Publications by authors named "Xiaojun Shi"

100 Publications

Mitigating phosphorus pollution from detergents in the surface waters of China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 4;804:150125. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Interdisciplinary Research Center for Agriculture Green Development in Yangtze River Basin, College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Tiansheng Road 02, Chongqing 400715, China. Electronic address:

Phosphorus (P) from detergents contributes to water pollution and eutrophication. Understanding the impacts of detergent use on P inputs to surface waters and their main drivers is vital for supporting Sustainable Development Goals on clean water. This study aims to quantify past and future trends in P inputs to surface waters from detergent use in China. We modify the Model to Assess River Input of Nutrient to seAs (MARINA) model to assess the effects of past policies and explore options for the future on mitigating detergents P losses in China. The total consumption of detergents tripled from 2000 to 2018. However, P inputs to surface waters from detergent use decreased by 35% during these years. Although P losses vary across regions, most losses occurred in rural areas. Clearly, the P-free detergent policy which was initiated in the year 2000 has been effective. Without this policy, the detergent P losses would likely have increased fourfold during 2000-2018. In the future, detergent P inputs to surface waters in China may be further reduced to very low levels (95% reduction relative to 2018) by a combination of completely P-free detergents, an increasing urbanized population connected to sewage systems, and improving P removal in sewage treatment systems. Our results enhance the understanding of P pollution in surface waters from detergents and, illustrate the effectiveness of measures to control detergent P losses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150125DOI Listing
September 2021

Association of Hypertension with Knee Pain Severity Among People with Knee Osteoarthritis.

Pain Manag Nurs 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

University of Pittsburgh School of Nursing, 3500 Victoria Street, Room 415, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To examine the association of hypertension with knee pain severity in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Design: Cross-sectional study of baseline data collected by the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

Methods: Participants with knee OA (N=1,363) were categorized into four groups based on blood pressure (BP): 1) systolic < 120 mm HG and diastolic < 80 mm Hg; 2) 120 ≤ systolic < 130 mm Hg and diastolic < 80 mm Hg; 3) 130 ≤ systolic < 140 mm Hg or 80 ≤ diastolic < 90 mm Hg; 4) systolic ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic ≥ 90 mm Hg. OA knee pain severity was measured by Pain subscale of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index in the past 48 hours, Pain subscale of Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) in the past 7 days, and numeric rating scale (NRS) in the past 30 days. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between hypertension and knee pain severity.

Results: Compared with the normal BP group, individuals with stage 2 hypertension reported significantly higher OA knee pain severity by KOOS in the past 7 days (β=-2.05 [95% CI -4.09, -0.01], p=0.049) and by NRS in the past 30 days (β=0.31 [95% CI 0.01, 0.62], p=0.045) after adjustments for demographic and medical factors.

Conclusions: Hypertension was associated with higher OA knee pain severity in individuals with knee OA.

Clinical Implications: Nurses can recommend adjunctive non-pharmacological treatments and adherence strategies to help control hypertension, which may help decrease OA knee pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmn.2021.08.002DOI Listing
August 2021

Role of the CXCR3‑mediated TLRs/MyD88 signaling pathway in promoting the development of hepatitis B into cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Oct 26;24(4). Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Acute Infection, Hwa Mei Hospital, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315010, P.R. China.

Chronic hepatitis B can lead to liver cirrhosis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma. The present study aimed to investigate whether C‑X‑C motif chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) regulates the genes in Toll‑like receptors (TLRs)/myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway in the development of hepatitis B into cirrhosis and liver cancer . A hepatitis B virus (HBV) overexpression lentivirus was constructed and infected into a LX‑2 cell line to obtain stable HBV‑overexpressing cells (named HBV‑LX‑2 cells). The CXCR3 gene was knocked down using small interfering RNA in HBV‑LX‑2 cells. Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays, cell scratch tests and flow cytometry were used to detect cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis, respectively. The levels of IL‑1β and IL‑6 in serum samples of patients with liver cancer were measured via ELISA, and the collagen content in liver cancer tissues was detected using Masson staining. Western blotting was used to detect the expression levels of proteins in the TLRs/MyD88 signaling pathway. Excessive fibrosis was identified in the liver cancer tissues, and the serum levels of IL‑6 and IL‑1β were abnormally increased in patients with liver cancer. It was found that interfering with CXCR3 inhibited cell proliferation and migration, as well as promoted the apoptosis of HBV‑LX‑2 cells. Moreover, interfering with CXCR3 inhibited the expression levels of collagen type I α 1 chain and the proteins in the TLRs/MyD88 pathway. In conclusion, CXCR3 knockdown could inhibit the expression levels of proteins in the TLR4/MyD88 signaling pathway, decrease cell proliferation and migration, and promote cell apoptosis, thus inhibiting the development of liver cirrhosis to liver cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8404096PMC
October 2021

Efficacy and safety of the Chinese herbal formula Hewei Jiangni recipe for NERD with cold-heat complex syndrome: study protocol for a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Aug 18;22(1):545. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Gastroenterology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, No. 6 fangxingyuan Fengtai District, Beijing, 100078, China.

Background: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is effective for the treatment of nonerosive gastroesophageal reflux (NERD), but long-term use of PPI is prone to have complications and recurrence after withdrawal. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can relieve the symptoms of reflux and improve the quality of life. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Hewei Jiangni recipe (HWJNR) in the treatment of NERD with cold-heat complex syndrome, and clarify the mechanism of HWJNR on NERD based on the correlation analysis of intestinal flora and metabolites.

