Publications by authors named "Xiaojun Yang"

261 Publications

Age-associated changes in caecal microbiome and their apparent correlations with growth performances of layer pullets.

Anim Nutr 2021 Sep 10;7(3):841-848. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

The microbiome in gastrointestinal tracts play an important role in regulating nutrient utilization and absorption, gut immune function, and host growth or development. This study was conducted to investigate the composition and dynamic distribution of caecal microbiota in pullets during the first 16 weeks. Growth performance, immune organs index, and intestinal morphology of pullets were analyzed at 3, 6, 12 and 16 weeks of age. The caecal contents were collected for microbiota analysis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. With advancing ages in pullets, the gradually increased average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and intestinal villus height, but the gradually decreased organs index of thymus and bursa were determined. Meanwhile, more abundant caecal bacterial communities were determined from pullets at 12 and 16 weeks of age than those at 3 and 6 weeks of age. Furthermore, the dominant microflora of pullets from different weeks of age were analyzed by using LEfSe: The higher abundance of , , and were found at 6 weeks; , , and were determined at 12 weeks; and the higher abundance of , , and were determined at 16 weeks. Further functional predicted analysis by PICRUSt revealed that the endocrine system and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly developed at 3 weeks. The development of the immune system was predicted to be mainly during 6 to 12 weeks, while cardiovascular diseases and circulatory system were during 12 to 16 weeks. In addition, the significantly negative correlation between and villus height, the significantly negative correlation between growth parameters (ADFI and FCR) and , and ; and the significantly positive relations between growth parameters (ADFI and FCR) and , , and were determined by using Pearson analyses. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that growth performance and intestinal morphology correlate well with caecal microbiota, which could provide new insights to establish or develop nutritional strategies to manage the intestinal health or development of laying pullets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.11.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8379648PMC
September 2021

Dynamic Changes in Lung Microbiota of Broilers in Response to Aging and Ammonia Stress.

Front Microbiol 2021 4;12:696913. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Comprehensive microbial analysis has revealed that the lung harbors a complex variety of microbiota, and although the dynamic distribution of the lung microbiota in mice and laying hens of different ages is well established, this distribution has not been clarified in broilers of different ages. Here, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing of lung lavage fluid from broilers at 3 (3D), 7 (7D), 14 (14D), 21 (21D), and 35 (35D) days of age to evaluate changes in the composition of their lung microbiota. Upon examination of the composition and function of the broiler lung microbiota, we found that their maturation increased significantly with age. Specifically, the microbiota composition was similar between 7 and 14D and between 21 and 35D. The relative abundance of aerobic bacteria in the broiler lungs gradually increased as the broilers developed, whereas the relative abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria reached its highest level at 3D. The relative abundance of predicted functions in microbiota was very similar among 3, 7, and 14D, whereas the Glycan Biosynthesis and Metabolism pathway in microbiota was enriched at 21D. These findings suggest that these metabolic pathways play critical roles in shaping broiler microbiota at these age stages. In addition, short-term external ammonia stimulation significantly increased lung inflammation but did not significantly affect the lung microbiota. Taken together, these data reveal the dynamics of age-related changes in the microbiota of broiler lungs and the stability (the significant variation in the microbial composition) of these microbial communities in response to short-term ammonia stress. These findings provide new insights into the development of broiler lung microbiota and serve as a reference for subsequent studies to evaluate disease prevention in broilers subjected to large-scale breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.696913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371464PMC
August 2021

Cooperation between liver-specific mutations of pten and tp53 genetically induces hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Aug 20;40(1):262. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China.

Background: Liver cancer, mainly hepatocellular carcinoma, is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide and has a poor prognosis due to insufficient understanding of hepatocarcinogenesis. Previous studies have revealed that the mutations in PTEN and TP53 are the two most common genetic events in hepatocarcinogenesis. Here, we illustrated the crosstalk between aberrant Pten and Tp53 pathways during hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish.

Methods: We used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to establish several transgenic zebrafish lines with single or double tissue-specific mutations of pten and tp53 to genetically induce liver tumorigenesis. Next, the morphological and histological determination were performed to investigate the roles of Pten and Tp53 signalling pathways in hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish.

Results: We demonstrated that Pten loss alone induces hepatocarcinogenesis with only low efficiency, whereas single mutation of tp53 failed to induce tumour formation in liver tissue in zebrafish. Moreover, zebrafish with double mutations of pten and tp53 exhibits a much higher tumour incidence, higher-grade histology, and a shorter survival time than single-mutant zebrafish, indicating that these two signalling pathways play important roles in dynamic biological events critical for the initiation and progression of hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish. Further histological and pathological analyses showed significant similarity between the tumours generated from liver tissues of zebrafish and humans. Furthermore, the treatment with MK-2206, a specific Akt inhibitor, effectively suppressed hepatocarcinogenesis in zebrafish.

Conclusion: Our findings will offer a preclinical animal model for genetically investigating hepatocarcinogenesis and provide a useful platform for high-throughput anticancer drug screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-021-02061-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8377946PMC
August 2021

Ginsenoside F2 Suppresses Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Cells and Obesity in Mice the AMPK Pathway.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Aug 3;69(32):9299-9312. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

School of Life Sciences, Huaiyin Normal University, Huai'an 223300, China.

