Publications by authors named "Xiaolei Wu"

72 Publications

Maca extracts regulate glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells via the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 29;9(6):2894-2907. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology Jiangnan University Wuxi China.

This work focused on the separation of the active ingredients of maca ( Walpers) and evaluated the antioxidative capability of these components with effects on improving glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells. DPPH free radical scavenging and reducing power assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of maca extracts. An insulin-resistant HepG2 cell model induced by glucose, fructose, oleic acid, and palmitic acid was adopted to investigate the effects of maca extracts on regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in this study. LC-MS/MS was then used for determination of the maca n-butanol (NBT) subfraction. The results showed that maca ethanol extract and subfractions of this extract exhibited certain antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, the NBT subfraction reversed the disorders in glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and significantly increased the mRNA expression of phosphoinositide 3-kinases () and in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the LC-MS/MS results showed that the NBT subfraction contained many active ingredients. Overall, this study suggests that the NBT subfraction of the ethanol extract rich in glucosinolates modulates insulin resistance via / activation in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and might exert potentially beneficial effects in improving or treating glucose and lipid metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194906PMC
June 2021

Photoactivation of TGFβ/SMAD signaling pathway ameliorates adult hippocampal neurogenesis in Alzheimer's disease model.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 06 11;12(1):345. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science & Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, 510631, China.

Background: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is restricted under the pathological conditions of neurodegenerative diseases, especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The drop of AHN reduces neural circuit plasticity, resulting in the decrease of the generation of newborn neurons in dentate gyrus (DG), which makes it difficult to recover from learning/memory dysfunction in AD, therefore, it is imperative to find a therapeutic strategy to promote neurogenesis and clarify its underlying mechanism involved.

Methods: Amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) mice were treated with photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for 0.1 mW/mm per day in the dark for 1 month (10 min for each day). The neural stem cells (NSCs) were isolated from hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice at E14, and the cells were treated with PBMT for 0.667 mW/mm in the dark (5 min for each time).

Results: In this study, photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) is found to promote AHN in APP/PS1 mice. The latent transforming growth factor-β1 (LTGFβ1) was activated in vitro and in vivo during PBMT-induced AHN, which promoted the differentiation of hippocampal APP/PS1 NSCs into newborn neurons. In particular, behavioral experiments showed that PBMT enhanced the spatial learning/memory ability of APP/PS1 mice. Mechanistically, PBMT-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) activates TGFβ/Smad signaling pathway to increase the interaction of the transcription factors Smad2/3 with Smad4 and competitively reduce the association of Smad1/5/9 with Smad4, thereby significantly upregulating the expression of doublecortin (Dcx)/neuronal class-III β-tubulin (Tuj1) and downregulating the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). These in vitro effects were abrogated when eliminating ROS. Furthermore, specific inhibition of TGFβ receptor I (TGFβR I) attenuates the DNA-binding efficiency of Smad2/3 to the Dcx promotor triggered by PBMT.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that PBMT, as a viable therapeutic strategy, directs the adult hippocampal APP/PS1 NSCs differentiate towards neurons, which has great potential value for ameliorating the drop of AHN in Alzheimer's disease mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02399-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196501PMC
June 2021

Direct observation of chemical short-range order in a medium-entropy alloy.

Nature 2021 Apr 28;592(7856):712-716. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Center for Alloy Innovation and Design (CAID), State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Complex concentrated solutions of multiple principal elements are being widely investigated as high- or medium-entropy alloys (HEAs or MEAs), often assuming that these materials have the high configurational entropy of an ideal solution. However, enthalpic interactions among constituent elements are also expected at normal temperatures, resulting in various degrees of local chemical order. Of the local chemical orders that can develop, chemical short-range order (CSRO) is arguably the most difficult to decipher and firm evidence of CSRO in these materials has been missing thus far. Here we discover that, using an appropriate zone axis, micro/nanobeam diffraction, together with atomic-resolution imaging and chemical mapping via transmission electron microscopy, can explicitly reveal CSRO in a face-centred-cubic VCoNi concentrated solution. Our complementary suite of tools provides concrete information about the degree/extent of CSRO, atomic packing configuration and preferential occupancy of neighbouring lattice planes/sites by chemical species. Modelling of the CSRO order parameters and pair correlations over the nearest atomic shells indicates that the CSRO originates from the nearest-neighbour preference towards unlike (V-Co and V-Ni) pairs and avoidance of V-V pairs. Our findings offer a way of identifying CSRO in concentrated solution alloys. We also use atomic strain mapping to demonstrate the dislocation interactions enhanced by the CSROs, clarifying the effects of these CSROs on plasticity mechanisms and mechanical properties upon deformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03428-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Photobiomodulation Therapy Ameliorates Glutamatergic Dysfunction in Mice with Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress-Induced Depression.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 29;2021:6678276. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science & Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China.

