Publications by authors named "Xiaoli Zhang"

1,017 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

TEP1 is a risk gene for sporadic cerebral palsy.

J Genet Genomics 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Institutes of Biomedical Sciences and Children's Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 201102, China; Shanghai Center for Women and Children's Health, Shanghai, 200062, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2021.08.010DOI Listing
September 2021

Immune Recovery Following Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in HIV-Related Lymphoma Patients on the BMT CTN 0803/AMC 071 Trial.

Front Immunol 2021 3;12:700045. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Hematology & Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, United States.

We report a first in-depth comparison of immune reconstitution in patients with HIV-related lymphoma following autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (AHCT) recipients (n=37, lymphoma, BEAM conditioning), HIV(-) AHCT recipients (n=30, myeloma, melphalan conditioning) at 56, 180, and 365 days post-AHCT, and 71 healthy control subjects. Principal component analysis showed that immune cell composition in HIV(+) and HIV(-) AHCT recipients clustered away from healthy controls and from each other at each time point, but approached healthy controls over time. Unsupervised feature importance score analysis identified activated T cells, cytotoxic memory and effector T cells [higher in HIV(+)], and naïve and memory T helper cells [lower HIV(+)] as a having a significant impact on differences between HIV(+) AHCT recipient and healthy control lymphocyte composition (p<0.0033). HIV(+) AHCT recipients also demonstrated lower median absolute numbers of activated B cells and lower NK cell sub-populations, compared to healthy controls (p<0.0033) and HIV(-) AHCT recipients (p<0.006). HIV(+) patient T cells showed robust IFNγ production in response to HIV and EBV recall antigens. Overall, HIV(+) AHCT recipients, but not HIV(-) AHCT recipients, exhibited reconstitution of pro-inflammatory immune profiling that was consistent with that seen in patients with chronic HIV infection treated with antiretroviral regimens. Our results further support the use of AHCT in HIV(+) individuals with relapsed/refractory lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.700045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8446430PMC
September 2021

p-Block element-doped silicon nanowires for nitrogen reduction reaction: a DFT study.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 17;13(35):14935-14944. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Centre for Translational Atomaterials, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia.

Photocatalytic nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) is a promising, green route to chemically reducing N into NH under ambient conditions, correlating to the N fixation process of nitrogenase enzymes. To achieve high-yield NRR with sunlight as the driving force, high-performance photocatalysts are essential. One-dimensional silicon nanowires (1D SiNWs) are a great photoelectric candidate, but inactive for NRR due to their inability to capture N. In this study, we proposed SiNWs doped by p-block elements (B, C, P) to tune the affinity to N and demonstrated that two-coordinated boron (B) offers an ultra-low overpotential () of 0.34 V to catalyze full NRR, which is even much lower than that of flat benchmark Ru(0001) catalysts ( = 0.92 V). Moreover, aspects including suppressed hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), high-spin ground state of the B site, and decreased band gap after B-doping ensure the high selectivity and photocatalytic activity. Finally, this work not only shows the potential use of metal-free p-block element-based catalysts, but also would facilitate the development of 1D nanomaterials towards efficient reduction of N into NH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr03448kDOI Listing
September 2021

A Co-Expression Network Reveals the Potential Regulatory Mechanism of lncRNAs in Relapsed Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 31;11:745166. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Organ Transplantation Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

Background: The mechanistic basis for relapsed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poorly understood. Recent research has highlighted the important roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in HCC. However, there are only a few studies on the association between lncRNAs and HCC relapse.

Methods: Differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs between a primary HCC group and relapsed HCC group were identified using the edge R package to analyze the GSE101432 dataset. The differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs were used to construct a lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis followed by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses were conducted on the database. Furthermore, correlation and survival analyses were performed using The Cancer Genome Atlas database, and expression in the clinical samples was verified by qRT-PCR. Thereafter, we inputted the genes from the two groups into the HCC TNM stage and tumor grade database from TCGA. Finally, we performed Kaplan-Meier survival analysis on the lncRNAs related to relapsed HCC.

Results: In this study, lncRNAs and mRNAs associated with HCC relapse were identified. Two gene modules were found to be closely linked to this. The GO terms in the yellow and black modules were related to cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival, as well as some transcription-related biological processes. Through qRT-PCR, we found that the expression levels of LINC00941 and LINC00668 in relapsed HCC were higher than those in primary HCC. Further, mRNA levels of , , , , , and were changed in relapsed HCC compared to levels in primary HCC. In addition, we verified that these genes could predict the overall survival and recurrence-free survival of HCC. Moreover, we found that LINC00668 and LINC00941 could affect tumor grade and TNM stages. In total, we identified and validated two lncRNAs (LINC00941 and LINC00668) and six mRNAs (, , , , , ) associated with HCC relapse.

Conclusion: In summary, we identified the key gene modules and central genes associated with relapsed HCC and constructed lncRNA-mRNA networks related to this. These genes are likely to have potential prognostic value for relapsed HCC and might shed new light on novel biomarkers or diagnostic targets for relapsed HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.745166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438305PMC
August 2021

Non-traditional Lipid Parameters as Potential Predictors of Asymptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis.

