Publications by authors named "Xiaofeng Zhang"

556 Publications

Acoustic radiation force of a sphere with a hemispherically split boundary condition in a plane wave.

J Acoust Soc Am 2022 Jul;152(1):501

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Ultrasonics, School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, People's Republic of China.

In this paper, an analytical expression of the acoustic radiation force (ARF) for a spherical particle with a hemispherically split impedance boundary in a plane wave is deduced. Numerical calculations are carried out by considering the effect of the magnitude and phase of the acoustic impedance on the ARF. Computation results show that the increase in the magnitude of the acoustic impedance results in an overall decrease in the ARF, whereas the phase of the acoustic impedance results in a decrease in the ARF in the low frequency region. As the frequency increases, the positive phase angle leads to a decrease in the ARF, and the negative phase angle causes the ARF to increase rapidly. For a hemispherically split impedance sphere, the values of the ARF range from those of the rigid sphere and uniform impedance sphere. The finite-element models for the calculation of the ARF of a hemispherically split impedance boundary sphere are established and the correctness of the analytical theory is proved by numerical comparison. This work is expected to contribute theoretical support to the acoustic manipulation of particles with a nonuniform hemispherically split structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0012736DOI Listing
July 2022

Astragaloside IV in Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension: an In Vivo and In Vitro Experiments.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Department of Geriatrics, Shaanxi Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, No. 4 Xihuamen Street, Xian 710003, China.

The objective of study was to find the actions of astragaloside IV (ASIV) on PAH due to monocrotaline (MCT) in rats. Intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/ kg MCT was injected to rats, come after by ASIV treatment with doses of 10 mg/kg daily once or 30 mg/kg of dose for twenty one days once daily. RVSP, serum inflammatory cytokines, RVH, and the other pathological parameters of the pulmonary arteries were evaluated. ASIV attenuated the increased pulmonary artery pressure and its structure in rat modification due to MCT. Additionally, ASIV avoided the rise in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β levels in the blood serum, and their expression of gene in the pleural parts, which was caused by MCT. ASIV promoted apoptotic resistance of HPASMCs and weakened the hypoxia-induced proliferation. ASIV shows over expression of caspase-3, caspase-9, p21, p27, and Bax, while ASIV downregulated Bcl-2, phospho-ERK, HIF-1α, and protein appearance in HPASMCs. These findings of the in vitro and the in vivo experiment indicate that astragaloside IV exerts protective effects against pulmonary arterial pressure, and may have action to be improved into pharmacological drug for pulmonary arterial pressure treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-022-04027-yDOI Listing
August 2022

Chemodivergent Synthesis of Indeno[1,2-]indoles and Isoindolo[2,1-]indoles via Mn(III)-Mediated or Electrochemical Intramolecular Radical Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling.

J Org Chem 2022 Jul 28. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, PR China.

Chemodivergent synthesis of indeno[1,2-]indoles and isoindolo[2,1-]indoles from the same starting materials involving radical cross-dehydrogenative couplings have been developed. Mn(OAc)·2HO selectively promoted an intramolecular radical C-H/C-H dehydrogenative coupling reaction to provide indeno[1,2-]indoles, while an intramolecular radical C-H/N-H dehydrogenative coupling reaction could proceed via electrochemistry to deliver isoindolo[2,1-]indoles. Plausible mechanisms of the chemodivergent reactions were proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.2c01238DOI Listing
July 2022

A Highly Sensitive and Flexible Strain Sensor Based on Dopamine-Modified Electrospun Styrene-Ethylene-Butylene-Styrene Block Copolymer Yarns and Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes.

Polymers (Basel) 2022 Jul 26;14(15). Epub 2022 Jul 26.

College of Textiles and Clothing, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China.

As wearable electronic devices have become commonplace in daily life, great advances in wearable strain sensors occurred in various fields including healthcare, robotics, virtual reality and other sectors. In this work, a highly stretchable and sensitive strain sensor based on electrospun styrene-ethylene-butene-styrene copolymer (SEBS) yarn modified by dopamine (DA) and coated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was reported. Due to the process of twisting, a strain senor stretched to a strain of 1095.8% while exhibiting a tensile strength was 20.03 MPa. The strain sensor obtained a gauge factor (GF of 1.13 × 10) at a maximum strain of 215%. Concurrently, it also possessed good stability, repeatability and durability under different strain ranges, stretching speeds and 15,000 stretching-releasing cycles. Additionally, the strain sensor exhibited robust washing fastness under an ultrasonic time of 120 min at 240 W and 50 Hz. Furthermore, it had a superior sensing performance in monitoring joint motions of the human body. The high sensitivity and motion sensing performance presented here demonstrate that [email protected]/MWNCTs yarn has great potential to be used as components of wearable devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym14153030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9332177PMC
July 2022

Modulating the Electronic Structure of RuO through Cr Solubilizing for Improved Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

Small Methods 2022 Jul 25:e2200636. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

The Key Lab of Low-Carbon Chemistry and Energy Conservation of Guangdong Province, PCFM, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, China.

