Publications by authors named "Xiaojing Huang"

131 Publications

Therapeutic radiation exposure of the abdomen during childhood induces chronic adipose tissue dysfunction.

JCI Insight 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Rockefeller University, New York, United States of America.

Background: Childhood cancer survivors who received abdominal radiotherapy (RT) or total body irradiation (TBI) are at increased risk for cardiometabolic disease, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesize that RT-induced adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to the development of cardiometabolic disease in the expanding population of childhood cancer survivors.

Methods: We performed clinical metabolic profiling of adult childhood cancer survivors previously exposed to TBI, abdominal RT, or chemotherapy alone, alongside a group of healthy controls. Study participants underwent abdominal subcutaneous adipose biopsies to obtain tissue for bulk RNA-sequencing. Transcriptional signatures were analyzed using pathway and network analyses and cellular deconvolution.

Results: Irradiated adipose tissue is characterized by a gene expression signature indicative of a complex macrophage expansion. This signature includes activation of the TREM2-TYROBP network, a pathway described in diseases of chronic tissue injury. Radiation exposure of adipose is further associated with dysregulated adipokine secretion, specifically a decrease in insulin-sensitizing adiponectin and an increase in insulin resistance-promoting plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Accordingly, survivors exhibiting these changes have early signs of clinical metabolic derangement such as increased fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c.

Conclusion: Childhood cancer survivors exposed to abdominal RT or TBI during treatment exhibit signs of chronic subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction, manifested as dysregulated adipokine secretion that may negatively impact their systemic metabolic health.

Funding: Rockefeller University Hospital; National Institute of General Medical Sciences (T32GM007739); National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (UL1TR001866); National Cancer Institute (P30CA008748); American Cancer Society (133831-CSDG-19-117-01-CPHPS); American Diabetes Association (1-17-ACE-17); anonymous donor (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.153586DOI Listing
September 2021

Design nanoporous metal thin films solid state interfacial dealloying.

Nanoscale 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.

Thin-film solid-state interfacial dealloying (thin-film SSID) is an emerging technique to design nanoarchitecture thin films. The resulting controllable 3D bicontinuous nanostructure is promising for a range of applications including catalysis, sensing, and energy storage. Using a multiscale microscopy approach, we combine X-ray and electron nano-tomography to demonstrate that besides dense bicontinuous nanocomposites, thin-film SSID can create a very fine (5-15 nm) nanoporous structure. Not only is such a fine feature among one of the finest fabrications by metal-agent dealloying, but a multilayer thin-film design enables creating nanoporous films on a wider range of substrates for functional applications. Through multimodal synchrotron diffraction and spectroscopy analysis with which the materials' chemical and structural evolution in this novel approach is characterized in details, we further deduce that the contribution of change in entropy should be considered to explain the phase evolution in metal-agent dealloying, in addition to the commonly used enthalpy term in prior studies. The discussion is an important step leading towards better explaining the underlying design principles for controllable 3D nanoarchitecture, as well as exploring a wider range of elemental and substrate selections for new applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr03709aDOI Listing
September 2021

Using a modified double deep image prior for crosstalk mitigation in multislice ptychography.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2021 Jul 19;28(Pt 4):1137-1145. Epub 2021 May 19.

Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA.

Multislice ptychography is a high-resolution microscopy technique used to image multiple separate axial planes using a single illumination direction. However, multislice ptychography reconstructions are often degraded by crosstalk, where some features on one plane erroneously contribute to the reconstructed image of another plane. Here, the use of a modified `double deep image prior' (DDIP) architecture is demonstrated in mitigating crosstalk artifacts in multislice ptychography. Utilizing the tendency of generative neural networks to produce natural images, a modified DDIP method yielded good results on experimental data. For one of the datasets, it is shown that using DDIP could remove the need of using additional experimental data, such as from X-ray fluorescence, to suppress the crosstalk. This method may help X-ray multislice ptychography work for more general experimental scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577521003507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284408PMC
July 2021

Modified long-axis in-plane technique for femoral artery cannulation in infants.

Paediatr Anaesth 2021 Sep 16;31(9):1011-1012. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai Children's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200062, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.14231DOI Listing
September 2021

Role of D-alanylation of Streptococcus mutans lipoteichoic acid in interspecies competitiveness.

Mol Oral Microbiol 2021 08 7;36(4):233-242. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases &, Fujian Provincial Engineering Research Center of Oral Biomaterial & Stomatological Key lab of Fujian College and University, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

Background: The D-alanylation of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is essential for the physiological metabolism of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). This study was designed to investigate the influence of D-alanylation of LTA on interspecies competitiveness of S. mutans.

Methods: The process of D-alanylation was blocked by the inactivation of dltC. Agar competition assays, conditioned medium assays, and qRT-PCR were used to evaluate the production of antimicrobial compounds in S. mutans mutant. Dual-species biofilm was formed to investigate the competitiveness of S. mutans mutant cocultured with S. sanguinis or S. gordonii.

