Publications by authors named "Xiaojuan Liu"

317 Publications

Berberine administrated with different routes attenuates inhaled LPS-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome through TLR4/NF-κB and JAK2/STAT3 inhibition.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jul 17;908:174349. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Pharmaceutical Research Center, Xiamen Medicine Research Institute, Xiamen, 361008, Fujian province, PR China.

Accumulating evidence showed that berberine possessed the anti-inflammatory action in various diseases caused by inflammation. However, it was still unclear whether both inhalation and injection with berberine produced pulmonary protective role in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of both administration routes including inhalation and injection with berberine in ARDS induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation. Histopathological examination and weight of lung were evaluated. Phosphorylation of NF-κB, JAK2 and STAT3 were measured to assess the activity of inflammation related signaling pathways. Proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were also detected. The results showed that LPS caused the lung injury, while both administration routes with berberine attenuated the injury and improved the pulmonary morphology. In addition, the primary TLR4/NF-κB and secondary JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways which were activated by LPS in lung were totally inhibited by berberine administration. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokines in both BALF and serum were decreased by berberine. Considering that molecular docking simulation indicated that berberine could bind with TLR4, the present suggested that the inhibition of the inflammation related TLR4/NF-κB and JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways might be involved in the pulmonary protective effect of berberine in LPS-induced ARDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2021.174349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285933PMC
July 2021

Transcriptome and physiological analyses provide insights into the leaf epicuticular wax accumulation mechanism in yellowhorn.

Hortic Res 2021 Jun 1;8(1):134. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, 100091, Beijing, China.

Plantations and production of yellowhorn, one of the most important woody oil and urban greening trees widely cultivated in northern China, have gradually become limited by drought stress. The epicuticular wax layer plays a key role in the protection of yellowhorn trees from drought and other stresses. However, there is no research on the mechanism of wax loading in yellowhorn trees. In this study, we investigated the anatomical and physiological characteristics of leaves from different germplasm resources and different parts of the same tree and compared their cuticle properties. In addition, the different expression patterns of genes involved in wax accumulation were analyzed, and a coexpression network was built based on transcriptome sequencing data. Morphological and physiological comparisons found that the sun leaves from the outer part of the crown had thicker epicuticular wax, which altered the permeability and improved the drought resistance of leaves, than did shade leaves. Based on transcriptome data, a total of 3008 and 1324 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the sun leaves and shade leaves in glossy- and non-glossy-type germplasm resources, respectively. We identified 138 DEGs involved in wax biosynthesis and transport, including structural genes (such as LACS8, ECH1, and ns-LTP) and transcription factors (such as MYB, WRKY, and bHLH transcription factor family proteins). The coexpression network showed a strong correlation between these DEGs. The differences in gene expression patterns between G- and NG-type germplasm resources under different light conditions were very clear. These results not only provide a theoretical basis for screening and developing drought-resistant yellowhorn germplasm resources but also provide a data platform to reveal the wax accumulation process of yellowhorn leaves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00564-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167135PMC
June 2021

Geniposide alleviates choroidal neovascularization by downregulating HB-EGF release from RPE cells by downregulating the miR-145-5p/NF-κB axis.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Jul 19;208:108624. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), mainly wet AMD, is the major reason for nonreversible vision loss worldwide. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a characteristic pathological manifestation of wet AMD. Stress or injury to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) induces proangiogenic factors that drive CNV. An iridoid glycoside extracted from the fruit of gardenia, geniposide (GEN) plays an antiangiogenic role. In this study, GEN inhibited the transcription and expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF), a proangiogenic factor, in hypoxic RPE cells and a mouse laser-induced CNV model. Inhibition of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), a GEN receptor blocker, eliminated the protective effect of GEN. Additionally, GEN decreased the transcription and expression of HB-EGF in hypoxia-exposed RPE cells by downregulating the miR-145-5p/NF-κB axis. Therefore, our research provides a promising novel strategy for wet AMD therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2021.108624DOI Listing
July 2021

Identification of T Cell Epitopes in the Spike Glycoprotein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Rhesus Macaques.

J Immunol 2021 06 12;206(11):2527-2535. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, China;

The T cell response is an important detection index in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine development. The present study was undertaken to determine the T cell epitopes in the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 that dominate the T cell responses in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. PBMCs from rhesus macaques vaccinated with a DNA vaccine encoding the full-length S protein were isolated, and an ELISPOT assay was used to identify the recognized T cell epitopes among a total of 158 18-mer and 10-aa-overlapping peptides spanning the full-length S protein. Six multipeptide-based epitopes located in the S1 region, with four of the six located in the receptor-binding domain, were defined as the most frequently recognized epitopes in macaques. The conservation of the epitopes across species was also verified, and peptide mixtures for T cell response detection were established. Six newly defined T cell epitopes were found in the current study, which may provide a novel potential target for T cell response detection and the diagnosis and vaccine design of SARS-CoV-2 based on multipeptide subunit-based epitopes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000922DOI Listing
June 2021

Effectively Promoting Activity and Stability of a MnCoO-Based Cathode by Constructed Heterointerfaces for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 12;13(20):24329-24340. Epub 2021 May 12.