Methods: This is a single-center, randomized controlled, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which 72 eligible participants with NERD and TCM syndrome of intermingled heat and cold will be randomly allocated in the ratio of 1:1 to two groups: TCM group and western medicine group. The TCM group will receive HWJNR with omeprazole enteric-coated tablets placebo, while the western medicine group will receive omeprazole enteric-coated tablets with HWJNR placebo. Each group will be treated for 8 weeks. The primary outcome is the score of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) health-related quality of life questionnaire (GERD-Q). Secondary outcomes include SF-36 quality of life scale (SF-36), patient-reported outcomes (PRO) self-rating scale score, syndrome score of TCM, and adverse events. Mechanistic outcome is the correlation analysis of intestinal flora and metabolites from healthy individuals and NERD participants before and after the treatment respectively.

Discussion: The goal of this trial is to investigate the efficacy and safety of HWJNR in the treatment of NERD with cold-heat complex syndrome, and to study the composition structure and metabolite expression profile of intestinal flora in patients with NERD through 16SrRNA sequencing and metabolomic correlation analysis of fecal flora, which makes us identify the dominant links of treatment and reveal the potential mechanism of HWJNR. ChiCTR2000041225 . Registered on 22 December 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05471-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371854PMC
August 2021

Involvement of a FAD-linked oxidase RSc0454 for expression of the type III secretion system and pathogenicity in Ralstonia solanacearum.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 Aug 10. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Southwest University, 26463, College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing, China, Chongqing, Sichuan, China.

Ralstonia solanacearum RSc0454 is predicated as a FAD-linked oxidase based on protein homologies, while containing distinct domains of LDH and SDH. Current study demonstrates RSc0454 exhibits LDH activity and is essential for pathogenicity. Here, we characterized involvement of RSc0454 on bacterial growth and expression of the T3SS in R. solanacearum. RSc0454 mutant grew normally in rich medium but grew faintly in host plants, and failed to grow in minimal medium. Supplementary succinate, but not lactate, substantially restored some phenotypes of RSc0454 mutants, including faint growth in plants, diminished growth in minimal medium, and lost pathogenicity. The T3SS Expression is directly controlled by a master regulator HrpB, and HrpG and PrhG positively regulate hrpB expression in parallel ways. Deletion of RSc0454 substantially reduced expression levels of hrpB and T3SS both in vitro and in planta. Moreover, RSc0454 is revealed to be required for the T3SS expression via HrpG and PrhG, but through novel pathway, and impaired expression of these genes was not due to growth deficiency of RSc0454 mutants. RSc0454 is suggested to be important for redox balance inside cells and supplementary NADH partially restored diminished growth of RSc0454 mutant in minimal medium at presence of succinate at some moderate concentrations, indicating that unbalanced redox in RSc0454 mutant might be responsible for its no growth in minimal medium. All taken together, these results provide novel insights into understanding of various biological functions of this FAD-linked oxidase RSc0454 and involvement of the redox balance on expression of the T3SS in R. solanacearum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-07-21-0168-SCDOI Listing
August 2021

Dietary supplementation with N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched fish oil promotes wound healing after ultraviolet B-induced sunburn in mice.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 17;9(7):3693-3700. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery Department of Wound Repair Shenzhen Institute of Translational Medicine The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center Shenzhen Second People's Hospital Shenzhen China.

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can alleviate ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin cancers, but their effects on sunburn and upcoming wound healing remain controversial. This study aimed to explore the impact of n-3 PUFA-enriched fish oil (n-3 PUFA-FO) on UVB-induced sunburns and subsequent healing. Sixty C57BL/6 female mice were divided into two groups. The treated group mice were fed n-3 PUFA-FO for the entire duration of the experiment. Mice in the control group were fed a standard diet. After two weeks of n-3 PUFA-FO feeding, mice were exposed to UVB for 20 min and sacrificed 20 d later. Skin photodamage and lesion area were recorded during wound healing. Epidermal lesion thickness was quantified in hematoxylin and eosin-stained skin sections. Inflammation and macrophage polarization were assessed by qRT-PCR. Oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity were quantified using specific ELISA kits. N-3 PUFA-FO feeding decreased UVB photodamage and accelerated wound healing progression, both of which were coupled with less intense inflammation and increased macrophage M2 phenotype polarization. Furthermore, n-3 PUFA-FO brought about a decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels but increased the activity of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GP), without changing superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. N-3 PUFA-FO protects against UVB-induced skin photodamage and promotes wound healing by modulating macrophage phenotypic polarization and antioxidant enzyme activities. N-3 PUFA-FO could be a novel therapeutic approach for both the prevention and treatment of sunburns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269668PMC
July 2021

Silver decorated cobalt carbonate to enable high bifunctional activity for oxygen electrocatalysis and rechargeable Zn-air batteries.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jun 18;603:252-258. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Faculty of Materials Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China; Zhejiang Institute, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Hangzhou 311305, China. Electronic address:

Rechargeable zinc-air batteries (ZABs) is primarily driven by the couple of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Currently,it is still challenging to develop cost-effective, highly efficient, and robust bifunctional catalysts for ZABs. Herein, a novel silver decorated cobalt carbonate ([email protected]) hybrid catalyst is proposed as the potential bifunctional catalyst to drive OER and ORR for ZABs. Engineering Ag nanoparticles onto the surface of CoCO microsphere not only facilitates the charge transfer, but also modulates the electronic structure, which are beneficial to intrinsic bifunctional activity. As a result, this [email protected] catalyst yields a substantially enhanced bifunctionality compared to the pristine CoCO catalyst. Moreover, the homemade [email protected] based ZABs provides a high peak power density of 146 mW cm, superior to 107 mW cm for CoCO based ZABs and 111 mW cm for commercial Pt/C-IrO based ZABs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.06.094DOI Listing
June 2021

Soil type shapes the antibiotic resistome profiles of long-term manured soil.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 27;786:147361. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China. Electronic address:

Animal manure fertilization facilitates the proliferation and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil, posing high risks to humans and ecosystem health. Although studies suggest that soil types could shape the ARG profiles in greenhouse soil, there is still a lack of comparative studies on the fate of ARGs in different types of manured soils under field trials. Thus, a metagenomic approach was used to decipher the fate of ARGs in 12-year long-term fertilized (inorganic fertilizer, compost manure and a mix of them) acidic, near-neutral and alkaline soils. A total of 408 unique ARG subtypes with multidrug, glycopeptide, beta-lactam and aminoglycoside resistance genes were identified as the most universal ARG types in all soil samples. Genes conferred to beta-lactam was the predominant ARG type in all the manure-amended soils. Genomic and statistical analyses showed that manure application caused the enrichment of 98 and 91 ARG subtypes in acidic and near-neutral soils, respectively, and 8 ARG subtypes in alkaline soil. The abundances of Proteobacteria (acidic and near-neutral soils) and Actinobacteria (alkaline soil), which are the potential hosts of ARGs, were clearly increased in manured soils. Random forest modelling and Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the soil properties (pH and bio-available Zn) and mobile genetic elements had considerable impacts on the transmission of ARGs. A structural equation model further indicated that soil types shaped the ARG profiles by significantly (P < 0.01) influencing the soil properties, bacterial abundance and bacterial diversity, where bacterial abundance was the major factor influencing the ARG profiles. This study systematically explored the mechanisms shaping the ARG profiles of long-term manured soils, and this information could support strategies to manage the dissemination of ARGs in different soil types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147361DOI Listing
September 2021

Sequential administration of anti-PD-1 and anti-Tim-3 combined with an SA-GM-CSF-anchored vaccine overcomes adaptive immune resistance to reject established bladder cancer.

J Cancer 2021 2;12(7):2000-2009. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Program death receptor-1 (PD-1) and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein-3 (Tim-3) play an important role in tumor immune evasion. PD-1 blockade could produce an effective anti-tumor effect but the response rate was low due to lacking of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and existing of other negative regulatory pathways. Streptavidin(SA)-GM-CSF surface-anchored tumor cells vaccine could induce specific anti-tumor immune response. However, this vaccine failed to induce regression of established tumor because it also up-regulated PD-1 expression on tumor cells dependent on IFNγ and up-regulated PD-1/Tim-3 expression on CD8 TILs. Subsets of CD8 TILs assay showed that PD-1 expression was closely associated with CD8 TILs exhaustion, and Tim-3 expression was closely correlated with secretion function but not proliferation of CD8 TILs. Sequential administration of anti-PD-1 and anti-Tim-3 could further improve the efficacy of SA-GM-CSF-anchored vaccine therapy, and tumor regression was noted in over 50%. This triple therapy improves the specific cytotoxic activity and decreased the apoptosis of CD8 TILs. These findings indicated that this triple therapy could induce a more robust anti-tumor immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.44769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7974521PMC
February 2021

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of (Asteraceae), an endemic desert species in Northern China.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Oct 9;5(3):3545-3546. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Grassland Resources and Ecology and Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Western Arid Region Grassland Resources and Ecology, College of Grassland and Environment Sciences, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urümqi, People's Republic of China.

, a monotypic genus of the Asteraceae, is an endemic desert species in Northern China. However, information on the chloroplast (cp) genome of this species is limited. In this study, we present the complete chloroplast genome sequence of obtained by high-throughput nextgeneration sequencing technology. The whole cp genome was 151017 bp long and comprised 133 genes, including 88 proteincoding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes. The cp genome had a GC content of 37.35%. Phylogenetic tree revealed that was closely related to the taxa in the genus and . Our results would be helpful for species identification and promote our understanding of the phylogeny of within the Asteraceae family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1829127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783050PMC
October 2020

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of an invasive plant (Solanaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jan 14;5(1):626-628. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Grassland Resources and Ecology and Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Western Arid Region Grassland Resources and Ecology, College of Grassland and Environment Sciences, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urümqi, People's Republic of China.

is native to Neotropics and southwestern United States and considered as an invasive plant in Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. However, information on the chloroplast (cp) genome of this species is limited. In this study, we present the complete chloroplast genome sequence of obtained by high-throughput nextgeneration sequencing technology. The whole cp genome was 155,559 bp long and comprised 130 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and eight rRNA genes. The cp genome had a GC content of 37.76%. Based on the concatenated coding sequences of cp PCGs, phylogenetic analysis showed that Phylogenetic tree revealed that and are closely related to each other within the genus
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1714506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748722PMC
January 2020

Insomnia and Daily Function in Older Adults With Asthma.

J Gerontol Nurs 2020 Nov;46(11):28-36

The current study examined the prevalence of insomnia and its relationship with daily function in older adults with asthma. Data on 278 older adults with asthma (aged ≥60 years) from the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Insomnia was present in 40% of the study sample and was associated with a greater number of activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) limitations. In multivariate analyses accounting for covariates including depressive symptoms, insomnia was not associated with having at least two ADL/IADL limitations. However, those with co-occurring insomnia and depressive symptoms were more likely to have at least two ADL/IADL limitations compared to those with either condition singly. Insomnia in the presence of depressive symptoms may impede one's ability to perform ADL/IADL. Current findings suggest that assessment and treatment of insomnia and depression in older adults with asthma may be important for maintaining active, independent living. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 46(11), 28-36.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/00989134-20201012-04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830685PMC
November 2020

Older adults' social network and support and its association with physical activity.