Results: S. mutans mutant could not produce antimicrobial compounds efficiently when cocultured with commensal bacteria (*p < 0.05). The mutant showed compromised competitiveness in dual-species biofilms. The ratio of the mutant in dual-species biofilms decreased, and the terminal pH of the culture medium in mutant groups (mutant+S. sanguinis/S. gordonii) was higher than that in wild-type groups (*p < 0.05). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed weaker demineralization of enamel treated with dual-species biofilms consisting of mutant and commensal bacteria.

Conclusion: D-Alanylation is involved in interspecies competitiveness of S. mutans within oral biofilm by regulating mutacins and lactic acid production, which may modulate the profiles of dental biofilms. Results provide new insights into dental caries prevention and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/omi.12344DOI Listing
August 2021

Hierarchical nickel valence gradient stabilizes high-nickel content layered cathode materials.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 20;12(1):2350. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Chemistry Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA.

High-nickel content cathode materials offer high energy density. However, the structural and surface instability may cause poor capacity retention and thermal stability of them. To circumvent this problem, nickel concentration-gradient materials have been developed to enhance high-nickel content cathode materials' thermal and cycling stability. Even though promising, the fundamental mechanism of the nickel concentration gradient's stabilization effect remains elusive because it is inseparable from nickel's valence gradient effect. To isolate nickel's valence gradient effect and understand its fundamental stabilization mechanism, we design and synthesize a LiNiMnCoO material that is compositionally uniform and has a hierarchical valence gradient. The nickel valence gradient material shows superior cycling and thermal stability than the conventional one. The result suggests creating an oxidation state gradient that hides the more capacitive but less stable Ni away from the secondary particle surfaces is a viable principle towards the optimization of high-nickel content cathode materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22635-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058063PMC
April 2021

Astragaloside IV Protects 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced SH-SY5Y Cell Model of Parkinson's Disease via Activating the JAK2/STAT3 Pathway.

Front Neurosci 2021 23;15:631501. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Neurology, Hebei PetroChina Central Hospital, Langfang, China.

Objectives: Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), the main active component of Astragalus membranaceus, bears anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activity. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease. This study explored the protective effect of AS-IV on the cell model of PD.

Materials And Methods: SH-SY5Y cells were incubated with different concentrations (10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 μM) of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h to establish the PD cell model. Different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 μM) of AS-IV or 15 mM JAK2/STAT3 pathway inhibitor SC99 was added for intervention 2 h before 6-OHDA treatment. The viability and morphological damage of 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y cells were measured using MTT assay and Hoechst 33258 staining. The expression of microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) was detected by immunofluorescence staining. The levels of inflammation and oxidative stress were measured using ELISA. Apoptosis of 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y cells was detected using flow cytometry, and phosphorylation level of JAK2 and STAT3 were detected using Western blot analysis.

Results: The survival rate of SH-SY5Y cells treated with 100 μM 6-OHDA for 24 h was about 50%. AS-IV (25-100 μM) significantly improved the viability (all < 0.01), increased MAP2 expression, and repaired the morphological damage induced by 6-OHDA. AS-IV inhibited IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α level (all < 0.05), reduced MDA and ROS content and increased SOD concentration, thereby reducing inflammation and oxidative stress (all < 0.01) in 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, AS-IV decreased apoptosis rate and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio induced by 6-OHDA (all < 0.05). Mechanically, AS-IV significantly increased the phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 ( < 0.01); the addition of SC99 decreased the cell viability, increased the apoptosis rate, enhanced the levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress.

Conclusion: AS-IV enhanced the cell viability, and inhibited apoptosis, inflammation and oxidative stress of 6-OHDA-treated SH-SY5Y cells via activating the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. This study may confer novel insights for the management of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.631501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021720PMC
March 2021

Correction of resonant optical scanner dynamic aberrations using nodal aberration theory.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(7):10346-10363

The rapid oscillation of galvanometric resonant optical scanners introduces linear astigmatism that degrades transverse resolution, and in confocal systems, also reduces signal [V. Akondi et al., Optica 7, 1506, 2020]. Here, we demonstrate correction of this aberration by tilting reflective or refractive optical elements for a single vergence or a vergence range, with and without the use of an adaptive wavefront corrector such as a deformable mirror. The approach, based on nodal aberration theory, can generate any desired third order aberration that results from tilting or decentering optical surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.414405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237933PMC
March 2021

Adorym: a multi-platform generic X-ray image reconstruction framework based on automatic differentiation.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(7):10000-10035

We describe and demonstrate an optimization-based X-ray image reconstruction framework called Adorym. Our framework provides a generic forward model, allowing one code framework to be used for a wide range of imaging methods ranging from near-field holography to fly-scan ptychographic tomography. By using automatic differentiation for optimization, Adorym has the flexibility to refine experimental parameters including probe positions, multiple hologram alignment, and object tilts. It is written with strong support for parallel processing, allowing large datasets to be processed on high-performance computing systems. We demonstrate its use on several experimental datasets to show improved image quality through parameter refinement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.418296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237934PMC
March 2021

Effect of Optimized Irrigation With Photon-Induced Photoacoustic Streaming on Smear Layer Removal, Dentin Microhardness, Attachment Morphology, and Survival of the Stem Cells of Apical Papilla.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 Oct 25;53(8):1105-1112. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Restorative Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, 999077, China.

