Publications by authors named "Xiaohui Zhang"

831 Publications

Cutaneous Protothecosis with Meningitis Due to in an Immunocompetent Teenager: Case Report and Literature Review.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 20;14:2787-2794. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Jiangsu Province Hospital and Nanjing Medical University First Affiliated Hospital, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

Human protothecosis is a rare infection caused by spp., which are environmental achloric algae ubiquitously existing in nature. Members of the genus of usually cause localized infection that affects the skin or wounds. Systemic infection is extremely rare and tends to occur in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis and meningitis due to in an immunocompetent teenager who obtained full-body tattoos at the time of infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of isolated from both skin tissue and cerebrospinal fluid. The data contained in this report will increase our understanding of this pathogen and elucidate the most optimal treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S320795DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312625PMC
July 2021

Alterations, Interactions, and Diagnostic Potential of Gut Bacteria and Viruses in Colorectal Cancer.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 6;11:657867. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Institute for Intestinal Diseases, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Gut microbiome alteration was closely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Previous studies had demonstrated the bacteria composition changes but lacked virome profiles, trans-kindom interactions, and reliable diagnostic model explorations in CRC. Hence, we performed metagenomic sequencing to investigate the gut microbiome and microbial interactions in adenoma and CRC patients. We found the decreased microbial diversity in CRC and revealed the taxonomic alterations of bacteria and viruses were highly associated with CRC at the species level. The relative abundance of oral-derived species, such as , , , and , increased. At the same time, butyrate-producing and anti-inflammatory microbes decreased in adenoma and CRC by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Despite that, the relative abundance of and increased, whereas some phages, including and , decreased along with CRC development. Gut bacteria was negatively associated with viruses in CRC and healthy control by correlation analysis (P=0.017 and 0.002, respectively). Viruses were much more dynamic than the bacteria as the disease progressed, and the altered microbial interactions were distinctively stage-dependent. The degree centrality of microbial interactions decreased while closeness centrality increased along with the adenoma to cancer development. was the key bacteriophage that enriched in healthy controls and positively associated with butyrate-producing bacteria. Diagnostic tests based on bacteria by random forest confirmed in independent cohorts showed better performance than viruses for CRC. In conclusion, our study revealed the novel CRC-associated bacteria and viruses that exhibited specific differences and intensive microbial correlations, which provided a reliable diagnostic panel for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.657867DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294192PMC
July 2021

Reprogramming Glial Cells into Functional Neurons for Neuro-regeneration: Challenges and Promise.

Neurosci Bull 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875, China.

The capacity for neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain is extremely limited and highly restricted to a few regions, which greatly hampers neuronal regeneration and functional restoration after neuronal loss caused by injury or disease. Meanwhile, transplantation of exogenous neuronal stem cells into the brain encounters several serious issues including immune rejection and the risk of tumorigenesis. Recent discoveries of direct reprogramming of endogenous glial cells into functional neurons have provided new opportunities for adult neuro-regeneration. Here, we extensively review the experimental findings of the direct conversion of glial cells to neurons in vitro and in vivo and discuss the remaining issues and challenges related to the glial subtypes and the specificity and efficiency of direct cell-reprograming, as well as the influence of the microenvironment. Although in situ glial cell reprogramming offers great potential for neuronal repair in the injured or diseased brain, it still needs a large amount of research to pave the way to therapeutic application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-021-00751-3DOI Listing
July 2021

Cleaving arene rings for acyclic alkenylnitrile synthesis.

Nature 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Synthetic chemistry is built around the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. Conversely, selective methods for C-C bond cleavage is a largely unmet challenge, the solution of which will provide promising applications in synthesis, coal liquefaction, petroleum cracking, polymer degradation and biomass conversion. For example, aromatic rings are ubiquitous skeletal features in inert chemical feed stocks, but are inert to many reaction conditions owing to their aromaticity and low polarity. Over the past century, only a few methods under harsh conditions have achieved direct arene ring modifications involving the cleavage of inert aromatic C-C bonds, and arene ring-cleavage reactions using stoichiometric transition metal complexes or enzymes in bacteria are still limited. We now report a copper-catalysed selective arene ring-opening reaction strategy. Our aerobic oxidative copper catalysis converts anilines, arylboronic acids, aryl azides, aryl halides, aryl triflates, aryl trimethylsiloxanes, aryl hydroxamic acids and aryl diazonium salts into alkenyl nitriles through selective C-C bond cleavage of arene rings. This chemistry was applied to the modification of polycyclic aromatics and the preparation of industrially important hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid derivatives. Several examples of late-stage modification of complex molecules and fused ring compounds further support the potential broad utility of this methodology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03801-yDOI Listing
July 2021

Second unmanipulated allogeneic transplantation could be used as a salvage option for patients with relapsed acute leukemia post-chemotherapy plus modified donor lymphocyte infusion.

Front Med 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Institute of Hematology, Beijing, 100044, China.