Hydrogen production from water electrolysis is important for the sustainable development of hydrogen energy. Nevertheless, the naturally torpid property of anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) kinetics and poor stability of its catalysts significantly restrict the development of electrochemical water splitting. Here, a Ru Cr O electrocatalyst is synthesized, which reveals excellent OER activity with the overpotential of only 195 mV at 10 mA cm and excellent stability with the potential increase of merely 5.3 mV after 20 h continuous OER test in acidic media. Theoretical calculations reveal that the solubilizing of Cr into RuO could adjust the electron distribution, making the d-band center of Ru far away from the Fermi level. This behavior reduces the binding energy with Ru and O and accelerates the rate-determining step of OER (i.e., the formation of *OOH), thereby increasing OER activity. In addition, the incorporation of Cr increases the energy of oxygen defect formation and reduces the participation of lattice oxygen, thus improving the stability of the catalyst. This research furnishes a feasible policy for the development of highly active and stable catalysts in acidic media by regulating the electronic structure of RuO .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smtd.202200636DOI Listing
July 2022

Formulation of substrates with agricultural and forestry wastes for Camellia oleifera Abel seedling cultivation.

PLoS One 2022 18;17(7):e0265979. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Taihu County Huayuan Agricultural Science and Technology Development Co. LTD, Anqing, Anhui, China.

Five Camellia oleifera Abel seedling substrates were prepared using the conventional formula, but with the peat substituted by the composts of Camellia oleifera shell, pine chips, palm fiber residues, chicken manure, and sheep manure. The physical and chemical properties of the prepared substrates before and after seedling cultivation were determined and their effects on the growth of Camellia oleifera seedling were analyzed. It was found that the survival rates of the one-year-old seedlings produced from stem cuttings on all substrates at 6 months were greater than 97.5%. As compared with the conventional substrate, the substrates formulated with the composts were able to promote the seedling growth based upon height, ground diameter, root length and root volume measurement. The substrate prepared with the compost of Camellia oleifera shell+ palm fiber residue+ chicken manure (A3), vermiculite and perlite (6:3:1) was the most optimal, which gave 100% seedling survival rate, the greatest seedling height, and the largest ground diameter. In particular, the ground diameters and 26.67% of the seedling heights reached the grade 1 standard for two-year-old seedlings.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0265979PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9292103PMC
July 2022

Association Between Serum Afamin Levels with Nonalcoholic Associated Fatty Liver Disease.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2022 28;2022:7175108. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang, China.

Afamin is a member of the hepatokine that are strongly associated with various metabolic diseases. The relationship between afamin and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the correlation between serum afamin levels and NAFLD. We analyzed 88 NAFLD patients and 88 age- and sex-matched healthy controls who took their health examinations at the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine. The association was further confirmed in 22 biopsy-confirmed NAFLD patients and 36 healthy controls. Serum afamin levels were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). NAFLD patients had significantly higher serum afamin levels than the healthy controls (14.79 ± 5.04 mg/L versus 10.83 ± 3.24 mg/L; < 0.001). Serum afamin levels were positively correlated with metabolic parameters including the body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, liver enzymes, and lipid profiles. A multiple regression analysis showed that serum afamin levels were independently related to the risk of NAFLD (OR: 1.289, 95% CI, 1.141-1.456; < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that the area under curve (AUC) of serum afamin plus the BMI for detecting NAFLD was 0.878. In participants with liver biopsies, the serum afamin plus the BMI detected NAFLD with an AUC of 0.758. In conclusion, serum afamin levels were positively associated with prevalence and risk of NAFLD, and serum afamin plus the BMI had a high diagnostic performance for NAFLD. This study provides epidemiological evidence of afamin in NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/7175108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9256457PMC
July 2022

Huogu injection alleviates SONFH by regulating adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs via targeting the miR-34c-5p/MDM4 pathway.

Gene 2022 Sep 27;838:146705. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150000, Heilongjiang, China.

Although the precise pathogenesis of steroid-induced osteonecrosis of femoral head (SONFH) is not yet fully understood, evidence shows miRNAs-mediated posttranscription control directs the adipogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and plays a pivotal role in the SONFH processes. Huogu injection formulated according to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory has been used to treat SONFH by intra-articular injection. In this study, we asked whether the therapeutic effects of Huogu injection might depend on the inhibition of adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and if so, the pathway might be a therapeutic target to promote bone repair. Consequently, miR-34c-5p was upregulated in the dexamethasone (DEX)-treated BMSCs and might participate in the adipogenesis of BMSCs. TargetScan database and the luciferase reporter assay showed miR-34c-5p targeted on the MDM4 and negatively regulated its expression. Huogu injection in vitro inhibited the adipogenesis in the DEX-treated BMSCs by inhibiting the expression levels of PPARγ and C/EBPα, as well as reducing miR-34c-5p to prevent the degradation of MDM4. Moreover, miR-34c-5p mimic or MDM4 knockdown using shRNA neutralized the anti-adipogenesis of Huogu injection in BMSCs. In vivo, the results of X-ray imaging confirmed that Huogu injection alleviated the bone loss in rat SONFH. Consistent with results in vitro, Huogu injection reduced the lipid accumulation, removed the suppression of MDM4 by downregulating the expression of miR-34c-5p, and inhibited the expression of C/EBPα and PPARγ in bone tissues. When the lentivirus encoding miR-34c-5p was conducted by intra-articular injection, the overexpression of miR-34c-5p antagonized the therapeutic effects of Huogu injection. Our results underline the critical importance of the miR-34c-5p/MDM4 pathway in regulating the adipogenic outcome of BMSCs, suggesting the miR-34c-5p as a potentially effective therapeutic target in SONFH. These results further reinforce the potential of Huogu injection as an alternative approach in SONFH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2022.146705DOI Listing
September 2022

Genipin protects against mitochondrial damage of the retinal pigment epithelium under hyperglycemia through the pathway mediated by the signaling axis.

Ann Transl Med 2022 May;10(10):587

College of Medical Technology, Qiqihar Medical University, Qiqihar, China.