Background And Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of optimized irrigation with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) activation of different irrigants (distilled water or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA]) on smear layer removal, dentin microhardness, attachment morphology, and survival of stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) in an organotypic root canal model.

Study Design/materials And Methods: A total of 144 standardized root segments were randomly allocated into 6 groups for irrigation: (i) NaOCl group, (ii) NaOCl + EDTA group, (iii) NaOCl + PIPS (distilled water) group, (iv) NaOCl + PIPS (EDTA) group, (v) NaOCl + EDTA + PIPS (distilled water) group, and (vi) NaOCl + EDTA + PIPS (EDTA) group. Each group was divided into four subgroups for assessment: (i) dentin cleanliness; (ii) dentin microhardness; (iii) cell attachment morphology; and (iv) viable SCAP quantification.

Results: Compared with the control groups, the NaOCl + EDTA + PIPS (EDTA) group showed higher efficiency in smear layer removal and in increasing SCAP viability with more stretched cellular morphology. There were no statistically significant differences in either smear layer removal effect, dentin microhardness, attachment morphology, or survival of SCAP among the other groups when optimized with PIPS (distilled water or EDTA) (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that irrigation optimized with PIPS activation of EDTA for 40 seconds was conducive to smear layer removal without additional dentin microhardness decrease. Additionally, this irrigation created more cell-friendly dentin conditioning than other approaches, which was beneficial for the attachment and survival of SCAP. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.23394DOI Listing
October 2021

Creatine-mediated crosstalk between adipocytes and cancer cells regulates obesity-driven breast cancer.

Cell Metab 2021 03 16;33(3):499-512.e6. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Laboratory of Molecular Metabolism, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Obesity is a major risk factor for adverse outcomes in breast cancer; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. To investigate the role of crosstalk between mammary adipocytes and neoplastic cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME), we performed transcriptomic analysis of cancer cells and adjacent adipose tissue in a murine model of obesity-accelerated breast cancer and identified glycine amidinotransferase (Gatm) in adipocytes and Acsbg1 in cancer cells as required for obesity-driven tumor progression. Gatm is the rate-limiting enzyme in creatine biosynthesis, and deletion in adipocytes attenuated obesity-driven tumor growth. Similarly, genetic inhibition of creatine import into cancer cells reduced tumor growth in obesity. In parallel, breast cancer cells in obese animals upregulated the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase Acsbg1 to promote creatine-dependent tumor progression. These findings reveal key nodes in the crosstalk between adipocytes and cancer cells in the TME necessary for obesity-driven breast cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2021.01.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954401PMC
March 2021

Development of a Nomogram to Predict Postoperative Transfusion in the Elderly After Intramedullary Nail Fixation of Femoral Intertrochanteric Fractures.

Clin Interv Aging 2021 6;16:1-7. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325000, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The aim of our study was to explore the risk factors related to blood transfusion after intramedullary nail fixation of elderly femoral intertrochanteric fracture (FTF) and establish a nomogram prediction model.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a retrospective study including elderly FTF patients treated by intramedullary nail between January 2017 and December 2019. Perioperative information was obtained retrospectively, uni- and multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine risk factors for blood transfusion. A nomogram model was established to predict the risk of blood transfusion, and consistency coefficient (C-index) and correction curve were used to evaluate the prediction performance and consistency of the model.

Results: Of 148 patients, 119 were finally enrolled in the study and and 46 patients (38.7%) received a blood transfusion after the operation. Logistic regression analysis the female, lower preoperative Hb, ASA score >2, general anesthesia, and higher intraoperative blood loss were independently associated with the blood transfusion. The accuracy of the contour map for predicting transfusion risk was 0.910.

Conclusion: These risk factors are shown on the nomogram and verified. Through the assessment of the risk of blood transfusion and the intervention of modifiable risk factors, we may be able to reduce the blood transfusion rate to a certain extent, so as to further guarantee the safety of the elderly patients during the perioperative period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S253193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797293PMC
April 2021

Effects of chronic apical periodontitis on the inflammatory response of the aorta in hyperlipemic rats.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Jun 6;25(6):3845-3852. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases and Fujian Provincial Engineering Research Center of Oral Biomaterial and Stomatological Key laboratory of Fujian College and University, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 350002, China.

Objectives: To study the effects of chronic apical periodontitis (CAP) on the inflammatory response and initial lesion of aorta in hyperlipemic rats.

