Publications by authors named "Xiaohong Chen"

649 Publications

No Statistically Apparent Difference in Antifungal Effectiveness Observed Among Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Plus Clindamycin or Caspofungin, and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Monotherapy in HIV-Infected Patients with Moderate to Severe Pneumocystis Pneumonia: Results of an Observational Multicenter Cohort Study.

Infect Dis Ther 2022 Jan 20. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Chongqing Public Health Medical Center, 109 Baoyu Road, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400036, China.

Introduction: Pneumocystis pneumonia is a common opportunistic infection in patients with HIV/AIDS, and is a leading cause of death in this population. Early selection of effective treatment is therefore critical to reduce mortality. We conducted a clinical trial to compare the effectiveness and safety of three different antifungal treatment regimens in HIV-infected patients with moderate to severe PCP.

Methods: Our study was a multicenter, observational prospective clinical trial. We recruited 320 HIV-infected patients with moderate to severe PCP, and stratified these subjects into a trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) monotherapy group, a TMP-SMX plus clindamycin group, and a TMP-SMX plus caspofungin group. Patients were invited to participate in 12 weeks of follow-up. Outcomes included the difference in overall mortality and the proportion of overall positive response to treatment in the three groups at weeks 4 and 12, the difference in treatment duration, and the proportion of adverse events among the three groups during the study period.

Results: The probability of survival not statistically different among three treatment groups. Mortality in the TMP-SMX monotherapy group (group 1) was 15/115 (13.04%) vs. 20/83 (24.10%) in the TMP-SMX plus clindamycin group (group 2) vs. 24/107 (22.43%) in the TMP-SMX plus caspofungin group (group 3) at week 12 (p = 0.092). The overall positive response rate to treatment in the three groups was 24.14%, 34.94%, and 38.32%, respectively, at week 4, and 33.91%, 38.55%, and 44.86%, respectively, at week 12. No significant difference in the overall positive response rate to treatment at either week 4 or week 12 was noted (p = 0.061, p = 0.246). Rates of changes to therapy were 6.50% (8/123) in group 1, 3.40% (3/87) in group 2, and 2.70% (3/110) in group 3, and did not differ significantly among the three groups (p = 0.376). There were also no significant differences in adverse events among the three treatment groups of patients with moderate to severe PCP.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that there are no significant statistical differences among the three studied treatment regimens in terms of antifungal effectiveness in HIV-infected patients with moderate to severe PCP. TMP-SMX monotherapy is a convenient, cheap, and effective therapeutic drug regimen to treat HIV-infected patients with moderate to severe PCP, and is an appropriate treatment strategy in resource-limited settings.

Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov , ID: ChiCTR1900021195. Registered on February 1, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40121-021-00586-5DOI Listing
January 2022

Carbon-hydrogen bond activation in bridging cyclobutadiene ligands in unsaturated binuclear vanadium carbonyl derivatives.

J Mol Model 2022 Jan 20;28(2):39. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Chemistry and Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

The structures and energetics of the binuclear cyclobutadiene vanadium carbonyls (CH)V(CO) (n = 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2) have been investigated by density functional theory (DFT). The lowest energy (CH)V(CO) structure consists of two CHV(CO) units linked by a V-V single bond of length 3.4 Å. The two lowest energy (CH)V(CO) structures also have formal V-V single bonds. The "extra" two electrons to give each vanadium atom in these heptacarbonyls the favored 18-electron configuration can come from either an agostic C-H-V interaction activating a hydrogen atom from one of the cyclobutadiene rings or from a four-electron donor bridging η-µ-CO group with a short V-O distance. The lowest energy (CH)V(CO) structure has a formal V≡V triple bond of length 2.52 Å similar to the V≡V triple bond of length 2.46 Å found in the experimentally known cyclopentadienyl derivative (η-CH)V(CO). The lowest energy structures for the more highly unsaturated (CH)V(CO) (n = 5, 4, 3, 2) have at least two four-electron donor bridging η-µ-CO groups and a vanadium-vanadium bond order sufficient to give each vanadium atom at least a 16-electron configuration. The structures and energetics of the binuclear cyclobutadiene vanadium carbonyls (CH)V(CO) (n = 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2) have been investigated by density functional theory. The two lowest energy (CH)V(CO) structures include one with an agostic C-H-V interaction activating a hydrogen atom from one of the cyclobutadiene rings and another with a four-electron donor bridging η-µ-CO group with a short V-O bonding distance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-021-05009-3DOI Listing
January 2022

Unprecedented and Readily Tunable Photoluminescence from Aliphatic Quaternary Ammonium Salts.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2022 Jan 17. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Dongchuan Road No. 800, Room 433, Architecture Engineering Building, Minhang Campus, 200240, Shanghai, CHINA.

Compounds bearing aliphatic amines can be emissive under appropriate conditions. However, their ionized counterparts, namely, quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), which are widely used as phase-transfer catalysts, ionic liquids, disinfectants, and surfactants, are known as luminescence quenchers and considered non-emissive. Herein, unprecedented intrinsic fluorescence/phosphorescence dual emissions from various QASs are reported, which can be finely regulated by changing the excitation wavelength, alkyl chain length, counterion, and mechanical stimuli. The bright photoluminescence along with distinct afterglow and tunable multicolor emissions enables the application of QAS solids in advanced multimode anticounterfeiting. This finding refreshes the understanding of QASs and may inspire emerging applications based on the utilization of the intrinsic luminescences of QASs. Furthermore, it opens opportunities for the investigation of QAS-related processes and functions via a photophysical approach and affords strong implications for the fabrication of novel nonconventional luminophores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202117368DOI Listing
January 2022

Simple and effective serum biomarkers potential for predicting status epilepticus in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

BMC Neurol 2022 Jan 14;22(1):27. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Neurology, Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou, 510630, Guangdong, China.