Background: To investigate the protective effect and mechanism of genipin (GE) on mitochondrial damage in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells induced by high glucose.

Methods: Differential genes of GE in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (DR) were screened by the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Differential genes located in the pathway were obtained. TargetScan, miRDB, and DIANA databases were used to predict the targeted microRNAs (miRNAs) of differential genes. A high-fat diet combined with streptomycin (STZ) intraperitoneal injection were used to establish a diabetic mouse model. Diabetic mice were treated with GE by intragastric administration. The functional and molecular changes of the retina were detected by electroretinogram (ERG) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). ARPE-19 cells were cultured under hyperglycemic conditions with and inhibitors. was knocked down/overexpressed to detect changes in cell function, activity, and mitochondrial function. The dual luciferase reporter assay confirmed the targeted binding of with

Results: Bioinformatics analysis finally yielded as the research target gene. was predicted to be the targeted miRNA of by online databases. The results of animal experiments showed that the retinal function of mice recovered after GE administration (P<0.05), the expression of and in RPE cells was significantly increased (P<0.05), and the expression of was significantly decreased (P<0.05). The results of cell experiments showed that the functions of cells and mitochondria recovered after the addition of GE under hyperglycemia (P<0.05). Cell and mitochondrial functions were decreased after the addition of inhibitor (P<0.05). Overexpression of or inhibition of increased cell activity and mitochondrial function (P<0.05). The results of the dual luciferase reporter assay showed that had a targeted binding site with

Conclusions: GE protects ARPE-19 cell functional activity, inflammatory responses, and mitochondrial damage by promoting the signaling pathway and regulating the expression of the / signaling axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-22-2219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9201119PMC
May 2022

Aberrant mesenteric adipose extracellular matrix remodeling is involved in adipocyte dysfunction in Crohn's disease: The role of TLR-4-mediated macrophages.

J Crohns Colitis 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, China.

Background And Aims: Hypertrophic mesenteric adipose tissue [htMAT] is involved in the disease progression of Crohn's disease [CD] through expressing proinflammatory adipokines from dysfunctional adipocytes with unknown mechanism. Adipocyte function is affected by dynamic adipose tissue extracellular matrix [ECM] remodeling that is mainly mediated by macrophages, and our study aimed to reveal whether aberrant ECM remodeling was present in CD-htMAT and its effects on adipocyte dysfunction, as well as the mechanism.

Methods: ECM remodeling was examined in MAT samples from CD patients and controls. Mice with dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid [DNBS]-induced colitis were used in vivo study, and lipopolysaccharide [LPS]-induced remodeling behavior in macrophages was examined in vitro. Macrophages or TLR4 inhibition were used to analyze ECM remodeling mechanisms and their effects on adipocyte function.

Results: Aberrant ECM remodeling was observed in CD-htMAT, which was characterized by a widened and deformed ECM structure accompanied by dysregulated matrix synthesis and degradation, served as a reservoir for inflammatory factors/cells dominated by macrophages and was involved in adipocyte dysfunction. In addition, macrophages were the main source of ECM remodeling regulatory factors with activation of TLR4 in htMAT. In vivo, macrophage depletion or TLR4 inhibition largely attenuated mesenteric ECM remodeling while improving mesenteric adipocyte dysfunction during chronic enteritis. In vitro, antagonizing TLR4 significantly inhibited LPS-induced macrophage ECM remodeling behavior.

Conclusions: The aberrant ECM remodeling in CD-htMAT contributed to mesenteric adipocyte dysfunction, which may be caused at least partly by TLR4-mediated macrophage remodeling behavior. Inhibiting ECM remodeling may be a potential therapeutic strategy for CD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjac087DOI Listing
June 2022

Pygopus2 ameliorates mesenteric adipocyte poor differentiation to alleviate Crohn's disease -like colitis via the Axin2/GSK3β pathway.

Cell Prolif 2022 Jun 16:e13292. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu, China.

Objectives: Crohn's disease (CD) mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT) inflammation affects enteritis through the interaction between the mesentery and intestine, and we previously found that poorly differentiated mesenteric adipocytes were related to its inflammatory features. Pygopus2 (Pygo2) is a key negative regulator of adipocyte differentiation. We aimed to determine whether Pygo2 participates in CD mesenteric lesions and whether Pygo2 knockdown would be beneficial in a CD model (Il-10 mice).

Methods: Pygo2 expression in MAT from control and CD patients and Il-10 mice was measured by immunohistochemistry. Lentiviral transfection was used to regulate Pygo2 expression in Il-10 mice, and the effects on mesenteric adipocyte differentiation, inflammation, and dysfunction during spontaneous colitis, as well as the possible mechanism, were investigated.

Results: Pygo2 expression was increased in MAT from CD patients and Il-10 mice, and its expression correlated with poor adipocyte differentiation and inflammation. Pygo2 knockdown significantly ameliorated colitis in Il-10 mice. Moreover, the downregulation of Pygo2 gene expression could promote adipocyte differentiation and inhibit adipocyte inflammation in vivo and in vitro, and the effects were at least partly mediated by the Axis inhibition protein 2 (Axin2)/glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) pathway.

Conclusions: The increase in Pygo2 may be related to mesenteric adipocyte poor differentiation and inflammatory features of CD, and Pygo2 inhibition could alleviate CD-like colitis by improving mesenteric lesions by regulating the Axin2/GSK3β pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpr.13292DOI Listing
June 2022

Mechanism of exon ligation by human spliceosome.