Accumulating evidence indicates that dysfunction of the glutamatergic neurotransmission has been widely involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. Photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) has been demonstrated to regulate neuronal function both and . Herein, we aim to investigate whether the antidepressant phenotype of PBMT is associated with the improvement of glutamatergic dysfunction and to explore the mechanisms involved. Results showed that PBMT decreased extracellular glutamate levels via upregulation of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and rescued astrocyte loss in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, which also alleviated dendritic atrophy and upregulated the expression of AMPA receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, ultimately exhibiting behaviorally significant antidepressant effects in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Notably, PBMT also obtained similar antidepressant effects in a depressive mouse model subcutaneously injected with corticosterone (CORT). Evidence from mechanistic experiments demonstrated that PBMT treatment significantly increased both the GLT-1 mRNA and protein levels via the Akt/NF-B signaling pathway. NF-B-regulated transcription was in an Akt-dependent manner, while inhibition of Akt attenuated the DNA-binding efficiency of NF-B to the GLT-1 promoter. Importantly, , we further found that PKA activation was responsible for phosphorylation and surface levels of AMPA receptors induced by PBMT, which is likely to rescue excitatory synaptic transmission. Taken together, our research suggests that PBMT as a feasible therapeutic approach has great potential value to control the progression of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6678276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024102PMC
June 2021

Genetic variation among 481 diverse soybean accessions, inferred from genomic re-sequencing.

Sci Data 2021 02 8;8(1):50. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Division of Plant Sciences and National Center for Soybean Biotechnology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA.

We report characteristics of soybean genetic diversity and structure from the resequencing of 481 diverse soybean accessions, comprising 52 wild (Glycine soja) selections and 429 cultivated (Glycine max) varieties (landraces and elites). This data was used to identify 7.8 million SNPs, to predict SNP effects relative to genic regions, and to identify the genetic structure, relationships, and linkage disequilibrium. We found evidence of distinct, mostly independent selection of lineages by particular geographic location. Among cultivated varieties, we identified numerous highly conserved regions, suggesting selection during domestication. Comparisons of these accessions against the whole U.S. germplasm genotyped with the SoySNP50K iSelect BeadChip revealed that over 95% of the re-sequenced accessions have a high similarity to their SoySNP50K counterparts. Probable errors in seed source or genotype tracking were also identified in approximately 5% of the accessions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00834-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870887PMC
February 2021

Alterations and Correlations in Microbial Community and Metabolome Characteristics in Generalized Aggressive Periodontitis.

Front Microbiol 2020 30;11:573196. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China.

This study aimed to characterize the microbial community and metabolic profiles in generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP) using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene high-throughput sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 146 subgingival plaque samples and 50 gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected from 24 patients with AgP and 10 periodontally healthy subjects (PH). Striking differences were observed in subgingival microbiome and GCF metabolomics between patients with AgP and PH, but not between samples with different probing depths (PDs). Metabolomics analysis combined with enrichment analysis showed that periodontitis significantly altered the concentration of compounds associated with biosynthesis of amino acids (e.g., alanine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine), galactose metabolism (e.g., myo-inositol, galactose, glucose, and hexitol), and pyrimidine metabolism (e.g., uracil, uridine, beta alanine, and thymine). Correlation analysis showed that the genera with significant difference between AgP and PH were usually significantly correlated with more metabolites, such as , , , and . While glucose and oxoproline had the most significant correlations with microorganisms. Our results revealed distinct microbial communities and metabolic profiles between AgP and PH. The significant correlation between microbial taxa and metabolites suggested the possible mechanisms for periodontitis. Our results also provided effective approaches for detecting periodontal disease and managing periodontitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.573196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7734087PMC
November 2020

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) alleviates salt damage in tomato by modulating Na uptake, the GAD gene, amino acid synthesis and reactive oxygen species metabolism.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Oct 9;20(1):465. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

College of Horticulture, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, 071001, China.

Background: Salt stress is a serious abiotic stress that caused crop growth inhibition and yield decline. Previous studies have reported on the the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its relationship with plant resistance under various abiotic stress. However, the relationship between exogenous GABA alleviating plant salt stress damage and ion flux, amino acid synthesis, and key enzyme expression remains largely unclear. We investigated plant growth, Na transportation and accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and evaluated the effect of GABA on amino acids, especially SlGADs gene expression and the endogenous GABA content of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seedlings treated with or without 5 mmol·L GABA under 175 mmol·L NaCl stress.

Results: Exogenous application of GABA significantly reduced the salt damage index and increased plant height, chlorophyll content and the dry and fresh weights of tomato plants exposed to NaCl stress. GABA significantly reduced Na accumulation in leaves and roots by preventing Na influx in roots and transportation to leaves. The transcriptional expression of SlGAD1-3 genes were induced by NaCl stress especially with GABA application. Among them, SlGAD1 expression was the most sensitive and contributed the most to the increase in glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity induced by NaCl and GABA application; Exogenous GABA increased GAD activity and amino acid contents in tomato leaves compared with the levels under NaCl stress alone, especially the levels of endogenous GABA, proline, glutamate and eight other amino acids. These results indicated that SlGADs transcriptional expression played an important role in tomato plant resistance to NaCl stress with GABA application by enhancing GAD activity and amino acid contents. GABA significantly alleviated the active oxygen-related injury of leaves under NaCl stress by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing the contents of active oxygen species and malondialdehyde.