Ginsenoside F2 (GF2) is a protopanaxdiol saponin from leaves and possesses many potential pharmacological properties. GF2 may prevent obesity by directly binding to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) and inhibiting adipocyte differentiation. However, the mechanism by which GF2 alleviates obesity is unknown. We therefore explored the anti-adipogenesis and anti-obesity effects of GF2 and . GF2 inhibited differentiation and reduced the triglyceride (TG) content of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in the early stage of adipogenesis. Administration of GF2 (50 and 100 mg/kg) to obese mice for 4 weeks reduced the body weight gain, weight of adipose tissues, adipocyte size, and total cholesterol, TG, and AST levels in serum. RNA sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that GF2 decreased the expression levels of adipokines, including PPARγ, fatty acid synthase, and adiponectin. KEGG enrichment and western blot analyses demonstrated that GF2 accelerated the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC and . Moreover, GF2 promoted the biosynthesis of mitochondria in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GSH-Px in the liver of obese mice. Therefore, GF2 suppressed adipogenesis and obesity by regulating the expression of adipokines and activating the AMPK pathway. Hence, the findings suggest that GF2 may have potential therapeutic implications to treat obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c03420DOI Listing
August 2021

Exploring the effectiveness of in ovo feeding of vitamin C based on the embryonic vitamin C synthesis and absorption in broiler chickens.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Aug 3;12(1):86. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

Background: Many researches about in ovo feeding (IOF) of vitamin C (VC) are gradually carried out to explore physiological development in chicken, but little studies focus on VC synthesis capacity of the embryo itself, the selection of injection site and the effectiveness of IOF of VC. This study aims to explore the above problems.

Results: Kidney and yolk sac were the main organs for VC synthesis and L-gulonolactone oxidase (GLO) expression was lower during pre-hatch development than that during post-hatch development. Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter 1 (SVCT1) expression was increased continuously in yolk sac from embryonic age 19 (E19) to post-hatch day 1 (D1) and in intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) from E17 to D1. Plasma VC content was higher at D1 than that at D21 and D42. IOF of VC significantly reduced GLO expression in liver, kidney and yolk sac as well as SVCT1 expression in duodenum, jejunum and ileum, but increased the VC content in plasma, brain, kidney and liver. In addition, IOF of VC obviously reduced the embryonic morality and increased the hatchability under heat stress.

Conclusions: This study suggested that IOF of VC at E11 in yolk was effective for embryonic VC supplementation. These findings provide a theoretical reference about the method of embryonic VC supplementation and effective methodology on embryonic VC nutrition in broiler chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-021-00607-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8330104PMC
August 2021

Physiological responses and health risks of edible amaranth under simultaneous stresses of lead from soils and atmosphere.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 28;223:112543. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Guangdong Research Center for Industrial Contaminated Site Remediation Technology and Equipment Engineering, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, PR China.

Lead (Pb) is widely distributed in the environment that can impose potential risks to vegetables and humans. In this work, we conducted a pot experiment in Southern China to examine the physiological response and risk of edible amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) under the simultaneous stresses of lead from soil and atmosphere. The results indicate that the lead content of amaranth substantially exceeded China's national standard when Pb concentration from soils and atmosphere was high, and comparing to teenagers and adults, children exposed a higher health risk after consuming the contaminated amaranth. Under the co-stress, the lead in roots of amaranth mainly came from the soil, but the Pb from atmospheric deposition can significantly affect the lead concentration in leaves. While lead from atmospheric deposition is found to promote the growth of amaranth, the stress of lead from the soils shows an inhibitory effect, as indicated by the increase in HO content, the damage in cell membranes, and the limitation in chlorophyll synthesis. The antioxidant system in stems and leaves of amaranth can effectively alleviate the Pb toxicity. However, the stress of high lead concentration from soils can substantially suppress the antioxidant enzyme activity of roots. While it is found that heavy metals in soils can significantly affect the vegetables grown in a multi-source pollution environment, we also call for the attention on the potential health risk imposed by the lead from atmospheric deposition. This study provides an important reference for the prevention and control of crop contamination in multi-source pollution environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112543DOI Listing
October 2021

Free-electron lasing at 27 nanometres based on a laser wakefield accelerator.

Nature 2021 Jul 21;595(7868):516-520. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics and CAS Center for Excellence in Ultra-intense Laser Science, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics (SIOM), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

X-ray free-electron lasers can generate intense and coherent radiation at wavelengths down to the sub-ångström region, and have become indispensable tools for applications in structural biology and chemistry, among other disciplines. Several X-ray free-electron laser facilities are in operation; however, their requirement for large, high-cost, state-of-the-art radio-frequency accelerators has led to great interest in the development of compact and economical accelerators. Laser wakefield accelerators can sustain accelerating gradients more than three orders of magnitude higher than those of radio-frequency accelerators, and are regarded as an attractive option for driving compact X-ray free-electron lasers. However, the realization of such devices remains a challenge owing to the relatively poor quality of electron beams that are based on a laser wakefield accelerator. Here we present an experimental demonstration of undulator radiation amplification in the exponential-gain regime by using electron beams based on a laser wakefield accelerator. The amplified undulator radiation, which is typically centred at 27 nanometres and has a maximum photon number of around 10 per shot, yields a maximum radiation energy of about 150 nanojoules. In the third of three undulators in the device, the maximum gain of the radiation power is approximately 100-fold, confirming a successful operation in the exponential-gain regime. Our results constitute a proof-of-principle demonstration of free-electron lasing using a laser wakefield accelerator, and pave the way towards the development of compact X-ray free-electron lasers based on this technology with broad applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03678-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Clinical and imaging predictors of impaired myocardial perfusion in symptomatic patients after percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2021 Jul;11(7):3327-3337

Department of Radiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: We aimed to investigate the relationship between baseline clinical characteristics and postprocedural myocardial perfusion as determined by dynamic computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (CT-MPI).