State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, China.

The development of multiphase composite electrocatalysts plays a key role in achieving the efficient and durable operation of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Herein, a self-assembled nanocomposite is developed as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst for IT-SOFCs through a coprecipitation method. The nanocomposite is composed of a doped (MnMg)ScCoO (MMSCO) spinel oxide (84 wt %), an orthorhombic perovskite phase (11.3 wt %, the spontaneous combination of PrO additives and spinel), and a minor ScO phase (4.7 wt %). The surface of the (MnMg)ScCoO phase is activated by the self-assembled nanocoating with many heterogeneous interfaces. Thence, the ORR kinetics is obviously accelerated and an area-specific resistance (ASR) of ∼0.11 Ω cm is obtained at 750 °C. Moreover, a single cell with the cathode shows a peak power density (PPD) of 1144.1 mW cm at 750 °C, much higher than that of the cell with the MnCoO cathode (456.2 mW cm). An enhanced stability of ∼120 h (0.8 A cm, 750 °C) is also achieved, related to the reduced thermal expansion coefficient (13.9 × 10 K). The improvement in ORR kinetics and stability can be attributed to the refinement of grains, the formation of heterointerfaces, and the enhancement of mechanical compatibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c06757DOI Listing
May 2021

Single Co Atoms Implanted into N-Doped Hollow Carbon Nanoshells with Non-Planar Co-N-1-O Sites for Efficient Oxygen Electrochemistry.

Inorg Chem 2021 May 6;60(10):7498-7509. Epub 2021 May 6.

State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022 Jilin, P. R. China.

Facile synthesis of cost-effective carbon-supported Co single atoms (Co-SAs) exhibits huge potential applications in energy storage and conversion devices. We here report the implantation of Co-SAs into hollow carbon spheres (Co-SAs-HCS) via a facile wet-chemistry strategy followed by controlled pyrolysis. Electron-rich histidine acted as a Lewis base effectively immobilizing Co (Lewis acid) via the electrostatic effect and hydrogen bonds, thus achieving the scalable synthesis of Co-SAs-HCS. We constructed a series of histidine-Co structure models to elucidate the formation of histidine-Co complexes by analyzing their binding energy. X-ray absorption fine-structure results verify that central Co atoms with four N coordination atoms possess a non-planar Co-N structure. Electrochemical results indicate that the as-prepared Co-SAs-HCS catalyst shows a low potential difference (0.809 V) between the oxygen evolution reaction potential at 10 mA cm and the oxygen reduction reaction half-wave potential, outperforming the commercial Pt/C catalysts (0.996 V). Moreover, an assembled Zn-air battery based on Co-SAs-HCS exhibits an unexpected long-term durability. We have demonstrated that non-planar Co-N-1-O sites are the source for highly efficient adsorption and dissociation of O molecules and then reduction of the free energy of desorption of the intermediates by density functional theory. Our findings provide a new design insight into the exploration of advanced electrocatalysts, which will be applied in the design of green energy devices in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00824DOI Listing
May 2021

Environmental factors shape the epiphytic bacterial communities of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 21;11(1):8671. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute of Marine Sciences, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology and STU-UNIVPM Joint Algal Research Center, College of Science, Shantou University, Shantou, China.

Macroalgae host various symbionts on their surface, which play a critical role in their growth and development processes. However, there is still incomplete understanding of this epiphytic bacteria-host algae interactions. This study comprehensively analysed variation of the epiphytic bacterial communities (EBC) composition of red macroalga Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis at different geographic locations and environmental factors (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus), which shape the EBC composition of G. lemaneiformis. The composition and structure of EBC were characterized using high throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results revealed that epiphytic bacteria varied significantly among three different geographic locations in China, i.e., Nan'ao Island (NA), Lianjiang County (LJ), and Nanri Island (NR). Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, and Epsilonbacteraeota at NR were strongly positively correlated with total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), nitrate nitrogen (NO-N), and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), but negatively correlated with nitrite nitrogen (NO-N). The relative abundance of Cyanobacteria at NA and LJ were strongly positively correlated with NO-N, but negatively correlated with TN, TP, NO-N, and DIN. Besides, the Mantel test results indicated that the EBC composition was significantly correlated with these environmental factors, which was also confirmed by Spearman correlation analysis. Thus, environmental factors such as NO-N and DIN play a key role in the community composition of epiphytic bacteria on G. lemaneiformis. This study provides important baseline knowledge on the community composition of epiphytic bacteria on G. lemaneiformis and shows correlation between different epiphytic bacteria and their surrounding environmental factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87977-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060329PMC
April 2021

Association of human papillomavirus genotype distribution and cervical cytology: a cross-sectional study.