Geriatr Nurs 2021 Mar-Apr;42(2):517-523. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

University of Pittsburgh, School of Nursing, 3500 Victoria Street Room 415, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

The purpose of this study was to describe older adults' social network and support during a physical activity intervention and its association with physical activity. Mixed methods were used for this secondary analysis of existing data from a physical activity intervention. Seventy-three participants who completed a session by telephone on using support comprised the sample. Participants reported on average approximately eight individuals in their social network. Half reported support for physical activity from a spouse/partner, adult child, or friend. Those who perceived support for self-reported physical activity tended to have greater improvements on average from baseline for mean daily minutes of physical activity than those with no perceived support. Four-fifths developed a plan for a spouse/partner, friend, adult child, or sibling to provide physical activity support. Participants reported that the session was helpful and increased their confidence in using support; over one-quarter intended to use support after the intervention ended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2020.09.006DOI Listing
October 2020

Mesenchymal stem cell exosomes reverse acute lung injury through Nrf-2/ARE and NF-B signaling pathways.

PeerJ 2020 18;8:e9928. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Shanghai University of Medicine & Health Sciences Affiliated Zhoupu Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with histopathological diffuse alveolar damage. The potential role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the treatment of various clinical disorders have been widely documented, such as those for ALI. Recent evidence has demonstrated that exosomes from endothelial progenitor cells can improve outcomes of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. However, there has been no research on the potential role of MSC-exosomes in the treatment of sepsis-induced ALI, which is worth further exploration. Thus, the objective of our study was to identify whether the MSC-exosomes could reverse ALI. The ALI model induced by LPS was established in this study. MTT assay was performed to test cell proliferation. Expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10) in the LPS-treated type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) (MLE-12) was detected by ELISA. After co-culture of MSC-exosomes with LPS-treated MLE-12 cells, we found that the cell proliferation of MLE-12 cells gradually increased. Furthermore, we selected five of the Nrf-2/ARE- and NF-κB signaling pathway-related genes to explore if MSC-exosomes could reverse LPS-induced ALI through Nrf-2/ARE and NF-κB signaling pathways. QRT-PCR and western blot experiment results showed that the expression of these five genes were significantly regulated after stimulation with high-concentration LPS and exosome intervention. Taken together, these findings highlighted the fact that MSC-exosomes could reverse ALI through the Nrf-2/ARE and NF-κB signaling pathways. The MSC-exosome may be the potential future therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ALI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7505076PMC
September 2020

[Correlation of plasma N-acetyl-neuraminic acid level with TIMI risk stratification and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2020 Sep;40(9):1253-1258

Department of Cardiovascular Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu 233004, China.

Objective: To explore the correlation of plasma N-acetyl-neuraminic acid level with Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score and clinical outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Methods: We consecutively enrolled 708 consecutive patients (401 male and 307 female, mean age 63.6±10.6 years) undergoing coronary angiography in our hospital between October, 2018 and July, 2019, including 597 patients with ACS and 111 without ACS (control group). The patients with ACS group were divided into high (=104), moderate (=425) and low (=68) risk groups according to their TIMI risk scores. All the participants were examined for plasma Neu5Ac level using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and underwent coronary angiography with their Gensini scores calculated. The patients with ACS were followed up after discharge for a mean of 15 months for the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (Mace). Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors of Mace in these patients.

Results: Plasma Neu5Ac levels were significantly higher in ACS group than in the control group ( < 0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that plasma Neu5Ac level could assist in the diagnosis of ACS (0.648 [0.597-0.699]) with a sensitivity of 39.2% and a specificity of 86.5% at the cutoff value of 288.50 ng/mL. In the ACS patients, plasma Neu5Ac level was significantly higher in the high-risk group than in the moderate-risk and low-risk groups ( < 0.05) and could assist in the diagnosis of a high risk (0.645 [0.588-0.703]) with a sensitivity of 42.3% and a specificity of 80.1% at the cutoff value of 327.50 ng/ mL. Plasma Neu5Ac was positively correlated with age, serum uric acid, creatinine, lipoprotein a, Ddimer, C-reactive protein, MB isoform of creatine kinase and Gensini score and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein level. During the followup, 80 ACS patients experienced Mace, who had significantly higher plasma Neu5Ac level than those without Mace (=517). Logistic regression analysis showed that plasma Neu5Ac level and a history of previous stroke were independent risk factors for the occurrence of Mace.

Conclusions: Plasma Neu5Ac level can provide assistance in the diagnosis and risk stratification of ACS and is an independent risk factor for prognosis of ACS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2020.09.05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7544578PMC
September 2020

Global direct nitrous oxide emissions from the bioenergy crop sugarcane (Saccharum spp. inter-specific hybrids).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 20;752:141795. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Interdisciplinary Research Center for Agriculture Green Development in Yangtze River Basin, College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China; Center for Resources, Environment and Food Security, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China. Electronic address:

Sugarcane is the second largest bioenergy crop in the world and it accounts for 80% of global sugar production. Grown mostly in wet and warm tropics with relatively high nitrogen (N) fertiliser input and crop residue retention, sugarcane production is a significant source of nitrous oxide (NO) emission. Yet, a global evaluation of research on NO emission from sugarcane crop is lacking. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis using data from 141 measurements compiled from 15 sugarcane field studies reported from different countries to i) quantify NO emissions and emission factors (EFs) globally, and for tropics and sub-tropics, and ii) identify the key factors that promote NO emission. Our analysis shows that the global mean total NO emission from sugarcane production reached 2.26 (CI: 1.93-2.62) kg NO-N ha yr with an estimated EF of 1.21% (CI: 0.971-1.46%). NO emissions increased exponentially with increase in N fertiliser rate, questioning the adequacy of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) default EF value (1%) for sugarcane NO emission estimation. Mean total NO emissions and EFs in tropics and sub-tropics did not vary significantly. Supplementing synthetic N fertiliser (SN) with organic amendments (OA) significantly increased mean NO emission (~1.4-fold) and EF (~2.5-fold) compared to SN. A remarkable reduction in NO emission (38.6%) and EF (61.5%) was evident when enhanced efficiency fertilisers (EEF) replaced SN. In contrast, crop residue removal had little impact on NO emission and EF, but both parameters showed an upward trend with irrigation and increased rainfall. Soil carbon content and pH were emerged as key regulators of sugarcane NO emission and EF. It is concluded that global sugarcane NO emission could be significant and that there is considerable prospect for mitigating the emission through innovative nutrient formulations and precision agriculture that help meet crop nutrient demand without compromising environmental imperatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141795DOI Listing
January 2021

Modeling the Contribution of Crops to Nitrogen Pollution in the Yangtze River.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 10 11;54(19):11929-11939. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Tiansheng Road 02, Chongqing 400715, China.