Relapse is the main problem after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The outcome of a second allo-HSCT (HSCT2) for relapse post-HSCT has shown promising results in some previous studies. However, little is known about the efficacy of HSCT2 in patients with relapsed/refractory acute leukemia (AL) post-chemotherapy plus modified donor lymphocyte infusion (post-Chemo + m-DLI) after the first allo-HSCT (HSCT1). Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed the efficacy of HSCT2 in 28 patients with relapsed/refractory AL post-Chemo + m-DLI in our center. With a median follow-up of 918 (457-1732) days, 26 patients (92.9%) achieved complete remission, and 2 patients exhibited persistent disease. The probabilities of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) 1 year after HSCT2 were 25.0% and 21.4%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality on day 100 and at 1 year post-HSCT2 were 7.1% ± 4.9% and 25.0% ± 8.4%. The cumulative incidences of relapse were 50.0% ± 9.8% and 53.5% ± 9.9% at 1 and 2 years post-HSCT2, respectively. Risk stratification prior to HSCT1 and percentage of blasts before HSCT2 were independent risk factors for OS post-HSCT2, and relapse within 6 months post-HSCT1 was an independent risk factor for DFS and relapse post-HSCT2. Our findings suggest that HSCT2 could be a salvage option for patients with relapsed AL post-Chemo + m-DLI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11684-021-0833-xDOI Listing
July 2021

Recent advance on chemistry and bioactivities of secondary metabolites from Viburnum plants: An update.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Yangzhou University, College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, No.12 Wenhui East Road, Yangzhou City, 225009, Yangzhou, CHINA.

Viburnum species are a group of small trees or shrubs that are of great ornamental and medicinal values. Some of them have been used for a long time both as conventional and ethnic medicine. Viburnum fruits, eaten in fresh and processed forms, have been revealed to contain various health-promoting nutrients. With the increasing research on Viburnum plants, they are considered to be an abundant resource of bioactive natural products possessing diverse pharmacological properties and unique chemical structures, that is powerfully proved by the existence of structurally novel vibsane-type diterpenoids which only occur in Viburnum species, newly discovered lignan constituents with unusual side chains and other noteworthy natural components. This review describes 185 new and 228 known secondary metabolites from Viburnum genus between 2008 and 2020, including their chemical structures, sources and bioactivities, and highlights the corresponding structure-activity relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202100404DOI Listing
July 2021

The effects of increased dose of hepatitis B vaccine on mother-to-child transmission and immune response for infants born to mothers with chronic hepatitis B infection: a prospective, multicenter, large-sample cohort study.

BMC Med 2021 Jul 13;19(1):148. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Artificial Liver Treatment Center, Beijing Youan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Appropriate passive-active immunoprophylaxis effectively reduces mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV), but the immunoprophylaxis failure was still more than 5% under the current strategy. The study objective was to investigate the effects of high dose of HB vaccine on MTCT and immune response for infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers.

Methods: This was a prospective, multicenter, large-sample cohort study in four sites of China, and 955 pairs of HBsAg-positive mothers and their infants were enrolled in our investigation. The infants were given 10 μg or 20 μg HB vaccine (at age 0, 1, and 6 months) plus HB immunoglobulin (at age 0 and 1 month). Serum HBsAg, antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs), and/or HBV DNA levels in the infants were determined at age 12 months. The safety of 20 μg HB vaccine was evaluated by adverse events and observing the growth indexes of infants.

Results: Thirteen of 955 infants were HBsAg-positive at 12 months. Stratification analysis showed that immunoprophylaxis failure rates in the 20 μg group were not significantly different from the 10 μg group, whatever maternal HBV load was high or not. But the high dose of HB vaccine significantly reduced low-response rate (anti-HBs 10-100 IU/L) (P = 0.002) and middle-response rate (anti-HBs 100-1000 IU/L) (P = 0.022) and improved high-response rate (anti-HBs ≥ 1000 IU/L) (P < 0.0001) in infants born to mothers with HBV DNA < 5 log IU/mL. For infants born to mothers with HBV DNA ≥ 5 log IU/mL, 20 μg HB vaccine did not present these above response advantages. The 20 μg HB vaccine showed good safety for infants.

Conclusions: The 20 μg HB vaccine did not further reduce immunoprophylaxis failure of infants from HBsAg-positive mothers, but increased the high-response and decreased low-response rates for infants born to mothers with HBV DNA < 5 log IU/mL.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-PRC-09000459.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-02025-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276424PMC
July 2021

Estimation of Heavy Metals in Tailings and Soils Using Hyperspectral Technology: A Case Study in a Tin-Polymetallic Mining Area.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

CAS Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China.

Rapid assessment of heavy metal (HM) pollution in mining areas is urgently required for further remediation. Here, hyperspectral technology was used to predict HM contents of multi-media environments (tailings, surrounding soils and agricultural soils) in a mining area. The correlation between hyperspectral data and HMs was explored, then the prediction models were established by partial least squares regression (PLSR) and back propagation neural networks (BPNN). The determination coefficients (R), root mean squared error and ratios of performance to interquartile range (RPIQ) were used to evaluate the performance of the models. Results show that: (1) both PLSR and BPNN had good prediction ability, and (2) BPNN had better generalization ability (Cu (R = 0.89, RPIQ = 3.05), Sn (R = 0.86, RPIQ = 4.91), Zn (R = 0.74, RPIQ = 1.44) and Pb (R = 0.70, RPIQ = 2.10)). In summary, this study indicates that hyperspectral technology has potential application in HM estimation and soil pollution investigation in polymetallic mining areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03311-7DOI Listing
July 2021

Pollution Characteristics and Risk Assessment of Potential Toxic Elements in a Tin-polymetallic Mine Area Southwest China: Environmental Implications by Multi-Medium Analysis.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008, Nanjing, China.

A multi-medium system, involving tailing area (tailings, surrounding soils and water) and downstream agricultural area (river water, sediments and farmland soils), was conceived to evaluate the pollution status of potential toxic elements (PTEs, including Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sn, Pb, Cr and Cd) and environmental risks in a tin-polymetallic mine area southwest China. The results indicated that tailings exhibited representative enrichment and combination characteristics of Sn, Cu, Ni, Fe, As, Pb and Cr compared to surrounding soils. Acid mine drainage (AMD) from tailings and other mining-related sources greatly affected river water and farmland soils, resulting in soil acidification and accumulation of Sn, As, Cu and Pb in paddy soils. Overall, potential ecological risks posed by tailings and river sediments, and pollution risks from Cu, As and Pb in farmland should be concerned. Therefore, effective measures should be urgently taken to prevent PTEs and AMD into surrounding environmental media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03314-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Silver-enhanced fluorescence of bimetallic Au/Ag nanoclusters as ultrasensitive sensing probe for the detection of folic acid.