Materials And Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats aged 14 weeks were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups (n = 8), namely, normal diet (ND), high-fat diet (HFD), CAP, and HFD + CAP. The rats were raised under controlled conditions and fed with diet specified for each group. All subjects were euthanatized after 14 weeks for histopathological analysis. Serum cytokines were analyzed to assess changes in gene and protein expression of aorta via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA.

Results: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in rats in HFD + CAP group were significantly higher than those in other groups. By comparison, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in rats in both the HFD and HFD + CAP groups were significantly lower than those in the other groups. No significant difference among all groups was observed in terms of CRP level. However, levels of IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10 increased in the experimental CAP rats compared with the control rats. mRNA expression levels of MCP-1, TLR-4, and NF-κB p65 were markedly elevated in rats in the HFD group compared with those in rats in the ND group. TLR-4 mRNA expression was significantly higher in rats in the HFD + CAP group than that in rats in the HFD group.

Conclusions: CAP mediated the high expression of cytokines and induced the initial inflammatory response in the aorta. Apical periodontitis may affect the level of inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, and IL-10) depending on the immune response.

Clinical Relevance: CAP may trigger a systemic inflammatory response and affect the aorta of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-020-03714-6DOI Listing
June 2021

Tunable hard x-ray nanofocusing with Fresnel zone plates fabricated using deep etching.

Optica 2020 May;7(5):410-416

Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, USA.

Fresnel zone plates are widely used for x-ray nanofocusing, due to their ease of alignment and energy tunability. Their spatial resolution is limited in part by their outermost zone width , while their efficiency is limited in part by their thickness . We demonstrate the use of Fresnel zone plate optics for x-ray nanofocusing with = 16 nm outermost zone width and a thickness of about = 1.8 μm (or an aspect ratio of 110) with an absolute focusing efficiency of 4.7% at 12 keV, and 6.2% at 10 keV. Using partially coherent illumination at 12 keV, the zone plate delivered a FWHM focus of 46 × 60 nm at 12 keV, with the first order coherent mode in a ptychographic reconstruction showing a probe size of 16 nm FWHM. These optics were fabricated using a combination of metal assisted chemical etching and atomic layer deposition for the diffracting structures, and silicon wafer back-thinning to produce optics useful for real applications. This approach should enable new higher resolution views of thick materials, especially when energy tunability is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OPTICA.387445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720910PMC
May 2020

Time-resolved in situ visualization of the structural response of zeolites during catalysis.

Nat Commun 2020 Nov 19;11(1):5901. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul, 04107, Korea.

Zeolites are three-dimensional aluminosilicates having unique properties from the size and connectivity of their sub-nanometer pores, the Si/Al ratio of the anionic framework, and the charge-balancing cations. The inhomogeneous distribution of the cations affects their catalytic performances because it influences the intra-crystalline diffusion rates of the reactants and products. However, the structural deformation regarding inhomogeneous active regions during the catalysis is not yet observed by conventional analytical tools. Here we employ in situ X-ray free electron laser-based time-resolved coherent X-ray diffraction imaging to investigate the internal deformations originating from the inhomogeneous Cu ion distributions in Cu-exchanged ZSM-5 zeolite crystals during the deoxygenation of nitrogen oxides with propene. We show that the interactions between the reactants and the active sites lead to an unusual strain distribution, confirmed by density functional theory simulations. These observations provide insights into the role of structural inhomogeneity in zeolites during catalysis and will assist the future design of zeolites for their applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19728-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7677390PMC
November 2020

Metrology of a Focusing Capillary Using Optical Ptychography.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Nov 12;20(22). Epub 2020 Nov 12.

National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA.

The focusing property of an ellipsoidal monocapillary has been characterized using the ptychography method with a 405 nm laser beam. The recovered wavefront gives a 12.5×10.4μm2 focus. The reconstructed phase profile of the focused beam can be used to estimate the height error of the capillary surface. The obtained height error shows a Gaussian distribution with a standard deviation of 1.3 μm. This approach can be used as a quantitative tool for evaluating the inner functional surfaces of reflective optics, complementary to conventional metrology methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20226462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697805PMC
November 2020

Glutaminase Inhibitors Induce Thiol-Mediated Oxidative Stress and Radiosensitization in Treatment-Resistant Cervical Cancers.