Agriculture contributes considerably to nitrogen (N) inputs to the world's rivers. In this study, we aim to improve our understanding of the contribution of different crops to N inputs to rivers. To this end, we developed a new model system by linking the MARINA 2.0 (Model to Assess River Input of Nutrient to seAs) and WOFOST (WOrld FOod STudy) models. We applied this linked model system to the Yangtze as an illustrative example. The N inputs to crops in the Yangtze River basin showed large spatial variability. Our results indicate that approximately 6,000 Gg of N entered all rivers of the Yangtze basin from crop production as dissolved inorganic N (DIN) in 2012. Half of this amount is from the production of single rice, wheat, and vegetables, where synthetic fertilizers were largely applied. In general, animal manure contributes 12% to total DIN inputs to rivers. Three-quarters of manure-related DIN in rivers are from vegetable, fruit, and potato production. The contributions of crops to river pollution differ among sub-basins. For example, potato is an important source of DIN in rivers of some upstream sub-basins. Our results may help to prioritize the dominant crop sources for management to mitigate N pollution in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c01333DOI Listing
October 2020

Impacts of nitrogen fertilizer type and application rate on soil acidification rate under a wheat-maize double cropping system.

J Environ Manage 2020 Sep 14;270:110888. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, the Netherlands; Alterra-Wageningen UR, Soil Science Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer-induced soil acidification in Chinese croplands is well-known, but insight in the impacts of different N fertilizer management approaches (fertilizer type and rate) on soil acidification rates is very limited. Here, we conducted a field experiment on a moderate acid soil to quantify soil acidification rates in response to N fertilization by different fertilizer types and N rates through monitoring the fate of elements (mainly nutrients) related to H production and consumption. Two N fertilizer types (urea and NHCl) and three N rates (control, optimized and conventional, 0/120/240 kg N ha for wheat, 0/160/320 kg N ha for maize) were included. Nitrogen addition led to an average H production of 4.0, 8.7, 11.4, 29.7 and 52.6 keq ha yr, respectively, for the control, optimized urea, conventional urea, optimized NHCl and conventional NHCl plots. This was accompanied with a decline in soil base saturation of 1-10% and in soil pH of 0.1-0.7 units in the topsoil (0-20 cm). Removal of base cations by crop harvesting and N transformations contributed ~70% and ~20% to the H production in the urea treated plots, being ~20% and ~75% in the NHCl treated plots, respectively. The large NH input via fertilization in the NHCl treated plots strongly enhanced the H production induced by N transformations. The low contribution of N transformations to the H production in the urea treated plots was due to the limited NO leaching, induced by the high N losses to air caused by denitrification. Increased N addition by urea, however, strongly increased H production by enhanced plant uptake of base cations, mainly due to a large potassium uptake in straw. Our results highlight the important role of optimizing fertilizer form and N rate as well as straw return to the field in alleviating soil acidification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110888DOI Listing
September 2020

Response of grafting tobacco to low potassium stress.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Jun 22;20(1):286. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400716, China.

Background: In the previous study, we investigated the alleviation effect of grafting on potassium uptake in roots and tobacco growth inhibition under low potassium stress. However, the effect of grafting on the low potassium stress perception and coping mechanism of tobacco at the whole plant level is not clear now. In order to clearly understand the impact of grafting on potassium deficit responding mechanism in tobacco, a mutual grafting experiment has been conducted in two varieties of tobacco ('Wufeng No.2' and 'Yunyan 87') in different K supply level (5 mmol L and 0.5 mmol L K).

Results: The results show that compared with the self-rooted seedlings, grafting significantly increased the potassium content of the whole plant of Yunyan 87 (97.57 and 189.74% under normal potassium and low potassium conditions, respectively), and the increase in shoots was greater. The data of whole plant K content distribution and tobacco hypocotyls net K flux demonstrates that potassium stress makes plants more inclined to maintain K in the shoot rather than root. In addition, when K deficiency occurs, grafting could reduce the time required for downward net K flux in tobacco hypocotyl to decrease to stable levels. The results of net K flux in the roots indicated that K channel proteins and transporters play different roles in two rootstocks in terms of potassium tolerance. Transcription level analysis suggested that the increased circulating efficiency of K between the shoots and roots in tobacco constitutes one means to low potassium stress adaptation.

Conclusions: Grafting can activate more K channels in tobacco 'Yunyan 87', this means a more active K cycle, higher potassium content in shoot and faster response to low potassium stress signals in grafting tobacco. In addition, grafting can also change the K absorption mode of tobacco root from being dominated by HATS to being jointly responsible by HATS and LATS, greatly improving the ability of K transmembrane transportation on root surface under low potassium stress. These are undoubtedly the reasons why grafting tobacco performs better in coping with low potassium stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02481-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310080PMC
June 2020

Prognostic and predictive value of immune/stromal-related gene biomarkers in renal cell carcinoma.

Oncol Lett 2020 Jul 24;20(1):308-316. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510000, P.R. China.