Background: Patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis who also present with status epilepticus (SE) often have a poor prognosis. The aim of this study is to explore simple and effective predictors for anti-NMDAR encephalitis accompanied with SE.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 65 anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients from January 2015 to December 2018 who admitted to the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. Patients were divided into SE group and non-SE groups. Their pre-treatment data and 3-month follow-up data were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: The results showed that compared with the non-SE group, the levels of serum uric acid (UA) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients with SE decreased significantly before treatment. Additionally, the levels of serum UA and HDL-C increased while the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) decreased 3 months after treatment in the SE group. Compared with the non-SE group, the SE patients had higher modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores before (mRS1) and after treatment (mRS2). Serum UA concentrations before treatment showed significantly negative correlations with mRS1 (r = - 0.407, p < 0.01) and mRS2 (r = - 0.458, p < 0.001), while the level of serum CRP before treatment had strong positive correlations with mRS1 (r = 0.304, p < 0.05) and mRS2 (r = 0.301, p < 0.05) in anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients. The receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that the combined detection of UA, HDL-C and CRP before treatment had a significantly higher value (the area under the curve = 0.848; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.957; p < 0.001) to predict anti-NMDAR encephalitis accompanied with SE than that of single detection.

Conclusions: Hence, the combined detection of serum UA, HDL-C and CRP before treatment may be simple and effective indicators for predicting SE in anti-NMDAR encephalitis, which may be helpful in early stages to remind clinicians to be alert to the emergence of SE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-021-02545-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8759236PMC
January 2022

Understanding Health Empowerment From the Perspective of Information Processing: Questionnaire Study.

J Med Internet Res 2022 Jan 11;24(1):e27178. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Hunan University of Technology and Business, Changsha, China.

Background: Massive, easily accessible online health information empowers users to cope with health problems better. Most patients search for relevant online health information before seeing a doctor to alleviate information asymmetry. However, the mechanism of how online health information affects health empowerment is still unclear.

Objective: To study how online health information processing affects health empowerment.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire study that included 343 samples from participants who had searched online health information before the consultation. Respondents' perceptions of online information cues, benefits, health literacy, and health empowerment were assessed.

Results: Perceived argument quality and perceived source credibility have significant and positive effects on perceived information benefits, but only perceived argument quality has a significant effect on perceived decision-making benefits. Two types of perceived benefits, in turn, affect health empowerment. The effects of perceived argument quality on perceived informational benefits and perceived decision-making benefits on health empowerment are significantly stronger for the high health literacy group than the low health literacy group (t=7.156, P<.001; t=23.240, P<.001). While, the effects of perceived source credibility on perceived informational benefits and perceived informational benefits on health empowerment are significantly weaker for the high health literacy group than the low health literacy group (t=-10.497, P<.001; t=-6.344, P<.001). The effect of perceived argument quality on perceived informational benefits shows no significant difference between high and low health literacy groups.

Conclusions:  In the context of online health information, perceived information benefits and perceived decision-making benefits are the antecedents of health empowerment, which in turn will be affected by perceived argument quality and perceived source credibility. Health literacy plays a moderating role in the relationship of some variables. To maximize health empowerment, online health information providers should strengthen information quality and provide differentiated information services based on users' health literacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/27178DOI Listing
January 2022

Interfacing MXene Flakes on a Magnetic Fiber Network as a Stretchable, Flexible, Electromagnetic Shielding Fabric.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Dec 22;12(1). Epub 2021 Dec 22.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200000, China.

A unique self-standing membrane composed of hierarchical thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers is prepared by the electrospinning technique, followed by a simple dip-coating process. FeO nanoparticles are uniformly anchored on TPU/PAN fibers during the electrospinning process, enabling the membrane to achieve effective electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI SE) performance. Such a hybrid membrane has a high magnetization of 18.9 emu/g. When MXene (TiCT) layers are further loaded on the TPU/PAN/FeONPs hybrid membrane, its EMI SE performance in the X band can exceed 30 dB due to the hydrogen bonds generated between the macromolecular chain of PAN and the functional group (T) on the surface of MXene. Simultaneously, the interfacial attraction between MXene and the TPU/PAN/FeONPs substrate is enhanced. The EMI SE mechanism of the hybrid membrane indicates that this film has great potential in the fields of wearable devices and flexible materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano12010020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8746703PMC
December 2021

The electrophysiological features of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis in a young male: a case report.

J Int Med Res 2022 Jan;50(1):3000605211039571

Department of Ophthalmology, The 900th Hospital of Joint Logistic Support Force, PLA (Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Dongfang Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University), Fuzhou Province, China.