Conclusion: Exogenous GABA had a positive effect on the resistance of tomato seedlings to salt stress, which was closely associated with reducing Na flux from root to leaves, increasing amino acid content and strengthening antioxidant metabolism. Endogenous GABA content was induced by salt and exogenous GABA at both the transcriptional and metabolic levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02669-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547442PMC
October 2020

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Soybean Seedling Shoot and Root Architecture Traits in an Inter-Specific Genetic Population.

Front Plant Sci 2020 19;11:1284. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, United States.

Wild soybean species ( Siebold & Zucc.) comprise a unique resource to widen the genetic base of cultivated soybean [ (L.) Merr.] for various agronomic traits. An inter-specific mapping population derived from a cross of cultivar Williams 82 and PI 483460B, a wild soybean accession, was utilized for genetic characterization of root architecture traits. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize quantitative trait loci (QTL) for seedling shoot and root architecture traits, as well as to determine additive/epistatic interaction effects of identified QTLs. A total of 16,469 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) developed for the Illumina beadchip genotyping platform were used to construct a high resolution genetic linkage map. Among the 11 putative QTLs identified, two significant QTLs on chromosome 7 were determined to be associated with total root length (RL) and root surface area (RSA) with favorable alleles from the wild soybean parent. These seedling root traits, RL (BARC_020495_04641 ~ BARC_023101_03769) and RSA (SNP02285 ~ SNP18129_Magellan), could be potential targets for introgression into cultivated soybean background to improve both tap and lateral roots. The RL QTL region harbors four candidate genes with higher expression in root tissues: Phosphofructokinase (Glyma.07g126400), Snf7 protein (Glyma.07g127300), unknown functional gene (Glyma.07g127900), and Leucine Rich-Repeat protein (Glyma.07g127100). The novel alleles inherited from the wild soybean accession could be used as molecular markers to improve root system architecture and productivity in elite soybean lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.01284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466435PMC
August 2020

Ultrastrong low-carbon nanosteel produced by heterostructure and interstitial mediated warm rolling.

Sci Adv 2020 Sep 23;6(39). Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Nano and Heterogeneous Materials Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China.

Ultrastrong materials can notably help with improving the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles by reducing their weight. Grain refinement by severe plastic deformation is, so far, the most effective approach to produce bulk strong nanostructured metals, but its scaling up for industrial production has been a challenge. Here, we report an ultrastrong (2.15 GPa) low-carbon nanosteel processed by heterostructure and interstitial mediated warm rolling. The nanosteel consists of thin (~17.8 nm) lamellae, which was enabled by two unreported mechanisms: (i) improving deformation compatibility of dual-phase heterostructure by adjusting warm rolling temperature and (ii) segregating carbon atoms to lamellar boundaries to stabilize the nanolamellae. Defying our intuition, warm rolling produced finer lamellae than cold rolling, which demonstrates the potential and importance of tuning deformation compatibility of interstitial containing heterostructure for nanocrystallization. This previously unreported approach is applicable to most low-carbon, low-alloy steels for producing ultrahigh strength materials in industrial scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aba8169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7531883PMC
September 2020

Complete genome sequence of a novel Bacillus phage, P59, that infects Bacillus oceanisediminis.

Arch Virol 2020 Nov 14;165(11):2679-2683. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

P59, a virulent phage of Bacillus oceanisediminis, was isolated from the sediment of Weiming Lake at Peking University (Beijing, China). P59 showed the typical morphology of myovirids. The complete genome sequence of P59 is 159,363 bp in length with a G+C content of 42.34%. The genome sequence has very low similarity to the other phage genome sequences in the GenBank database, suggesting that P59 is a new phage. A total of 261 open reading frames and 15 tRNA genes were predicted. Based on its morphological and genetic traits, we propose phage P59 to be a new member of the family Herelleviridae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-020-04761-wDOI Listing
November 2020

Fractionating of Calcium in Tuber and Leaf Tissues Explains the Calcium Deficiency Symptoms in Potato Plant Overexpressing .

Front Plant Sci 2019 31;10:1793. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Horticulture, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States.

Consistent with reports on other plants we recently reported that a potato transgenic line (AT010901) overexpressing show classic symptoms of calcium deficiency shoot tip injury, leaf curling, leaf margin necrosis and tuber internal defects such as hollow heart and brown spots. The present study was undertaken to quantify calcium in various fraction of leaf and tuber tissues of this transgenic and wild type potato clones to understand the development of these deficiency symptoms at normal calcium nutrition (1mM) and its mitigation at higher calcium nutrition (10mM). Plants were grown in controlled environment growth chamber and watered with balanced nutrient solution containing either 1 or 10 mM calcium. The plants overexpressing showed calcium deficiency symptoms while sequestering calcium in the vacuole as calcium oxalate crystals. Various fractions of calcium were qualified in the young and mature leaves as well as tuber tissue. A reduced concentration of water soluble fraction of calcium was most important factor related to the development of calcium deficiency symptoms in the line overexpressing . Furthermore, an increase in this fraction appear to explain the alleviation of the deficiency symptoms in these transgenic plants.Ours is the first study to document the significance of water-soluble calcium in the development of calcium-deficiency symptoms in the potato transgenic lines overexpressing . Furthermore, our result demonstrates that an increase in this fraction plays a significant role in the alleviation of calcium deficiency symptoms when calcium concentration in the nutrient media is increased. These results provide important insight on the role of in the calcium homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7006644PMC
January 2020

Tailoring heterogeneities in high-entropy alloys to promote strength-ductility synergy.