Front Neurol 2021 31;12:679415. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is a common cause of stroke. Identifying effective predictors of ICAS that could be easily obtained in clinical practice is important. The predictive values of serum individual lipid parameters have been well-established. In recent years, several non-traditional lipid parameters demonstrated greater predictive values for cardiovascular disease and ischemic stroke than traditional individual lipid parameters. However, their effects on asymptomatic ICAS (aICAS) are less clear. Therefore, we sought to observe the effects of non-traditional lipid parameters on aICAS. We enrolled 5,314 participants from the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community study. Asymptomatic ICAS was detected by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). Non-traditional lipid parameters, including non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), the triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C), atherogenic coefficient (AC), atherogenic index of plasma, and Castelli's risk index (CRI) were measured. We used multivariable logistic analysis to assess the association of different lipid parameters with aICAS; a trend test and subgroup analyses were also performed. In total, 695 of 5,314 participants had aICAS in this study. For the comparison of the highest to the lowest tertile, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% CIs) were 1.78 (1.39-2.27) ( trend < 0.001) for non-HDL-C, 1.48 (1.18-1.85) ( trend = 0.004) for the AC, 1.48 (1.18-1.85) ( trend = 0.004) for CRI-I, and 1.34 (1.09-1.66) ( trend = 0.032) for CRI-II. Subgroup analyses showed significant interactions between the AC, CRI-I, and diabetes. This large community-based study showed that non-HDL-C, AC, CRI-I, and CRI-II were significantly associated with increased prevalence of aICAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.679415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438411PMC
August 2021

THE CONCISE GUIDE TO PHARMACOLOGY 2021/22: Ion channels.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Oct;178 Suppl 1:S157-S245

Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2021/22 is the fifth in this series of biennial publications. The Concise Guide provides concise overviews, mostly in tabular format, of the key properties of nearly 1900 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to the open access knowledgebase source of drug targets and their ligands (www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide constitutes over 500 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the website. It provides a permanent, citable, point-in-time record that will survive database updates. The full contents of this section can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/bph.15539. Ion channels are one of the six major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein-coupled receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The landscape format of the Concise Guide is designed to facilitate comparison of related targets from material contemporary to mid-2021, and supersedes data presented in the 2019/20, 2017/18, 2015/16 and 2013/14 Concise Guides and previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in close conjunction with the Nomenclature and Standards Committee of the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (NC-IUPHAR), therefore, providing official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.15539DOI Listing
October 2021

TiCT/PEDOT:PSS Composite Interface Enables over 17% Efficiency Non-fullerene Organic Solar Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201, P. R. China.

Metal carbide TiCT as a new two-dimensional material with excellent metallic conductivity, good water solubility, and superior transmittance in the visible light range shows great potential for applications in optoelectronic devices. Herein, TiCT/PEDOT:PSS composite films were fabricated by a simple solution process and employed as an anode interfacial layer in organic solar cells. By introducing the TiCT/PEDOT:PSS composite interface into the devices, the highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.26% was achieved while using PM6:Y6 as the active layer, with a high short-circuit current () of 26.52 mA/cm and a fill factor of up to 0.76. The PCE is much higher than 15.89% for the pure PEDOT:PSS interfacial layer-based device without doping. The dramatically improved performance was attributed to the increased conductivity of the TiCT/PEDOT:PSS composite interface and the increased charge extraction and collection efficiency of the devices. This work presents an effective method to prepare the TiCT/PEDOT:PSS composite interface and high-performance organic solar cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c11139DOI Listing
September 2021

Emergence of ST307 Co-Producing CTX-M with SHV and KPC from Paediatric Patients at Shenzhen Children's Hospital, China.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 2;14:3581-3588. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Haematology and Oncology, Shenzhen Children's Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China.

Aim: We investigated the clonal diversity of carbapenemase-producing isolates from the Shenzhen Children's Hospital, China, and drew conclusions on the clinical and public health impact of these isolates as multidrug-resistant.

Methods: From January 2014 to December 2018, a total number of 36 unique carbapenemase-producing clinical isolates of were collected out of 900 clinical isolates in paediatric patients from the Shenzhen Children's Hospital, China. After carbapenemase production confirmation, antimicrobial susceptibility, resistance determinants and phylogenetic relationship were determined.

Results: The isolates showed resistance to ceftazidime, ertapenem, ampicillin, cefazolin, ceftriaxone, cefotetan, ticarcillin, cefaclor, cefpodoxime, azlocillin, cefcapene, mezlocillin and ampicillin-sulbactam. Of the 36 carbapenemase genes coding isolates, was the mostly detected 50% (n=18) followed by and 19% (n=7), 17% (n=6), 8% (n=3) and 5% (n=2), whereas extended-spectrum β-lactamase ( ) was predominantly detected 92% (n=33) followed by 53% (n=19) and 28% (n=10). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing showed eight different patterns, and twenty-five distinct sequences types were observed with ST307 being predominantly identified 11% (n=4), followed by ST2407 8% (n=3). Plasmid replicon typing results indicated that IncFIS, IncHI2, IncFIC and IncFIA plasmids carry and genes.

Conclusion: This study reports on the occurrence and spread of carbapenemase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase encoding genes co-existence in sporadic ST307 in paediatric patients from the Shenzhen Children's Hospital, China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S324018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8422287PMC
September 2021

Molecular detection and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in pork from Chongqing, southwest China.