Talanta 2021 Oct 17;233:122469. Epub 2021 May 17.

State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022, Jilin, China; University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026, China. Electronic address:

Folic acid (FA) is the natural form of water-soluble vitamins widely found in most plants and animal products and its deficiency leads to several human body abnormalities. The advancements of metal nanoclusters are highly increasing due to their molecule-like optical properties and attractive applications. Because of increasingly demand of noble metal nanoclusters as sensing templates, different synthesis methods have been developed for facile synthesis of noble metal nanoclusters. Herein, red-emitting fluorescent bovine serum albumin (BSA)-capped Au-Ag bimetallic NCs are facilely synthesized through green one-pot synthetic approach. The effect of silver on the fluorescence properties of Au NCs was investigated and it was found that introduction of silver can enhance the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence intensity of the as-prepared Au-Ag nanoclusters gets quenched in the presence of folic acid in an aqueous medium and it was used as ultrasensitive sensing probe for FA detection. The developed Au-Ag NCs-based sensing probe shows linear response in the wide range of 0-100 μM and the detection limit is as low as 0.47 nM. Its applicability has also been confirmed successfully in real human serum, urine and FA tablet samples. Due to the high stability, sensitivity and selectivity, the developed bimetallic cluster sensing system is highly promising to be applied in the pharmaceutical and clinical laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122469DOI Listing
October 2021

Fault Diagnosis of Brake Train Based on Multi-Sensor Data Fusion.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 25;21(13). Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Province for Complex System Control and Intelligent Information Processing, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, China.

In this paper, a fault diagnosis method is proposed based on multi-sensor fusion information for a single fault and composite fault of train braking systems. Firstly, the single mass model of the train brake is established based on operating environment. Then, the pre-allocation and linear-weighted summation criterion are proposed to fuse the monitoring data. Finally, based on the improved expectation maximization, the braking modes and braking parameters are identified, and the braking faults are diagnosed in real time. The simulation results show that the braking parameters of systems can be effectively identified, and the braking faults can be diagnosed accurately based on the identification results. Even if the monitoring data are missing or abnormal, compared with the maximum fusion, the accuracies of parameter identifications and fault diagnoses can still meet the needs of the actual systems, and the effectiveness and robustness of the method can be verified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21134370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271914PMC
June 2021

Genotype Profile of Global EYS-Associated Inherited Retinal Dystrophy and Clinical Findings in a Large Chinese Cohort.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:634220. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to probe the global profile of the EYS-associated genotype-phenotype trait in the worldwide reported IRD cases and to build a model for predicting disease progression as a reference for clinical consultation.

Methods: This retrospective study of 420 well-documented IRD cases with mutations in the gene included 39 patients from a genotype-phenotype study of inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD) conducted at the Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology and 381 cases retrieved from global reports. All patients underwent ophthalmic evaluation. Mutations were revealed using next-generation sequencing, followed by Sanger DNA sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Multiple regression models and statistical analysis were used to assess the genotype and phenotype characteristics and traits in this large cohort.

Results: A total of 420 well-defined patients with 841 identified mutations in the gene were successfully obtained. The most common pathogenic variant was a frameshift c.4957dupA (p.S1653Kfs2) in exon 26, with an allele frequency of 12.7% (107/841), followed by c.8805C > A (p.Y2935X) in exon 43, with an allele frequency of 5.9% (50/841). Two new hot spots were identified in the Chinese cohort, c.1750G > T (p.E584X) and c.7492G > C (p.A2498P). Several EYS mutation types were identified, with CNV being relatively common. The mean age of onset was 20.54 ± 11.33 (4-46) years. Clinical examinations revealed a typical progression of RPE atrophy from the peripheral area to the macula.

Conclusion: This large global cohort of 420 IRD cases, with 262 distinct variants, identified genotype-phenotype correlations and mutation spectra with hotspots in the gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.634220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226124PMC
June 2021

Whether sutures reduce the graft laceration caused by interference screw in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? A biomechanical study in vitro.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jun 22;22(1):571. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Orthopaedics, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou University, No. 82 Cuiyingmen, Chengguan District, 730030, Lanzhou City, Gansu Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Interference screw is commonly used for graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, previous studies had reported that the insertion of interference screws significantly caused graft laceration. The purposes of this study were to (1) quantitatively evaluate the graft laceration from one single insertion of PEEK interference screws; and (2) determine whether different types of sutures reduced the graft laceration after one single insertion of interference screws in ACL reconstruction.

Methods: The in-vitro ACL reconstruction model was created using porcine tibias and bovine extensor digitorum tendons of bovine hind limbs. The ends of grafts were sutured using three different sutures, including the bioabsorbable, Ethibond and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sutures. Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) interference screws were used for tibial fixation. This study was divided into five groups (n = 10 in each group): the non-fixed group, the non-sutured group, the absorbable suture group, the Ethibond suture group and the UHMWPE suture group. Biomechanical tests were performed using the mode of pull-to-failure loading tests at 10 mm/min. Tensile stiffness (newtons per millimeter), energy absorbed to failure (in joules) and ultimate load (newtons) were recorded for analysis.

