-1 was sequenced. The plasmid contains 60 complete open reading frames (orfs) of which 32 (53.3%) encode hypothetical proteins. Seven genes are related to the type IV secretion system (T4SS) and 2 genes are related to transposons, indicating that the TTX-producing bacterium Aeromonas might have the ability to transfer the TTX biosynthesis gene via the conjugation and contagion of plasmid pNe-1. In addition, we unexpectedly found that Aeromonas Ne-1 contains unknown TTX-degrading materials, indicating there is a homeostatic mechanism to maintain a stable amount of TTX in the bacterium. These results will help us to better understand TTX biosynthesis, the bacterial origin of TTX, and TTX degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.04.009DOI Listing
July 2015

Complete mitochondrial genome of Kashgarian loach, Triplophysayarkandensis (Day, 1877) in the Tarim river.

Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal 2016 09 24;27(5):3192-3. Epub 2015 Feb 24.

a Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources (certificated by Ministry of Education) , Shanghai Ocean University , Shanghai , P.R. China and.

Kashgarian loach, Triplophysayarkandensis (Day, 1877), a native species in the Tarim River of Northwest China, has been dramatically declined in population size in recent years. In this article, the mitochondrial genome of Kashgarian loach was first determined. The whole mtDNA sequence was 16,574 bp in length, which is similar to other bony fishes in gene order, including 2rRNA genes, 22tRNA, 13 protein-coding and 1 putative control region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19401736.2015.1007330DOI Listing
September 2016

Distortion of frontal bones results from cell apoptosis by the mechanical force from the up-migrating eye during metamorphosis in Paralichthys olivaceus.

Mech Dev 2015 May 23;136:87-98. Epub 2015 Jan 23.

The Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201306, China. Electronic address:

Craniofacial remodeling during flatfish metamorphosis, including eye migration, is perhaps the most striking example of asymmetric postembryonic development in the vertebrate world. The asymmetry of the cranium mainly results from distortion of the frontal bones, which depends on eye migration during metamorphosis. However, it is unclear how the up-migrating eye causes distortion of the frontal bones. In this study, we first show that distortion of the frontal bones during metamorphosis in Paralichthys olivaceus is the result of cell apoptosis, rather than cell autophagy or cell proliferation. Secondly, we report that cell apoptosis in the frontal bones is induced by the mechanical force transferred from the up-migrating eye. The mechanical force from the up-migrating eye signals through FAK to downstream molecules that are integrated into the BMP-2 signal pathway. Finally, it is shown that cell apoptosis in the frontal bones is activated by the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway; the extrinsic death receptor is not involved in this process. Moreover, cell apoptosis in frontal bones is not induced directly by thyroid hormones, which are thought to mediate metamorphosis in flatfishes and directly mediate cell apoptosis during amphibian metamorphosis. These findings help identify the major signaling route used during regulation of frontal bone distortion during metamorphosis in flatfish, and indicate that the asymmetry of the cranium, or at least the distortion of frontal bones, is the result of rather than the reason underlying eye migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mod.2015.01.001DOI Listing
May 2015

Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the Eastern keelback mullet Liza affinis.

Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal 2016 05 25;27(3):2178-9. Epub 2014 Nov 25.

a Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources , Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Education , Shanghai , China.

Eastern keelback mullet (Liza affinis) inhabits inlet waters and estuaries of rivers. In this paper, we initially determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Liza affinis. The entire mtDNA sequence is 16,831 bp in length, including 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 putative control region. Its order and numbers of genes are similar to most bony fishes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19401736.2014.982614DOI Listing
May 2016

Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata (Bleeker, 1852).

Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal 2016 20;27(2):817-8. Epub 2014 May 20.

a Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources , Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Education , Shanghai , China and.

Marble goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata (Bleeker) is a large-scale invasive goby in China. In this study, the mitochondrial genome of marble goby was firstly determined. The entire mtDNA sequence was 16,556 bp in length with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) and control region (CR). Its mitochondrial genome has the common features with those of other bony fishes with respect to gene arrangement, base composition, and tRNA structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/19401736.2014.919456DOI Listing
October 2016

mRNA/microRNA Profile at the Metamorphic Stage of Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

Comp Funct Genomics 2011 19;2011:256038. Epub 2011 Apr 19.

The Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201306, China.

Flatfish is famous for the asymmetric transformation during metamorphosis. The molecular mechanism behind the asymmetric development has been speculated over a century and is still not well understood. To date, none of the metamorphosis-related genes has been identified in flatfish. As the first step to screen metamorphosis-related gene, we constructed a whole-body cDNA library and a whole-body miRNA library in this study and identified 1051 unique ESTs, 23 unique miRNAs, and 4 snoRNAs in premetamorphosing and prometamorphosing Paralichthys olivaceus. 1005 of the ESTs were novel, suggesting that there was a special gene expression profile at metamorphic stage. Four miRNAs (pol-miR-20c, pol-miR-23c, pol-miR-130d, and pol-miR-181e) were novel to P. olivaceus; they were characterized as highly preserved homologies of published miRNAs but with at least one nucleotide differed. Representative 24 mRNAs and 23 miRNAs were quantified during metamorphosis of P. olivaceus by using quantitative RT PCR or stem-loop qRT PCR. Our results showed that 20 of mRNAs might be associated with early metamorphic events, 10 of mRNAs might be related with later metamorphic events, and 16 of miRNAs might be involved in the regulation of metamorphosis. The data provided in this study would be helpful for further identifying metamorphosis-related gene in P. olivaceus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/256038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3092494PMC
July 2011

Proliferating cells in suborbital tissue drive eye migration in flatfish.

Dev Biol 2011 Mar 31;351(1):200-7. Epub 2010 Dec 31.

The Key Laboratory of Exploration and Utilization of Aquatic Genetic Resources, Shanghai Ocean University, Ministry of Education, Shanghai 201306, PR China.

The left/right asymmetry of adult flatfishes (Pleuronectiformes) is remarkable given the external body symmetry of the larval fish. The best-known change is the migration of their eyes: one eye migrates from one side to the other. Two extinct primitive pleuronectiformes with incomplete orbital migration have again attracted public attention to the mechanism of eye migration, a subject of speculation and research for over a century. Cranial asymmetry is currently believed to be responsible for eye migration. Contrary to that hypothesis, we show here that the initial migration of the eye is caused by cell proliferation in the suborbital tissue of the blind side and that the twist of frontal bone is dependent on eye migration. The inhibition of cell proliferation in the suborbital area of the blind side by microinjected colchicine was able to prevent eye migration and, thereafter, cranial asymmetry in juvenile Solea senegalensis (right sideness, Soleidae), Cynoglossus semilaevis (left sideness, Cynoglossidae), and Paralichthys olivaceus (left sideness, Paralichthyidae) with a bottom-dwelling lifestyle. Our results correct the current misunderstanding that eye migration is driven by the cranial asymmetry and simplify the explanation for broken left/right eye-symmetry. Our findings should help to focus the search on eye migration-related genes associated with cell proliferation. Finally, a novel model is proposed in this research which provides a reasonable explanation for differences in the migrating eye between, and sometimes within, different species of flatfish and which should aid in our overall understanding of eye migration in the ontogenesis and evolution of Pleuronectiformes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ydbio.2010.12.032DOI Listing
March 2011