Acta Trop 2021 Sep 9;224:106134. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Key Laboratory of Animal Parasitology of Ministry of Agriculture, Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Animal Products on Biohazards (Shanghai) of Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Raw or undercooked meat is an important source of Toxoplasma gondii infection in China, but there is little research data on these infections in Chongqing. This study determined the prevalence of T. gondii, and its genotypes, in pork. A total of 1,223 diaphragm muscle samples were collected from eight slaughterhouses and 79 markets and detected by PCR amplification of the ITS gene. All of the positive samples were used for genotype identification by PCR-RFLP with 11 genetic markers. The total positive rate of T. gondii in Chongqing pork was 8.7%, and differences in T. gondii infection rates were found between different districts (0%-23.3%), seasons (e.g., 4.3% from Spring, 7.3% from Summer, 11.4% from Autumn, 12.0% from Winter) and years (2.7%-14.3%). Six samples were successfully genotyped, of which one was identified as ToxoDB#9 and five were ToxoDB#9-like. This was the first continuous study about the prevalence of T. gondii in pork in Chongqing for several years. Slaughterhouses in different districts, pork source, farm scale, season and year were potential risk factors for T. gondii contamination by the univariate logistic regression, and using multivariate logistic regression districts, pork source and year were the independent risk factor. These data may help reducing the levels of toxoplasmosis in pigs and humans in Chongqing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106134DOI Listing
September 2021

Protease activated receptor 2 signaling promotes self-renewal and metastasis in colorectal cancer through β-catenin and periostin.

Cancer Lett 2021 Aug 27;521:130-141. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021, China. Electronic address:

The maintenance and expansion of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) is necessary for metastasis. Although protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is strongly associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) progression, it is unclear how it regulates distal metastasis, and no studies have shown the involvement of CSCs. In this study, we demonstrated that high PAR2 protein expression was correlated with metastatic CRC and poor prognosis in patients with stage III-IV CRC. CSCs from cell lines and patients showed higher levels of PAR2 than that of corresponding non-CSCs, and PAR2 inhibition reduced the CSC properties of the cell lines. Mechanistically, PAR2 inhibition switched the division mode of CSCs from symmetrical to asymmetrical via the ERK/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. We also identified periostin as a direct transcriptional target of β-catenin that mediates CSC self-renewal via PAR2 signaling. In a mouse xenograft model, PAR2 knockdown significantly attenuated liver metastasis. Finally, PAR2 expression was positively correlated with β-catenin and periostin in the primary sites of CRC with distant metastasis. Overall, our results indicate that PAR2 activation enhances CSC self-renewal and promotes metastasis through β-catenin and its target gene, periostin, in CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.08.032DOI Listing
August 2021

Hearing Loss in Neurological Disorders.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:716300. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Jiangsu Provincial Key Medical Discipline (Laboratory), Nanjing, China.

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) affects approximately 466 million people worldwide, which is projected to reach 900 million by 2050. Its histological characteristics are lesions in cochlear hair cells, supporting cells, and auditory nerve endings. Neurological disorders cover a wide range of diseases affecting the nervous system, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), etc. Many studies have revealed that neurological disorders manifest with hearing loss, in addition to typical nervous symptoms. The prevalence, manifestations, and neuropathological mechanisms underlying vary among different diseases. In this review, we discuss the relevant literature, from clinical trials to research mice models, to provide an overview of auditory dysfunctions in the most common neurological disorders, particularly those associated with hearing loss, and to explain their underlying pathological and molecular mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.716300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385440PMC
August 2021

Microbial analysis reveals the potential colonization of pathogens in the intestine of crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in traditional aquaculture environments.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Aug 25;224:112705. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Institute of Fisheries Research, Chengdu Academy of Agricultural and Forestry Sciences, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

The microbiota of the intestine produces a wide array of biologically active molecules and together act as a composite endocrine organ. Due to our limited understanding of bacterial communities in aquaculture ecosystems, it is necessary to evaluate the interactions between environmental and intestinal microbiota and the potential consequences of disease. This study taken the traditional P. clarkii culture in the Sichuan Basin as an example, and analyzed the relationships between the microbiota of the environment and host through microbial analysis and microbiological diagnosis. Our results showed that the bacterial abundance in sediment was greater than in water, followed by the intestine, and some of bacteria from the environment successfully selected to colonize the intestine. The bacterial composition in the intestines of diseased and healthy crayfish was significantly different. The bacteria that colonized and proliferated in the intestine had very low abundances in sediment and water. Two potential pathogens, Aeromonas veronii, and Citrobacter freundii, and two potential probiotics, Lactococcus garvieae and Exiguobacterium undae, were identified. Using multiple, real, and traditional P. clarkii aquaculture sites in the Sichuan Basin, this study revealed that the microbial communities of the environment and animal host did indeed interact. Furthermore, these results indicated that P. clarkii in a healthy status are capable of regulating which bacteria colonize their intestines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112705DOI Listing
August 2021

Integrating Geometric Data into Topology Optimization via Neural Style Transfer.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Aug 13;14(16). Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.