Results: All prepared tendons and bone specimens showed similar characteristics (length, weight, and pre-tension of the tendons, tibial bone mineral density) among all groups (P > 0.05). The biomechanical tests demonstrated that PEEK interference screws significantly caused the graft laceration (P < 0.05). However, all sutures (the bioabsorbable, Ethibond and UHMWPE sutures) did not reduce the graft laceration in ACL reconstruction (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: Our biomechanical study suggested that the ultimate failure load of grafts was reduced of approximately 25 % after one single insertion of a PEEK interference screw in ACL reconstruction. Suturing the ends of the grafts using different sutures (absorbable, Ethibond and UHMWPE sutures) did not decrease the graft laceration caused by interference screws.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04457-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218482PMC
June 2021

Long noncoding RNA AFAP1-AS1 promotes tumor progression and invasion by regulating the miR-2110/Sp1 axis in triple-negative breast cancer.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Jun 18;12(7):627. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Breast Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College &Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS), Beijing, China.

Long noncoding ribonucleic acids (LncRNAs) have been found to be involved in the proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, migration, and other pathological processes of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Expression of the lncRNA actin filament-associated protein 1 antisense RNA1 (AFAP1-AS1) has been found to be significantly higher in TNBC than in other subtypes or in normal tissue samples, but the specific mechanism by which AFAP1-AS1 affects the occurrence and development of TNBC is yet to be revealed. In this study, we used Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), colony formation, wound healing migration, Transwell invasion, and nude mouse xenograft assays to confirm the role of AFAP1-AS1 in the proliferation, migration of TNBC cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we performed bioinformatics analyses, reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot (WB), and dual-luciferase reporter assays (dual-LRA) to confirm interaction among AFAP1-AS1, micro-RNA 2110 (miR-2110), and Sp1 transcription factor (Sp1). We found that silencing AFAP1-AS1 and Sp1 or upregulating miR-2110 suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells in vitro as well as tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, the dual-LRA highlighted that miR-2110 was an inhibitory target of AFAP1-AS1, and that AFAP1-AS1 functioned as a miR-2110 sponge to increase Sp1 expression. AFAP1-AS1 silencing led to a reduction in Sp1 mRNA and protein levels, which could be reversed by joint transfection with miR-2110 inhibitor. Our findings demonstrated that AFAP1-AS1 could modulate the progression of breast cancer cells and affect tumorigenesis in mice by acting as a miR-2110 sponge, resulting in regulation of Sp1 expression. Therefore, AFAP1-AS1 could play a pivotal role in the treatment of TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03917-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213778PMC
June 2021

Single-Cell Analysis of Ploidy and Transcriptome Reveals Functional and Spatial Divergency in Murine Megakaryopoiesis.

Blood 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China National Center for Bioinformation, Beijing, China.

Megakaryocytes (MKs), the platelet progenitor cell, play important roles in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance and immunity. However, it is not known whether these diverse programs are executed by a single population or by distinct subsets of cells. Here, we manually-isolated primary CD41+ MKs from the bone marrow (BM) of mice and human donors based on ploidy (2N-32N), performed single-cell RNA sequencing analysis. We found that cellular heterogeneity existed within three distinct subpopulations possessing gene signatures related to platelet-generation, HSC niche interaction, and inflammatory responses, respectively. In situ immunostaining of mouse BM demonstrated that platelet-generation and HSC-niche related MKs were physically in close proximity to blood vessels and HSCs, respectively. Proplatelets, which could give rise to platelets under the blood shear forces, were predominantly formed on platelet-generation subset. Remarkably, the inflammatory responses subpopulation, consisting generally of low-ploidy LSP1+ and CD53+ MKs (≤8N), represented approximately 5% of total MKs in the BM. These MKs could specifically respond to pathogen infections in mice. Rapid expansion of this population was accompanied by strong upregulation of a pre-existing PU.1 and IRF-8-associated monocytic-like transcriptional program involved in pathogen recognition and clearance, as well as antigen presentation. Consistently, isolated primary CD53+ cells were capable to engulf and digest bacteria and to stimulate T cells in vitro. Together, our findings uncover new molecular, spatial, and functional heterogeneity within MKs in vivo and demonstrate the existence of a specialized MK subpopulation that may act as a new type of immune cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021010697DOI Listing
June 2021

Portrait of visual cortical circuits for generating neural oscillation dynamics.

Cogn Neurodyn 2021 Feb 10;15(1):3-16. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 China.

The mouse primary visual cortex (V1) has emerged as a classical system to study neural circuit mechanisms underlying visual function and plasticity. A variety of efferent-afferent neuronal connections exists within the V1 and between the V1 and higher visual cortical areas or thalamic nuclei, indicating that the V1 system is more than a mere receiver in information processing. Sensory representations in the V1 are dynamically correlated with neural activity oscillations that are distributed across different cortical layers in an input-dependent manner. Circuits consisting of excitatory pyramidal cells (PCs) and inhibitory interneurons (INs) are the basis for generating neural oscillations. In general, INs are clustered with their adjacent PCs to form specific microcircuits that gate or filter the neural information. The interaction between these two cell populations has to be coordinated within a local circuit in order to preserve neural coding schemes and maintain excitation-inhibition (E-I) balance. Phasic alternations of the E-I balance can dynamically regulate temporal rhythms of neural oscillation. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that the two major sub-types of INs, parvalbumin-expressing (PV) cells and somatostatin-expressing (SOM) INs, are active in controlling slow and fast oscillations, respectively, in the mouse V1. The review summarizes recent experimental findings on elucidating cellular or circuitry mechanisms for the generation of neural oscillations with distinct rhythms in either developing or matured mouse V1, mainly focusing on visual relaying circuits and distinct local inhibitory circuits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11571-020-09623-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179876PMC
February 2021

Loco-regional therapy and the risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Breast Cancer 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Breast Disease, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, 1 Shuaifuyuan, Wangfujing, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: This meta-analysis was designed to assess the association between two loco-regional therapies, regional nodal irradiation (RNI) and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), and breast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL).