Methods: We retrospectively included consecutive symptomatic post percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients, who underwent dynamic CT-MPI + coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and who were revealed to have patent stents on previously revascularized lesions. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured for stented territories and reference territories. Various baseline clinical and angiographic parameters were tested for the association with reduced MBF of stented territories.

Results: A total of 81 patients with 96 stented vessels were included in the analysis. The mean effective doses of radiation for the whole integrated CT protocol (calcium score + dynamic CT-MPI + CCTA) was 4.89±1.14 (2.58-6.93) mSv. Overall, 49 stented vessels had reduced MBF (75.3±17.2 mL/100 mL/min) within related territories, whereas 47 stented vessels had normal MBF (138.6±20.5 mL/100 mL/min). Peak levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and glucose were significantly higher, while preprocedural thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade was lower in participants with reduced MBF of stented territories. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) also predominantly presented in participants with decreased MBF after revascularization. According to multivariate analysis, peak hs-cTnI level was the strongest predictor [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 4.548, P=0.003] for decreased myocardial perfusion, followed by TIMI flow grade, AMI, stenotic extent, and NT-pro-BNP.

Conclusions: The baseline hs-cTnI peak level was the strongest predictor for decreased myocardial perfusion after revascularization, followed by AMI, stenotic extent, and NT-pro-BNP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims-20-977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8250036PMC
July 2021

20-Hydroxy-3-Oxolupan-28-Oic Acid, a Minor Component From (Fort.) Carr. Leaves Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory in Murine Macrophages.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 17;9:701876. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Regional Modern Agriculture and Environmental Protection, School of Life Sciences, Huaiyin Normal University, Huai'an, China.

20-Hydroxyl-3-oxolupan-28-oic acid (HOA), a minor component from (Fort.) Carr. leaves, has been found to attenuate inflammatory responses. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we performed a comprehensive transcriptional study to investigate genetic changes. We used RNA sequencing technology to analyses the transcriptional changes in RAW 264.7 cells in a control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced group, and HOA-treated group. We identified 1,313 and 388 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the control/LPS group and LPS/HOA group, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) classification revealed that the DEGs were mainly enriched in a series of inflammatory and immune-related processes. The results of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses showed that the DEGs were mainly enriched in inflammatory-related pathways such as the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, chemokine signaling pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway. The results of qPCR validation revealed that dynamic changes in immune-related mRNAs such as Saa3, Bcl2l1, Mapkapk2, Ccl9, Sdc4, Ddx3x, Socs3, Prdx5, Tlr4, Lif, IL15, Tnfaip3, Tet2, Tgf-β1, and Ccl20, which were significantly upregulated in the LPS group and downregulated in the HOA group. Taken together, these results suggest that HOA may be used as a source of anti-inflammatory agents as well as a dietary complement for health promotion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.701876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247915PMC
June 2021

TSLP-induced collagen type-I synthesis through STAT3 and PRMT1 is sensitive to calcitriol in human lung fibroblasts.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 Sep 18;1868(10):119083. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, PR China.

Airway wall remodeling, a main pathology of asthma was linked to vitamin-D deficiency and protein arginine methyltransferase-1 (PRMT1) expression in sub-epithelial cell layers. Calcitriol reduced remodeling in asthma model, but its mode of action is unclear. This study assessed the effect of calcitriol on PRMT1-dependent fibroblast remodeling in human lung fibroblasts, and allergen-induced asthma in E3-rats. Fibroblasts were activated with thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TLSP); asthma was induced by ovalbumin inhalation in rats. The airway structure was assessed by immunohistology. Protein expression in fibroblasts and activation of the mitogen activated protein kinases were detected by Western-blotting. Transcription factor activation was determined by luciferase reporter assay. PRMT1 action was blocked by siRNA and PRMT-inhibition. Ovalbumin upregulated the expression of TSLP, PRMT1, matrix metallopro-teinase-1 (MMP1), interleukin-25, and collagen type-I in sub-epithelial fibroblasts. In isolated fibroblasts, TSLP induced the same proteins, which were blocked by inhibition of Erk1/2 and p38. TLSP induced PRMT1 through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. PRMT1 inhibition reduced collagen type-I expression and suppressed MMP1. In fibroblasts, calcitriol supplementation over 12 days prevented TSLP-induced remodeling by blocking the PRMT1 levels. Interestingly, short-term calcitriol treatment had no such effect. The data support the beneficial role of calcitriol in asthma therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2021.119083DOI Listing
September 2021

Postoperative serum triglyceride levels in predicting risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus in patients following liver transplantation.

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 04;50(2):239-244

Department of Gastroenterology.

To investigate the postoperative serum triglyceride (TG) levels in predicting the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) in patients following allogeneic liver transplantation. One hundred and forty three patients undergoing allogeneic liver transplantation in Shanghai General Hospital from July 2007 to July 2014 were enrolled in this study. The NODM developed in 33 patients after liver transplantation. The curve of dynamic TG levels in the early period after liver transplantation was generated. Independent risk factors of NODM were determined by univariate and multivariant logistic regression analyses. The clinical value of TG in predicting NODM was analyzed by area under the ROC curve (AUC). Serum TG levels were gradually rising in the first week and then reached the plateau phase (stable TG, sTG) in patients after surgery. The sTG in NODM group were significantly higher than that in non-NODM group (=-2.31, <0.05). Glucocorticoid therapy (=4.054, <0.01), FK506 drug concentration in the first week after operation (=3.482, <0.05) and sTG (=3.156, <0.05) were independent risk factors of NODM. ROC curve analysis showed that the AUC of sTG in predicting NODM was 0.72. TG shows a gradual recovery process in the early period after liver transplantation, and the higher TG level in stable phase may significantly increase the risk of NODM in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3724/zdxbyxb-2021-0114DOI Listing
April 2021

Tunable Wettability Pattern Transfer Photothermally Achieved on Zinc with Microholes Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 May 11;12(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Zhejiang Provincial Engineering Lab of Laser and Optoelectronic Intelligent Manufacturing, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035, China.