This research proposes a novel topology optimization method using neural style transfer to simultaneously optimize both structural performance for a given loading condition and geometric similarity for a reference design. For the neural style transfer, the convolutional layers of a pre-trained neural network extract and quantify characteristic features from the reference and input designs for optimization. The optimization analysis is evaluated as a single weighted objective function with the ability for the user to control the influence of the neural style transfer with the structural performance. As seen in architecture and consumer-facing products, the visual appeal of a design contributes to its overall value along with mechanical performance metrics. Using this method, a designer allows the tool to find the ideal compromise of these metrics. Three case studies are included to demonstrate the capabilities of this method with various loading conditions and reference designs. The structural performances of the novel designs are within 10% of the baseline without geometric reference, and the designs incorporate features in the given reference such as member size or meshed features. The performance of the proposed optimizer is compared against other optimizers without the geometric similarity constraint.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14164551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400862PMC
August 2021

Exploration on Optimized Control Way of D-Amino Acid for Efficiently Mitigating Membrane Biofouling of Membrane Bioreactor.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Aug 11;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Technology for Complex Trans-Media Pollution, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nankai University, No. 38 Tongyan Road, Tianjin 300350, China.

The thorny issue of membrane biofouling in membrane bioreactors (MBR) calls for new effective control measures. Herein, D-amino acid (DAA) was employed to mediate MBR membrane biofouling by inhibiting biofilm information and disintegrating formed biofilm. Different DAA control ways involving membrane property, DAA-adding timing, and DAA-control mode were explored through experiments and the multiple linear regression model and the response surface methodology. The optimized DAA control ways were acquired, involving DAA used as an active agent, and the DAA-adding timing of 4 h cultured before running, as well as both hydrophilic and hydrophobic membrane, resulting in an approximately 40.24% decrease in the membrane biofouling rate in comparison with the conventional MBR. DAA is an efficient membrane biofouling mediating approach for MBR under optimized control ways combination and a facile solution for solving membrane biofouling in actual membrane systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11080612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401574PMC
August 2021

Proteins in plasma as a potential biomarkers diagnostic for pelvic organ prolapse.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jul;9(14):1117

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is the most common and widespread type of female pelvic floor dysfunction disease (PFD). At present, the diagnosis of POP is mainly based on a complicated systematic evaluation of the clinical phenotype, medical history, and relevant functional examinations. Rapid and simple tests that are based on biochemical biomarkers that surpass the sensitivity and specificity of the current methods for the diagnosis of POP will greatly facilitate the timely diagnosis and treatment of women with POP.

Methods: A protein array was used to screen plasma samples collected from healthy controls and women with POP. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were used to determine the levels of three novel and potentially useful analytes: heat shock protein 10 (HSP10), zinc finger CCCH domain-containing protein 8 (ZC3H8), and unc-45 myosin chaperone A (UNC45A). We then determined the diagnostic value of each of these analytes as potential diagnostic biomarkers for clinical application.

Results: The mean levels of HSP10, ZC3H8, and UNC45A, were lower in the plasma samples from 76 patients with POP than in 56 samples from healthy controls (P<0.05). Comparisons between patients with POP and healthy controls demonstrated the sensitivity and specificity of HSP10 (73.7% and 71.4%), ZC3H8 (71.1% and 62.5%), and UNC45A (70.7% and 62.5%).

Conclusions: Analysis indicated that plasma levels of HSP10, ZC3H8, and UNC45A, are sensitive and specific biomarkers for the diagnosis of POP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-1607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350695PMC
July 2021

Elevated Expression of MiR-17 in Microglia of Alzheimer's Disease Patients Abrogates Autophagy-Mediated Amyloid-β Degradation.

Front Immunol 2021 27;12:705581. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, Infectious Diseases Institute, The Heart and Lung Research Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Autophagy is a proposed route of amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance by microglia that is halted in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), though mechanisms underlying this dysfunction remain elusive. Here, primary microglia from adult AD (5xFAD) mice were utilized to demonstrate that 5xFAD microglia fail to degrade Aβ and express low levels of autophagy cargo receptor NBR1. In 5xFAD mouse brains, we show for the first time that AD microglia express elevated levels of microRNA cluster Mirc1/Mir17-92a, which is known to downregulate autophagy proteins. By hybridization in post-mortem AD human tissue sections, we observed that the Mirc1/Mir17-92a cluster member is also elevated in human AD microglia, specifically in the vicinity of Aβ deposits, compared to non-disease controls. We show that NBR1 expression is negatively correlated with expression of in human AD microglia via immunohistopathologic staining in human AD brain tissue sections. We demonstrate in healthy microglia that autophagy cargo receptor NBR1 is required for Aβ degradation. Inhibiting elevated in 5xFAD mouse microglia improves Aβ degradation, autophagy, and NBR1 puncta formation and improves NBR1 expression . These findings offer a mechanism behind dysfunctional autophagy in AD microglia which may be useful for therapeutic interventions aiming to improve autophagy function in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.705581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8379081PMC
July 2021

Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and adverse clinical outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jul;9(13):1047

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Neutrophils and lymphocytes mediate differential inflammatory responses after ischemic stroke and have different effects on patients' clinical outcomes. Several studies have used the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as a prognostic indicator for ischemic stroke; however, some limitations remain.