This case report describes the detailed electrophysiological features and the corresponding relationship with the structural changes in a case of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS). A 25-year-old male presented with a history of several years of decreased visual acuity in both eyes. The best corrected visual acuity was 20/200 in oculus dexter (OD) and 20/80 in oculus sinister. Retinoschisis was found in the macula by optical coherence tomography, which was more severe in OD. Electroretinogram revealed a similar electronegative waveform in both eyes. Visual evoked potential detected a reduced amplitude and delayed phase in P100-wave, which was worse in OD. The patient was diagnosed as XLRS and advised to undergo continuous medical observation. He was followed up for the next year, with no significant change in retinal function and structure being observed. These current findings suggest that electrophysiology permits the detailed analysis of the clinical picture of XLRS and helps to gain a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211039571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8743956PMC
January 2022

Corrigendum: Glutathione Peroxidase Is Essential for Oxidative Stress Resistance and Efficient Nodulation.

Front Microbiol 2021 15;12:789870. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Hubei Provincial Engineering and Technology Research Center for Resources and Utilization of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2021.627562.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.789870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8717896PMC
December 2021

Evaluating the impacts of small cascade hydropower from a perspective of stream health that integrates eco-environmental and hydrological values.

J Environ Manage 2022 Mar 31;305:114366. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China; Center for Water Resources and Environment, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China; Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center of Water Security Regulation and Control for Southern China, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China.

With small cascade hydropower projects (SCHPs) increasingly employed in small and medium rivers, methods to assess changes in health status within the stream system have become essential to river ecological environment management. In this study, we used a cloud based fuzzy evaluation method to synthetically diagnose the health status of a stream, both as a whole and its parts (hydrological regime, riparian landscape, aquatic community, water quality, and social demand), under the impacts of SCHPs. The results indicated that: (1) average maximum and minimum flows decreased by 20% and 10% respectively, since SCHPs were implemented. Furthermore, the 38% increase in low flow frequency indicated that SCHPs might amplify droughts, the opposite of large hydropower projects which have been shown to alleviate drought; (2) implementation of SCHPs enhanced heterogeneity and fragmentation in riparian landscapes and decreased diversity of riparian vegetation, and dominant species were more likely to emerge on the upstream side of dam; (3) diversity of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthic animals decreased by 14%, 4%, and 16%, respectively, during high-impact period (HIP); and fish species decreased by 26% with a shift from rapid flow adapted to lentic and slow flow adapted species; and (4) the stream still exhibited a healthy state during HIP, but the degree of certainty belonging to "healthy" decreased from 0.279 to 0.192, indicating that the stream health was nearing a deteriorated state. This evaluation model clarified imperceptible and fuzzy changes in stream health which will be helpful in follow-up management decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.114366DOI Listing
March 2022

Gene mutations and clinical prognosis of mucosal melanoma in different locations of head and neck.

Acta Otolaryngol 2021 Dec 26:1-6. Epub 2021 Dec 26.

Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Mucosal melanoma is the second most common subtype of melanoma in China and head and neck region is one of the main sites of this disease.

Aims/objectives: Analyzed the phenotypes of C-Kit, NRAS, PDGFRA and BRAF genes in patients with in different locations to explore the characteristics of gene mutations.

Material And Methods: 96 patients were included in this study. C-Kit (exons 9, 11, 13, 17 and 18), NRAS (exons 1 and 2), PDGFRA (exons 12, 14 and 18) and BRAF (exons 11 and 15) were analyzed by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing.

Results: 14 (14.58%) patients had C-Kit mutation, 6 (6.25%) had BRAF mutation, 23 (23.96%) had PDGFRA mutation, and 12 (12.50%) had NRAS mutation. The NRAS mutation ( = 0.037, 95%CI: 1.050-4.572) was an independent factor affecting distant metastasis and was most commonly found in the nasal cavity/paranasal sinuses ( = .043) while the BRAF mutation was more common in locations other than the nasal cavity/paranasal sinus ( = .008) and was associated with local recurrence.

Conclusions And Significance: Gene phenotypes of mucosal melanoma in different locations has differences. Lesions in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus should be assessed separately from other parts such as the nasopharynx.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016489.2021.2015540DOI Listing
December 2021

Chemical and Physical Culture Conditions Significantly Influence the Cell Mass and Docosahexaenoic Acid Content of Strain PKU#SW8.

Mar Drugs 2021 Nov 26;19(12). Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Center of Marine Environmental Ecology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Thraustochytrids are well-known unicellular heterotrophic marine protists because of their promising ability to accumulate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, the implications of their unique genomic and metabolic features on DHA production remain poorly understood. Here, the effects of chemical and physical culture conditions on the cell mass and DHA production were investigated for a unique thraustochytrid strain, PKU#SW8, isolated from the seawater of Pearl River Estuary. All the tested fermentation parameters showed a significant influence on the cell mass and concentration and yield of DHA. The addition of monosaccharides (fructose, mannose, glucose, or galactose) or glycerol to the culture medium yielded much higher cell mass and DHA concentrations than that of disaccharides and starch. Similarly, organic nitrogen sources (peptone, yeast extract, tryptone, and sodium glutamate) proved to be beneficial in achieving a higher cell mass and DHA concentration. PKU#SW8 was found to grow and accumulate a considerable amount of DHA over wide ranges of KHPO (0.125-1.0 g/L), salinity (0-140% seawater), pH (3-9), temperature (16-36 °C), and agitation (140-230 rpm). With the optimal culture conditions (glycerol, 20 g/L; peptone, 2.5 g/L; 80% seawater; pH 4.0; 28 °C; and 200 rpm) determined based on the shake-flask experiments, the cell mass and concentration and yield of DHA were improved up to 7.5 ± 0.05 g/L, 2.14 ± 0.03 g/L, and 282.9 ± 3.0 mg/g, respectively, on a 5-L scale fermentation. This study provides valuable information about the fermentation conditions of the PKU#SW8 strain and its unique physiological features, which could be beneficial for strain development and large-scale DHA production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19120671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8708202PMC
November 2021

Robust and color-tunable afterglows from guanidine derivatives.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2022 Jan 6;58(4):545-548. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, Shanghai Key Lab of Electrical Insulation and Thermal Aging, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Rd., Minhang, Shanghai 200240, China.