A quickly tunable wettability pattern plays an important role in regulating the surface behavior of liquids. Light irradiation can effectively control the pattern to achieve a specific wettability pattern on the photoresponsive material. However, metal oxide materials based on light adjustable wettability have a low regulation efficiency. In this paper, zinc (Zn) superhydrophobic surfaces can be obtained by femtosecond-laser-ablated microholes. Owing to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation increasing the surface energy of Zn and heating water temperature decreasing the surface energy of water, the wettability of Zn can be quickly tuned photothermally. Then, the Zn superhydrophobic surfaces can be restored by heating in the dark. Moreover, by tuning the pattern of UV irradiation, a specific wettability pattern can be transferred by the Zn microholes, which has a potential application value in the field of new location-controlled micro-/nanofluidic devices, such as microreactors and lab-on-chip devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12050547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150720PMC
May 2021

Numerical analysis of the DKDP-based high-energy optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier for a 100  PW class laser.

Appl Opt 2021 May;60(13):3842-3848

An optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA) based on a large-aperture DKDP crystal and pumped by a 10 kJ level Nd:glass laser can serve as the final amplifier for a 100 PW level laser. A comprehensive numerical investigation on such a high-energy OPCPA is presented in this work. The effects on the efficiency-bandwidth product induced by the deuteration level, absorption loss, temperature variation, and optimization of zero-phase-mismatch wavelength (ZPMW) are analyzed in detail. Based on the analysis above, a three-dimensional numerical simulation taking into account the effects of pumping depletion, diffraction, and walk-off shows that, by optimization of ZPMW, broadband (over 210 nm spectral width in FWHM) and high efficiency (${\gt}37\%$) amplification can be realized in the DKDP crystal even with a moderate deuteration level of 70%, which can relax the requirement of a high deuteration level in a large-aperture DKDP crystal. The numerical analysis can provide meaningful guidance for the design and construction of 100 PW class laser systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.423191DOI Listing
May 2021

Long Intergenic Nonprotein Coding RNA 173 Inhibits Tumor Growth and Promotes Apoptosis by Repressing Sphingosine Kinase 1 Protein Expression in Pancreatic Cancer.

DNA Cell Biol 2021 Jun 12;40(6):757-775. Epub 2021 May 12.

Pancreas Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Pancreatic cancer is a common malignant tumor worldwide. Extensive studies have been conducted on the functional role of long noncoding RNAs in pancreatic cancer. In this study, long intergenic nonprotein coding RNA 173 (LINC00173) was highly expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues. functional experiments showed that LINC00173 overexpression inhibited the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells and promoted cell apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells. RNA sequencing analysis and Western blot assays demonstrated that LINC00173 reduced the expression of sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1) and then inhibited the protein expression of activated phospho-protein kinase B (AKT) and NF-κB. functional assays also revealed that LINC00173 inhibited the growth of pancreatic cancer xenografts, repressed cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, and inhibited SPHK1 expression. The combined results of this study indicate that LINC00173 inhibits pancreatic cancer progression by repressing SPHK1 expression. Improving LINC00173 may represent a therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2020.6103DOI Listing
June 2021

Isolation, structural characterization, biological activity, and application of Glycyrrhiza polysaccharides: Systematic review.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jul 19;183:387-398. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Food Science and Pharmacy, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, PR China.

Glycyrrhiza, one of the most widely used Chinese herbal medicines, is a perennial plant with good medicinal value. Polysaccharides as one of the main bioactive components of Glycyrrhiza, mainly composed of arabinose, glucose, galactose, rhamnose, mannose, xylose, and galacturonic acid in different proportions and types of glycosidic bonds. Glycyrrhiza polysaccharides (GP) have many biological activities, such as anti-oxidation, immune regulation, anti-tumor, apoptosis, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and regulation of intestinal flora. In this paper, relevant articles on the isolations, structural characterizations, and biological activities of GP published in the last 15 years (2006-2020) were referred to for a systematic review of the species. A total of 947 articles were searched from the database including NCBI, Science Direct, Web of Science, and How Net, and 109 of them were cited on the summarization of the past scientific researches of the polysaccharides of Glycyrrhiza genus. We hope that this work may provide new insights for further study and development of Glycyrrhiza.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.04.099DOI Listing
July 2021

The regulation mechanisms and the Lamarckian inheritance property of DNA methylation in animals.

Mamm Genome 2021 06 15;32(3):135-152. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 712100, People's Republic of China.