Methods: We derived data from the Third China National Stroke Registry. The NLR is defined as neutrophil count/lymphocyte count. Patients included in the study were classified into four groups by NLR quartiles. Odds ratios (ORs) of adverse clinical outcomes were calculated with the lowest quartile group as the reference category. We plotted receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of NLR for adverse clinical outcomes and calculated area under the curve (AUC) values and cutoff values. Under different TOAST classifications, medians of NLR and ORs of adverse clinical outcomes were also calculated. Furthermore, interaction tests between NLR and etiology were performed.

Results: A total of 13,018 patients were enrolled. At both 3- and 12-month follow-ups, higher quartile groups were associated with increased risks of death and poor functional outcomes, even after adjustments. For death, the cutoff values of NLR were 3.872 at 3-month follow-up and 3.180 at 12-month follow-up. For poor functional outcomes, the cutoff value of NLR was 2.846 at both 3- and 12-month follow-ups. The association between NLR and stroke recurrence was significant only at 3-month follow-up before adjustments. There was no correlation between NLR and hemorrhagic transformation during hospitalization. Under different TOAST classifications, the medians of NLR were different; conversely, the correlations of NLR with adverse clinical outcomes had no differences.

Conclusions: High level of NLR within the first 24 h after admission was associated with increased risks of both short- and long-term adverse clinical outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke, regardless of etiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339844PMC
July 2021

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Alters Group 1 Innate Lymphoid Cell Differentiation from a Common Precursor.

J Immunol 2021 09 20;207(6):1672-1682. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH;

NK cells are known to be developmentally blocked and functionally inhibited in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), resulting in poor clinical outcomes. In this study, we demonstrate that whereas NK cells are inhibited, closely related type 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s) are enriched in the bone marrow of leukemic mice and in patients with AML. Because NK cells and ILC1s share a common precursor (ILCP), we asked if AML acts on the ILCP to alter developmental potential. A combination of ex vivo and in vivo studies revealed that AML skewing of the ILCP toward ILC1s and away from NK cells represented a major mechanism of ILC1 generation. This process was driven by AML-mediated activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a key transcription factor in ILCs, as inhibition of AHR led to decreased numbers of ILC1s and increased NK cells in the presence of AML. These results demonstrate a mechanism of ILC developmental skewing in AML and support further preclinical study of AHR inhibition in restoring normal NK cell development and function in the setting of AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2100023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429221PMC
September 2021

ASO Visual Abstract: Upgrade Rate and Predictive Factors for Breast Benign Intraductal Papilloma Diagnosed at Biopsy: A Meta-analysis.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Aug 16. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of General Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053, China.

Current standard management for intraductal papilloma (IDP) diagnosed at biopsy indicates complete surgical resection, but there are increasing controversies over whether and when routine excision is indeed necessary. The purpose of this study ( https://doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10188-7 ) was to determine the carcinoma upgrade rate and identify the associated predictive factors for IDP diagnosed at biopsy by meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed and EMBASE database for studies published from 2009 to 2020 that investigated the upgrade rate and predictive factors of IDP diagnosed at biopsy. A total of 7016 IDP cases diagnosed at biopsy and histologically examined after surgical excision were pooled from 44 original studies. Patients with benign IDP exhibiting one or more predictive factors might benefit from surgical excision, whereas patients with asymptomatic benign IDP without these predictive factors can be managed by imaging surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10249-xDOI Listing
August 2021

Cell type-selective targeted delivery of a recombinant lysosomal enzyme for enzyme therapies.

Mol Ther 2021 Aug 14. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Tarrytown, NY 10591, USA. Electronic address:

Lysosomal diseases are a class of genetic disorders predominantly caused by loss of lysosomal hydrolases, leading to lysosomal and cellular dysfunction. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), where recombinant enzyme is given intravenously, internalized by cells, and trafficked to the lysosome, has been applied to treat several lysosomal diseases. However, current ERT regimens do not correct disease phenotypes in all affected organs because the biodistribution of enzyme uptake does not match that of the affected cells that require the enzyme. We present here targeted ERT, an approach that utilizes antibody-enzyme fusion proteins to target the enzyme to specific cell types. The antibody moiety recognizes transmembrane proteins involved in lysosomal trafficking and that are also preferentially expressed in those cells most affected in disease. Using Pompe disease (PD) as an example, we show that targeted ERT is superior to ERT in treating the skeletal muscle phenotypes of PD mice both as a protein replacement therapeutic and as a gene therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2021.08.020DOI Listing
August 2021

Hofbauer Cells Spread Listeria monocytogenes among Placental Cells and Undergo Pro-Inflammatory Reprogramming while Retaining Production of Tolerogenic Factors.