Robust and color-tunable afterglows are readily achieved from guanidine derivatives, dicyandiamide and glycocyamine, through the synergistic interplay between the clustering of electron-rich units and effective hydrogen bonding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc06616aDOI Listing
January 2022

[Surgical management of 27 cases with temporal bone cerebrospinal fluid leakage].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Nov;35(11):998-1003

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,Eye Ear Nose and Throat Hospital,Fudan University.

To study the clinical manifestations and surgical treatment of temporal bone cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The clinical data of twenty seven cases with temporal bone cerebrospinal fluid leakage were analyzed retrospectively. Different surgical procedures were adopted according to the location of the leak and the hearing status of the affected ear.If the leakage location was clear before surgery, direct repair was performed via mastoid path or middle cranial fossa path with or without mastoid abdominal fat packing.For patients with unclear leak, large lesion or intractable CEREBROspinal fluid leakage of temporal bone, subtotal petrosal resection and abdominal fat packing were performed.Subtotal temporal bone resection and abdominal fat packing were performed for patients with cochlear involvement. In this study, cases of temporal bone CSF leakage including 13 cases of inner ear malformation; 5 cases secondary to head trauma or previous surgery,5 cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension or meningocele, 2 cases of langerhans histiocytosis in the temporal bone and 2 cases of inner ear inflammation. High resolution CT (HRCT) of temporal bone showed bone defect of inner auditory canal with vestibular communication in 13 patients with inner ear malformation.The temporal bone HRCT of the remaining 14 patients showed bone defects in the middle cranial fossa or posterior cranial fossa, while MRI of the temporal bone showed meningeal continuity interruption with cerebrospinal fluid inflow into the temporal bone or meningoencephalocele in 12 patients. The 26 patients were followed up from 6 months to 6 years. 1 patient lost follow-up.Meningitis recurred in only 1 patient with inner ear malformation, and subtotal resection of rock bone plus abdominal fat packing was performed.Postoperative hearing was preserved or improved in 7 patients.None of the patients had serious complications, and only 1 patient developed HB Grade Ⅱ facial paralysis after vestibular obliteration, and the facial paralysis recovered within one week. Temporal bone cerebrospinal fluid leakage is relatively rare. Surgical intervention should be taken as early as possible when conservative treatment is failure. Preoperative HRCT and MRI examination are necessary for the localization of the leakage, and individualized surgical approaches can be adopted according to the location of the leakage and the features of the lesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2021.11.008DOI Listing
November 2021

Mobility in China, 2020: a tale of four phases.

Natl Sci Rev 2021 Nov 16;8(11):nwab148. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

College of Systems Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China.

2020 was an unprecedented year, with rapid and drastic changes in human mobility due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To understand the variation in commuting patterns among the Chinese population across stable and unstable periods, we used nationwide mobility data from 318 million mobile phone users in China to examine the extreme fluctuations of population movements in 2020, ranging from the Lunar New Year travel season (), to the exceptional calm of COVID-19 lockdown, and then to the recovery period. We observed that cross-city movements, which increased substantially in and then dropped sharply during the lockdown, are primarily dependent on travel distance and the socio-economic development of cities. Following the Lunar New Year holiday, national mobility remained low until mid-February, and COVID-19 interventions delayed more than 72.89 million people returning to large cities. Mobility network analysis revealed clusters of highly connected cities, conforming to the social-economic division of urban agglomerations in China. While the mass migration back to large cities was delayed, smaller cities connected more densely to form new clusters. During the recovery period after travel restrictions were lifted, the netflows of over 55% city pairs reversed in direction compared to before the lockdown. These findings offer the most comprehensive picture of Chinese mobility at fine resolution across various scenarios in China and are of critical importance for decision making regarding future public-health-emergency response, transportation planning and regional economic development, among others.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwab148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8645011PMC
November 2021

Selection of OSA-specific pronunciations and assessment of disease severity assisted by machine learning.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 Dec 7. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, People's Republic of China.

Study Objectives: To screen all of the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-characteristic pronunciations, explore the pronunciations which provide a better OSA classification effect than those used previously, and further clarify the correlation between speech signals and OSA.

Methods: A total of 158 adult male Mandarin native speakers who completed polysomnography at the Sleep Medicine Center of Beijing Tongren Hospital from November 15, 2019 to January 19, 2020 were enrolled in this study. All Chinese syllables were collected from each participant in the sitting position. The syllables, vowels, consonants and tones were screened to identify the pronunciations that were most effective for OSA classification.