DNA methylation is a stable and heritable epigenetic mechanism, of which the main functions are stabilizing the transcription of genes and promoting genetic conservation. In animals, the direct molecular inducers of DNA methylation mainly include histone covalent modification and non-coding RNA, whereas the fundamental regulators of DNA methylation are genetic and environmental factors. As is well known, competition is present everywhere in life systems, and will finally strike a balance that is optimal for the animal's survival and reproduction. The same goes for the regulation of DNA methylation. Genetic and environmental factors, respectively, are responsible for the programmed and plasticity changes of DNA methylation, and keen competition exists between genetically influenced procedural remodeling and environmentally influenced plastic alteration. In this process, genetic and environmental factors collaboratively decide the methylation patterns of corresponding loci. DNA methylation alterations induced by environmental factors can be transgenerationally inherited, and exhibit the characteristic of Lamarckian inheritance. Further research on regulatory mechanisms and the environmental plasticity of DNA methylation will provide strong support for understanding the biological function and evolutionary effects of DNA methylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-021-09870-8DOI Listing
June 2021

On the kinematics of forelimb landing of frog Rana rugulosus.

J Biomech 2021 05 5;121:110417. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen, PR China.

A frog can jump several times higher than its own height and then land smoothly on the ground. During the buffering phase, both forelimbs touch the ground and compact quickly to absorb most of the impact energy. However, the adjustment of the joint angles of the forelimb and the induced cushioning effect during the landing process have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we statistically summarized the angular displacements of forelimb joints with respect to landing velocities by using a high-speed motion capture system. It is found many joint angles were linearly influenced by landing velocity at both ground touching moment and maximum compression moment. Moreover, the double-peak pattern of ground reactive force was measured, which attributes to the forelimb landing and the followed abdomen/hindlimb landing. Before the appearance of the first peak, the compression of the forelimb and the reactive force revealed a linear relationship regardless of velocity, implying that the forelimbs act as a constant stiffness spring in landing. Accordingly, a simple spring-mass model was proposed and verified by simulation for forelimb cushioning of the frog. We anticipate our achievements to inspire the design of future landing mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2021.110417DOI Listing
May 2021

MLKL: Functions beyond serving as the Executioner of Necroptosis.

Theranostics 2021 4;11(10):4759-4769. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Stomatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, P.R. China.

Recently, necroptosis, as a programmed cell death pathway, has drawn much attention as it has been implicated in multiple pathologies, especially in the field of inflammatory diseases. Pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) serves as a terminal-known obligate effector in the process of necroptosis. To date, the majority of research on MLKL has focused on its role in necroptosis, and the prevailing view has been that the sole function of MLKL is to mediate necroptosis. However, increasing evidence indicates that MLKL can serve as a regulator of many diseases via its non-necroptotic functions. These functions of MLKL shed light on its functional complexity and diversity. In this review, we briefly introduce the current state of knowledge regarding the structure of MLKL, necroptosis signaling, as well as cross-linkages among necroptosis and other regulated cell death pathways, and we particularly highlight recent progress related to newly identified functions and inhibitors of MLKL. These discussions promote a better understanding of the role of MLKL in diseases, which will foster efforts to pharmacologically target this molecule in clinical treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.54072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7978304PMC
August 2021

mTOR regulates PRMT1 expression and mitochondrial mass through STAT1 phosphorylation in hepatic cell.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res 2021 05 16;1868(6):119017. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China.

Background: Fasting changes mitochondrial function, and mTOR acts as a major regulator of mitochondrial energy production ensuring the survival under reduced supply of nutrition. This study assessed the role of protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), which regulates mitochondrial function, in the context of fasting.

Methods: The effect of fasting on mTOR signaling and mTOR-regulated mitochondrial mass was assessed in LO2 cells (in vitro) and C57BL/6J mice (in vivo). Biochemical parameters of fasting were determined in blood samples of mice. PRMT1 expression was investigated by transfecting LO2 cells with an expression vector. Gene expression was determined by real-time quantitative PCR, protein interaction by chromatin immunoprecipitation, protein expression by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy, and the mitochondrial mass by MitoTracker staining.

Results: After 48 h of fasting, mTOR and PRMT1 expression, as well as mitochondrial mass, were significantly reduced in LO2 cells, and in liver tissue sections. Fasting downregulated the expression of miR-21 and upregulated the expression of its target phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), which was responsible for reduced mTOR expression. Inhibition of mTOR reduced phosphorylation of STAT1, and thereby PRMT1 expression in LO2 cells. Low PRMT1 down-regulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and thereby decreased mitochondrial mass. Supplementation of insulin contracted the effect of fasting on all mentioned parameters.

Conclusions: Fasting downregulates miR-21 and increases its target PTEN, thereby inhibiting mTOR signaling, p-STAT1, PRMT1, and mitochondrial mass. These findings highlight the role of mTOR and PRMT1 in the regulation of cellular energy availability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamcr.2021.119017DOI Listing
May 2021

[Analysis of correlation between fecal and alveolar lavage fluid flora of ventilator-associated pneumonia patients based on 16S rRNA sequencing technology].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 Feb;33(2):169-173

Department of Critical Care Medicine, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan 750004, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China. Corresponding author: Yang Xiaojun, Email:

Objective: To investigate the changes and correlation of intestinal and pulmonary microecological structures in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).

Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted. Thirty-one patients with VAP admitted to the department of critical care medicine of General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University from May 1st 2019 to May 1st 2020 were enrolled. Feces and alveolar lavage fluid samples from patients with the same day, feces and alveolar lavage specimen flora composition and the structure of biological information analysis by 16S rRNA sequencing technologies, the comprehensive sequencing results, and clinical data of patients were analyzed.