Methods: We searched PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, and BMJ databases for clinical studies published between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2020, which assessed risk factors and incidence/prevalence of BCRL. Two investigators independently selected articles to extract relative data and calculate corresponding exact binomial 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In total, 93 articles were reviewed, from which 19 studies were selected. The extracted data were pooled using a random-effects mixed model.

Results: The incidence of lymphedema in the selected studies ranged from 3% to 36.7%, with a pooled incidence of 14.29% (95% CI 13.79-14.79). The summary odds ratio/risk ratio (OR/RR) of ALND vs. no-ALND was 3.67 (95% CI 2.25-5.98) with a heterogeneity (I) of 81% (P < 0.00001). After excluding the studies with an abnormally high risk of lymphedema from self-reporting, the summary hazard ratio (HR) was 2.99 (95% CI 2.44-3.66) with no heterogeneity (I = 0%, P = 0.83). The summary OR/RR of patients with vs. without radiotherapy (RT) was 1.82 (95% CI 0.92-3.59), but the RR of RT to breast/chest vs. both axillary and supraclavicular areas was 2.66 (95% CI 0.73-9.70).

Conclusion: Regional nodal irradiation has a significantly higher risk for developing lymphedema than irradiation of the breast/chest wall. Axillary dissection and axillary RT have a similar risk for early-onset of breast cancer-related lymphoedema, although the risk trends higher for axillary dissection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12282-021-01263-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Start codon disruption with CRISPR/Cas9 prevents murine Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy.

Elife 2021 Jun 8;10. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Phil and Penny Knight Campus for Accelerating Scientific Impact, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, United States.

A missense mutation of collagen type VIII alpha 2 chain () gene leads to early-onset Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD), which progressively impairs vision through the loss of corneal endothelial cells. We demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-based postnatal gene editing achieves structural and functional rescue in a mouse model of FECD. A single intraocular injection of an adenovirus encoding both the Cas9 gene and guide RNA (Ad-Cas9-Col8a2gRNA) efficiently knocked down mutant expression in corneal endothelial cells, prevented endothelial cell loss, and rescued corneal endothelium pumping function in adult mutant mice. There were no adverse sequelae on histology or electroretinography. start codon disruption represents a non-surgical strategy to prevent vision loss in early-onset FECD. As this demonstrates the ability of Ad-Cas9-gRNA to restore the phenotype in adult post-mitotic cells, this method may be widely applicable to adult-onset diseases, even in tissues affected with disorders of non-reproducing cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8216720PMC
June 2021

ZnCdS Hollow Spheres with a Highly Dispersed Ni Dopant for Boosting Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 21;6(21):13544-13553. Epub 2021 May 21.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science, School of Chemistry and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China.

Facilitating charge separation and increasing surface active sites have always been the goals of photocatalysis. Herein, we synthesized a Ni-doped ZnCdS hollow sphere photocatalyst with a facile one-step hydrothermal method. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy mapping showed the high dispersion of Ni ions in the ZnCdS hollow spheres. The experimental results confirmed that Ni doping reduced the band structure of the substrate, suppressed the recombination of photo-induced electrons and holes, and provided more reactive sites. Therefore, the photocatalytic activity had been greatly improved. As a consequence, the detected photocatalytic H evolution rate increased up to 33.81 mmol·h·g over an optimal Ni doping (5 wt %) of ZnCdS hollow spheres, which was 20.87-fold higher than that of pure CdS. Elemental mapping showed that the Zn element was mainly distributed in the outermost layer of the hollow spheres; this might be the critical factor that enabled Ni-doped Zn Cd S to maintain excellent stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c06038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173556PMC
June 2021

Hydrogen Transportation Behaviour of V-Ni Solid Solution: A First-Principles Investigation.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 17;14(10). Epub 2021 May 17.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Storage Materials of Guangdong Province, School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Hydrogen embrittlement causes deterioration of materials used in metal-hydrogen systems. Alloying is a good option for overcoming this issue. In the present work, first-principles calculations were performed to systematically study the effects of adding Ni on the stability, dissolution, trapping, and diffusion behaviour of interstitial/vacancy H atoms of pure V. The results of lattice dynamics and solution energy analyses showed that the V-Ni solid solutions are dynamically and thermodynamically stable, and adding Ni to pure V can reduce the structural stability of various VH phases and enhance their resistance to H embrittlement. H atoms preferentially occupy the characteristic tetrahedral interstitial site (TIS) and the octahedral interstitial site (OIS), which are composed by different metal atoms, and rapidly diffuse along both the energetically favourable TIS → TIS and OIS → OIS paths. The trapping energy of monovacancy H atoms revealed that Ni addition could help minimise the H trapping ability of the vacancies and suppress the retention of H in V. Monovacancy defects block the diffusion of H atoms more than the interstitials, as determined from the calculated H-diffusion barrier energy data, whereas Ni doping contributes negligibly toward improving the H-diffusion coefficient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14102603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155835PMC
May 2021

Molecular Epidemiological Survey of Canine Parvovirus Circulating in China from 2014 to 2019.