Mol Cancer Ther 2020 12 21;19(12):2465-2475. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

The purpose of this study was to determine if radiation (RT)-resistant cervical cancers are dependent upon glutamine metabolism driven by activation of the PI3K pathway and test whether PI3K pathway mutation predicts radiosensitization by inhibition of glutamine metabolism. Cervical cancer cell lines with and without PI3K pathway mutations, including SiHa and SiHa PTEN cells engineered by CRISPR/Cas9, were used for mechanistic studies performed in the presence and absence of glutamine starvation and the glutaminase inhibitor, telaglenastat (CB-839). These studies included cell survival, proliferation, quantification of oxidative stress parameters, metabolic tracing with stable isotope-labeled substrates, metabolic rescue, and combination studies with L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), auranofin (AUR), and RT. studies of telaglenastat ± RT were performed using CaSki and SiHa xenografts grown in immune-compromised mice. PI3K-activated cervical cancer cells were selectively sensitive to glutamine deprivation through a mechanism that included thiol-mediated oxidative stress. Telaglenastat treatment decreased total glutathione pools, increased the percent glutathione disulfide, and caused clonogenic cell killing that was reversed by treatment with the thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine. Telaglenastat also sensitized cells to killing by glutathione depletion with BSO, thioredoxin reductase inhibition with AUR, and RT. Glutamine-dependent PI3K-activated cervical cancer xenografts were sensitive to telaglenastat monotherapy, and telaglenastat selectively radiosensitized cervical cancer cells and These novel preclinical data support the utility of telaglenastat for glutamine-dependent radioresistant cervical cancers and demonstrate that PI3K pathway mutations may be used as a predictive biomarker for telaglenastat sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-20-0271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208465PMC
December 2020

Micromachined Silicon Platform for Precise Assembly of 2D Multilayer Laue Lenses for High-Resolution X-ray Microscopy.

Micromachines (Basel) 2020 Oct 15;11(10). Epub 2020 Oct 15.

National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA.

We report on a developed micromachined silicon platform for the precise assembly of 2D multilayer Laue lenses (MLLs) for high-resolution X-ray microscopy. The platform is 10 × 10 mm and is fabricated on ~500 µm thick silicon wafers through multiple steps of photolithography and deep reactive-ion etching. The platform accommodates two linear MLLs in a pre-defined configuration with precise angular and lateral position control. In this work, we discuss the design and microfabrication of the platform, and characterization regarding MLLs assembly, position control, repeatability, and stability. The results demonstrate that a micromachined platform can be used for the assembly of a variety of MLLs with different dimensions and optical parameters. The angular misalignment of 2D MLLs is well controlled in the range of the designed accuracy, down to a few millidegrees. The separation distance between MLLs is adjustable from hundreds to more than one thousand micrometers. The use of the developed platform greatly simplifies the alignment procedure of the MLL optics and reduces the complexity of the X-ray microscope. It is a significant step forward for the development of monolithic 2D MLL nanofocusing optics for high-resolution X-ray microscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi11100939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7602850PMC
October 2020

Complete Strain Mapping of Nanosheets of Tantalum Disulfide.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Sep 8;12(38):43173-43179. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Condensed Matter Physics and Material Science Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973, United States.

Quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) materials hold promise for future electronics because of their unique band structures that result in electronic and mechanical properties sensitive to crystal strains in all three dimensions. Quantifying crystal strain is a prerequisite to correlating it with the performance of the device and calls for high resolution but spatially resolved rapid characterization methods. Here, we show that using fly-scan nano X-ray diffraction, we can accomplish a tensile strain sensitivity below 0.001% with a spatial resolution of better than 80 nm over a spatial extent of 100 μm on quasi-2D flakes of 1T-TaS. Coherent diffraction patterns were collected from a ∼100 nm thick sheet of 1T-TaS by scanning a 12 keV focused X-ray beam across and rotating the sample. We demonstrate that the strain distribution around micron- and submicron-sized "bubbles" that are present in the sample may be reconstructed from these images. The experiments use state-of-the-art synchrotron instrumentation and will allow rapid and nonintrusive strain mapping of thin-film samples and electronic devices based on quasi-2D materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c06517DOI Listing
September 2020

Ptychographic X-ray speckle tracking with multi-layer Laue lens systems.

J Appl Crystallogr 2020 Aug 8;53(Pt 4):927-936. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg, Germany.

The ever-increasing brightness of synchrotron radiation sources demands improved X-ray optics to utilize their capability for imaging and probing biological cells, nano-devices and functional matter on the nanometre scale with chemical sensitivity. Hard X-rays are ideal for high-resolution imaging and spectroscopic applications owing to their short wavelength, high penetrating power and chemical sensitivity. The penetrating power that makes X-rays useful for imaging also makes focusing them technologically challenging. Recent developments in layer deposition techniques have enabled the fabrication of a series of highly focusing X-ray lenses, known as wedged multi-layer Laue lenses. Improvements to the lens design and fabrication technique demand an accurate, robust, and at-wavelength characterization method. To this end, a modified form of the speckle tracking wavefront metrology method has been developed. The ptychographic X-ray speckle tracking method is capable of operating with highly divergent wavefields. A useful by-product of this method is that it also provides high-resolution and aberration-free projection images of extended specimens. Three separate experiments using this method are reported, where the ray path angles have been resolved to within 4 nrad with an imaging resolution of 45 nm (full period). This method does not require a high degree of coherence, making it suitable for laboratory-based X-ray sources. Likewise, it is robust to errors in the registered sample positions, making it suitable for X-ray free-electron laser facilities, where beam-pointing fluctuations can be problematic for wavefront metrology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600576720006925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7401788PMC
August 2020

2D MEMS-based multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics for high-resolution hard x-ray microscopy.