Mol Cell 2022 Aug 14;82(15):2769-2778.e4. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Westlake Laboratory of Life Sciences and Biomedicine, 18 Shilongshan Road, Hangzhou 310024, Zhejiang Province, China; Key Laboratory of Structural Biology of Zhejiang Province, School of Life Sciences, Westlake University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China; Institute of Biology, Westlake Institute for Advanced Study, 18 Shilongshan Road, Hangzhou 310024, Zhejiang Province, China; Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology & Frontier Research Center for Biological Structure, Tsinghua University-Peking University Joint Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Electronic address:

Pre-mRNA splicing involves two sequential reactions: branching and exon ligation. The C complex after branching undergoes remodeling to become the C complex, which executes exon ligation. Here, we report cryo-EM structures of two intermediate human spliceosomal complexes, pre-C-I and pre-C-II, both at 3.6 Å. In both structures, the 3' splice site is already docked into the active site, the ensuing 3' exon sequences are anchored on PRP8, and the step II factor FAM192A contacts the duplex between U2 snRNA and the branch site. In the transition of pre-C-I to pre-C-II, the step II factors Cactin, FAM32A, PRKRIP1, and SLU7 are recruited. Notably, the RNA helicase PRP22 is positioned quite differently in the pre-C-I, pre-C-II, and C complexes, suggesting a role in 3' exon binding and proofreading. Together with information on human C and C complexes, our studies recapitulate a molecular choreography of the C-to-C transition, revealing mechanistic insights into exon ligation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2022.05.021DOI Listing
August 2022

Altered gut microbiota and metabolites profile are associated with reduced bone metabolism in ethanol-induced osteoporosis.

Cell Prolif 2022 Jul 10;55(7):e13245. Epub 2022 Jun 10.

Heilongjiang Provincial Administration of TCM, Harbin, China.

Objective: Chronic heavy drinking causes ethanol-induced osteoporosis (EIO). The present study aimed to explore the role of GM in EIO.

Material And Methods: A rat EIO model was established by chronic ethanol intake. Taking the antibiotic application as the matched group of dysbacteriosis, an integrated 16S rRNA sequencing and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomics in serum and faeces were applied to explore the association of differential metabolic phenotypes and screen out the candidate metabolites detrimental to ossification. The colon organoids were used to track the source of 5-HT and the effect of 5-HT on bone formation was examined in vitro.

Results: Compared with antibiotics application, ethanol-gavaged decreased the BMD in rats. We found that both ethanol and antibiotic intake affected the composition of GM, but ethanol intake increased the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. Elevated serotonin was proved to be positively correlated with the changes of the composition of GM and faecal metabolites and inhibited the proliferation and mineralization of osteogenesis-related cells. However, the direct secretory promotion of serotonin was absent in the colon organoids exposed to ethanol.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that ethanol consumption led to osteoporosis and intestinal-specific dysbacteriosis. Conjoint analysis of the genetic profiles of GM and metabolic phenotypes in serum and faeces allowed us to understand the endogenous metabolite, 5-HT, as detrimental regulators in the gut-bone axis to impair bone formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpr.13245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9251047PMC
July 2022

Constitutive Model and Recrystallization Mechanism of Mg-8.7Gd-4.18Y-0.42Zr Magnesium Alloy during Hot Deformation.

Materials (Basel) 2022 May 31;15(11). Epub 2022 May 31.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China.

The hot deformation behavior of Mg-8.7Gd-4.18Y-0.42Zr alloy was investigated by uniaxial hot compression tests at 300-475 °C with strain rates of 0.002-10 s. The average activation energy was calculated as 227.67 KJ/mol and a constitutive relation based on the Arrhenius equation was established in this study. The results show that Mg-8.7Gd-4.18Y-0.42Zr magnesium alloy is a strain rate and temperature-sensitive material. When the temperature is constant, the flow stress increases with the increase of strain rate, while when the strain rate is stable, the flow stress decreases with the increase of temperature. DRX is the main softening mechanism of the alloy, including continuous dynamic recrystallization (CDRX) and discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX). Meanwhile, the DRX grains nucleate preferentially at the twin intersections in the parent grains under the deformation condition below 300 °C and gradually expand outward with the increase of strain. When the compression temperature is above 400 °C, DRX grains nucleate preferentially at the original grain boundary and then gradually expand inward with the increase of strain. The optimum deformation conditions of the studied alloy are performed at 400-450 °C and 0.002-0.02 s by a comprehensive comparison of the hot processing map, microstructure refinement, and formability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15113914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9182283PMC
May 2022

Serotonin (5-HT) 2A Receptor Involvement in Melanin Synthesis and Transfer via Activating the PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 May 30;23(11). Epub 2022 May 30.

School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.

The 5-HT2A serotonin receptor (HTR2A) has been reported to be involved in the serotonin- or serotonin receptor 2A agonist-induced melanogenesis in human melanoma cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying HTR2A in regulating melanogenesis remain poorly understood. In this research, cultured mouse melanoma cell line B16F10, human skin, and zebrafish embryos were used to elucidate the downstream signaling of HTR2A in regulating melanogenesis and to verify the potential application of HTR2A in the treatment of pigment-associated cutaneous diseases. We demonstrated that HTR2A antagonists (AT1015 and ketanserin) attenuated the melanogenesis induction of serotonin in both mouse melanoma cells and zebrafish embryos. The agonists of HTR2A (DOI and TCB-2) increased melanin synthesis and transfer in B16F10 cells, human skin tissue, and zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, the HTR2A agonists increased the expression of proteins related to melanosome organization and melanocyte dendrites to facilitate the melanocyte migration and melanosome transport. HTR2A antagonists and genetic knockout of zebrafish (the homologue of mammalian gene) were also used to clarify that HTR2A mediates serotonin and DOI in regulating melanogenesis. Finally, through small scale screening of the candidate downstream pathway, we demonstrated that HTR2A mediates the melanogenesis induction of its ligands by activating the PKA/CREB signaling pathway. In this research, we further confirmed that HTR2A is a crucial protein to mediate melanocyte function. Meanwhile, this research supports that HTR2A could be designed as a drug target for the development of chemicals to treat cutaneous diseases with melanocytes or melanogenesis abnormality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23116111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9245606PMC
May 2022