mBio 2021 Aug 17;12(4):e0184921. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Microbiology, The Ohio State Universitygrid.261331.4, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Pregnant women are highly susceptible to infection by the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, leading to miscarriage, premature birth, and neonatal infection. L. monocytogenes is thought to breach the placental barrier by infecting trophoblasts at the maternal/fetal interface. However, the fate of L. monocytogenes within chorionic villi and how infection reaches the fetus are unsettled. Hofbauer cells (HBCs) are fetal placental macrophages and the only leukocytes residing in healthy chorionic villi, forming a last immune barrier protecting fetal blood from infection. Little is known about the HBCs' antimicrobial responses to pathogens. Here, we studied L. monocytogenes interaction with human primary HBCs. Remarkably, despite their M2 anti-inflammatory phenotype at basal state, HBCs phagocytose and kill non-pathogenic bacteria like Listeria innocua and display low susceptibility to infection by L. monocytogenes. However, L. monocytogenes can exploit HBCs to spread to surrounding placental cells. Transcriptomic analyses by RNA sequencing revealed that HBCs undergo pro-inflammatory reprogramming upon L. monocytogenes infection, similarly to macrophages stimulated by the potent M1-polarizing agents lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Infected HBCs also express pro-inflammatory chemokines known to promote placental infiltration by maternal leukocytes. However, HBCs maintain the expression of a collection of tolerogenic genes and secretion of tolerogenic cytokines, consistent with their tissue homeostatic role in prevention of fetal rejection. In conclusion, we propose a previously unrecognized model in which HBCs promote the spreading of L. monocytogenes among placental cells and transition to a pro-inflammatory state likely to favor innate immune responses, while maintaining the expression of tolerogenic factors known to prevent maternal anti-fetal adaptive immunity. Infection of the placental/fetal unit by the facultative intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes results in severe pregnancy complications. Hofbauer cells (HBCs) are fetal macrophages that play homeostatic anti-inflammatory functions in healthy placentas. HBCs are located in chorionic villi between the two cell barriers that protect fetal blood from infection: trophoblast cells at the maternal interface (in contact with maternal blood), and fetal endothelial cells at the fetal interface (in contact with fetal blood). As the only leukocytes residing in chorionic villi, HBCs form a critical immune barrier protecting the fetus from infection. Here, we show that although HBCs display low susceptibility to L. monocytogenes, the bacterium still replicates intracellularly and can spread to other placental and fetal cells. We propose that HBCs are permissive to L. monocytogenes transplacental propagation and can repolarize toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype upon infection. However, consistent with their placental homeostatic functions, repolarized HBCs maintain the expression of tolerogenic factors known to prevent maternal anti-fetal adaptive immunity, at least at early stages of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01849-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8406333PMC
August 2021

Feature Point Extraction and Motion Tracking of Cardiac Color Ultrasound under Improved Lucas-Kanade Algorithm.

J Healthc Eng 2021 3;2021:4959727. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Ultrasound Medicine, Zhengzhou Maternity Hospital Affiliated to Henan University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000, China.

The purpose of this research is to study the application effect of Lucas-Kanade algorithm in right ventricular color Doppler ultrasound feature point extraction and motion tracking under the condition of scale invariant feature transform (SIFT). This study took the right ventricle as an example to analyze the extraction effect and calculation rate of SIFT algorithm and improved Lucas-Kanade algorithm. It was found that the calculation time before and after noise removal by the SIFT algorithm was 0.49 s and 0.46 s, respectively, and the number of extracted feature points was 703 and 698, respectively. The number of feature points extracted by the SIFT algorithm and the calculation time were significantly better than those of other algorithms ( < 0.01). The mean logarithm of the matching points of the SIFT algorithm for order matching and reverse order matching was 20.54 and 20.46, respectively. The calculation time and the number of feature points for the SIFT speckle tracking method were 1198.85 s and 81, respectively, and those of the optical flow method were 3274.19 s and 80, respectively. The calculation time of the SIFT speckle tracking method was significantly lower than that of the optical flow method ( < 0.05), and there was no statistical difference in the number of feature points between the SIFT speckle tracking method and the optical flow method ( > 0.05). In conclusion, the improved Lucas-Kanade algorithm based on SIFT significantly improves the accuracy of feature extraction and motion tracking of color Doppler ultrasound, which shows the value of the algorithm in the clinical application of color Doppler ultrasound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4959727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8357506PMC
August 2021

Human Placental Trophoblasts Infected by Undergo a Pro-Inflammatory Switch Associated With Poor Pregnancy Outcomes.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:709466. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

The placenta controls the growth of the fetus and ensures its immune protection. Key to these functions, the syncytiotrophoblast (SYN) is a syncytium formed by fusion of underlying mononuclear trophoblasts. The SYN covers the placental surface and is bathed in maternal blood to mediate nutritional and waste exchanges between the mother and fetus. The bacterial pathogen breaches the trophoblast barrier and infects the placental/fetal unit resulting in poor pregnancy outcomes. In this work, we analyzed the intracellular lifecycle in primary human trophoblasts. In accordance with previous studies, we found that the SYN is 20-fold more resistant to infection compared to mononuclear trophoblasts, forming a protective barrier to infection at the maternal interface. We show for the first time that this is due to a significant reduction in uptake by the SYN rather than inhibition of the bacterial intracellular division or motility. We here report the first transcriptomic analysis of -infected trophoblasts (RNA sequencing). Pathway analysis showed that infection upregulated TLR2, NOD-like, and cytosolic DNA sensing pathways, as well as downstream pro-inflammatory circuitry (NF-κB, AP-1, IRF4, IRF7) leading to the production of mediators known to elicit the recruitment and activation of maternal leukocytes (IL8, IL6, TNFα, MIP-1). Signature genes associated with poor pregnancy outcomes were also upregulated upon infection. Measuring the release of 54 inflammatory mediators confirmed the transcriptomic data and revealed sustained production of tolerogenic factors (IL-27, IL-10, IL-1RA, TSLP) despite infection. Both the SYN and mononuclear trophoblasts produced cytokines, but surprisingly, some cytokines were predominantly produced by the SYN (IL-8, IL-6) or by non-fused trophoblasts (TNFα). Collectively, our data support that trophoblasts act as placental gatekeepers that limit and detect infection resulting in a pro-inflammatory response, which may contribute to the poor pregnancy outcomes if the pathogen persists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.709466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8346206PMC
July 2021

Development of paclitaxel loaded pegylated gelatin targeted nanoparticles for improved treatment efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): an in vitro and in vivo evaluation study.