Opt Express 2020 Jun;28(12):17660-17671

We report on the development of 2D integrated multilayer Laue lens (MLL) nanofocusing optics used for high-resolution x-ray microscopy. A Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) - based template has been designed and fabricated to accommodate two linear MLL optics in pre-aligned configuration. The orthogonality requirement between two MLLs has been satisfied to a better than 6 millidegrees level, and the separation along the x-ray beam direction was controlled on a micrometer scale. Developed planar 2D MLL structure has demonstrated astigmatism free point focus of ∼14 nm by ∼13 nm in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, at 13.6 keV photon energy. Approaching 10 nm resolution with integrated 2D MLL optic is a significant step forward in applications of multilayer Laue lenses for high-resolution hard x-ray microscopy and their adoption by the general x-ray microscopy community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.389555DOI Listing
June 2020

TAPB and RSB protects cardiac diastolic function in elderly patients undergoing abdominopelvic surgery: a retrospective cohort study.

PeerJ 2020 2;8:e9441. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai General Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Diastolic dysfunction, an early manifestation and clinical symptom of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, can be influenced by various anesthesia management strategies. Trans-esophageal echocardiography was used to undertake to assess left ventricular diastolic function during anesthesia maintenance using sevoflurane alone and sevoflurane combining with transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block in elderly patients with diastolic dysfunction undergoing abdominopelvic surgery.

Methods: Thirty-eight patients were divided into two groups in this retrospective study, sevoflurane and sevoflurane combining with TAPB and RSB according to employing different anesthesia maintenance schemes. The parameters HR, MAP, CVP, E, A, E/A, e, a, e/a, and E/a were obtained immediately after anesthesia induction hemodynamics stability (HR1, MAP1, CVP1, E1, A1, E1/A1, e1, a1, e1/a1, and E1/a1) and 1 hour later (HR2, MAP2, CVP2, E2, A2, E2/A2, e2, a2, e2/a2, and E2/a2).

Results: Transmitral diastolic Doppler flow characteristics illustrated E/A significant decreases in the S group but increases in the ST group ( = 0.02 < 0.05) 1 hour after anesthesia induction hemodynamic stability. Tissue Doppler imaging characteristics showed a more significant increase e/a ( = 0.005 < 0.05) and decreases in a value ( = 0.009 < 0.05) in the ST group 1 hour after anesthesia induction hemodynamics stability.

Conclusions: Maintaining anesthesia with sevoflurane combining with TAPB and RSB was more suitable for protecting cardiac diastolic function than sevoflurane alone in elderly patients with diastolic dysfunction undergoing open abdominal and pelvic surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335498PMC
July 2020

Unbalanced Hybrid AOA/RSSI Localization for Simplified Wireless Sensor Networks.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jul 9;20(14). Epub 2020 Jul 9.

School of Electrical and Data Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo 2007, Australia.

Source positioning using hybrid angle-of-arrival (AOA) estimation and received signal strength indicator (RSSI) is attractive because no synchronization is required among unknown nodes and anchors. Conventionally, hybrid AOA/RSSI localization combines the same number of these measurements to estimate the agents' locations. However, since AOA estimation requires anchors to be equipped with large antenna arrays and complicated signal processing, this conventional combination makes the wireless sensor network (WSN) complicated. This paper proposes an unbalanced integration of the two measurements, called 1AOA/nRSSI, to simplify the WSN. Instead of using many anchors with large antenna arrays, the proposed method only requires one master anchor to provide one AOA estimation, while other anchors are simple single-antenna transceivers. By simply transforming the 1AOA/1RSSI information into two corresponding virtual anchors, the problem of integrating one AOA and RSSI measurements is solved using the least square and subspace methods. The solutions are then evaluated to characterize the impact of angular and distance measurement errors. Simulation results show that the proposed network achieves the same level of precision as in a fully hybrid nAOA/nRSSI network with a slightly higher number of simple anchors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20143838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7411761PMC
July 2020

Semen Brassicae reduces thoracic aortic remodeling, inflammation, and oxidative damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Sep 20;129:110400. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Cardiology, Shenzhen Bao'an Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital Group, The Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Shenzhen, 518133, China. Electronic address:

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the role of Semen Brassicae, a common Traditional Chinese Medicine, in the treatment of hypertension.

Methods: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were divided into five groups and were gavaged with either distilled water, water-decocted solution from Semen Brassicae (0.5, 1 or 2 g/kg), or nifedipine (2.7 mg/kg). Normal rats gavaged with distilled water were used as a control. Systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured using a non-invasive method. After 8 weeks of administration, all animals were anesthetized. Abdominal aortic serum was collected to measure serum factors; the thoracic aorta was collected for hematoxylin and eosin staining and western blot analysis.