Scalable Electrochemical Aerobic Oxygenation of Indoles to Isatins without Electron Transfer Mediators by Merging with an Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

Org Lett 2022 06 9;24(23):4229-4233. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Polymer Science, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350007, P. R. China.

An approach to electrochemical oxygenation of indoles leading to isatins was developed by merging with a complementary cathode oxygen reduction reaction. The features of this green protocol include the use of molecular oxygen as the sole oxidant, it being free of an electron transfer mediator, and gram-scale preparation. Mechanistic studies suggested a radical process, and the two oxygen atoms in the isatins were both most likely from molecular oxygen. A detailed mechanism of the reaction utilizing density functional theory calculations was elucidated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.2c01545DOI Listing
June 2022

Long Noncoding RNA GUSBP11 Knockdown Alleviates Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma via Regulating miR-1226-3p/ Axis.

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Otolaryngology, Laiyang Central Hospital, Yantai, China.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been confirmed related to the occurrence and progress of multiple cancers, including cervical cancer nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study focused on assessing GUSBP11 effects on NPC progression and exploring possible mechanisms. RT-qPCR was conducted for assessing GUSBP11 levels within NPC tissues and cells. CCK-8, colony formation, and Transwell were adopted for examining GUSBP11 impacts on NPC cell proliferation and cell metastasis. RT-qPCR analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay were conducted for judging the expression interrelation of GUSBP11 and its potential target miR-1226-3p. The same methods were carried out for verifying the inhibiting influences of miR-1226-3p upregulation and its potential target . GUSBP11 levels were upregulated within NPC tissues and cells. GUSBP11 downregulation repressed NPC cell proliferation and cell metastasis. In addition, GUSBP11 targeted and negatively regulated miR-1226-3p. Furthermore, miR-1226-3p targeted and mediated GUSBP11's impacts on levels. At last, the authors proved the critical role of the GUSBP11/miR-1226-3p/TM9SF4 axis in regulating NPC progression. These findings indicate that downregulation of GUSBP11 alleviates NPC development by regulating the miR-1226-3p/ axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cbr.2021.0391DOI Listing
June 2022

Salidroside attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via AMPK-induced suppression of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial fission.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2022 Aug 31;448:116093. Epub 2022 May 31.

School of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 169 Changle West Road, Xi'an 710032, China. Electronic address:

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the primary cause of death worldwide. Salidroside (Sal), the major active compound derived from Rhodiola rosea, is believed to have cardioprotective effects. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is a pivotal AMP-activated protein kinase in energy metabolism. Whether Sal plays an anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress/mitochondrial fission role through AMPK remains elusive. In this study, we established a myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat model. Rat hearts exposed to Sal with or without compound C were then subjected to I/R. Further, H9c2 cardiomyocytes were subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SIR) by hypoxia-reoxygenation. The rats and cardiomyocytes were pretreated with Sal, followed by Compound C and AMPK-siRNA to block AMPK activity. We found that Sal significantly ameliorated cardiac function, mitigated infarct size and serum content of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, improved mitochondrial function, and reduced mitochondrial fission and apoptosis. Furthermore, in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes, Sal increased the cell viability and inhibited SIR-induced myocardial apoptosis and mitochondrial fission. Furthermore, the translocation of Drp1 from the cytoplasm to mitochondria induced by salidroside was confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. However, the use of Compound C or AMPK siRNA to block AMPK activity leads to blockade of the protective effects of Sal. In summary, protects against myocardial I/R by activating the AMPK signaling pathway, inhibiting ER stress, and reducing mitochondrial fission and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2022.116093DOI Listing
August 2022

The Role of Feedback Loops in Targeted Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer.

Front Oncol 2022 16;12:800140. Epub 2022 May 16.

Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Pancreatic cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, with limited treatment options and low long-term survival rates. The complex and variable signal regulation networks are one of the important reasons why it is difficult for pancreatic cancer to develop precise targeted therapy drugs. Numerous studies have associated feedback loop regulation with the development and therapeutic response of cancers including pancreatic cancer. Therefore, we review researches on the role of feedback loops in the progression of pancreatic cancer, and summarize the connection between feedback loops and several signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer, as well as recent advances in the intervention of feedback loops in pancreatic cancer treatment, highlighting the potential of capitalizing on feedback loops modulation in targeted therapy for pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.800140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9148955PMC
May 2022

Zingiberaceae plants/curcumin consumption and multiple health outcomes: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in humans.