Results: The linear prediction coefficients (LPC) of Chinese syllables were extracted as features and mathematically modeled using a decision tree model to dichotomize participants with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) thresholds of 10 and 30 events/h, and the leave-one-out method was used to verify the classification performance of Chinese syllables for OSA. Chinese syllables such as [leng] and [jue], consonant pronunciations such as [zh] and [f], and vowel pronunciations such as [ing] and [ai] were the most suitable pronunciations for classification of OSA. An OSA classification model consisting of several syllable combinations was constructed, with Area Under Curves (AUCs) of 0.83 (threshold of AHI=10) and 0.87 (threshold of AHI=30), respectively.

Conclusions: This study is the first comprehensive screening of OSA-characteristic pronunciations, and can act as a guideline for the construction of OSA speech corpora in other languages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.9798DOI Listing
December 2021

Effects of pyridinium-based ionic liquids with different alkyl chain lengths on the growth of maize seedlings.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Nov 24:127868. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

The effects of four water-soluble pyridinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) differing in alkyl side chain length, namely, N-ethyl pyridinium bromide ([EPy]Br), N-butyl pyridinium bromide ([BPy]Br), N-hexyl pyridinium bromide ([HPy]Br), and N-octyl pyridinium bromide ([OPy]Br), on the growth of maize seedlings were investigated for the first time. The results revealed that the phytotoxicity of these ILs was significantly correlated with their concentration and alkyl side chain length. The 8-day 50% inhibition values indicated that the toxicity increased as the length of the alkyl chain increased: [EPy]Br < [BPy]Br < [HPy]Br < [OPy]Br. In addition, root growth was found to be more sensitive to ILs than stem growth. In response to exposure to ILs of increasing concentration, we observed different trends in the pigment contents and specific antioxidant enzyme activities in maize seedlings, whereas the contents of malondialdehyde were significantly increased. In addition, RNA sequencing analysis, performed to examine the gene expression profiles of maize leaves under [HPy]Br and [OPy]Br treatments, revealed that a larger number of genes were differentially expressed in response to [OPy]Br treatment. Furthermore, pathway enrichment analysis revealed that both [HPy]Br and [OPy]Br treatments, and particularly the latter, caused a down-regulation of genes involved in photosynthesis and carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism. Our findings thus indicate that pyridinium-based IL toxicity might be associated with oxidative stress and changes in gene expression profiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127868DOI Listing
November 2021

Intraoperative hypotension, oliguria and operation time are associated with pulmonary embolism after radical resection of head and neck cancers: a case control study.

BMC Anesthesiol 2021 12 3;21(1):304. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Anesthesiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: Postoperative pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious thrombotic complication in the patients with otolaryngologic cancers. We investigated the risk factors associated with postoperative PE after radical resection of head and neck cancers.

Methods: A total of 3512 patients underwent head and neck cancers radical resection from 2013 to 2019. A one-to-three control group without postoperative PE was selected matched by age, gender, and type of cancer. Univariate analyses were performed for the perioperative patient data including hemodynamic management factors. Conditional logistic regression was used to analyze the factors and their odds ratios.

Results: Postoperative PE was prevalent in 0.85% (95%CI = 0.56-1.14). Univariate analyses showed that a high ASA grade, high BMI, and smoking history may be related to postoperative PE. There was significantly difference in operation time between the two groups, especially for> 4 h [22(78.6%) vs 43(51.2%), P = .011]. The urine output was lower [1.37(0.73-2.21) ml·kg·h vs 2.14(1.32-3.46) ml·kg·h, P = .006] and the incidence of oliguria was significantly increased (14.3% vs 1.2%, P = .004) in the PE group. Multivariable conditional logistic regression showed postoperative PE were associated with the cumulative duration for intraoperative hypotension (OR = 2.330, 95%CI = 1.428-3.801, P = .001), oliguria (OR = 14.844, 95%CI = 1.089-202.249, P = .043), and operation time > 4 h (OR = 4.801, 95%CI = 1.054-21.866, P = .043).

Conclusions: The intraoperative hypotension, oliguria, and operation time > 4 h are risk factors associated with postoperative PE after radical resection of head and neck cancers. Improving intraoperative hemodynamics management to ensure adequate blood pressure and urine output may reduce the occurrence of such complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12871-021-01521-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8641205PMC
December 2021

Structural Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Exopolysaccharide from Soybean Whey Fermented by 70810.

Foods 2021 Nov 12;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

College of Food Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Soybean whey is a high-yield but low-utilization agricultural by-product in China. In this study, soybean whey was used as a substrate of fermentation by 70810 strains. An exopolysaccharide (LPEPS-1) was isolated from soybean whey fermentation by 70810 and purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Its preliminary structural characteristics and antioxidant activity were investigated. Results show that LPEPS-1 was composed of mannose, glucose, and galactose with molar ratios of 1.49:1.67:1.00. The chemical structure of LPEPS-1 consisted of →4)-α-D-Glc-(1→, →3)-α-D-Gal-(1→ and →2)-α-D-Man-(1→. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that LPEPS-1 had a relatively rough surface. In addition, LPPES-1 exhibited strong scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide radicals and chelating ability on ferrous ion. This study demonstrated that soybean whey was a feasible fermentation substrate for the production of polysaccharide from 70810 and that the polysaccharide could be used as a promising ingredient for health-beneficial functional foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10112780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8621071PMC
November 2021