Immune/stromal-associated genes may be promising biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and the determination of clinical cancer treatment options. The aim of the present study was to identify prognostic stromal/immune-associated genes in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). RCC gene expression data (885 cases) were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Immune/stromal scores were calculated by using the ESTIMATE package in R. Immune/stromal scores were significantly associated with Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage, clinical stage and overall survival rate (P<0.05). There were 419 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) based on immune scores and 738 DEGs based on stromal scores. Among these DEGs, 406 DEGs based on stromal scores and 252 DEGs based on immune scores were significantly associated with overall survival rate (P<0.05). The biological functions of these DEGs were primarily enriched in the 'immune response' and 'regulation of cell migration and proliferation'. These DEGs were observed in a protein-protein interaction network. A LASSO Cox regression model was used to build a prognostic 6 gene-based classifier, including the IL21R, ATP6V1C2, GBP1, P2RY10, GBP4 and TNNC2 genes [area under the curve (AUC) =0.776]. The predictive model which combined this classifier with clinical prognostic factors had a high accuracy in predicting patient survival in RCC (combined AUC =0.899). Taken together, these results demonstrated that there are significant associations between immune/stromal scores and clinicopathological staging. A set of tumor microenvironment-associated genes that have powerful prognostic value in patients with RCC were identified in the present study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285855PMC
July 2020

The effects of Alisol B 23-acetate in hepatocellular carcinoma via inducing cell apoptosis and inhibiting cell migration and invasion.

Gen Physiol Biophys 2020 May;39(3):219-228

Department of Liver Oncology, HwaMei Hospital, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiangbei District, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China.

Alisol B 23-acetate (AB23A) is a natural triterpenoid isolated from Chinese herbal medicine and has a variety of biological functions, especially anti-cancer effects. However, the effects and mechanisms of AB23A in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. Cell viability, invasion and migration were measured by MTT, Transwell and wound healing assays, respectively. To detect cell cycle and apoptosis, a flow cytometry assay was used. Tumor xenograft experiment was performed to measure tumor growth. The enzymatic assay was used to determine the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3/-9, MMP-2/-9 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting assays. AB23A suppressed cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, blocked cell cycle, and induced apoptosis via up-regulating Bax, Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, and down-regulating Bcl-2 in HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, AB23A inhibited cell invasion and migration through down-regulating MMP-2/-9 activities. The effects of AB23A might be associated with the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in HCC cells. Taken together, the present data demonstrated that AB23A might play a role in suppressing the progression of HCC, revealing the value of AB23A for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment in clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4149/gpb_2020005DOI Listing
May 2020

Antitumor efficacy of interferon-γ-modified exosomal vaccine in prostate cancer.

Prostate 2020 08 19;80(11):811-823. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Exosomes secreted by tumor cells can be regarded as carriers of tumor-associated antigens and have potential value in tumor immunotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of a novel exosomal vaccine (interferon-γ [IFN-γ]-modified exosomal vaccine) in prostate cancer.

Methods: Prostate cancer cell-derived exosomes were used to prepare the exosomal vaccine using our protein-anchoring technique. The immunogenicity and therapeutic efficacy of the exosomes was evaluated by measuring the effects of the exosomal vaccine on M1 macrophage differentiation, the ability of macrophages to engulf the exosomes, the production of antibodies against exosomes, and tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, and tumor growth.

Results: The IFN-γ fusion protein was efficiently anchored on the surface of prostate cancer cell-derived exosomes and retained its bioactivity. The IFN-γ-exosomal vaccine increased the number of M1 macrophages, enhanced the ability of M1 macrophages to engulf RM-1 cell-derived exosomes, and induced the production of specific antibodies against exosomes. The exosomal vaccine downregulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and attenuated the effect of exosomes in promoting tumor metastasis. The proportions of CD4 , CD8 , and IFN-γ CD8 T cells in the exosomal vaccine group were the highest among the four groups. Interestingly, the IFN-γ-exosomal vaccine decreased the percentage of Tregs and downregulated the expression of programed death-ligand 1 and indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase 1 in the tumor environment. The exosomal vaccine significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival time of mice with prostate cancer. The exosomal and tumor cell vaccines had a good synergistic effect in promoting tumor immunity.

Conclusions: The novel exosomal vaccine induced an immune response that cleared prostate cancer cell-derived exosomes, thereby eliminating the regulatory effect of the exosomes. This study may provide experimental evidence for the use of exosomes as a therapeutic tool or target in immunotherapy for human prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23996DOI Listing
August 2020

Associations of sleep duration with patient-reported outcomes and health care use in US adults with asthma.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2020 09 7;125(3):319-324. Epub 2020 May 7.

School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background: Asthma contributes to considerable morbidity and health care utilization in adults. Insufficient and excessive sleep duration have known adverse effects on health. Little is known regarding the effect of sleep duration on health outcomes in adults with asthma.

Objective: To examine associations between sleep duration, patient-reported outcomes, and health care use in adults with asthma from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Methods: Cross-sectional data from the 2007 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Asthma was identified by self-report. Habitual hours of sleep duration were categorized as short (≤5), normal (6-8), and long (≥9). Multivariate regression analyses were used to examine the associations between sleep duration and patient-reported outcomes and health care use.

Results: Of the 1389 adults with asthma, 26% reported short sleep duration, 66% reported normal sleep duration, and 8% reported long sleep duration. Those with short sleep duration had increased asthma attacks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-2.21), coughing (aOR 1.95; 95% CI 1.32-2.87), and overnight hospitalizations (aOR 2.14; 95% CI 1.37-3.36) compared with those having normal sleep duration. They also reported worse health-related quality of life, including days of poor physical health, mental health, and inactivity because of poor health (P values < .05). Those with long sleep had more activity limitations because of wheezing compared with those with normal sleep (aOR 1.82; 95% CI 1.13-2.91).