Phytother Res 2022 May 27. Epub 2022 May 27.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

This umbrella review is to recapitulate and grade the available evidence of associations between consumption of Zingiberaceae plants/curcumin (Cur) and multiple health-related outcomes. This study included 161 meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials in 76 articles with 67 unique health outcomes. Data on heterogeneity and publication bias are considered to assess the quality of evidence. Based on the different impact of Zingiberaceae plants/Cur on human health, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Zingiberaceae plants/Cur can mainly improve metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and some chronic inflammatory diseases, likewise, obviously relief the pain of osteoarthritis and related diseases. Ginger supplements have been shown to improve vomiting during pregnancy and to relieve nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy and surgery. The surgery is any type of surgery, including laparoscopic surgery, gynecological surgery and mixed surgery. Beneficial associations were found with Cur intervention in gastrointestinal, neurological and oral diseases. Zingiberaceae plants/Cur are generally safe and favorable for multiple health outcomes in humans. High-quality research is further needed to prove the observed associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7500DOI Listing
May 2022

The Emergence of 2D MXenes Based Zn-Ion Batteries: Recent Development and Prospects.

Small 2022 Jul 27;18(26):e2201989. Epub 2022 May 27.

School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Rechargeable zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) with exceptional theoretical capacity have garnered significant interest in large-scale electrochemical energy storage devices due to their low cost, abundant material, inherent safety, high specific energy, and ecofriendly nature. Metal carbides/nitrides, known as MXenes, have emerged as a large family of 2D transition metal carbides or carbonitrides with excellent properties, e.g., high electrical conductivity, large surface functional groups (e.g., F, O, and OH), low energy barriers for the diffusion of electrolyte ions with wide interlayer spaces. After a decade of effort, significant development has been achieved in the synthesis, properties, and applications of MXenes. Thus, it has opened up various exciting opportunities to construct advanced MXene-based nanostructures for ZIBs with excellent specific energy and power. Herein, this review summarizes the advances across multiple synthesis routes, related properties, morphological and structural characteristics, and chemistries of MXenes for ZIBs. The recent development of MXene-based electrodes is introduced, and electrolytes for ZIBs are elucidated in detail. MXene-based rocking chair ZIBs, strategies to enhance the performance of MXene-based cathodes, suppress the dendrites in MXene-based anodes, and MXene-based flexible ZIBs are pointed out. A rational design and modification of the MXenes as well as the production of composites with metal oxides exhibits promise in solving issues and enhancing the electrochemical performance of ZIBs. Finally, the present challenges and future prospects for MXene-based ZIBs are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202201989DOI Listing
July 2022

Role of miR-451 in mediating cadmium induced head kidney injury in common carp via targeting cacna1ab through autophagy pathways.

Aquat Toxicol 2022 Jul 17;248:106201. Epub 2022 May 17.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is a common environmental pollutant, which leads to Cd residue in aquatic animals. The Cd in aquatic animals will be enriched into the human body through the food chain and seriously harm human health. The research aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of Cd poisoning in common carps. Our previous studies have confirmed that 23 differentially expressed miRNAs were potential biomarkers for Cd exposure in common carp head kidney lymphocytes. Herein, based on the prediction of the website and previous studies, miR-451 and cacna1ab were selected and their targeting relationship was verified again by dual-luciferase. Subsequently, we established the miR-451 overexpression/knockdown models and miR-451 inhibitor, cacna1ab co-knockdown models in common carp head kidney lymphocytes respectively. Immunofluorescence staining, MDC staining, calcium staining, qRT-PCR (Quantitative Real-time PCR) and western blot were used to detect the levels of autophagy. Our results demonstrated that Cd significantly decreased the expression of miR-451, miR-451 suppression thereby induced increased cacna1ab and the expression of ATG5, LC3-I, LC3-II and Beclin 1, while significantly inhibiting the expression of mTOR, P62 and Bcl-2, which indicated that autophagy was triggered. Moreover, the miR-451 knockdown group activated the expression of autophagy related factors as well as the Cd group. However, cacna1ab knockdown can reduce autophagy activation induced by miR-451 knockdown. Our results indicated that Cd induced autophagy in head kidney lymphocytes through the inhibition of miR-451 and the excitation of cacna1ab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2022.106201DOI Listing
July 2022

Contrasting responses in growth, photosynthesis and hydraulics of two subtropical tree species to cadmium contamination as affected by elevated CO and nitrogen addition.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Sep 10;837:155858. Epub 2022 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China; College of Life Science, Gannan Normal University, Ganzhou, Jiangxi 341000, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Plant growth, photosynthesis, and hydraulics are affected by heavy metals but also by elevated atmospheric CO concentration (e[CO]) and nitrogen (N) deposition. However, few studies have investigated the response of woody species to the combined effects of these three factors. We conducted an open-top chamber experiment with two common subtropical trees (Acacia auriculiformis and Syzygium hainanense) to explore the effects of cadmium (Cd)-contamination, e[CO], and N addition on plant eco-physiological traits. We found that the growth of A. auriculiformis was insensitive to the treatments, indicating that it is a Cd-tolerant and useful afforestation species. For S. hainanense, in contrast, e[CO] and/or N addition offset the detrimental effects of Cd addition by greatly increasing plant biomass and reducing the leaf Cd concentration. We then found that e[CO] and/or N addition offset the detrimental Cd effects on S. hainanense biomass by increasing its photosynthetic rate, its N concentration, and the efficiency of its stem water transport network. These offsetting effects of e[CO] and/or N addition, however, came at the expense of reduced xylem hydraulic safety resulting from wider vessels, thinner vessel walls, and therefore weaker vessel reinforcement. Our study suggests that, given future increases in global CO concentration and N deposition, the growth of Cd-tolerant tree species (like A. auriculiformis) will be probably stable while the growth of Cd-sensitive tree species (like S. hainanense) might be enhanced despite reduced hydraulic safety. This also suggests that both species will be useful for afforestation of Cd-contaminated soils given future global change scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155858DOI Listing
September 2022

Keap1-Nrf2/ARE signal pathway activated by butylphthalide in the treatment of ischemic stroke.