Results: (1) The diversity (abundance and diversity) of flora in the alveolar lavage fluid of VAP patients was higher than that of fecal flora. Among them, Ace index, Chao index and Shannon index describing the abundance of flora showed statistically significant differences [Ace index: 305.89 (214.39, 458.66) vs. 204.51 (165.15, 247.61), Chao index: 259.83 (194.20, 459.31) vs. 187.67 (153.28, 234.01), Shannon index: 3.01 (2.39, 3.54) vs. 2.55 (1.86, 2.95), all P < 0.05], but there was no significant difference in Simpson index describing diversity [0.14 (0.08, 0.27) vs. 0.19 (0.10, 0.33), P > 0.05]. (2) In the sequencing results of feces and alveolar lavage fluid of VAP patients, there were some intestinal related bacteria groups with high abundance, such as Escherichia-Shigella, Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides, and Lachnospira, etc. (3) In 31 VAP patients, suspicious pathogenic bacteria was found in 20 cases (6 cases of Streptococcus viridans, 5 cases of Escherichia coli, 3 cases of Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3 cases of Acinetobacter baumannii, 2 cases of Staphylococcus aureus, 1 case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and the same suspected pathogens also existed in the 17 patients' alveolar lavage and waste sequencing. (4) Fourteen VAP patients combined with sepsis, 14 patients without sepsis were selected for sample size matching. The results showed that, Jaccard similarity index to describe lung-correlation of intestinal flora in VAP with sepsis group was significantly elevated, and the difference was statistically significant (0.24±0.08 vs. 0.19±0.06, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: There is a certain correlation between pulmonary and intestinal flora in VAP patients. In addition to the exclusion of pulmonary infection caused by environmental and upper respiratory micro-inhalation, the lower digestive tract may also be source of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20201010-00662DOI Listing
February 2021

Ring finger protein 126: a potential biomarker for colorectal cancer.

Histol Histopathol 2021 May 16;36(5):559-566. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, PR China.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer of the digestive system. However, effective therapeutic targets against CRC have not been found yet. Further, the relationship between the expression of ring finger protein 126 (RNF126) and CRC is not clear.

Material And Methods: The expression level of RNF126 in CRC tissues and cell lines was detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blot. Subsequently, endogenous RNF126 expression was inhibited in a CRC cell line using a short hairpin RNA. Next, the effect of RNF126 on the properties of CRC cells was studied through different experimental methods.

Results: We found that the RNF126 protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. High RNF126 expression was observed to be an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in CRC patients. In vitro studies showed that RNF126 was able to promote the proliferation, migration, and invasion ability of CRC cells.

Conclusion: RNF126 acts as an oncogene during CRC development, and may serve as a novel target for CRC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14670/HH-18-328DOI Listing
May 2021

A serologic weakly reactive RhD is caused by a novel RHD (c.722C>A, p.Thr241Asn) allele.

Transfusion 2021 04 15;61(4):E31-E33. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fujian Provincial Jinshan Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.16345DOI Listing
April 2021

Lactobacillus reuteri-derived extracellular vesicles maintain intestinal immune homeostasis against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in broilers.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Feb 17;12(1):25. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Background: Lactobacillus reuteri strains are widely used as probiotics to prevent and treat inflammatory bowel disease by modulating the host's immune system. However, the underlying mechanisms by which they communicate with the host have not been clearly understood. Bacterial extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been considered as important mediators of host-pathogen interactions, but their potential role in commensals-host crosstalk has not been widely studied. Here, we investigated the regulatory actions of EVs produced by L. reuteri BBC3, a gut-associated commensal bacterium of Black-Bone chicken, in the development of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal inflammation in a chicken model using both in vivo and in vitro experiments.

Results: L. reuteri BBC3 produced nano-scale membrane vesicles with the size range of 60-250 nm. Biochemical and proteomic analyses showed that L. reuteri BBC3-derived EVs (LrEVs) carried DNA, RNA and several bioactive proteins previously described as mediators of other probiotics' beneficial effects such as glucosyltransferase, serine protease and elongation factor Tu. In vivo broiler experiments showed that administration of LrEVs exerted similar effects as L. reuteri BBC3 in attenuating LPS-induced inflammation by improving growth performance, reducing mortality and decreasing intestinal injury. LrEVs suppressed the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IL-8), and improved the expression of anti-inflammatory genes (IL-10 and TGF-β) in the jejunum. LrEVs could be internalized by chicken macrophages. In vitro pretreatment with LrEVs reduced the gene expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 by suppressing the NF-κB activity, and enhanced the gene expression of IL-10 and TGF-β in LPS-activated chicken macrophages. Additionally, LrEVs could inhibit Th1- and Th17-mediated inflammatory responses and enhance the immunoregulatory cells-mediated immunosuppression in splenic lymphocytes of LPS-challenged chickens through the activation of macrophages. Finally, we revealed that the reduced content of both vesicular proteins and nucleic acids attenuated the suppression of LrEVs on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in ex vivo experiments, suggesting that they are essential for the LrEVs-mediated immunoregulation.