Pathogens 2021 May 11;10(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Veterinary Pathology Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

The global distribution of canine parvovirus (CPV-2) derived from a closely related carnivore parvovirus poses a considerable threat to the dog population. The virus is continuously undergoing genetic evolution, giving rise to several variants. To investigate the prevalence of Chinese CPV-2 strains in recent years, a total of 30 CPV-2 strains were collected from 2018 to 2021 and the VP2 gene was sequenced and analyzed. Two variants, new CPV-2a (297Ala, 426Asn) and CPV-2c (426Glu), were identified. In contrast to previous reports, the CPV-2c variant has gained an epidemiological advantage over the new CPV-2a variant in China. To compensate for the relatively small sample size, 683 Chinese CPV-2 strains identified between 2014 and 2019 were retrieved from the GenBank database and previous publications, and analyses of these strains further supported our findings, which should be considered since the CPV-2c variant has been frequently associated with immune failure in adult dogs. VP2 protein sequence analysis revealed several amino acid substitutions, including Ala5Gly, Pro13Ser, Phe267Tyr, Tyr324Ile, Gln370Arg, Thr440Ala, and Lys570Arg. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length VP2 gene indicated a close relationship between Chinese strains and other Asian strains, suggesting mutual transmission between Asian countries. Furthermore, intercontinental transmission is a cause for concern. Surprisingly, two feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) strains with the Ile101Thr mutation in the VP2 protein were identified in canine fecal samples; FPV has been considered incapable of infecting dogs. This study clarified the epidemic characteristics of Chinese CPV-2 strains detected between 2014 and 2019, offering a reference for epidemic control. In addition, the detection of FPV in canine samples may provide information for future studies on the evolution of carnivore parvoviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150379PMC
May 2021

Identification of anti-inflammatory compounds from Zhongjing formulae by knowledge mining and high-content screening in a zebrafish model of inflammatory bowel diseases.

Chin Med 2021 May 31;16(1):42. Epub 2021 May 31.

Pharmaceutical Informatics Institute, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing intestinal inflammations with increasing global incidence, and new drug development remains in urgent demand for IBD management. To identify effective traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formulae and compounds in IBD treatment, we innovatively combined the techniques of knowledge mining, high-content screening and high-resolution mass spectrometry, to conduct a systematic screening in Zhongjing formulae, which is a large collection of TCM prescriptions with most abundant clinical evidences.

Methods: Using Word2vec-based text learning, the correlations between 248 Zhongjing formulae and IBD typical symptoms were analyzed. Next, from the top three formulae with predicted relationship with IBD, TCM fractions were prepared and screened on a transgenic zebrafish IBD model for their therapeutic effects. Subsequently, the chemical compositions of the fraction hits were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and the major compounds were further studied for their anti-IBD effects and potential mechanisms.

Results: Through knowledge mining, Peach Blossom Decoction, Pulsatilla Decoction, and Gegen Qinlian Decoction were predicted to be the three Zhongjing formulae mostly related to symptoms typical of IBD. Seventy-four fractions were prepared from the three formulae and screened in TNBS-induced zebrafish IBD model by high-content analysis, with the inhibition on the intestinal neutrophil accumulation and ROS level quantified as the screening criteria. Six herbal fractions showed significant effects on both pathological processes, which were subsequently analyzed by mass spectrometry to determine their chemical composition. Based on the major compounds identified by mass spectrometry, a second-round screen was conducted and six compounds (palmatine, daidzin, oroxyloside, chlorogenic acid, baicalin, aesculin) showed strong inhibitory effects on the intestinal inflammation phenotypes. The expression of multiple inflammatory factors, including il1β, clcx8a, mmp and tnfα, were increased in TNBS-treated fish, which were variously inhibited by the compounds, with aesculin showing the most potent effects. Moreover, aesculin and daidzin also upregulated e-cadherin's expression.

Conclusion: Taken together, we demonstrated the regulatory effects of several TCM formulae and their active compounds in the treatment of IBD, through a highly efficient research strategy, which can be applied in the discovery of effective TCM formulae and components in other diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-021-00452-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166029PMC
May 2021

Hepatitis B Seropositive Status in Recipients or Donors Is Not Related to Worse Outcomes after Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Aug 27;27(8):668.e1-668.e9. Epub 2021 May 27.

Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Institute of Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Disease, Research Unit of Key Technique for Diagnosis and Treatments of Hematologic Malignancies, Beijing Key Laboratory of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Beijing, China; Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has a high rate of chronic infection in Asian populations, and only limited studies have been performed to analyze the impact of HBV-seropositive haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) recipients and donors. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect on clinical outcomes in those patients. We conducted a retrospective study enrolling 237 consecutive patients undergoing first haplo-HSCT. The patients were classified into 3 groups: recipient HBV-positive group (R+D-; n = 62), donor HBV-positive group (D+; n = 83), and HBV-negative group (R-D-; n = 92). Corresponding prophylactic antiviral treatment was given in the R+D- and D+ groups. The results were compared among the 3 groups using the Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables, Pearson's chi-square test for categorical variables, the competing-risk method to evaluate cumulative incidence, Kaplan-Meier curves to estimate overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS), and a Cox proportional hazard model to analyze multivariable influences. The 3-year cumulative HBV reactivation rate was 4.2%. The median time to HBV reactivation was 845 days (range, 545 to 1439 days) after haplo-HSCT. The R+D- group tended to have a higher cumulative incidence of HBV reactivation compared with the D+ group (11.8% versus 3.1%; P = .080). Significant differences in the causes of hepatic damage were observed among the 3 groups (P = .017), and all patients with acute hepatitis B after haplo-HSCT were from the R+D- group. Multivariate analysis showed that pretransplantation HBV status was associated with cytomegalovirus reactivation (R+D- versus R-D-: hazard ratio, 1.514; 95% confidence interval, 1.060 to 2.163; P = .023). The 3-year OS and DFS, 3-year cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM), rates of relapse and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and causes of death were comparable among the 3 groups. Pretransplantation HBV serostatus had no significant effect on OS, DFS, NRM, relapse, or GVHD in the multivariate analysis. Based on our data, seropositivity for hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) or core antibody (HBcAb) in donors or recipients before transplantation did not negatively affect the overall outcome after haplo-HSCT under the premise of proper antiviral prophylaxis along with regular post-transplantation surveillance, and HBV seropositivity should not be considered a contraindication to haplo-HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.015DOI Listing
August 2021

Brain metabolic characteristics distinguishing typical and atypical benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Medical PET Center, The Second Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 88 Jiefang Road, Zhejiang, 310009, Hangzhou, China.