Epidemiol Infect 2021 04 12;149:e95. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Health Policy & Hospital Management, Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

The present study attempted to analyse human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution and its association with cervical cytology results in women in western China. The present retrospective analysis was performed in 1089 female outpatients with a positive HPV test result who had undergone a cervical cytology test at the gynaecological clinic, West China Second Hospital, Sichuan University, China, between January 2014 and December 2016. Of the 1089 patients with HPV infection, multiple HPV genotypes were detected in 220 patients (20.20%). Among the 1368 HPV genotypes detected, 1145 (83.70%) were high-risk subtypes. The most common genotypes were HPV-52 (18.64%), HPV-16 (16.59%), HPV-58 (13.23%), HPV-18 (6.80%), HPV-56 (5.56%) and HPV-59 (5.56%). Cervical cytology revealed abnormal cells in 430 (39.49%) patients. The most common diagnoses were atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US; 236 cases, 54.88%), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL; 151 cases, 35.12%), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL; 63 cases, 14.65%) and atypical glandular cells (AGC; 21 cases, 4.88%). HPV-66 was significantly associated (P = 0.037) with ASC; HPV-52 and HPV-56 were significantly associated with LSIL (P = 0.009 and 0.026, respectively); HPV-16 (P < 0.001), HPV-33 (P = 0.014) and HPV-58 (P = 0.003) were significantly associated with HSIL; and HPV-16 (P = 0.005) was significantly associated with AGC. HPV-16, HPV-52 and HPV-58 are associated with different diagnoses in patients with positive cervical cytological findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0950268821000741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8080181PMC
April 2021

HLA-DPB1 alleles in hepatitis B vaccine response: A meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e24904

Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Second University Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan.

Background: The role of the HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 genes in the antibody response to hepatitis B (HB) vaccine has been well established; however, the involvement of the HLA-DPB1 allele in the HB vaccine immune response remained to be clarified by a systematic review.

Methods: A meta-analysis was performed in which databases were searched for relevant studies published in English or Chinese up until June 1, 2020. Six studies were identified and a total of 10 alleles were processed into statistical processing in this meta-analysis.

Results: Three thousand one hundred forty four subjects (including 2477 responders and 667 non-responders) were included in this research. Alleles HLA-DPB1∗02:02, DPB1∗03:01, DPB1∗04:01, DPB1∗04:02, and DPB1∗14:01 were found to be associated with a significant increase in the antibody response to HB vaccine, and their pooled odds ratios (ORs) were 4.53, 1.57, 3.33, 4.20, and 1.79, respectively; whereas DPB1∗05:01 (OR = 0.73) showed the opposite correlation.

Conclusions: These findings suggested that specific HLA-DPB1 alleles are associated with the antibody response to HB vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036076PMC
April 2021

Knockout of Auxin Response Factor SlARF4 Improves Tomato Resistance to Water Deficit.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 25;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop Biology and Germplasm Innovation in South China, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Horticulture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China.

Auxin response factors (ARFs) play important roles in various plant physiological processes; however, knowledge of the exact role of ARFs in plant responses to water deficit is limited. In this study, SlARF4, a member of the ARF family, was functionally characterized under water deficit. Real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and -glucuronidase (GUS) staining showed that water deficit and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment reduced the expression of . was expressed in the vascular bundles and guard cells of tomato stomata. Loss of function of SlARF4 () by using Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas 9 (CRISPR/Cas 9) technology enhanced plant resistance to water stress and rehydration ability. The mutant plants exhibited curly leaves and a thick stem. Malondialdehyde content was significantly lower in mutants than in wildtype plants under water stress; furthermore, mutants showed higher content of antioxidant substances, superoxide dismutase, actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII), and catalase activities. Stomatal and vascular bundle morphology was changed in mutants. We identified 628 differentially expressed genes specifically expressed under water deficit in mutants; six of these genes, including ABA signaling pathway-related genes, were differentially expressed between the wildtype and mutants under water deficit and unlimited water supply. Auxin responsive element (AuxRE) elements were found in these genes' promoters indicating that SlARF4 participates in ABA signaling pathways by regulating the expression of and , thereby influencing stomatal morphology and vascular bundle development and ultimately improving plant resistance to water deficit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037468PMC
March 2021

CSF1/CSF1R-mediated Crosstalk Between Choroidal Vascular Endothelial Cells and Macrophages Promotes Choroidal Neovascularization.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Mar;62(3):37

Department of Pathogen Biology, Medical College, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu, China.

Purpose: This study examined the role of the CSF1/CSF1Raxis in the crosstalk between choroidal vascular endothelial cells (CVECs) and macrophages during the formation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV).

Methods: Quantitative reverse transcriptase (QRT)-PCR, Western blot and ELISA measured the production and release of CSF1 from human choroidal vascular endothelial cells (HCVECs) under hypoxic conditions. Western blot detected CSF1 released from HCVECs under hypoxic conditions that activated the PI3K/AKT/FOXO1 axis in human macrophages via binding to CSF1R. Transwell migration assay, qRT-PCR, and Western blot detected the effect of CSF1 released from HCVECs on macrophage migration and M2 polarization via the CSF1R/PI3K/AKT/FOXO1 pathway. Incorporation of 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine, transwell migration, and tube formation assays detected the effects of CSF1/CSF1R on the behaviors of HCVECs. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and immunofluorescence detected the effect of blockade of CSF1/CSF1R on mouse laser-induced CNV. Color fundus photograph, ICGA, and FFA detected CNV lesions in neovascular AMD (nAMD) patients. ELISA detected CSF1 and CSF1R in the aqueous humor of age-related cataract and nAMD patients.