Results: Both SBP and DBP were significantly decreased after Semen Brassicae treatment. Endothelin-1 and angiotensin II levels in abdominal aortic serum, as well as the levels of inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, were significantly decreased after Semen Brassicae treatment. The wall thickness of the thoracic aorta was significantly reduced after Semen Brassicae treatment. Nitric oxide level and the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly increased, and malondialdehyde level was significantly decreased in the abdominal aortic serum after Semen Brassicae treatment. Semen Brassicae treatment increased the levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and IκB-α and decreased the levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, von Willebrand factor, p-IκB-α and p-p65 NF-κB.

Conclusions: In conclusion, water-decocted solution from Semen Brassicae can decrease blood pressure, improve vascular remodeling, and attenuate oxidative stress and inflammation in SHRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110400DOI Listing
September 2020

Perovskite neural trees.

Nat Commun 2020 05 7;11(1):2245. Epub 2020 May 7.

School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA.

Trees are used by animals, humans and machines to classify information and make decisions. Natural tree structures displayed by synapses of the brain involves potentiation and depression capable of branching and is essential for survival and learning. Demonstration of such features in synthetic matter is challenging due to the need to host a complex energy landscape capable of learning, memory and electrical interrogation. We report experimental realization of tree-like conductance states at room temperature in strongly correlated perovskite nickelates by modulating proton distribution under high speed electric pulses. This demonstration represents physical realization of ultrametric trees, a concept from number theory applied to the study of spin glasses in physics that inspired early neural network theory dating almost forty years ago. We apply the tree-like memory features in spiking neural networks to demonstrate high fidelity object recognition, and in future can open new directions for neuromorphic computing and artificial intelligence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16105-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206050PMC
May 2020

Nutrition program selection in acute ischemic stroke patients with GI hemorrhage.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2020 ;29(1):55-60

Department of Neurology, Hebei Petrochina Central Hospital, Hebei Province, China.

Background And Objectives: The severity of neurologic impairment is significantly associated with gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of two nutritional interventions in acute ischemic stroke patients with GI hemorrhage.

Methods And Study Design: We retrospectively studied consecutive ischemic stroke patients with GI hemorrhage from January 2014 to December 2018. They were stratified into two programs of nutritional therapy after GI hemorrhage: moderate feeding (more than 70% optimal caloric uptake, 50-100 mL/h) and trophic feeding (16-25% of the target energy expenditure, 25 kcal/kg per day, 10- 30 mL/h) with supplemental parenteral nutrition.

Results: The group receiving moderate feeding included 30 patients, and the group receiving trophic feeding and supplemental parenteral nutrition included 32 patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the baseline characteristics of the patients. Mortality, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at discharge, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score 3 months after discharge were compared between the two groups. In the moderate feeding group, the overall mortality was significantly lower than in the trophic feeding and supplemental parenteral nutrition group (p<0.05). Conscious state and neurological severity were assessed by the GCS score before discharge, and the score was higher in the moderate feeding group than in the other group (p<0.05). The GOS score 3 months after discharge was higher in the moderate feeding group than in the trophic feeding and supplemental parenteral nutrition group (p<0.05). These three items showed that moderate feeding led to a better prognosis: lower occurrence of mortality, higher GCS score at discharge, and higher GOS score 3 months after discharge.

Conclusions: This study showed that moderate feeding had a much more profound effect on the outcomes than trophic feeding and supplemental parenteral nutrition, as it was associated with lower mortality, higher GCS score at discharge, and higher GOS score 3 months after discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.202003_29(1).0008DOI Listing
January 2021

Pretreatment of Root Canal with Photodynamic Therapy Facilitates Adhesion, Viability and Differentiation of Stem Cells of the Apical Papilla.

Photochem Photobiol 2020 07 16;96(4):890-896. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & Fujian Provincial Engineering Research Center of Oral Biomaterial & Stomatological Key lab of Fujian College and University, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

This study was to test the hypothesis that root canal pretreated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) would promote stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) adhesion, proliferation and differentiation without affecting smear layer removal and microhardness of root canal. Standardized root canals were randomized into four groups (n = 30/group): (1) sodium hypochlorite(NaOCl) group, (2) NaOCl + ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) group, (3) NaOCl + PDT group, (4) NaOCl + EDTA + PDT group. After treatments, smear layer removal and microhardness of root canal were evaluated. SCAP with hydroxyapatite-based scaffolds were seeded into root canals for 7 days. SCAP adhesion was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and viable cells were calculated by CellTiter-Glo Luminescent kit. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of SCAP were evaluated by Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction. There was no significant difference in the smear layer removal and microhardness of root dentin between the groups with and without PDT treatment (P > 0.05). SCAP with elongated cytoplasmic processes and cell-cell contact were observed on the dentin surfaces treated with PDT. Elevated cell viability, PDGF and VEGF expression were found in root canal treated with PDT (P < 0.05). Under the experimental conditions, PDT could provide positive microenvironment for SCAP growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/php.13240DOI Listing
July 2020