Fabricating lignin-based carbon nanofibers as versatile supercapacitors from food wastes.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jan 23;194:632-643. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Liaoning Key Laboratory of Lignocellulose Chemistry and Biomaterials, Dalian Polytechnic University, Dalian, Liaoning 116034, China. Electronic address:

Recently, the high-value utilization of food wastes has attracted great interest in sustainable development. Focusing on the major application of electrochemical energy storage (ECES), light-weight lignin-based carbon nanofibers (LCNFs) were controllably fabricated as supercapacitors from melon seed shells (MSS) and peanut shells (PS) through electrospinning and carbonizing processes. As a result, the optimal specific capacitance of 533.7 F/g in three-electrode system, energy density of 69.7 Wh/kg and power density of 780 W/Kg in two-electrode system were achieved. Surprisingly, the LCNFs also presented a satisfied electromagnetic absorption property: The minimum reflection loss (RL) value reached -37.2 dB at an absorbing frequency of 7.98 GHz with an effective frequency (RL < 10 dB) of 2.24 GHz (6.88 to 9.12 GHz) at a thickness of 3.0 mm. These features make the multifunctional LCNFs highly attractive for light-weight supercapacitor electrodes and electromagnetic wave absorbers applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.11.107DOI Listing
January 2022

Receptor interacting protein 3 kinase, not 1 kinase, through MLKL-mediated necroptosis is involved in UVA-induced corneal endothelium cell death.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Nov 23;7(1):366. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Retina Service, Angiogenesis Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Ultraviolet (UV) is one of the most energetic radiations in the solar spectrum that can result in various tissue injury disorders. Previous studies demonstrated that UVA, which represents 95% of incident photovoltaic radiation, induces corneal endothelial cells (CECs) death. Programmed cell death (PCD) has been implicated in numerous ophthalmologic diseases. Here, we investigated receptor-interacting protein 3 kinase (RIPK3), a key signaling molecule of PCD, in UVA-induced injury using a short-term corneal endothelium (CE) culture model. UVA irradiation activated RIPK3 and mediated necroptosis both in mouse CE and primary human CECs (pHCECs). UVA irradiation was associated with upregulation of key necroptotic molecules (DAI, TRIF, and MLKL) that lie downstream of RIPK3. Moreover, RIPK3 inhibition or silencing in primary corneal endothelial cells suppresses UVA-induced cell death, along with downregulation of MLKL in pHCECs. In addition, genetic inhibition or knockout of RIPK3 in mice (RIPK3 and RIPK3 mice) similarly attenuates cell death and the levels of necroptosis in ex vivo UVA irradiation experiments. In conclusion, these results identify RIPK3, not RIPK1, as a critical regulator of UVA-induced cell death in CE and indicate its potential as a future protective target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00757-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8611008PMC
November 2021

Surgical Intervention to Treat Pharyngolaryngeal Stenosis Caused by Behcet's Disease.

Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Nov 24:1455613211053427. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery (Capital Medical University), Ministry of Education, Beijing, P.R. China.

We aimed to summarize the surgical treatment for pharyngolaryngeal stenosis and discuss prognosis in patients with Behcet's disease. Six cases of pharyngolaryngeal stenosis caused by Behcet's disease were analyzed retrospectively. All underwent surgical treatment for pharyngolaryngeal stenosis after systematic medical treatment. The follow-up time for the 6 patients was between 1 and 12 years. Four of the 6 patients underwent adhesiolysis as their first procedure. Two of these 4 experienced recurrence of stenosis within 6 months and underwent flap repair as their second procedure. The remaining two patients underwent flap reconstruction as their first procedure and maintained good swallowing function. Three of the 6 patients underwent preoperative tracheotomy because of dyspnea. Tracheal decannulation was successful in all patients. None of the patients experienced recurrence after their final surgical procedure and all recovered to a near-normal condition. Pharyngolaryngeal stenosis caused by Behcet's disease is a rare but severe complication; surgical intervention should be considered in patients with dysphagia after systematic medical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01455613211053427DOI Listing
November 2021

Efficient Utilization of the Active Sites in Defective Graphene Blocks through Functionalization Synergy for Compact Capacitive Energy Storage.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Dec 22;13(48):57092-57099. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Process and Technology for Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, P. R. China.

Designing dense carbon materials with both high capacitance and good rate performance is crucial for future development of minimized and light-weight supercapacitors but remains challenging because sluggish ion transport inhibits the efficient utilization of the energy storage sites. Herein, we report a defective and functionalized graphene block (DFGB) prepared through ball milling using controllably reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as the precursor. Rational oxygen configuration enables good electrolyte wettability and improves ion migration kinetics, facilitating high utilization of the "self-doping" defects as active sites. Benefiting from this synergistic effect, the optimized DFGB with a high compact density of 0.92 g cm shows high capacitances of 302 F g and 278 F cm at 1 A g and good rate performance with a capacitance retention of 42% at 100 A g, which are among the best of the reported carbons. Moreover, the symmetric device at the commercial mass loading still shows a high energy density and remarkable cycle stability, demonstrating the importance of functionalization synergy in fully realizing the compact energy storage ability of carbon materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c15147DOI Listing
December 2021

Primary Eccrine Porocarcinoma of the Thumb With Metastasis: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 Dec;43(12):e285-e289

Department of Dermatology and Venerology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong, China.