Results: CSF1 released from HCVECs under hypoxic conditions activated the PI3K/AKT/FOXO1 axis in human macrophages via binding to CSF1R, promoting macrophage migration and M2 polarization via up-regulation of the CSF1R/PI3K/AKT/FOXO1 pathway. Human macrophages promoted the proliferation, migration, and tube formation of HCVECs in a CSF1/CSFR1-dependent manner under hypoxic conditions. CSF1/CSF1R blockade ameliorated the formation of mouse laser-induced CNV. CSF1 and CSF1R were increased in the aqueous humor of nAMD patients.

Conclusions: Our results affirmed the crucial role of CSF1/CSF1R in boosting the formation of CNV and offered potential molecular targets for the treatment of nAMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.3.37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995352PMC
March 2021

FcRn is not the receptor mediating the transfer of serum IgG to colostrum in pigs.

Immunology 2021 Aug 15;163(4):448-459. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

In contrast to humans or rabbits, in which maternal IgG is transmitted to offspring prenatally via the placenta or the yolk sac, large domestic animals such as pigs, cows and sheep transmit IgG exclusively through colostrum feeding after delivery. The extremely high IgG content in colostrum is absorbed by newborns via the small intestine. Although it is widely accepted that the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, is the receptor mediating IgG transfer across both the placenta and small intestine, it remains unclear whether FcRn also mediates serum IgG transfer across the mammary barrier to colostrum/milk, especially in large domestic animals. In this study, using a FcRn knockout pig model generated with a CRISPR-Cas9-based approach, we clearly demonstrate that FcRn is not responsible for the IgG transfer from serum to colostrum in pigs, although like in other mammals, it is involved in IgG homeostasis and mediates IgG absorption in the small intestine of newborns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8274153PMC
August 2021

Variation and expression of HLA-DPB1 gene in HBV infection.

Immunogenetics 2021 Jun 12;73(3):253-261. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Clinical Blood Transfusion Research Center, Institute of Blood Transfusion, CAMS & PUMC, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects approximately 68 million people in China, and 10-15% of adults infected with HBV develop chronic hepatitis B, liver cirrhosis, liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HLA-DPB1 gene polymorphism and expression have been shown to be associated with HBV infection susceptibility and spontaneous clearance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of HLA-DPB1 gene polymorphism in HBV infection. HLA-DPB1 and rs9277535 polymorphisms were investigated in 259 patients with HBV infection and 442 healthy controls (HCs) using sequence-based typing. The mRNA of HLA-DPB1 was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. HLA-DPB1 genes and rs9277535 polymorphisms were all associated with HBV infection in the Sichuan Han population. rs9277535A and HLA-DPB1*04:02 played a protective role against HBV infection. rs9277535G and DPB1*05:01 were associated with susceptibility to HBV infection. rs9277535GG had significantly higher HLA-DPB1 mRNA expression in the HBV infection group compared with the HC group. HLA-DPB1*05:01 and HLA-DPB1*21:01 had significantly lower mRNA expression in the HBV infection group compared with the HC group. The meta-analysis revealed that HLA-DPB1*02:01, HLA-DPB1*02:02, HAL-DPB1*04:01 and HLA-DPB1*04:02 protected against HBV infection, while HLA-DPB1*05:01, HLA-DPB1*09:01, and HLA-DPB1*13:01 were risk factors for susceptibility to HBV infection. HLA-DPB1*02:01, HLA-DPB1*02:02, and HLA-DPB1*04:01 were associated with HBV spontaneous clearance, while HLA-DPB1*05:01 was associated with chronic HBV infection. HLA-DPB1 alleles and rs9277535 have a major effect on the risk of HBV infection, and HBV infection is associated with lower HLA-DPB1 expression. HLA-DPB1 alleles have an important role in HBV susceptibility and spontaneous clearance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00251-021-01213-wDOI Listing
June 2021

In vitro and in vivo study of the enhancement of carotenoid bioavailability in vegetables using excipient nanoemulsions: Impact of lipid content.

Food Res Int 2021 03 21;141:110162. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods, College of Food Science, Guangzhou 510642, China; Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Guangzhou 510642, China. Electronic address:

The impact of lipid content of excipient nanoemulsions on the bioavailability of carotenoids from spinach was assessed using a combination of in vitro and in vivo digestion models. Alterations in the particle size, charge, microstructure, and lipid digestion were monitored as the spinach-nanoemulsion mixtures passed through the digestive tract. There was an increase in both bioaccessibility (19.2% > 14.4% > 7.5% > 3.1%) and bioavailability (106.7 > 39.6 ≈ 35.3 > 15.0 ng/mL) of carotenoids with increasing lipid content (1.0, 0.6, 0.2, 0 g), which attributed to higher transfer efficiency of the carotenoids from spinach to fat droplets and mixed micelles in increasing lipid content. The polarity of carotenoids also had an important impact: the bioavailability of lutein was significantly higher than that of β-carotene. Our findings show the importance of selecting an appropriate lipid content of reduced-fat emulsion-based foods to enhance the oral bioavailability of co-ingested hydrophobic nutraceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110162DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of Vitamin D and Vitamin D Receptor on Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases in Children and Adolescents with Obesity in Sichuan, China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Ann Nutr Metab 2020 24;76(6):396-404. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China,

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated the close relationship between vitamin D, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and obesity. Nevertheless, few studies have reported wherther the relationship among these is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Chinese children and adolescents.