Authors:
Evan Ma Xiaolei Wu

Nat Commun 2019 12 9;10(1):5623. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190, Beijing, China.

Conventional alloys are usually based on a single host metal. Recent high-entropy alloys (HEAs), in contrast, employ multiple principal elements. The strength of HEAs is considerably higher than traditional solid solutions, as the many constituents lead to a rugged energy landscape that increases the resistance to dislocation motion, which can also be retarded by other heterogeneities. The wide variety of nanostructured heterogeneities in HEAs, including those generated on the fly during tensile straining, also offer elevated strain-hardening capability that promotes uniform tensile ductility. Citing recent examples, this review explores the multiple levels of heterogeneities in multi-principal-element alloys that contribute to lattice friction and back stress hardening, as a general strategy towards strength-ductility synergy beyond current benchmark ranges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13311-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6901531PMC
December 2019

Activation of PKA/SIRT1 signaling pathway by photobiomodulation therapy reduces Aβ levels in Alzheimer's disease models.

Aging Cell 2020 01 30;19(1):e13054. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science & Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China.

A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ), which correlates significantly with progressive cognitive deficits. Although photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT), as a novel noninvasive physiotherapy strategy, has been proposed to improve neuronal survival, decrease neuron loss, ameliorate dendritic atrophy, and provide overall AD improvement, it remains unknown whether and how this neuroprotective process affects Aβ levels. Here, we report that PBMT reduced Aβ production and plaque formation by shifting amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing toward the nonamyloidogenic pathway, thereby improving memory and cognitive ability in a mouse model of AD. More importantly, a pivotal protein, SIRT1, was involved in this process by specifically up-regulating ADAM10 and down-regulating BACE1, which is dependent on the cAMP/PKA pathway in APP/PS1 primary neurons and SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing human APP Swedish mutation (APPswe). We further found that the activity of the mitochondrial photoacceptor cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was responsible for PBMT-induced activation of PKA and SIRT1. Together, our research suggests that PBMT as a viable therapeutic strategy has great potential value in improving cognitive ability and combatting AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.13054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6974721PMC
January 2020

Correction: Unique CDR3 epitope targeting by CAR-T cells is a viable approach for treating T-cell malignancies.

Leukemia 2019 Sep;33(9):2341

Translational Medicine Research Center (TMRC), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

In the original version of this article the author name Xiaolei Chen was published incorrectly. This has been corrected to Xiao Lei Chen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-019-0484-yDOI Listing
September 2019

Comparison of Subgingival and Buccal Mucosa Microbiome in Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis: A Pilot Study.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2019 11;9:53. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Department of Energy and Resources Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Periodontal microorganisms not only colonize subgingival pockets, but also are detected on various mucous membranes in patients with periodontitis. The object of this pilot study was, using the next-generation sequencing of 16S RNA gene, to characterize the microbiota in two oral habitats (buccal mucosas and subgingival pockets) in patients with different forms of periodontitis. Thirty-two buccal swab samples and 113 subgingival samples were obtained from eleven subjects with chronic periodontitis (ChP), twelve subjects with aggressive periodontitis (AgP), and nine periodontally healthy individuals (HP). Using Miseq Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, we found that the subgingival and buccal mucosa microbiome of ChP and AgP patients both differed from HP. Meanwhile, significantly increased both in buccal and subgingival plaque samples in periodontitis subjects (ChP and AgP) compared with HP. Moreover, the results based on the Unweighted UniFrac distance showed that buccal and subgingival plaque samples from the same individuals show higher community divergence than same habitats from different subject samples. This study demonstrated that the microbiome of buccal mucosa can be influenced by periodontitis. However, subgingival and buccal mucosa microbiome seem to be characterized by species-specific colonization patterns. This pilot study provides a glimpse at the changes of subgingival and buccal mucosa associated with periodontitis from a holistic view. Further studies should be taken to illuminate the interplay between these detected changes and periodontitis development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2019.00053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6421285PMC
November 2019

Natural Extracellular Electron Transfer Between Semiconducting Minerals and Electroactive Bacterial Communities Occurred on the Rock Varnish.