Conclusions: We revealed that LrEVs participated in maintaining intestinal immune homeostasis against LPS-induced inflammatory responses in a chicken model. Our findings provide mechanistic insight into how commensal and probiotic Lactobacillus species modulate the host's immune system in pathogens-induced inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-020-00532-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7888134PMC
February 2021

Study on the interactive effect of deoxynivalenol and Clostridium perfringens on the jejunal health of broiler chickens.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 2;100(3):100807. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China, 712100. Electronic address:

With global warming and ban on antibiotics, it occurs occasionally that deoxynivalenol (DON) together with Clostridium perfringens impairs the gut health of broiler chickens. However, the interactive effect of DON and C. perfringens on intestinal health is still unknown. A total of 120 one-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed to 4 groups. Birds were gavaged with C. perfringens (8 × 10 CFU/d per bird) or sterile medium and fed a DON diet (0 or 5 mg of DON per kg diet) to investigate the interactive effects. The main effect analysis showed that DON diet significantly downregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of mucin-2, B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X, and cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3 of jejunal mucosa; decreased (P < 0.05) the indexes of ACE, Chao1, Shannon, and Simpson; and also decreased the relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidete and the genera Lactococcus in jejunal contents of broilers chickens. Meanwhile, C. perfringens significantly increased (P < 0.05) crypt depth; decreased (P < 0.05) the ratio of villi height to crypt depth, the activity of jejunal diamine oxidase, and the relative abundance of Lactococcus; and upregulated (P < 0.05) the relative expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 and cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-8. Furthermore, the interactions between DON and C. perfringens were most significant (P < 0.05) in the mRNA expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF factor (LITAF) and TLR-4, the abundance of the genera Lactococcus in jejunal contents, and butyric acid concentrations in cecal contents of birds. Finally, Spearman correlation analysis suggested that the most negative correlations (P < 0.05) with the abundance of the genera except Lactobacillus were observed within the mRNA expression of LITAF. The abundance of Lactococcus had a positive correlation (P < 0.05) with the expression of Caspase-3. Most genera except Lactobacillus negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with acetic acid, butyric acid, and total short-chain fatty acids. In conclusion, dietary deoxynivalenol and C. perfringens challenge had a harmful effect on the jejunal health and should be carefully monitored in broiler production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.10.061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936164PMC
March 2021

Radiomic Nomogram for Pretreatment Prediction of Pathologic Complete Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy in Breast Cancer: Predictive Value of Staging Contrast-enhanced CT.

Clin Breast Cancer 2021 08 17;21(4):e388-e401. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China; Department of Radiology, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to predict pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer using radiomics based on pretreatment staging contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT).

Patients And Methods: A total of 215 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Based on the intratumoral and peritumoral regions of CECT images, radiomic features were extracted and selected, respectively, to develop an intratumoral signature and a peritumoral signature with logistic regression in a training dataset (138 patients from November 2015 to October 2017). We also developed a clinical model with the molecular characterization of the tumor. A radiomic nomogram was further constructed by incorporating the intratumoral and peritumoral signatures with molecular characterization. The performance of the nomogram was validated in terms of discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility in an independent validation dataset (77 patients from November 2017 to December 2018). Stratified analysis was performed to develop a subtype-specific radiomic signature for each subgroup.

Results: Compared with the clinical model (area under the curve [AUC], 0.756), the radiomic nomogram (AUC, 0.818) achieved better performance for pCR prediction in the validation dataset with continuous net reclassification improvement of 0.787 and good calibration. Decision curve analysis suggested the nomogram was clinically useful. Subtype-specific radiomic signatures showed improved AUCs (luminal subgroup, 0.936; human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive subgroup, 0.825; and triple negative subgroup, 0.858) for pCR prediction.

Conclusion: This study has revealed a predictive value of pretreatment staging-CECT and successfully developed and validated a radiomic nomogram for individualized prediction of pCR to neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer, which could assist clinical decision-making and improve patient outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2020.12.004DOI Listing
August 2021

Stepwise crosstalk between aberrant Nf1, Tp53 and Rb signalling pathways induces gliomagenesis in zebrafish.

Brain 2021 03;144(2):615-635

Neuroscience Center, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, China.

The molecular pathogenesis of glioblastoma indicates that RTK/Ras/PI3K, RB and TP53 pathways are critical for human gliomagenesis. Here, several transgenic zebrafish lines with single or multiple deletions of nf1, tp53 and rb1 in astrocytes, were established to genetically induce gliomagenesis in zebrafish. In the mutant with a single deletion, we found only the nf1 mutation low-efficiently induced tumour incidence, suggesting that the Nf1 pathway is critical for the initiation of gliomagenesis in zebrafish. Combination of mutations, nf1;tp53 and rb1;tp53 combined knockout fish, showed much higher tumour incidences, high-grade histology, increased invasiveness, and shortened survival time. Further bioinformatics analyses demonstrated the alterations in RTK/Ras/PI3K, cell cycle, and focal adhesion pathways, induced by abrogated nf1, tp53, or rb1, were probably the critical stepwise biological events for the initiation and development of gliomagenesis in zebrafish. Gene expression profiling and histological analyses showed the tumours derived from zebrafish have significant similarities to the subgroups of human gliomas. Furthermore, temozolomide treatment effectively suppressed gliomagenesis in these glioma zebrafish models, and the histological responses in temozolomide-treated zebrafish were similar to those observed in clinically treated glioma patients. Thus, our findings will offer a potential tool for genetically investigating gliomagenesis and screening potential targeted anti-tumour compounds for glioma treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940501PMC
March 2021

PRMT1 Modulates Processing of Asthma-Related Primary MicroRNAs (Pri-miRNAs) into Mature miRNAs in Lung Epithelial Cells.

J Immunol 2021 01 25;206(1):11-22. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Pneumology and Pulmonary Cell Research, Department of Biomedicine, University Hospital Basel, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland; and.