Am J Transl Res 2022 15;14(4):2637-2646. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Department of Neurology, Cangzhou Central Hospital Cangzhou 061001, Hebei, China.

Objective: To analyze the clinical efficacy and possible mechanism of butylphthalide in treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 127 patients with ischemic stroke, hospitalized during Jan. 2019 to Jan. 2021, were enrolled and as assigned to observation group (n=65) and control group (n=62) according to treatment methods. The control group received routine treatment, and the observation group was treated with butylphthalide injection in addition to conventional cure. The treatments lasted for 2 weeks in both groups. Subsequently, the recovery of neurological deficits (NIHSS) and Barthel index (BI) of the two groups of patients, cerebrovascular vascular reserve function (CVR) values and pulsation index (PI) before and after treatment, and the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and recombinant basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were detected. The expression of Keap1-Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway related molecules was detected by ELISA.

Results: The overall response rate (ORR) of observation group was remarkably superior to that of control group (). NIHSS score obviously decreased while BI remarkably increased in both groups after treatment (all ); and the observation group showed an significantly higher BI score but significantly lower NIHSS score compared with the control group (all ). The CVR of the two groups of patients after treatment was significantly higher than that before treatment (), while PI was significantly lower than before treatment (); The CVR of observation-group after treatment was substantially higher than that of control-group (), while PI was lower than control-group (). Serum Keap1 levels of the two groups of patients after treatment were significantly higher than that before treatment (), while serum levels of NQO1, Nrf2, and ARE were significantly lower than that before treatment (P<0.05). The serum level of Keap1 in the observation group was remarkably higher than that of the control group (), while the serum levels of NQO1, Nrf2 and ARE were evidently lower than those in the control group (). The two groups had insignificant difference in incidence of adverse reactions ().

Conclusion: The butylphthalide can effectively improve the clinical efficacy of acute ischemic stroke, and promote patients' neurological function and activities of daily living. The mechanism may be that butylphthalide improves the CVR of patients, enhances the establishment of collateral compensatory vessels, and changes the expression of the Keap1-Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, thereby exerting the neuroprotective effect. Clinically, butylphthalide may have good safety in adjuvant therapy of acute ischemic stroke.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9091106PMC
April 2022

Mitochondrial-Related Transcriptome Feature Correlates with Prognosis, Vascular Invasion, Tumor Microenvironment, and Treatment Response in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 30;2022:1592905. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

Department of Special Treatment, Third Affiliated Hospital of Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200438, China.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common subtype of primary liver cancer, which was highly correlated with metabolic dysfunction. Nevertheless, the association between nuclear mitochondrial-related transcriptome and HCC remained unclear.

Materials And Methods: A total of 147 nuclear mitochondrial-related genes (NMRGs) were downloaded from the MITOMAP: A Human Mitochondrial Genome Database. The training dataset was downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), while validation datasets were retrieved from the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). The univariate and multivariate, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression analyses were applied to construct a NMRG signature, and the value of area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was utilized to assess the signature and nomogram. Then, data from the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC) were used for the evaluation of chemotherapy response in HCC.

Results: Functional enrichment of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between HCC and paired normal tissue samples demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction was significantly associated with HCC development. Survival analysis showed a total of 35 NMRGs were significantly correlated with overall survival (OS) of HCC, and the LASSO Cox regression analysis further identified a 25-NMRG signature and corresponding prognosis score based on their transcriptional profiling. HCC patients were divided into high- and low-risk groups according to the median prognosis score, and high-risk patients had significantly worse OS (median OS: 27.50 vs. 83.18 months, < 0.0001). The AUC values for OS at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0.79, 0.77, and 0.77, respectively. The prognostic capacity of NMRG signature was verified in the GSE14520 dataset and ICGC-HCC cohort. Besides, the NMRG signature outperformed each NMRG and clinical features in prognosis prediction and could also differentiate whether patients presented with vascular invasions (VIs) or not. Subsequently, a prognostic nomogram (C-index: 0.753, 95% CI: 0.703~0.804) by the integration of age, tumor metastasis, and NMRG prognosis score was constructed with the AUC values for OS at 1, 3, and 5 years were 0.82, 0.81, and 0.82, respectively. Notably, significant enrichment of regulatory and follicular helper T cells in high-risk group indicated the potential treatment of immune checkpoint inhibitors for these patients. Interestingly, the NMRG signature could also identify the potential responders of sorafenib or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) treatment. Additionally, HCC patients in high-risk group appeared to be more sensitive to cisplatin, vorinostat, and methotrexate, reversely, patients in low-risk group had significantly higher sensitivity to paclitaxel and bleomycin instead.

Conclusions: In summary, the development of NMRG signature provided a more comprehensive understanding of mitochondrial dysfunction in HCC, helped predict prognosis and tumor microenvironment, and provided potential targeted therapies for HCC patients with different NMRG prognosis scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1592905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9078845PMC
May 2022

A nonstructural protein encoded by a rice reovirus induces an incomplete autophagy to promote viral spread in insect vectors.

PLoS Pathog 2022 05 9;18(5):e1010506. Epub 2022 May 9.

Vector-borne Virus Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Ecological Pest Control for Fujian and Taiwan Crops, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China.