Front Microbiol 2019 4;10:293. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

The Key Laboratory of Orogenic Belts and Crustal Evolution, Beijing Key Laboratory of Mineral Environmental Function, School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Rock varnish is a thin coating enriched with manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) oxides. The mineral composition and formation of rock varnish elicit considerable attention from geologists and microbiologists. However, limited research has been devoted to the semiconducting properties of these Fe/Mn oxides in varnish and relatively little attention is paid to the mineral-microbe interaction under sunlight. In this study, the mineral composition and the bacterial communities on varnish from the Gobi Desert in Xinjiang, China were analyzed. Results of principal components analysis and -test indicated that more electroactive genera such as , , , and gathered on varnish bacterial communities than on substrate rock and surrounding soils. We then explored the culture of varnish, substrate and soil samples in media and the extracellular electron transfer (EET) between bacterial communities and mineral electrodes under light/dark conditions for the first time. Orthogonal electrochemical experiments demonstrated that the most remarkable photocurrent density of 6.1 ± 0.4 μA/cm was observed between varnish electrode and varnish microflora. Finally, based on Raman and 16S rRNA gene-sequencing results, coculture system of birnessite and (the major Mn oxide and a common electroactive bacterium in varnish) was established to study underlying mechanism. A steadily growing photocurrent (205 μA at 100 h) under light was observed with a stable birnessite after 110 h. However, only 47 μA was generated in the dark control and birnessite was reduced to Mn in 13 h, suggesting that birnessite helped deliver electrons instead of serving as an electron acceptor under light. Our study demonstrated that electroactive bacterial communities were positively correlated with Fe/Mn semiconducting minerals in varnish, and diversified EET process occurred on varnish under sunlight. Overall, these phenomena may influence bacterial-community structure in natural environments over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.00293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410676PMC
March 2019

The landscape and diagnostic potential of T and B cell repertoire in Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy.

J Autoimmun 2019 02 29;97:100-107. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China; China National GeneBank, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518120, China. Electronic address:

Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common glomerulonephritis worldwide. The pathologic hallmark of IgAN is immune complex deposited in glomerular mesangium, which induces inflammation and affects the kidney's normal functions. The exact pathogenesis of IgAN, however, remains obscure. Further, in current clinical practice, the diagnosis relies on needle biopsy of renal tissue. Therefore, a non-invasive method for diagnosis and prognosis surveillance of the disease is highly desirable. To this end, we investigated the T cell receptor beta chain (TCRB) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) repertoire in circulating lymphocytes and compared them with kidney infiltrating lymphocytes using immune repertoire high throughput sequencing. We found that some features of TCRB and IGH in renal tissues were remarkably different from that in the blood, including decreased repertoire diversity, increased IgA and IgG frequency, and more antigen-experienced B cells. The complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) length of circulating TCRB and IGH in IgAN patients was significantly shorter than that in healthy controls, which is the result of both VDJ rearrangement and clonal selection. The IgA1 frequency in the blood of IgAN patients is significantly higher than that in other Nephropathy (NIgAN) patients and healthy control. Importantly we identified a set of TCRB and IGH clones, which can be used to distinguish IgAN from NIgAN and healthy controls with high accuracy. These results indicated that the TCRB and IGH repertoire can potentially serve as non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of IgAN. The characteristics of the kidney infiltrating and circulating lymphocytes repertoires shed light on IgAN detection, treatment and surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2018.10.018DOI Listing
February 2019

HMGB1 knock-down promoting tumor cells viability and arrest pro-apoptotic proteins via Stat3/NFκB in HepG2 cells.

Biofactors 2018 Nov 30;44(6):570-576. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

Center of Stomatology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background/aim: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is functionally dynamic and pleiotropic molecule, it has the potential to promote both cell survival and death by regulating multiple signaling pathways, including inflammation and apoptosis. This study aimed at investigating the role of silencing HMGB1 on tumor cells apoptosis and pro-inflammatory proteins expression in hepatocellular HepG2 cancer cells.

Methods: HepG2 cells was transfected with si-RNA HMGB1, and the effect on pro-apoptotic proteins expressions like Bax, Bcl2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines like, p65-NFκB, and Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox2) was assessed using western blot, and also cells apoptosis and proliferation was assessed using annexin V FITC and Calcien AM expression in flow cytometry and fluorescence.

Results: HMGB1 silencing was found significantly increase tumor cells viability with significant decrease of pro-apoptotic proteins, also antiapoptotic protein Bcl2 was significantly up-regulated, which suggests a possible role in restricting apoptosis. Furthermore, HMGB1 knocked down found to inhibit Stat3 phosphorylation and significantly affect NFkB p65/Cox2 expression which suggests a link between HMGB1 and Stat3 activation. Our results revealed that HMGB1 knocked down may suppress cells apoptosis and enhance HepG2 cells viability via NFkB/Cox2 and Stat3. © 2018 BioFactors, 44(6):570-576, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.1456DOI Listing
November 2018

Dynamically reinforced heterogeneous grain structure prolongs ductility in a medium-entropy alloy with gigapascal yield strength.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 07 26;115(28):7224-7229. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing, China;