Acta Biochim Pol 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

2Department of Thoracic Surgery, Qing Dao Municipal Hospital, Qing Dao, 266011, China.

Purpose: To develop and evaluate paclitaxel (PTX) loaded pegylated gelatin targeted nanoparticles for improved efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment.

Method: PTX loaded gelatin nanoparticles (PTX-GNP) were prepared by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde aqueous solution. These nanoparticles (NPs) were further incubated with PEG 400 to form PEGylated NPs (PEG-PTX-GNP). The NPs were evaluated for surface morphology, size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading, in vitro drug release, cytotoxicity in an assay on cancer cell lines L132, in vitro cellular uptake in an assay in L132 and 293T cell lines, in vivo antitumor activity on female Balb/c mice, pulmonary deposition, histopathology, and immunohistochemical properties.

Results: The nanoparticles were of spherical shape with smooth surface characteristics. The observed DL was of 20.18 to 32.11%, as particle size was of 90 to 115 nm. Zeta potential and polydispersity index (PDI) were within acceptable ranges. Encapsulation was effective when the NPs had a size of 80.50 nm to 98.12 nm. The PEGylated PTX loaded nanoparticles (PEG-PTX-GNP, GNP4) showed similar PTX release profile to that of the NP4 formulation. PEGylated NPs showed the desired PTX release pattern that is required for cancer treatment. In an in vitro cytotoxicity study, PEG-PTX-GNP showed the maximum antiproliferative activity over the period of 24 hours, followed by PTX-GNP, pure PTX and BPEG-GNP. PEG-PTX-GNP showed the highest internalization within both cell lines, followed by PTX-GNP and pure PTX. The survival rate of animals in PEG-PTX-GNP group was 100%, proving the safety and efficacy of the treatment. PEG-PTX-GNP showed the highest antitumor activity as compared to other formulations. The pulmonary deposition rate was the highest (6.5 to 12.55 μg/g) in PEG-PTX-GNP formulations. Histopathology and immunohistochemical study proved that PEG-PTX-GNP had greater anticancer potential than other tested formulations.

Conclusion: This study confirms the potential use of paclitaxel loaded PEGylated gelatin targeted nanoparticles for improved efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18388/abp.2020_5431DOI Listing
August 2021

Association between the triglyceride-glucose index and carotid plaque stability in nondiabetic adults.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 09 3;31(10):2921-2928. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China; Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque is one of the major causes of thrombosis. However, there was limited evidence on the relationship of triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, a simple surrogate marker of insulin resistance, with the carotid plaque stability. This study aimed to investigate the association between the TyG index and carotid plaque stability in nondiabetic adults.

Methods And Results: The study included 4748 nondiabetic participants from the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community study. Carotid plaque stability was assessed using ultrasonography. The TyG index was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2]. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of the TyG index with carotid plaque stability by calculating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Of the 4748 participants, 1192 (25.11%) participants had stable carotid plaque, and 1247 (26.26%) had unstable carotid plaque. The prevalence of unstable carotid plaque substantially increased with increasing TyG index tertile (P for trend <0.0001). In the fully adjusted model, the OR comparing participants in the highest versus the lowest tertile of the TyG index was 1.31 (95% CI, 1.09-1.57). The optimal cutoff point for the TyG index in case of unstable carotid plaque was 8.56. However, we did not observe a statistically significant association between the TyG index and stable carotid plaque.

Conclusions: Elevated the TyG index was significantly associated with the prevalence of unstable carotid plaque in nondiabetic adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.06.019DOI Listing
September 2021

Properties of mesoporous hybrid perovskite nanocrystals and its application in light-emitting diodes.

Nanotechnology 2021 Sep 7;32(48). Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Information Photonics Technology, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, People's Republic of China.

We fabricated mesoporous perovskite nanocrystal for the first time, and investigated its optical properties and application in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The transformation of mesoporous structure can be ascribed to the decomposition of nanocrystals under dilution condition, which results in the blueshift of luminescence. The mesoporous nanocrystals under proper dilution may achieve improved perovskite LEDs, with maximum luminance and current efficiency of 23370 cd mand 6.7 cd A, respectively. This work provide an avenue to the optical engineering of perovskite nanocrystals, and demonstrate that perovskite concentration is one of key factors for realizing efficient LEDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac1a92DOI Listing
September 2021

Association of triglyceride-glucose index with intra- and extra-cranial arterial stenosis: a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis.

Endocrine 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index, a simple surrogate marker of insulin resistance, with intra-cranial and extra-cranial artery stenosis (ICAS and ECAS) in Chinese adults.