Objective: The present study aimed to reveal the effects of obesity, serum vitamin D levels, and VDR FokI genotype on the risk of CVDs in children and adolescents in Sichuan, China.

Methods: Children and adolescents were recruited into a cross-sectional study. Serum vitamin D levels, serum lipid levels, and VDR FokI gene polymorphisms were measured in the laboratory. The selected lipid factors were used as biomarkers of CVD risk. The impact of obesity, vitamin D levels and VDR FokI genotype on CVD risk factors were investigated.

Results: Higher lipid levels were observed in children and adolescents in the obese group, when compared to the nonobese group. In the obese group, the C allele carriers had significantly lower concentrations of lipids, when compared to the TT genotype. C allele carriers who were vitamin D deficient had lower levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B), total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C), and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C), when compared to those with the TT genotype in obese children and adolescents. For vitamin D-insufficient obese children and adolescents, the TC, Apo-B, and TC/HDL-C in the C allele carriers were significantly lower, when compared to those in the TT genotype in obese children and adolescents.

Conclusion: Obese children with low vitamin D levels, who are carriers of the C allele of the FokI gene, have lower levels of several biochemical markers of CVD risk, when compared to those who were TT homozygous. Obese children and adolescents may benefit from vitamin D supplementation, terms of lowering their CVD risk, particularly when they are carriers of the C allele of the FokI gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513287DOI Listing
February 2021

Human Intestinal Organoids Recapitulate Enteric Infections of Enterovirus and Coronavirus.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 03 12;16(3):493-504. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China; Department of Microbiology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 102 Pokfulam Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Enteroviruses, such as EV-A71 and CVA16, mainly infect the human gastrointestinal tract. Human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, have been variably associated with gastrointestinal symptoms. We aimed to optimize the human intestinal organoids and hypothesize that these optimized intestinal organoids can recapitulate enteric infections of enterovirus and coronavirus. We demonstrate that the optimized human intestinal organoids enable better simulation of the native human intestinal epithelium, and that they are significantly more susceptible to EV-A71 than CVA16. Higher replication of EV-A71 than CVA16 in the intestinal organoids triggers a more vigorous cellular response. However, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 exhibit distinct dynamics of virus-host interaction; more robust propagation of SARS-CoV triggers minimal cellular response, whereas, SARS-CoV-2 exhibits lower replication capacity but elicits a moderate cellular response. Taken together, the disparate profile of the virus-host interaction of enteroviruses and coronaviruses in human intestinal organoids may unravel the cellular basis of the distinct pathogenicity of these viral pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940440PMC
March 2021

Effect of economic growth on environmental quality: Evidence from tropical countries with different income levels.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 10;774:145180. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Geography, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, PR China. Electronic address:

The growth of the economy in the tropics is faster than that in the rest of the world. However, whether this growth can have impacts on the environmental quality in the tropics is still a question. Here, we first introduce the terrestrial carbon sequestration capacity as an environmental indicator and then investigate the relationships between gross domestic product per capita, sectoral economies, and the terrestrial carbon sequestration capacity for different income countries in the tropics from 1995 to 2018. By using panel models, we find that there exists a significantly negative effect of the growth of gross domestic product per capita on terrestrial carbon sequestration capacity in the full panel and at low-income and lower middle-income levels but not at the upper middle-income level. The sectoral economies have different effects on the terrestrial carbon sequestration capacity at different income levels. Interestingly, the industrial sector dominates the degradation of the terrestrial carbon sequestration capacity in the lower middle-income countries; the agricultural sector exerts a significantly negative impact on the terrestrial carbon sequestration capacity at the low-income and upper middle-income levels, but largely offset by the growth of the service sector. These findings suggest that the balance between economic development and the natural environment is required for economic sustainability in the tropics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145180DOI Listing
June 2021

A novel DNA and protein combination COVID-19 vaccine formulation provides full protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Dec;10(1):342-355

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, People's Republic of China.

The current study aims to develop a safe and highly immunogenic COVID-19 vaccine. The novel combination of a DNA vaccine encoding the full-length Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 and a recombinant S1 protein vaccine induced high level neutralizing antibody and T cell immune responses in both small and large animal models. More significantly, the co-delivery of DNA and protein components at the same time elicited full protection against intratracheal challenge of SARS-CoV-2 viruses in immunized rhesus macaques. As both DNA and protein vaccines have been proven safe in previous human studies, and DNA vaccines are capable of eliciting germinal center B cell development, which is critical for high-affinity memory B cell responses, the DNA and protein co-delivery vaccine approach has great potential to serve as a safe and effective approach to develop COVID-19 vaccines that provide long-term protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2021.1887767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928010PMC
December 2021

"On water" nano-CuO-catalyzed CO-free one-pot multicomponent cascade cyanation-annulation-aminolysis reaction toward phthalimides.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 03;19(8):1738-1743

Key Laboratory of Organo-pharmaceutical Chemistry of Jiangxi Province, Gannan Normal University, Ganzhou, 341000, China.