Ductility, i.e., uniform strain achievable in uniaxial tension, diminishes for materials with very high yield strength. Even for the CrCoNi medium-entropy alloy (MEA), which has a simple face-centered cubic (FCC) structure that would bode well for high ductility, the fine grains processed to achieve gigapascal strength exhaust the strain hardening ability such that, after yielding, the uniform tensile strain is as low as ∼2%. Here we purposely deploy, in this MEA, a three-level heterogeneous grain structure (HGS) with grain sizes spanning the nanometer to micrometer range, imparting a high yield strength well in excess of 1 GPa. This heterogeneity results from this alloy's low stacking fault energy, which facilitates corner twins in recrystallization and stores deformation twins and stacking faults during tensile straining. After yielding, the elastoplastic transition through load transfer and strain partitioning among grains of different sizes leads to an upturn of the strain hardening rate, and, upon further tensile straining at room temperature, corner twins evolve into nanograins. This dynamically reinforced HGS leads to a sustainable strain hardening rate, a record-wide hysteresis loop in load-unload-reload stress-strain curve and hence high back stresses, and, consequently, a uniform tensile strain of 22%. As such, this HGS achieves, in a single-phase FCC alloy, a strength-ductility combination that would normally require heterogeneous microstructures such as in dual-phase steels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1807817115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048477PMC
July 2018

Supramolecular arrays by the self-assembly of terpyridine-based monomers with transition metal ions.

Dalton Trans 2018 Jun;47(22):7528-7533

Department of Polymer Science, The University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44256, USA.

Hierarchical construction of a highly ordered supramolecular array has been, in general, a challenge due to the complexation of building blocks and the hard-to-control weak interactions. Herein, we present a type of well-ordered nanoribbon, which was self-assembled via shape complimentary and hydrophobic effects from the bowl-shaped supramolecular components, which were synthesized by combining designer terpyridine-based monomers and two different metal ions (Ru2+, Zn2+). Interestingly, switching counter ions or changing monomer concentrations, a transformation between a uniform nanosphere and nanoribbon occurred. This opens a door to fabricate readily tailorable, large-scale, supramacromolecular materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8dt01283kDOI Listing
June 2018

The Subgingival Microbiome of Periodontal Pockets With Different Probing Depths in Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis: A Pilot Study.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2018 1;8:124. Epub 2018 May 1.

Department of Periodontology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing, China.

Periodontitis is a kind of infectious disease initiated by colonization of subgingival periodontal pathogens, which cause destruction of tooth-supporting tissues, and is a predominant threat to oral health as the most common cause of loss of teeth. The aim of this pilot study was to characterize the subgingival bacterial biodiversity of periodontal pockets with different probing depths in patients with different forms of periodontitis. Twenty-one subgingival plaque samples were collected from three patients with chronic periodontitis (ChP), three patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and three periodontally healthy subjects (PH). Each patient with periodontitis was sampled at three sites, at different probing depths (PDs, one each at 4 mm, 5-6 mm, and ≥ 7 mm). Using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, we found that subgingival communities in health and periodontitis samples largely differed. Meanwhile, , and increased with the deepening of the pockets in ChP, whilst only was negatively associated with PD. In AgP, and were positively associated with PD, while , and were negatively associated with PD. And among these two groups, shifted differently. Moreover, in subgingival plaque, the unweighted UniFrac distances between samples from pockets with different PD in the same patients were significantly lower than those from pockets within the same PD category from different patients. This study demonstrated the shift of the subgingival microbiome in individual teeth sites during disease development. Within the limitation of the relative small sample size, this pilot study shed new light on the dynamic relationship between the extent of periodontal destruction and the subgingival microbiome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2018.00124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5938363PMC
February 2019

Dissecting genomic hotspots underlying seed protein, oil, and sucrose content in an interspecific mapping population of soybean using high-density linkage mapping.

Plant Biotechnol J 2018 11 16;16(11):1939-1953. Epub 2018 May 16.

Division of Plant Sciences, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

The cultivated [Glycine max (L) Merr.] and wild [Glycine soja Siebold & Zucc.] soybean species comprise wide variation in seed composition traits. Compared to wild soybean, cultivated soybean contains low protein, high oil, and high sucrose. In this study, an interspecific population was derived from a cross between G. max (Williams 82) and G. soja (PI 483460B). This recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of 188 lines was sequenced at 0.3× depth. Based on 91 342 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), recombination events in RILs were defined, and a high-resolution bin map was developed (4070 bins). In addition to bin mapping, quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for protein, oil, and sucrose was performed using 3343 polymorphic SNPs (3K-SNP), derived from Illumina Infinium BeadChip sequencing platform. The QTL regions from both platforms were compared, and a significant concordance was observed between bin and 3K-SNP markers. Importantly, the bin map derived from next-generation sequencing technology enhanced mapping resolution (from 1325 to 50 Kb). A total of five, nine, and four QTLs were identified for protein, oil, and sucrose content, respectively, and some of the QTLs coincided with soybean domestication-related genomic loci. The major QTL for protein and oil were mapped on Chr. 20 (qPro_20) and suggested negative correlation between oil and protein. In terms of sucrose content, a novel and major QTL were identified on Chr. 8 (qSuc_08) and harbours putative genes involved in sugar transport. In addition, genome-wide association using 91 342 SNPs confirmed the genomic loci derived from QTL mapping. A QTL-based haplotype using whole-genome resequencing of 106 diverse soybean lines identified unique allelic variation in wild soybean that could be utilized to widen the genetic base in cultivated soybean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pbi.12929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6181215PMC
November 2018

Plastic deformation mechanisms in a severely deformed Fe-Ni-Al-C alloy with superior tensile properties.