Methods: Participants were recruited from the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community study, 5381 participants were enrolled in the cross-sectional analysis, then 3447 and 1853 participants in the longitudinal analysis for incident ICAS and ECAS, respectively. The TyG index was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2]. Multivariable logistic analysis was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: The results of the cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis were basically the same, as the fully adjusted OR comparing participants in the highest tertile versus lowest tertile of the TyG index was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.13-1.59) for the prevalence of ECAS and 1.85 (95% CI, 1.26-2.71) for incident ECAS, respectively. The addition of TyG index to a conventional model had an incremental effect on the predictive value for ECAS. However, we did not observe any significant association between the TyG index and ICAS.

Conclusions: Elevated TyG index was significantly associated with a higher risk of ECAS, but not with ICAS in Chinese adults. This conclusion lends support to the clinical significance of the TyG index for the assessment of artery stenosis, especially for ECAS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-021-02794-yDOI Listing
August 2021

N6-methyladenosine RNA modification: A promising regulator in central nervous system injury.

Exp Neurol 2021 Nov 31;345:113829. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Laboratory of Molecular Translational Medicine, Center for Translational Medicine, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, PR China. Electronic address:

In addition to DNA methylation, reversible epigenetic modification occurring in RNA has been discovered recently. The most abundant type of RNA methylation is N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification, which is dynamically regulated by methylases ("writers"), demethylases ("erasers") and m6A-binding proteins ("readers"). As an essential posttranscriptional regulator, m6A can control mRNA splicing, processing, stability, export and translation. Recent studies have revealed that m6A modification has the strongest tissue specificity for brain tissue and plays crucial roles in central nervous system (CNS) injures by affecting its downstream target genes or non-coding RNAs. This review focuses on the expression and function of m6A regulatory proteins in CNS trauma in vitro and in vivo. We also highlight the latest insights into the molecular mechanisms of pathological damage in the CNS. Understanding m6A dynamics, functions, and machinery will yield an opportunity for designing and developing novel therapeutic agents for CNS injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2021.113829DOI Listing
November 2021

Phosphorous-doped 1T-MoS decorated nitrogen-doped g-CN nanosheets for enhanced photocatalytic nitrogen fixation.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 24;605:320-329. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China. Electronic address:

Herein, we report that the phosphorous-doped 1 T-MoS as co-catalyst decorated nitrogen-doped g-CN nanosheets (P-1 [email protected]) are prepared by the hydrothermal and annealing process. The obtained P-1 [email protected] composite presents an enhanced photocatalytic N reduction rate of 689.76 μmol L gh in deionized water without sacrificial agent under simulated sunlight irradiation, which is higher than that of pure g-CN (265.62 μmol L gh), 1 [email protected] (415.57 μmol L gh), 1 [email protected] doped g-CN (469.84 μmol L gh), and P doped 1 [email protected] (531.24 μmol L gh). In addition, compared with pure g-CN NSs (2.64 mmol L gh), 1 [email protected] (4.98 mmol L gh), 1 [email protected] doped g-CN (6.21 mmol L gh), and P doped 1 [email protected] (9.78 mmol L gh), P-1 [email protected] (11.12 mmol L gh) composite also shows a significant improvement for photocatalytic N fixation efficiency in the sacrificial agent (methanol). The improved photocatalytic activity of P-1 [email protected] composite is ascribed to the following advantages: 1) Compared to pure g-CN, P-1 [email protected] composite shows higher light absorption capacity, which can improve the utilization rate of the catalyst to light; 2) The P doping intercalation strategy can promote the conversion of 1 T phase MoS, which in turn in favor of photogenerated electron transfer and reduce the recombination rate of carriers; 3) A large number of active sites on the edge of 1 T-MoS and the existence of N doping in g-CN contribute to photocatalytic N fixation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.07.111DOI Listing
July 2021

Upgrade Rate and Predictive Factors for Breast Benign Intraductal Papilloma Diagnosed at Biopsy: A Meta-Analysis.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of General Surgery, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Current standard management for intraductal papilloma (IDP) diagnosed at biopsy indicates complete surgical resection, but there are increasing controversies over whether and when routine excision is indeed necessary.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the carcinoma upgrade rate and identify the associated predictive factors for IDP diagnosed at biopsy by meta-analysis.

Methods: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases for studies published from 2009 to 2020 that investigated the upgrade rate and predictive factors of IDP diagnosed at biopsy.

Results: A total of 7016 IDP cases diagnosed at biopsy and histologically examined after surgical excision were pooled from 44 original studies. The pooled prevalence of IDP in breast biopsy findings was 4.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.4-4.7%] and the majority of IDP tumors were benign. The pooled upgrade rates to carcinoma for benign IDP and atypical IDP were 5.0% (95% CI 4.4-5.5%) and 36.0% (95% CI 32.7-39.2%), respectively. In addition, we identified 10 predictive upgrade factors for benign IDP, including Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 5, BI-RADS 4C, mass and calcification in the mammographic finding, bloody nipple discharge, imaging-histological discordance, peripheral IDP, palpable mass, BI-RADS 4B, microcalcification, and lesion size ≥ 1 cm. The upgrade rates associated with these predictive factors ranged from 7.3 to 31.1%.

Conclusion: Surgical excision appears a reasonable recommendation for atypical IDP. Patients with benign IDP exhibiting one or more predictive factors might benefit from surgical excision, while patients with asymptomatic benign IDP without these predictive factors can be managed by imaging surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-10188-7DOI Listing
July 2021
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