Conclusion: Compared with adults having asthma and normal sleep duration, those having short sleep duration experience more frequent asthma attacks, increased health care use, and worse health-related quality of life, whereas those with long sleep duration experience more frequent activity limitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2020.04.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830707PMC
September 2020

Functional Characterization of RsRsgA for Ribosome Biosynthesis and Expression of the Type III Secretion System in .

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2020 Jul 1;33(7):972-981. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Faculty of Agriculture and Marine Science, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan.

RsgA plays an important role in maturation of 30S subunit in many bacteria that assists in the release of RbfA from the 30S subunit during a late stage of ribosome biosynthesis. Here, we genetically characterized functional roles of RsgA in , hereafter designated RsRsgA. Deletion of or resulted in distinct deficiency of 16S ribosomal RNA, significantly slowed growth in broth medium, and diminished growth in nutrient-limited medium, which are similar as phenotypes of mutants and mutants of and other bacteria. Our gene-expression studies revealed that RsRsgA is important for expression of genes encoding the type III secretion system (T3SS) (a pathogenicity determinant of ) both in vitro and in planta. Compared with the wild-type strain, proliferation of the and mutants in tobacco leaves was significantly impaired, while they failed to migrate into tobacco xylem vessels from infiltrated leaves, and hence, these two mutants failed to cause any bacterial wilt disease in tobacco plants. It was further revealed that expression was highly enhanced under nutrient-limited conditions compared with that in broth medium and RsRsgA affects T3SS expression through the PrhN-PrhG-HrpB pathway. Moreover, expression of a subset of type III effectors was substantially impaired in the mutant, some of which are responsible for GMI1000 elicitation of a hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco leaves, while RsRsgA is not required for HR elicitation of GMI1000 in tobacco leaves. All these results provide novel insights into understanding various biological functions of RsgA proteins and complex regulation on the T3SS in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-10-19-0294-RDOI Listing
July 2020

Resolving Membrane Protein-Protein Interactions in Live Cells with Pulsed Interleaved Excitation Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Spectroscopy.

Acc Chem Res 2020 04 31;53(4):792-799. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Chemistry, University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 44325, United States.

The cell plasma membrane (PM) contains thousands of proteins that sense and respond to the outside environment. These proteins have evolved sensitivity to a wide variety of physical and chemical signals and act as a delivery system across the PM. Membrane proteins are critical for information flow and decision making in the cell and thus are important targets in drug development. A critical aspect of membrane protein function is the way they interact with other proteins, often through the formation of dimers or small oligomers that regulate function at the protein, cell, and organism levels. Resolving membrane protein interactions in a live cell environment is challenging because of the chemical diversity and spatial heterogeneity of the PM. In this Account, we describe a fluorescence technique called pulsed interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS) that is ideally suited to quantify membrane associations in live cells. PIE-FCCS is a two-color fluorescence fluctuation method that can simultaneously measure the concentration, mobility, proximity, and oligomerization state of membrane proteins in situ. It has several advantages over two related approaches, single-molecule tracking (SMT) and Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), including that it measures all of the properties listed above in a single measurement. Another advantage is that PIE-FCCS is most sensitive at the physiological expression levels for many membrane proteins rather than the very low or high levels typical in other techniques. Here, we review the history of FCCS as it has been applied to study membrane protein interactions in cells. We also describe PIE-FCCS and the advantages it has over biochemical approaches like coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) and proximity ligation assays (PLA). Finally, we review two classes of membrane proteins that have been studied with FCCS and PIE-FCCS: receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). For RTKs, ligand induced dimerization directly regulates the catalytic activity of the kinase, but higher order oligomerization and ligand-independent dimerization can complicate this historically simple paradigm. PIE-FCCS data have resolved a low population of EGFR dimers under basal conditions and assembly into multimers when stimulated with ligand. While GPCRs function primarily as monomers, dimerization has been hypothesized to regulate function for some receptors. PIE-FCCS data have established the dimerization potential of rhodopsin at low densities and were critical for the discovery of a novel dimerization interface in human cone opsins. This Account describes the how FCCS and PIE-FCCS can reveal the details of quaternary interactions in each of these receptor systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.9b00625DOI Listing
April 2020

Expression of Ralstonia solanacearum type III secretion system is dependent on a novel type 4 pili (T4P) assembly protein (TapV) but is T4P independent.

Mol Plant Pathol 2020 06 20;21(6):777-793. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Research Institute of Molecular Genetics, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan.

Type IV pili (T4P) are virulence factors in various pathogenic bacteria of animals and plants that play important roles in twitching motility, swimming motility, biofilm formation, and adhesion to host cells. Here, we genetically characterized functional roles of a putative T4P assembly protein TapV (Rsc1986 in reference strain GMI1000) and its homologue Rsp0189, which shares 58% amino acid identity with TapV, in Ralstonia solanacearum. Deletion of tapV, but not rsp0189, resulted in significantly impaired twitching motility, swimming motility, and adhesion to tomato roots, which are consistent as phenotypes of the pilA mutant (a known R. solanacearum T4P-deficient mutant). However, unlike the pilA mutant, the tapV mutant produced more biofilm than the wild-type strain. Our gene expression studies revealed that TapV, but not Rsp0189, is important for expression of a type III secretion system (T3SS, a pathogenicity determinant of R. solanacearum) both in vitro and in planta, but it is T4P independent. We further revealed that TapV affected the T3SS expression via the PhcA-TapV-PrhG-HrpB pathway, consistent with previous reports that PhcA positively regulates expression of pilA and prhG. Moreover, deletion of tapV, but not rsp0189, significantly impaired the ability to migrate into and colonize xylem vessels of host plants, but there was no alteration in intercellular proliferation of R. solanacearum in tobacco leaves, which is similar to the pilA mutant. The tapV mutant showed significantly impaired virulence in host plants. This is the first report on the impact of T4P components on the T3SS, providing novel insights into our understanding of various biological functions of T4P and the complex regulatory pathway of T3SS in R. solanacearum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.12930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214476PMC
June 2020

A comparative study on the short-term clinical efficacy of the modified laparoscopic uterine comminution technique and traditional methods.