An efficient nano-Cu2O-catalyzed cascade multicomponent reaction of 2-halobenzoic acids and trimethylsilyl cyanide with diverse amines was developed using water as a solvent, affording versatile N-substituted phthalimide derivatives in moderate to excellent yields. This novel strategy features carbon monoxide gas-free, environmentally benign, one-pot multistep transformation, commercially available reagents, a cheap catalyst without any additives, wide functional group tolerance, and operational convenience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1ob00073jDOI Listing
March 2021

Various half-metallic nodal loops in organic CrNC monolayers.

Nanoscale 2021 Feb 2;13(5):3161-3172. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Key Laboratory of Computational Physical Sciences (MOE) & Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Topological nodal-line semimetals, as a type of exotic quantum electronic state, have drawn considerable research interest recently. In this work, we propose a new two-dimensional covalent-organic CrNC monolayer (ML) material, which has a combined honeycomb and effective Kagome lattice and has various half-metallic nodal loops (HMNLs). First-principles calculations show that the CrNC ML is dynamically and thermally stable and has an out-of-plane ferromagnetic order. Remarkably, various nodal loops, including types I-III, are found coexisting in the material, all of which are rare half-metallic states. The obtained HMNLs, simultaneously possessing the merits of spintronics and semimetals, are robust against spin-orbit coupling and biaxial strain. A topological phase transition, characterized by loop-winding indexes, can be induced in the ML by applying uniaxial strain. Tight-binding model calculations show that the obtained HMNLs originate primarily from the band inversion between Cr d and N p orbitals, accommodated on the honeycomb and Kagome sublattices, respectively. The various predicted HMNLs and topological behaviors mean that the CrNC MLs have promisingly versatile applications in future low-power-consuming spintronics and electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr07485cDOI Listing
February 2021

Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mediated Protein Quality Control and Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Pathway Explain the Reduction of N-glycoprotein Level Under the Lead Stress.

Front Plant Sci 2020 13;11:598552. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology, STU-UNIVPM Joint Algal Research Center, College of Sciences, Institute of Marine Sciences, Shantou University, Shantou, China.

Different anthropogenic activities result in the continuous increase of metal lead (Pb) in the environment and adversely affect living organisms. Therefore, it is important to investigate the tolerance mechanism in a model organism. is an important green eukaryotic model microalga for studying different kinds of biological questions. In this study, the responses of were revealed via a comprehensive approach, including physiological, genomic, transcriptomic, glycomic, and bioinformatic techniques. Physiological results showed that the growth rate and soluble protein content were significantly reduced under the high lead stress. Also, the results obtained from the genomic and transcriptomic analyses presented that the endoplasmic reticulum-mediated protein quality control (ERQC) system and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway were activated under the third day of high lead stress. The unique upregulated protein disulfide isomerase genes on the ERQC system were proposed to be important for the protein level and protein quality control. The accumulation of specific N-glycans indicated that specific N-glycosylation of proteins might alter the biological functions of proteins to alleviate the Pb stress in alga and/or lead to the degradation of incomplete/misfolded proteins. At the same time, it was observed that genes involved in each process of ERAD were upregulated, suggesting that the ERAD pathway was activated to assist the degradation of incomplete/misfolded proteins. Therefore, it is reasonable to speculate that the reduction of protein level under the high lead stress was related to the activated ERQC system and QRAD pathway. Our findings will provide a solid and reliable foundation and a proposed ERAD working model for further in-depth study of the ERQC system and ERAD pathway under the Pb stress and even other biotic and abiotic stresses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.598552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838096PMC
January 2021

Melatonin attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation of Müller cells in diabetic retinopathy via activating the Sirt1 pathway.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 29;137:111274. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Ophthalmology, Lixiang Eye Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress and inflammation are important pathogenic factors of diabetic retinopathy (DR). DR remains the most common ocular complication caused by diabetes mellitus (DM) and is the leading cause of visual impairment in working-aged people worldwide. Melatonin has attracted extensive attention due to its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, melatonin inhibited oxidative stress and inflammation by enhancing the expression and activity of silent information regulator factor 2-related enzyme 1 (Sirt1) both in in vitro and in vivo models of DR, and the Sirt1 inhibitor EX-527 counteracted melatonin-mediated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on Müller cells. Moreover, melatonin enhanced Sirt1 activity through the maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3)/miR-204 axis, leading to the deacetylation of the Sirt1 target genes forkhead box o1 (Foxo1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) subunit p65, eventually contribute to the alleviation of oxidative stress and inflammation. The study revealed that melatonin promotes the Sirt1 pathway, thereby protecting the retina from DM-induced damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111274DOI Listing
May 2021

Eu-Mn Charge Transfer and the Strong Charge-Spin-Electronic Coupling Behavior in EuMnO.