Objectives: Atypical benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS) have less favorable outcomes than typical BECTS, and thus should be accurately identified for adequate treatment. We aimed to investigate the glucose metabolic differences between typical and atypical BECTS using F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([F]FDG PET) imaging, and explore whether these differences can help distinguish.

Methods: Forty-six patients with typical BECTS, 31 patients with atypical BECTS and 23 controls who underwent [F]FDG PET examination were retrospectively involved. Absolute asymmetry index (|AI|) was applied to evaluate the severity of metabolic abnormality. Glucose metabolic differences were investigated among typical BECTS, atypical BECTS, and controls by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Logistic regression analyses were performed based on clinical, PET, and hybrid features.

Results: The |AI| was found significantly higher in atypical BECTS than in typical BECTS (p = 0.040). Atypical BECTS showed more hypo-metabolism regions than typical BECTS, mainly located in the fronto-temporo-parietal cortex. The PET model had significantly higher area under the curve (AUC) than the clinical model (0.91 vs. 0.70, p = 0.006). The hybrid model had the highest sensitivity (0.90), specificity (0.85), and accuracy (0.87) of all three models.

Conclusions: Atypical BECTS showed more widespread and severe hypo-metabolism than typical BECTS, depending on which the two groups can be well distinguished. The combination of metabolic characteristics and clinical variables has the potential to be used clinically to distinguish between typical and atypical BECTS.

Key Points: • Distinguishing between typical and atypical BECTS is very important for the formulation of treatment regimens in clinical practice. • Atypical BECTS showed more widespread and severe hypo-metabolism than typical BECTS, mainly located in the fronto-temporo-parietal cortex. • The logistic regression model based on PET outperformed that based on clinical characteristics in classification of typical and atypical BECTS, and the hybrid model achieved the best classification performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08051-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Sperm DNA fragmentation measured by sperm chromatin dispersion impacts morphokinetic parameters, fertilization rate and blastocyst quality in ICSI treatments.

Zygote 2021 May 26:1-8. Epub 2021 May 26.

Centre of Reproductive Medicine and Genetic, the People's Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

To determine the effects of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) on embryo morphokinetic parameters, cleavage patterns and embryo quality, this retrospective study analyzed 151 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles (1152 embryos collected) between November 2016 and June 2019. SDF was assessed using sperm chromatin dispersion. The cycles were divided into two groups based on the SDF rate: SDF < 15% (n = 114) and SDF ≥ 15% (n = 37). The embryo morphokinetic parameters, cleavage patterns, and embryo quality were compared between the two groups. The morphokinetic parameters tPNf, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6, and t8 were achieved significantly earlier in the SDF < 15% group compared with in the SDF ≥ 15% group. The fertilization and 2PN rates seemed to be significantly higher in the SDF < 15% group compared with in the SDF ≥ 15% group, while the abnormal cleavage rates were similar. However, a significantly higher rate of chaotic cleavage (CC) was observed in the SDF ≥ 15% group. The D3 high-quality embryo and available embryo rates were similar between the two groups. The blastocyst formation, high-quality blastocyst, and available blastocyst rates in the SDF < 15% group were significantly higher than those in the SDF ≥ 15% group. With an increase in SDF level, the chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy and implantation rates tended to decrease, while the miscarriage rate increased. This study demonstrated that SDF ≥ 15% reduces the fertilization rate of ICSI cycles and affects certain morphokinetic parameters. A higher SDF level can also induce a higher rate of CC, with subsequent decreases in the blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0967199421000332DOI Listing
May 2021

A 24,482-bp deletion is associated with increased seed weight in Brassica napus L.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Aug 17;134(8):2653-2669. Epub 2021 May 17.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, Hubei, China.

Key Message: A major QTL for seed weight was fine-mapped in rapeseed, and a 24,482-bp deletion likely mediates the effect through multiple pathways. Exploration of the genes controlling seed weight is critical to the improvement of crop yield and elucidation of the mechanisms underlying seed formation in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). We previously identified the quantitative trait locus (QTL) qSW.C9 for the thousand-seed weight (TSW) in a double haploid population constructed from F hybrids between the parental accessions HZ396 and Y106. Here, we confirmed the phenotypic effects associated with qSW.C9 in BCF populations and fine-mapped the candidate causal locus to a 266-kb interval. Sequence and expression analyses revealed that a 24,482-bp deletion in HZ396 containing six predicted genes most likely underlies qSW.C9. Differential gene expression analysis and cytological observations suggested that qSW.C9 affects both cell proliferation and cell expansion through multiple signaling pathways. After genotyping of a rapeseed diversity panel to define the haplotype structure, it could be concluded that the selection of germplasm with two specific markers may be effective in improving the seed weight of rapeseed. This study provides a solid foundation for the identification of the causal gene of qSW.C9 and offers a promising target for the breeding of higher-yielding rapeseed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03850-xDOI Listing
August 2021

Nb/Se Co-doped BiOI nanomaterials with exposed (110) facets for enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jun;57(47):5774-5777

School of Materials and Physics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, China.