Abstract: Eccrine porocarcinoma (EPC) is a rare malignant sweat gland tumor that accounts for approximately 0.005% of all cutaneous carcinomas. It favors the lower extremities. Only 3% of EPCs are on the hand, and only 6 cases occurring specifically on fingers have been previously documented. However, we met a patient with EPC presenting the primary lesion on the left thumb and an extensive cutaneous metastasis on the left forearm. Pathologic findings of axillary lymph nodes confirmed lymphatic metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0000000000002051DOI Listing
December 2021

Epidemiology of concurrent extrapulmonary tuberculosis in inpatients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis lesions in China: a large-scale observational multi-centre investigation.

Int J Infect Dis 2022 Feb 12;115:79-85. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Chang Chun Infectious Diseases Hospital, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Aims: A high proportion of all patients with tuberculosis (TB) present with extrapulmonary TB (EPTB), including concurrent EPTB involving more than one extrapulmonary lesion site. However, previous reports only characterized lesions of single-site EPTB cases. This study aimed to investigate epidemiological characteristics and association rules of concurrent EPTB cases in China.

Methods: An observational multi-centre study of 208,214 patients with EPTB lesions was undertaken in China from January 2011 to December 2017. Multi-variable logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between gender and concurrent EPTB, and age and concurrent EPTB. Association rules were analysed for significance using the Apriori algorithm.

Results: The most common EPTB lesion was tuberculous pleurisy (49.8%), followed by bronchial TB (14.8%) and tuberculous meningitis (7.6%). The most common type of concurrent EPTB was tuberculous pleurisy concurrent with tuberculous peritonitis (1.80%). In total, 22 association rules, including 20 strong association rules, were identified; among these, the highest confidence rates were found for tuberculous myelitis concurrent with tuberculous meningitis, and sacral TB concurrent with lumbar vertebral TB. The association rules of EPTB concurrent with other EPTB types were found to vary with gender and age. The confidence rate of tuberculous myelitis concurrent with tuberculous meningitis was higher in females (83.67%) than males, and was highest in patients aged 25-34 years (87.50%).

Conclusions: Many types of concurrent EPTB were found. Greater awareness of concurrent EPTB disease characteristics is needed to ensure timely clinical diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.11.019DOI Listing
February 2022

Comparative analysis of postoperative adjuvant therapy for head and neck mucosal melanoma in China.

Acta Otolaryngol 2021 Nov 12;141(11):1014-1021. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Head and neck mucosal melanoma is a rare malignant disease with no clear and effective treatment to control the prognosis of patients.

Aim: To analyze the effects of different postoperative adjuvant treatments on the survival and prognosis of patients.

Material And Methods: A retrospective analysis of 163 patients which were divided into five groups: no adjuvant therapy, postoperative radiotherapy, postoperative chemotherapy, postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and postoperative immunotherapy. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to analyze the prognosis in the different groups.

Results: Postoperative radiotherapy had statistically significant effects on local recurrence, distant metastasis, overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS); Postoperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy/radiotherapy had effects on distant metastasis, overall survival, PFS and RFS. However, postoperative immunotherapy did not show any significant effects. For patients with limited lesions who underwent endoscopic surgery, receive postoperative radiotherapy and postoperative chemotherapy/radiotherapy seem to have better prognosis.

Conclusions And Significance: For the head and neck mucosal melanoma, different types adjuvant therapy can prolong the survival of patients to varying degrees compared with no postoperative treatment, but immunotherapy as a single adjuvant therapy does not show any advantages. We recommended that patients should receive radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016489.2021.1921263DOI Listing
November 2021

Selectivity adsorption of sulfate by amino-modified activated carbon during capacitive deionization.

Environ Technol 2021 Nov 23:1-13. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an environmentally friendly desalination technique with low energy consumption. However, unmodified carbon electrode materials have poor sulfate selectivity and adsorption capacity. In this work, to improve sulfate selectivity, we prepared activated carbon materials loaded with different amino contents by grafting amino groups via acid treatment for different times. In the competitive ion adsorption experiments, the sulfate selectivity of AC was only 0.64 and the amino-modified AC increased by 1.98-2.52 times due to the formation of stronger hydrogen bonds between the amino group and sulfate. AC-NH-4 had the best selectivity and the sulfate selective coefficient was 2.25. The desorption of sulfate was 92.46% within one hour. In addition, the surface of the amino-modified activated carbon showed significantly improved electrochemical properties and better capacitance. The specific capacitance of amino-modified AC in different electrolyte solutions was consistent with the competitive adsorption results. The specific capacitance of amino-modified AC in NaSO electrolyte solution was the highest. The modified electrode material also had the advantages of a higher adsorption capacity and excellent regeneration performance after continuous electric adsorption-desorption cycles. Therefore, it may have development potential to selectively adsorb sulfate in practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.2005689DOI Listing
November 2021

Endoscopic Transoral Approach for Resection of Basal Cell Adenoma Arising in Parapharyngeal Space.

J Neurol Surg B Skull Base 2021 Dec 14;82(6):675-681. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, The James Cancer Hospital at the Wexner Medical Center of The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States.