Sci Rep 2017 Nov 15;7(1):15619. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

Nanostructured metals have high strength while they usually exhibit limited uniform elongation. While, a yield strength of approximately 2.1 GPa and a uniform elongation of about 26% were achieved in a severely deformed Fe-24.8%Ni-6.0%Al-0.38%C alloy in the present work. The plastic deformation mechanisms for the coarse-grained (CG) sample and the cold-rolled (CR) samples of this alloy were investigated by a series of mechanical tests and microstructure characterizations before and after tensile tests. No obvious phase transformation was observed during the tensile deformation for the CG sample, and the plastic deformation was found to be mainly accommodated by deformation twins and dislocation behaviors. While significant phase transformation occurs for the CR samples due to the facts that the deformed grains by CR are insufficient to sustain the tensile deformation themselves and the flow stress for the CR samples is high enough to activate the martensite transformation. The amount of phase transformation increases with increasing thickness reduction of CR, resulting in excellent tensile ductility in the severely deformed alloy. The back stress hardening was found to play a more important role in the CR samples than in the CG sample due to the dynamically reinforced heterogeneous microstructure by phase transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-15905-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5688163PMC
November 2017

Supercharged, Precise, Megametallodendrimers via a Single-Step, Quantitative, Assembly Process.

J Am Chem Soc 2017 11 30;139(44):15652-15655. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Center for Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Florida Atlantic University , Jupiter, Florida 33428, United States.

Synthesis of giant unimolecular dendrimers is challenging due, in part, to difficulties encountered at higher generations, in both convergent and divergent protocols because of the multistep construction/purification process. Herein, we report a hybrid synthetic procedure in which the core is constructed last. This quantitative assembly generated a metallodendrimer that is supercharged (120+), large (11.3 nm diameter), and its core was previously established. The series of complexes has been unequivocally characterized by NMR, ESI-IM-MS, and TEM techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b10328DOI Listing
November 2017

Size effects of lamellar twins on the strength and deformation mechanisms of nanocrystalline hcp cobalt.

Sci Rep 2017 08 25;7(1):9550. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.

Twins play an important role in the deformation of nanocrystalline (NC) metals. The size effects of {[Formula: see text]} tensile/{[Formula: see text]} compressive lamellar twins on the tensile strength and deformation mechanisms of NC hcp cobalt have been investigated by a series of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Unlike the size effects of twins on the strength for polycrystalline fcc metals, the strength of NC hcp cobalt with lamellar tensile/compressive twins monotonically increases with decreasing twin boundary spacing (TBS) and no softening stage is observed, which is due to the consistent deformation mechanisms no matter TBS is large or small. These consistent deformation mechanisms can be categorized into four types of strengthening mechanisms: (i) Partial basal dislocations nucleated from grain boundaries (GBs) or twin boundaries (TBs) intersecting with TBs/GBs; (ii) Phase transformation from hcp to fcc; (iii) partial edge dislocations nucleated from TBs intersecting with basal partial dislocations; (iv) Growth of the newly formed secondary tensile twins inside the primary compressive/tensile twins. The observed multiple twinning in MD simulations has also been confirmed by TEM after tensile testing in NC cobalt processed by severe plastic deformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-09919-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5573393PMC
August 2017

Transcriptome profiling shows gene regulation patterns in ginsenoside pathway in response to methyl jasmonate in Panax Quinquefolium adventitious root.

Sci Rep 2016 11 23;6:37263. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Tianjin Key Laboratory for Modern Drug Delivery and High Efficiency, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Here, we combine elicitors and transcriptomics to investigate the inducible biosynthesis of the ginsenoside from the Panax quinquefolium. Treatment of P. quinquefolium adventitious root with methyl jasmonate (MJ) results in an increase in ginsenoside content (43.66 mg/g compared to 8.32 mg/g in control group). Therefore, we sequenced the transcriptome of native and MJ treated adventitious root in order to elucidate the key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Through DEG analysis, we found that 5,759 unigenes were up-regulated and 6,389 unigenes down-regulated in response to MJ treatment. Several defense-related genes (48) were identified, participating in salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), nitric oxide (NO) and abscisic acid (ABA) signal pathway. Additionally, we mapped 72 unigenes to the ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway. Four cytochrome P450s (CYP450) were likely to catalyze hydroxylation at C-16 (c15743_g1, c39772_g1, c55422_g1) and C-30 (c52011_g1) of the triterpene backbone. UDP-xylose synthases (c52571_g3) was selected as the candidate, which was likely to involve in ginsenoside Rb biosynthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep37263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5120341PMC
November 2016

Chronic Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Pretreatment Ameliorates Ischemia-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction Through Activation of ERK1/2-CREB-BDNF Pathway in Anesthetized Mice.