Herein, an efficient strategy is demonstrated to prepare a visible-light-driven Nb/Se co-doped BiOI photocatalyst with exposed (110) facets. The results show that its photocatalytic activity is around 17 times higher than that of pure BiOI. This work paves the way towards the fabrication of efficient photocatalysts that have tunable charge dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01336jDOI Listing
June 2021

The significance of an integrated management mode of prenatal diagnosis-postnatal treatment for critical congenital heart disease in newborns.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Apr;11(2):447-456

Department of NICU, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common congenital defect in human beings. The purpose of this article is to investigate impact of an integrated management mode of 'prenatal diagnosis-postnatal treatment' on birth, surgery, prognosis and complications associated with critical CHD (CCHD) in newborns.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of the medical records of newborns diagnosed with CCHD were divided into two groups: prenatal diagnosis and postnatal diagnosis. The demographics, clinical characteristics, surgical status, prognosis and complications of the two groups were compared and the differences identified.

Results: Among the 290 newborns with CCHD, 97 (33.4%) were prenatally diagnosed and 193 (66.6%) were postnatally diagnosed. Newborns in the prenatal diagnostic group were hospitalized immediately after birth, whereas the median age of admission was 6.00 (3.00-12.00) days in postnatal diagnostic group, P=0.000. In terms of postnatal symptoms and signs, the incidence of anhelation, cyanosis and cardiac murmur was higher in the postnatal diagnostic group. The rates of preoperative intubation, postoperative open chest exploration and treatment abandonment were higher in the postnatal diagnostic group. The postnatal diagnostic group was more prone to postoperative complications, such as pneumonia and hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. The preoperative mortality [0 (0.0%) 12 (6.2%), P=0.028] in the prenatal diagnostic group was lower than that in the postnatal diagnostic group. And the one-year survival rate of the prenatal diagnostic group was higher (log-rank test P=0.034).

Conclusions: The integrated management mode of prenatal diagnosis-postnatal treatment can improve postnatal symptoms, reduces complications, reduces preoperative mortality and increases one-year survival rates in newborns with CCHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cdt-20-892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102254PMC
April 2021

Socio-demographic characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women who delivered prior to and after the termination of the one-child policy in China: a comparative study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Apr 21;21(1):318. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of pathology, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Xueshi Road 1, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310006, P.R. China.

Background: The new Chinese fertility policy has recently received widespread public attention. However, there are few studies available on the comprehensive epidemiology of maternal and infant health with respect to the characteristic changes of childbearing women. In the study, we compared the maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes at different time points according to policy adjustments, accessed the possible relationship among these factors, and evaluated the impacts of these policies for medical and policy assistance.

Methods: This was a retrospective study. Data were collected from three representative hospitals in Zhejiang Province using stratified random sampling. The annual number of births, and maternal and child healthcare levels were the determining factors of sampling. Women who gave birth in November of 2012, 2014, and 2016 were recruited in accordance with the time of the change in the fertility policy, and we explored the differences in maternal socio-demographic characteristics, delivery mode and pregnancy outcomes.

Results: A total of 11,718 women were recruited, including 3480, 4044, and 4194 in November of 2012, 2014, and 2016, respectively. The proportions of multiparous women, women who aged ≥35 years, who received higher education, who had previous cesarean sections (CS), and who delivered in a high level hospital increased over time. In 2016, multipara accounted for 49.12, 14.47% were aged ≥35 years, nearly half of women had previous CS and delivered in a provincial hospital, 41.73% gave birth by CS, and 31.62% suffered pregnancy complications. The results of multiple logistic regression mode showed CS risk decreased significantly in 2014 (OR = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.55-0.67) relative to 2012, and risks of pregnancy complications (OR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.86-2.83) and multiple births (OR = 3.25; 95% CI, 2.19-4.83) only increased in 2016 compared to 2012.

Conclusions: Some pregnancy outcomes increased as several key characteristics of childbearing women changed after China ended its "one-child" policy. This suggests that policy providers and medical staff need to strengthen healthcare in a consistent fashion regarding changes in birth policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03740-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8061051PMC
April 2021

Optimizing glyphosate tolerance in rapeseed by CRISPR/Cas9-based geminiviral donor DNA replicon system with Csy4-based single-guide RNA processing.

J Exp Bot 2021 Jun;72(13):4796-4808

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop worldwide, and effective weed control can protect its yield and quality. Farmers can benefit from cultivars tolerant to herbicides such as glyphosate. Amino acid substitutions in enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) render the plant less sensitive to glyphosate. Therefore, we aimed to optimize the glyphosate tolerance trait in rapeseed via endogenous EPSPS modification. To achieve effective gene replacement in B. napus L., we employed a CRISPR/Cas9 system expressing single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) cleaved by the CRISPR-associated RNA endoribonuclease Csy4 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, for targeted induction of double-strand breaks. Both the donor template and a geminiviral replicon harbouring an sgRNA expression cassette were introduced into plant cells. Using sgRNAs targeting adjacent donor DNA template containing synonymous mutations in sgRNA sites, we achieved precise gene replacements in the endogenous B. napus EPSPS gene, BnaC04EPSPS, resulting in amino acid substitutions at frequencies up to 20%. Rapeseed seedlings harbouring these substitutions were glyphosate-tolerant. Furthermore, modifications in BnaC04EPSPS were precisely transmitted to the next generation. Our genome editing strategy enables highly efficient gene targeting and the induction of glyphosate tolerance in oilseed rape.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erab167DOI Listing
June 2021
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