 The clinical and radiological characteristics of the basal cell adenoma (BCA) and its association with the internal carotid artery (ICA) in the parapharyngeal space (PPS), have not been sufficiently explored. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of patients with BCA arising in the PPS and to evaluate the feasibility of a total resection via an endoscopic transoral corridor.  The clinical, radiological, and histopathological characteristics of four patients with BCA arising in the PPS were retrospectively analyzed. The endoscopic transoral approach was performed for resection of BCA. Its technical nuances, perioperative comorbidities, and outcomes are introduced.  The clinical presentation, symptoms, and signs of patients with BCA are variable. The tumor was lateral to the ICA in two patients and anterior to the ICA in the remaining two. All four BCA were successfully removed (  = 3) or by piecemeal (  = 1) via an endoscopic transoral approach. The ICA was not injured, and no additional nerve damage, venous bleeding, postoperative infection, or salivary gland fistula were encountered in any of the four patients. Cystic degeneration is the predominant appearance of BCA on MRI; however, they are difficult to differentiate from other lesions arising in the PPS. No recurrence was detected at the time of the study analysis.  BCA of the PPS could have variable relationships with the ICA. An endoscopic transoral approach can provide an adequate corridor for total resection of BCA in PPS with seemingly low morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1715574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8563262PMC
December 2021

Exogenous Antioxidants Improve the Accumulation of Saturated and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in sp. PKU#Mn4.

Mar Drugs 2021 Sep 30;19(10). Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Center for Marine Environmental Ecology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Species of are well known for their remarkable ability to produce lipids intracellularly. However, during their lipid accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated inevitably as byproducts, which if in excess results in lipid peroxidation. To alleviate such ROS-induced damage, seven different natural antioxidants (ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, tea extract, melatonin, mannitol, sesamol, and butylated hydroxytoluene) were evaluated for their effects on the lipid accumulation in sp. PKU#Mn4 using a fractional factorial design. Among the tested antioxidants, mannitol showed the best increment (44.98%) in total fatty acids concentration. However, the interaction effects of mannitol (1 g/L) and ascorbic acid (1 g/L) resulted in 2.26 ± 0.27 g/L and 1.45 ± 0.04 g/L of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids (SFA and PUFA), respectively, in batch fermentation. These concentrations were further increased to 7.68 ± 0.37 g/L (SFA) and 5.86 ± 0.03 g/L (PUFA) through fed-batch fermentation. Notably, the interaction effects yielded 103.7% and 49.6% increment in SFA and PUFA concentrations in batch fermentation. The possible mechanisms underlining those increments were an increased maximum growth rate of strain PKU#Mn4, alleviated ROS level, and the differential expression of lipid biosynthetic genes andupregulated catalase gene. This study provides an applicable strategy for improving the accumulation of SFA and PUFA in thraustochytrids by exogenous antioxidants and the underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md19100559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8541261PMC
September 2021

Selective adsorption of phosphate by carboxyl-modified activated carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Oct;84(7):1757-1773

State Key Laboratory of Hydraulics and Mountain River Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China; College of Water Resource and Hydropower, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, China.

Capacitive deionization (CDI) has been considered as a promising technology for removing phosphate from water but suffer inferior selectivity and electrosorption performances for phosphate of current carbon electrodes in CDI. Herein, we achieved highly selective phosphate removal from a ternary effluent of Cl, PO, and SO by using nitric acid-treated activated carbon (AC) with various modification times and pure AC as the anode and cathode, a novel phosphate selective asymmetric CDI reactor. The results showed that carboxyl groups greatly grafted on the materials after modification (varying from 0.00084 to 0.0012 mol g). The phosphate selectivity of the present research was higher than that of unmodified CDI, and it increased with the increase of carboxyl groups content. The highest phosphate selectivity (2.01) in modified materials is almost six times higher than that of pure AC. Moreover, the modified electrodes exhibited good regenerative ability with a phosphate desorption efficiency of around 72.12% during the adsorption/desorption process and great stability during the cycling experiment. These results demonstrated that the innovative application of nitric acid-modified AC can effectively selectively remove phosphate from mixed anion solution, opening a hopeful window to selective adsorption in water treatment by CDI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.358DOI Listing
October 2021

Bruceae Fructus Oil Inhibits Triple-Negative Breast Cancer by Restraining Autophagy: Dependence on the Gut Microbiota-Mediated Amino Acid Regulation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 1;12:727082. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Affiliated Foshan Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital, Southern Medical University, Foshan, China.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been acknowledged as an aggressive disease with worst prognosis, which requires endeavor to develop novel therapeutic agents. Bruceae fructus oil (BO), a vegetable oil derived from the fruit of (L.) Merr., is an approved marketable drug for the treatment of cancer in China for several decades. Despite that the anti-breast cancer activity of several quassinoids derived from has been found, it was the first time that the potential of BO against TNBC was revealed. Although BO had no cytotoxicity on TNBC cell lines , the oral administration of BO exhibited a gut microbiota-dependent tumor suppression without toxicity on the non-targeted organs . By metagenomics and untargeted metabolomics, it was found that BO not only altered the composition and amino acid metabolism function of gut microbiota but also regulated the host's amino acid profile, which was in accordance with the metabolism alternation in gut microbiota. Moreover, the activity of mTOR in tumor was promoted by BO treatment as indicated by the phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein S6, and hyper-autophagy was consequently restrained. By contrast, the failure of tumor suppression by BO under pseudo germ-free (PGF) condition came with indistinctive changes in autophagy and mTOR activity, implying the critical role of the gut microbiota in BO's anticancer activity. The present study highlighted a promising application of BO against breast cancer with novel efficacy and safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.727082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8517338PMC
October 2021
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