Hydrogen Sulfide Protects Against High Glucose-Induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell Injury Through Activating PI3K/Akt/eNOS Pathway.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2020 14;14:621-633. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Cardiology, Shenzhen Bao'an Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital Group, The Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Shenzhen 518133, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Dysfunction of endothelial cells plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic atherosclerosis. High glucose (HG) has been found as a key factor in the progression of diabetic complications, including atherosclerosis. PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway has been shown to involve in HG-induced vascular injuries. Hydrogen sulfide (HS) has been found to exhibit protective effects on HG-induced vascular injuries. Moreover, HS activates PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway in endothelial cells. Thus, the present study aimed to determine if HS exerts protective effects against HG-induced injuries of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) via activating PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling.

Materials And Methods: The endothelial protective effects of HS were evaluated and compared to the controlled groups. Cell viability, cell migration and tube formation were determined by in vitro functional assays; protein levels were evaluated by Western blot assay and ELISA; cell apoptosis was determined by Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining; Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated by the ROS detection kit.

Results: HG treatment significantly inhibited PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling in HUVECs, which was partially reversed by the H2S treatment. HG treatment inhibited cell viability of HUVECs, which were markedly prevented by HS or PI3K agonist Y-P 740. HG treatment also induced HUVEC cell apoptosis by increasing the protein levels of cleaved caspase 3, Bax and Bcl-2, which were significantly attenuated by HS or 740 Y-P. ROS production and gp91 protein level were increased by HG treatment in HUVECs and this effect can be blocked by the treatment with HS or Y-P 740. Moreover, HG treatment increased the protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, caspase-1 and phosphorylated JNK, which was significantly attenuated by HS or Y-P 740. Importantly, the cytoprotective effect of HS against HG-induced injury was inhibited by LY294002 (an inhibitor of PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway).

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that exogenous HS protects endothelial cells against HG-induced injuries by activating PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway. Based on the above findings, we proposed that reduced endogenous HS levels and the subsequent PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling impairment may be the important pathophysiological mechanism underlying hyperglycemia-induced vascular injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S242521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7027865PMC
October 2020

A meta-analysis of the medium- and long-term effects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

BMC Surg 2020 Feb 12;20(1):30. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of General Surgery, HwaMei Hospital, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Northwest Street 41, Haishu District, Ningbo, Zhejiang, 315010, China.

Background: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) are two representative bariatric surgeries. This study aimed to compare the effects of the LSG and LRYGB based on high-quality analysis and massive amount of data.

Methods: For this study databases of PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, Medline, and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published until January 2019 comparing the outcomes of LSG and LRYGB.

Results: This study included 28 articles. Overall, 9038 patients (4597, LSG group; 4441, LRYGB group) were included. The remission rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the LRYGB group was superior to that in the LSG group at the 3-years follow-up. Five-year follow-up results showed that LRYGB had an advantage over LSG for the percentage of excess weight loss and remission of T2DM, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and abnormally low-density lipoprotein.

Conclusions: In terms of the long-term effects of bariatric surgery, the effect of LRYGB was better than of LSG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-020-00695-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7014764PMC
February 2020

Analog Least Mean Square Loop for Self-Interference Cancellation: A Practical Perspective.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jan 3;20(1). Epub 2020 Jan 3.

School of Electrical and Data Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo 2007, Australia.

Self-interference (SI) is the key issue that prevents in-band full-duplex (IBFD) communications from being practical. Analog multi-tap adaptive filter is an efficient structure to cancel SI since it can capture the nonlinear components and noise in the transmitted signal. Analog least mean square (ALMS) loop is a simple adaptive filter that can be implemented by purely analog means to sufficiently mitigate SI. Comprehensive analyses on the behaviors of the ALMS loop have been published in the literature. This paper proposes a practical structure and presents an implementation of the ALMS loop. By employing off-the-shelf components, a prototype of the ALMS loop including two taps is implemented for an IBFD system operating at the carrier frequency of 2.4 GHz. The prototype is firstly evaluated in a single carrier signaling IBFD system with 20 MHz and 50 MHz bandwidths, respectively. Measured results show that the ALMS loop can provide 39 dB and 33 dB of SI cancellation in the radio frequency domain for the two bandwidths, respectively. Furthermore, the impact of the roll-off factor of the pulse shaping filter on the SI cancellation level provided by the prototype is presented. Finally, the experiment with multicarrier signaling shows that the performance of the ALMS loop is the same as that in the single carrier system. These experimental results validate the theoretical analyses presented in our previous publications on the ALMS loop behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20010270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6983228PMC
January 2020
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