Protein arginine methyltransferase-1 (PRMT1) is an important epigenetic regulator of cell function and contributes to inflammation and remodeling in asthma in a cell type-specific manner. Disease-specific expression patterns of microRNAs (miRNA) are associated with chronic inflammatory lung diseases, including asthma. The de novo synthesis of miRNA depends on the transcription of primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcript. This study assessed the role of PRMT1 on pri-miRNA to mature miRNA process in lung epithelial cells. Human airway epithelial cells, BEAS-2B, were transfected with the PRMT1 expression plasmid pcDNA3.1-PRMT1 for 48 h. Expression profiles of miRNA were determined by small RNA deep sequencing. Comparing these miRNAs with datasets of microarrays from five asthma patients (Gene Expression Omnibus dataset), 12 miRNAs were identified that related to PRMT1 overexpression and to asthma. The overexpression or knockdown of PRMT1 modulated the expression of the asthma-related miRNAs and their pri-miRNAs. Coimmunoprecipitation showed that PRMT1 formed a complex with STAT1 or RUNX1 and thus acted as a coactivator, stimulating the transcription of pri-miRNAs. Stimulation with TGF-β1 promoted the interaction of PRMT1 with STAT1 or RUNX1, thereby upregulating the transcription of two miRNAs: let-7i and miR-423. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that the binding of the PRMT1/STAT1 or PRMT1/RUNX1 coactivators to primary let-7i (pri-let-7i) and primary miR (pri-miR) 423 promoter was critical for pri-let-7i and pri-miR-423 transcription. This study describes a novel role of PRMT1 as a coactivator for STAT1 or RUNX1, which is essential for the transcription of pri-let-7i and pri-miR-423 in epithelial cells and might be relevant to epithelium dysfunction in asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000887DOI Listing
January 2021

feeding of vitamin C regulates splenic development through purine nucleotide metabolism and induction of apoptosis in broiler chickens.

Br J Nutr 2021 Sep 23;126(5):652-662. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, People's Republic of China.

Nutrition in early life has a long-term influence on later health. In order to the explore effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of vitamin C on splenic development, splenic metabolism and apoptosis were detected in embryo, adult chickens and in vitro. A total of 360 fertile eggs were selected and randomly assigned to control (CON) and vitamin C (VC) groups which were injected with saline and vitamin C on embryonic day 11, respectively. Functional enrichment of differentially expressed genes by transcriptome on embryonic day 19 suggested that purine nucleotide metabolism might be a potential pathway for the IOF of vitamin C to regulate spleen development. Additionally, the IOF of vitamin C significantly increased splenic vitamin C content on post-hatch day 21. Meanwhile, the splenic expression of adenosine deaminase, serine/threonine kinase 1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen was down-regulated, whereas the expression of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 9 was up-regulated in the VC group. On post-hatch day 42, the IOF of vitamin C significantly down-regulated the splenic expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 and increased the mRNA level of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase 9. The IOF of vitamin C could regulate the expression of genes related to adenylate metabolism and increased the apoptosis rate in vitro, which is consistent with the result in vivo. In conclusion, the IOF of vitamin C regulated splenic development and maturation by affecting purine nucleotide metabolism pathway and promoting apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520004717DOI Listing
September 2021

Cadmium accumulation and physiological response of Amaranthus tricolor L. under soil and atmospheric stresses.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 17;28(11):14041-14053. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Geography, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 32306, USA.

In this study, cadmium (Cd) solution spraying and Cd-contaminated soil pot experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of Cd from atmospheric deposition and soil on the growth, cumulative distribution, chemical morphology, physiological, and biochemical responses of Amaranthus tricolor L. The results indicated that Cd in plants mainly came from soil (92-98%) and was stored in the roots in large quantities while the portion from atmospheric deposition could also effectively increase Cd content in stems and leaves (2-3%). Cd was mainly stored in plant cell walls and would transfer to the soluble part under high-concentration soil stress Cd from atmospheric deposition alone promoted the growth of plants, but high Cd concentrations from soil had the negative influence. The contents of HO and MDA in plants increased under soil and atmospheric Cd stress, indicating that the plant cells were damaged by oxidative stress. The content of antioxidant enzymes such as POD, CAT, SOD, and antioxidants like AsA and GSH increased under low-concentration Cd stress but decreased under elevated stress, suggesting that high Cd-contaminated soil poses severe toxicity on the antioxidant system of the plants. Hence, the accumulation and physiological response of plants under multi-source Cd contamination were mainly affected by high soil Cd concentrations. Though the effect of atmospheric deposition is relatively less, it cannot be ignored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11569-3DOI Listing
March 2021

Multiple graphs learning with a new weighted tensor nuclear norm.

Neural Netw 2021 Jan 20;133:57-68. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks, Xidian University, Xi'an, China.

As an effective convex relaxation of the rank minimization model, the tensor nuclear norm minimization based multi-view clustering methods have been attracting more and more interest in recent years. However, most existing clustering methods regularize each singular value equally, restricting their capability and flexibility in tackling many practical problems, where the singular values should be treated differently. To address this problem, we propose a novel weighted tensor nuclear norm minimization (WTNNM) based method for multi-view spectral clustering. Specifically, we firstly calculate a set of transition probability matrices from different views, and construct a 3-order tensor whose lateral slices are composed of probability matrices. Secondly, we learn a latent high-order transition probability matrix by using our proposed weighted tensor nuclear norm, which directly considers the prior knowledge of singular values. Finally, clustering is performed on the learned transition probability matrix, which well characterizes both the complementary information and high-order information embedded in multi-view data. An efficient optimization algorithm is designed to solve the optimal solution. Extensive experiments on five benchmarks demonstrate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2020.10.010DOI Listing
January 2021
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