Inorg Chem 2021 Feb 12;60(3):1367-1379. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022, China.

Based on first-principles calculations with the DFT + method, the couplings of lattice, charge, spin, and electronic behaviors underlying the Eu-Mn charge transfer in a strongly correlated system of EuMnO were investigated. The potential valence transition from Eu/Mn to Eu/Mn was observed in a compressed lattice with little distortions, which is achieved under hydrostatic pressure and external strain. The intraplane antiferromagnetism (AFM) of Mn is proved to be instrumental in the emergence of Eu. Furthermore, we calculated the magnetic exchange interactions within two equilibrium structures of EuMnO and EuMnO. Mn-Mn ferromagnetic exchange in the -plane is enhanced strongly in the EuMnO structure, contributing to the existence of mixed states. The versatile electronic structures were obtained within the EuMnO phase by imposing different magnetic configurations on the Eu and Mn sublattice, attributed to the coupling of charge transfer and magnetic orderings. It is found that the intraplane ferromagnetic ordering of Mn leads to a metallic electronic structure with the coexistence of Eu and Eu, while the intraplane AFM Mn spin ordering leads to insulating states only with Eu. Notably, a half-metallic characteristic emerges at the magnetic ground state of CF ordering (C-type AFM for the Eu sublattice and ferromagnetic for the Mn sublattice), which makes such a supposed phase more intriguing than the conventional experimental phase. Additionally, the mixture of delocalized 4f with 5d states of Eu in the background of Mn 3d and O 2p orbitals implies a pathway of Eu 4f 5d ↔ O 2p ↔ Mn 3d for charge transfer between Eu and Mn. Our calculation shows that the Eu-Mn charge transfer could be expected in compressed EuMnO and the introduction of Eu 4f states near the Fermi level plays an important role in manipulating the interlinks of charge and spin together with electronic behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c02498DOI Listing
February 2021

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Lam. (Moringaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Nov 18;4(2):4094-4095. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Landscaping Company of Guangzhou, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

The plant family Moringaceae contains only one genus, , and is widely cultivated for its young seed pods and leaves used as vegetables and for traditional herbal medicine. In this study, we report the complete chloroplast genome of , assembled from whole-genome high-throughput sequencing reads, as a resource for future studies on the phylogeny and evolution of Moringaceae. The chloroplast genome was 160,600 bp in length, with a large single-copy (LSC) region of 88,577 bp, a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,883 bp, separated by two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 26,570 bp each. It was predicted to contain 131 genes, with an overall GC content of 36.78%. Phylogenetic analysis of 71 protein-coding sequences of 13 plant plastomes showed that is closest to .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1627922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687391PMC
November 2019

Complete mitochondrial genome of (Fagales, Fagaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Nov 12;4(2):3927-3928. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China.

(Chinese cork oak) is an economically valuable oak as the source of industrial cork, which was widely distributed in eastern Asia. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of was sequenced using the Illumina Hiseq and PacBio Sequel technique. The mitogenome is 412,886 bp in length and the GC content is 45.76%. The genome consists of 36 protein-coding genes, 3 ribosomal-RNA genes, and 21 transfer-RNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on protein-coding genes showed that was close to the species in the Cucurbitaceae family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1687027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707397PMC
November 2019

A Comparative Study of Chronic Subdural Hematoma in Patients With and Without Head Trauma: A Retrospective Cross Sectional Study.

Front Neurol 2020 27;11:588242. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

The clinical features of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) in patients with and without a history of head trauma have remained unclear. Here, we investigated differences in clinical characteristics in CSDH patients with and without head trauma. We retrospectively collected clinical characteristics of CSDH patients who had undergone exhaustive drainage strategies via burr-hole craniostomies from August 2011 to May 2019. We divided patients into a trauma group (i.e., head trauma) and a no-trauma group. Chi-square tests or -tests were used to analyze differences in clinical characteristics between the two groups. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the relationships between the clinical characteristics and either reduction of the hematoma cavity or length of the hospital stay in CSDH patients with trauma. We collected data from 1,307 CSDH patients, among whom 805 patients had a history of head trauma whereas 502 patients did not. The mean age of patients with head trauma was 64.0 ± 16.1 years, while that of patients without head trauma was significantly younger at 61.5 ± 17.9 years ( = 0.010). Furthermore, more patients in the no-trauma group had a history of hypertension compared to those in the trauma group (40.2 vs. 32.9%, = 0.007). Dizziness occurred in 29.2% of patients with trauma and in 23.1% of patients without trauma ( = 0.016). A greater number of patients with trauma showed a reduction of hematoma cavity after surgery compared to that of patients without trauma ( = 0.002). The length of hospital stay in patients with trauma was 7.9 ± 4.5 days, which was longer than that of patients without trauma (7.3 ± 3.7 days, = 0.016). In contrast, there were no significant different differences between the two groups in terms of the densities of hematomas on computed-tomography scans, complications, mortality rates, recurrence rates, or outcomes. Our findings indicate that there were some noteworthy differences in the clinical and pathogenic characteristics of CSDH patients with and without head trauma. However, our findings also indicate that if an optimal treatment method is employed, such as our exhaustive drainage strategy, similar treatment outcomes can be achieved between these groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.588242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7728855PMC
November 2020

Switching the Regioselectivity Access to Pyrroles and Isoquinolines from Ketoxime Acetates and Ynals.