Neurochem Res 2017 Feb 8;42(2):501-512. Epub 2016 Nov 8.

Department of Physiology, Hebei Medical University, 361 Zhongshan East Road, Shijiazhuang, 050017, China.

Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) has protective effects on heart and brain against ischemia injury through mobilizing endogenous adaptive mechanisms. However, whether CIHH prevents against cognitive impairment was not elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of CIHH treatment on ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-induced cognitive dysfunction. Mice were randomly divided into 8 groups: Control, Sham, CIHH (simulating 5000 m high-altitude for 28 days, 6 h per day), IR (three 16-min occlusions of bilateral common carotid arteries interrupted by two 10-min intervals), CIHH + IR, PD98059 (inhibitor of MEK1/2) + CIHH + IR, PD98059 + Sham and PD98059 + IR group. Morris water maze and step-down passive avoidance tests were performed to evaluate the capability of learning and memory 1 month after ischemia. Thionine dyeing was to examine histological manifestations of pyramidal neurons in hippocampus CA1 region. Western blotting assay was for measurement of the protein expressions in ERK1/2-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway. There were a shorter escape latency and a longer percentage of time retaining in the target quadrant in Morris water maze test, fewer times of errors in the step-down avoidance test and a higher neuronal density of the hippocampal CA1 subfield in CIHH + IR group than in IR group. CIHH upregulated the expressions of BDNF, phosphorylated CREB, ERK1/2 and TrkB with or without ischemia. The protective effects of CIHH were abolished by PD98059 administration 15 min before ischemia. CIHH ameliorated ischemia-induced cognitive dysfunction through activation of ERK1/2-CREB-BDNF signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-016-2097-4DOI Listing
February 2017

Similar Fecal Microbiota Signatures in Patients With Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Patients With Depression.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 11 4;14(11):1602-1611.e5. Epub 2016 Jun 4.

Department of Gastroenterology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often have psychiatric comorbidities. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota have been associated with IBS and depression, but it is not clear if there is a microbial relationship between these disorders. We studied the profiles of fecal microbiota samples from patients with IBS, depression, or comorbidities of IBS and depression; we determined the relationships among these profiles and clinical and pathophysiological features of these disorders.

Methods: We used 454 pyrosequencing to analyze fecal microbiota samples from 100 subjects (40 with diarrhea-predominant IBS [IBS-D], 15 with depression, 25 with comorbidities of IBS and depression, and 20 healthy individuals [controls]), recruited at Peking University. Abdominal and psychological symptoms were evaluated with validated questionnaires. Visceral sensitivity was evaluated using a barostat. Colonic mucosal inflammation was assayed by immunohistochemical analyses of sigmoid tissue biopsy specimens.

Results: Fecal microbiota signatures were similar between patients with IBS-D and depression in that they were less diverse than samples from controls and had similar abundances of alterations. They were characterized by high proportions of Bacteroides (type I), Prevotella (type II), or nondominant microbiota (type III). Most patients with IBS-D or depression had type I or type II profiles (IBS-D had 85% type I and type II profiles, depression had 80% type I and type II profiles). Colon tissues from patients with type I or type II profiles had higher levels of inflammatory markers than colon tissues from patients with type III profiles. The level of colon inflammation correlated with the severity of IBS symptoms.

Conclusions: Patients with IBS-D and depression have similar alterations in fecal microbiota; these might be related to the pathogenesis of these disorders. We identified 3 microbial profiles in patients that could indicate different subtypes of IBS and depression or be used as diagnostic biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2016.05.033DOI Listing
November 2016

Assessment of genetic fidelity and composition: Mixed elicitors enhance triterpenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. tissue cultures.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2017 Mar 15;64(2):211-217. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Tianjin Key Laboratory for Modern Drug Delivery and High Efficiency, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Glycyrrhiza uralensis has acquired significant importance due to its medicinal properties and health function. In this study, the quality of G. uralensis adventitious roots was evaluated in terms of genetic stability, active compounds, and anti-inflammatory activity. Monomorphic banding pattern obtained from the mother plant and tissue cultures of G. uralensis with randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers confirmed the genetic stability of adventitious roots. Neoliquiritin (neoisoliquiritin), ononin, liquiritin, and glycyrrhizic acid were identified from G. uralensis adventitious roots on the basis of high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. This study also revealed that adventitious roots possessed a better anti-inflammatory effect than native roots. To increase the contents of G. uralensis active components, elicitors were used in the adventitious roots culture. The combination of methyl jasmonate and phenylalanine synergistically stimulated the accumulation of glycyrrhetinic acid (0.22 mg/g) and total flavonoid (5.43 mg/g) compared with single treatment. In conclusion, G. uralensis adventitious roots can be an exploitable system for the production of licorice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.1485DOI Listing
March 2017
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