Mol Clin Oncol 2020 Mar 21;12(3):237-243. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Assisted Reproduction Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310016, P.R. China.

To assess the value of the modified laparoscopic uterine comminution technique in laparoscopic uterine surgery, a total of 82 cases of laparoscopic myomectomy were divided into the traditional group and modified group, according to a random number table. During the same period, 92 patients who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy were divided into the conventional group and the modified group, according to a random number table. The patients in the conventional group and modified group who underwent laparoscopic uterine fibroid removal showed no significant differences in the operation time, blood loss or average hospitalization (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in the operative time or average length of hospital stay between patients in the conventional group and modified group who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy (P>0.05). In laparoscopic myomectomy, the fibroid specimens were placed in a self-made specimen bag for modified uterine comminution. In laparoscopic hysterectomy, the whole uterus specimen was placed in a self-made specimen bag and viewed from the vagina. The improved comminution technique is simple and feasible, does not increase the operation time or length of hospitalization, and has value for clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2020.1982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7016613PMC
March 2020

Two forms of Opa1 cooperate to complete fusion of the mitochondrial inner-membrane.

Elife 2020 01 10;9. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, United States.

Mitochondrial membrane dynamics is a cellular rheostat that relates metabolic function and organelle morphology. Using an in vitro reconstitution system, we describe a mechanism for how mitochondrial inner-membrane fusion is regulated by the ratio of two forms of Opa1. We found that the long-form of Opa1 (l-Opa1) is sufficient for membrane docking, hemifusion and low levels of content release. However, stoichiometric levels of the processed, short form of Opa1 (s-Opa1) work together with l-Opa1 to mediate efficient and fast membrane pore opening. Additionally, we found that excess levels of s-Opa1 inhibit fusion activity, as seen under conditions of altered proteostasis. These observations describe a mechanism for gating membrane fusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.50973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299343PMC
January 2020

Partial implant retention in two-stage exchange for chronic infected total hip arthroplasty.

Int Orthop 2020 03 4;44(3):461-469. Epub 2020 Jan 4.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37 Guo-xue Lane, Chengdu, China.

Background: The efficacy of partial retention of well-fixed components during two-stage exchange for chronic total hip arthroplasty (THA) infection has remained unknown.

Methods: A total of 14 patients with chronic infected THA were treated with damage control two-stage revision, including selective retention of the well-fixed femoral or acetabular component, aggressive debridement, antibiotic-laden cement spacer, antibiotic therapy, and delayed reimplantation. Indications for this treatment included chronic infected THAs with ingrown femoral or acetabular component and positive microbial growth with sensitive antibiotics. We excluded patients with acute infection; negative microbial growth; positive pathogen with high-virulence bacterial infections and multiple drug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, fungi, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis; sinus formation; a prior failure for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) treatment; and obvious bone resorption in both femoral and acetabulum side. During the study period, this represented 3.3% (14/425) of the patients treated for infected THA. Minimum follow-up was three  years. None of the 14 patients in this series were lost to follow-up. Successful treatment was defined according to a modified Delphi-based international multidisciplinary consensus.

Results: No repeated debridement and recurrence of infection occurred during the study period; no patient need chronic antibiotic suppression. Successful treatment of chronic PJI was achieved in all patients. Despite the high peri-operative complication rate, no severe consequences were observed. The mean Harris Hip Score was 86 (range, 82-92; SD, 3.3).

Conclusions: The selective partial implant retention two-stage revision for chronic PJI may be a treatment option in properly selected patients with low virulence bugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-019-04473-0DOI Listing
March 2020

Investigating the anatomical relationship between the maxillary molars and the sinus floor in a Chinese population using cone-beam computed tomography.

BMC Oral Health 2019 12 16;19(1):282. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Department of Stomatology, Shanghai Fifth People's Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Background: The anatomical relationship between the root apices of maxillary molars and the maxillary sinus floor (MSF) is important for the treatment of dental implantations and endodontic procedures. In this study, the detailed anatomical relationships between the root apices of maxillary molars and the MSF were studied in a Chinese population using CBCT.

Methods: We collected the CBCT data files of patients who visited the stomatology outpatient clinic in Shanghai Fifth People's Hospital, Fudan University from January 1, 2017 to January 1, 2019 and measured the following items: the distance between the molar root apices and the MSF, the thickness of the mucosa and cortical bone of the MSF closest to the root apices, and the angle between the buccal and palatal roots.

Results: The shortest distances between the root apices and the MSF were 1.57 ± 3.33 mm (the mesiobuccal root of the left second molar) and 1.61 ± 3.37 mm (the mesiobuccal root of the right second molar). Apical protrusion over the inferior wall of the sinus most often occurred in the mesiobuccal root of left second molar (frequency, 20.5%). The mucosa of the MSF was thinnest at the distobuccal root of the right second molar (1.52 ± 0.85 mm), the cortical bone of the MSF was thinnest at the mesiobuccal root of the right second molar (0.46 ± 0.28 mm), and the angle between the buccal and palatal roots ranged from 12.01° to 124.2° (42.36 ± 24.33 °).

Conclusions: Among the root apices of the maxillary molars, the mesiobuccal root apex of the left second molar was closest to the MSF, and it had the highest incidence of protrusion into the sinus. The unique anatomical relationship between the maxillary molars and the MSF in this Chinese population is critical for treatment planning for dental implantation or endodontic procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-019-0969-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6915992PMC
December 2019
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