ACS Omega 2020 Dec 23;5(48):31473-31484. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Key Laboratory of Organo-Pharmaceutical Chemistry of Jiangxi Province, Gannan Normal University, Ganzhou 341000, PR China.

A novel formal [3+2] and [4+2] annulation of ketoxime acetates and ynals for the synthesis of pyrroles and isoquinolines has been developed. By simply switching the catalyst and solvent, the reaction proceeds via two pathways. The reactions are achieved under mild conditions with broad substrate scope and excellent regioselectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726942PMC
December 2020

Prediction of nodal-line semimetals in two-dimensional black phosphorous films.

Sci Rep 2020 Dec 7;10(1):21351. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, Key Laboratory of Computational Physical Sciences (MOE) and Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Semimetals are a new kind of quantum materials, in which the conduction and valence bands cross each other near the Fermi level. Based on density-functional theory calculations and symmetry analysis, we propose nodal-line semimetals in layered stacked black phosphorus (BP) films which are designed to have a mirror symmetry lying in the BP layer plane and thus rendering them different from the BP film systems previously studied. A closed nodal-line degenerate band can appear around the Fermi level in the BP films after a biaxial compressive strain is applied. The calculated Z number of Z =  - 1 indicates the robustness of the nodal-line semimetals obtained in the BP films, protected by the in-plane mirror symmetry. Intriguingly, with the increase of the film thickness, a smaller biaxial compressive strain is required to produce the nodal-line semimetals, more accessible in experiments. Our results provide a promising route to carrying out the nodal-line semimetals based on various two-dimensional materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78451-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721880PMC
December 2020

Fruquintinib inhibits VEGF/VEGFR2 axis of choroidal endothelial cells and M1-type macrophages to protect against mouse laser-induced choroidal neovascularization.

Cell Death Dis 2020 11 27;11(11):1016. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Lixiang Eye Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Wet age-related macular degeneration, which is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and induces obvious vision loss. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family member VEGF-A (also named as VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR2 contribute to the pathogenesis of CNV. Choroidal endothelial cells (CECs) secret C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), which attracts macrophages to CNV lesion and promotes macrophage M1 polarization. Accordingly, infiltrating macrophages secret inflammatory cytokines to promote CNV. In vivo, intravitreal injection of fruquintinib (HMPL-013), an antitumor neovascularization drug, alleviated mouse CNV formation without obvious ocular toxicity. Meanwhile, HMPL-013 inhibited VEGF/VEGFR2 binding in CECs and macrophages, as well as macrophage M1 polarization. In vitro, noncontact coculture of human choroidal vascular endothelial cells (HCVECs) and macrophages under hypoxia conditions was established. HMPL-013 downregulated VEGF/VEGFR2/phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (AKT)/nuclear factor kappa B pathway and CCL2 secretion in HCVECs, as well as VEGF/VEGFR2-induced macrophage M1 polarization under hypoxia condition. In addition, HMPL-013 inhibited HCEVC derived CCL2-induced macrophage migration and M1 polarization, along with macrophage M1 polarization-induced HCVECs proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Altogether, HMPL-013 alleviated CNV formation might via breaking detrimental cross talk between CECs and macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03222-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695853PMC
November 2020

Network pharmacological systems study of Huang-Lian-Tang in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jan 6;21(1):18. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Pathogenic Biology, Medical College, Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, P.R. China.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has a poor prognosis and its recurrence and mortality rates are high. At present, there is no effective clinical method to control its progression and recurrence. Traditional Chinese Medicine has a high status not only in China, but also in the world. Certain drugs are also used in the clinical treatment of tumor diseases. In clinical practice, Huang-Lian-Tang (HLT) has proven efficacy in treating brain diseases and preventing tumor recurrence. However, the mechanisms of action have remained elusive. The present study explored the potential mechanisms of HLT in the treatment of gliomas based on network pharmacology. First, information on the composition of HLT was obtained from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform, and the composition and targets of the chemical substances contained in the herbs were analyzed. Subsequently, a pharmacological interaction network for HLT was built. Furthermore, the expressed genes of patients with GBM were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus database and screened. A protein-protein interaction network was then constructed for both sets of data and they were combined with a topology method for analysis. Finally, the screened genes were subjected to enrichment analysis and pathway analysis. A total of 386 candidate targets and 7 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were screened, which were mainly associated with amino acid metabolism. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis and KEGG signal pathway analysis indicated that these targets are involved in anti-apoptosis, anti-oxidative stress, multicellular biological processes and other physiological and pathological processes related to the occurrence and development of GBM. In conclusion, the present results indicated that the mechanisms of action of HLT against GBM involve multiple targets and signaling pathways that are related to tumorigenesis and progression. The present study not only provided a novel theoretical basis for Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat tumors but also novel ideas for the treatment of GBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.12279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7681198PMC
January 2021
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