Viruses can hijack autophagosomes as the nonlytic release vehicles in cultured host cells. However, how autophagosome-mediated viral spread occurs in infected host tissues or organs in vivo remains poorly understood. Here, we report that an important rice reovirus, rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) hijacks autophagosomes to traverse multiple insect membrane barriers in the midgut and salivary gland of leafhopper vector to enhance viral spread. Such virus-containing double-membraned autophagosomes are prevented from degradation, resulting in increased viral propagation. Mechanistically, viral nonstructural protein Pns11 induces autophagy and embeds itself in the autophagosome membranes. The autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5)-ATG12 conjugation is essential for initial autophagosome membrane biogenesis. RGDV Pns11 specifically interacts with ATG5, both in vitro and in vivo. Silencing of ATG5 or Pns11 expression suppresses ATG8 lipidation, autophagosome formation, and efficient viral propagation. Thus, Pns11 could directly recruit ATG5-ATG12 conjugation to induce the formation of autophagosomes, facilitating viral spread within the insect bodies. Furthermore, Pns11 potentially blocks autophagosome degradation by directly targeting and mediating the reduced expression of N-glycosylated Lamp1 on lysosomal membranes. Taken together, these results highlight how RGDV remodels autophagosomes to benefit viral propagation in its insect vector.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1010506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9119444PMC
May 2022

The accuracy of an extramedullary femoral cutting system in total knee arthroplasty in patients with severe coronal femoral bowing: a radiographic study.

J Orthop Surg Res 2022 May 7;17(1):257. Epub 2022 May 7.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Division of Sports Medicine and Adult Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, 321 Zhongshan Road, Nanjing, 210008, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Background: Intramedullary (IM) femoral alignment instrument is imprecise for the coronal alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with severe lateral bowing of the femur, while the extramedullary (EM) alignment system does not depend on the structure of the femoral medullary cavity. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the accuracy of postoperative limb alignment with the two femoral alignment techniques for patients with severe coronal femoral bowing.

Methods: From January 2017 to December 2019, patients with end-stage knee osteoarthritis and coronal femoral bowing angle (cFBA) ≥ 5° who underwent total knee arthroplasty TKA at our institution were enrolled in the study. The postoperative hip-knee-ankle (HKA) alignment, femoral and tibial component alignment between the IM group and the EM group were compared on 5° ≤ cFBA < 10° and cFBA ≥ 10°.

Results: In patients with 5° ≤ cFBA < 10°, no significant differences were observed in the EM group and IM group, including preoperative and postoperative parameters. However, when analyzing the patients with cFBA ≥ 10°, we found a significant difference in postoperative HKA (4.51° in the IM group vs. 2.23°in the EM group, p < 0.001), femoral component alignment angle (86.84° in the IM group vs. 88.46° in the EM group, p = 0.001) and tibial component alignment angle (88.69° in the IM group vs. 89.81° in the EM group, p = 0.003) between the two groups. Compared to the EM group, the IM group presents a higher rate of outliers for the postoperative HKA and femoral components.

Conclusions: The study showed that severe lateral bowing of the femur has an important influence on the postoperative alignment with the IM femoral cutting system. In this case, the application of EM cutting system in TKA will perform accurate distal femoral resection and optimize the alignment of lower limb and the femoral component.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-022-03140-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9077963PMC
May 2022

Keratinocytes take part in the regulation of substance P in melanogenesis through the HPA axis.

J Dermatol Sci 2022 Jun 28;106(3):141-149. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Background: Clinical findings have shown that skin depigmentation disorder such as vitiligo may be closely associated with the release of central and peripheral substance P (SP) resulted from chronic psychological stress or sudden mental blow. But the regulatory role of SP and its receptor, tachykinin receptor in the pathogenesis of vitiligo is unclear.

Objectives: To investigate the function and mechanism of SP in melanogenesis.

Methods: The chronic mental stress was used to explore the intrinsic association between psychological factors, SP and melanogenesis disorder. The effect of SP on melanogenesis through hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis was studied by skin culture in vitro. The conditioned medium experiment demonstrated the indirect effect of SP on melanogenesis of B16F10 cells through HaCaT cells. The ability to produce melanin was evaluated by detecting melanin and tyrosinase activity. qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of related genes and proteins in melanogenesis and HPA axis.

Results: Increased SP expression and reduction of melanogenesis in the skin of mice were observed under mental stress. Melanogenesis was suppressed in the cultured human skin treated with SP due to the down-regulation of melanin-related proteins and HPA axis genes. The melanogenesis of B16F10 cells was inhibited by the conditioned medium of HaCaT cells treated with SP.

Conclusions: Overall, these results indicate that excess SP originated from mental stress interferes with melanogenesis through keratinocytes in the skin. The HPA axis is the key downstream to perceive the SP signaling and furtherly regulate the melanogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2022.04.011DOI Listing
June 2022

Cucurbitacin I inhibits the proliferation of pancreatic cancer through the JAK2/STAT3 signalling pathway and .

J Cancer 2022 28;13(7):2050-2060. Epub 2022 Mar 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou310000, China.

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive solid malignancies, as it has a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. The growth and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells into normal tissues and organs make resection and treatment difficult. Finding an effective chemotherapy drug for this disease is crucial. In this study, we selected the tetracyclic triterpenoid compound cucurbitacin I, which may be used as a potential therapeutic drug for treating pancreatic cancer. First, we found that cucurbitacin I inhibited pancreatic cancer proliferation in a dose-time dependent manner. Further studies have shown that cucurbitacin I blocks the cell cycle of pancreatic cancer in the G2/M phase and induces cell apoptosis. In addition, under the action of the compound, the invasion ability of cells was greatly reduced and markedly impaired the growth of pancreatic tumour xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, the decrease in pancreatic cancer cell proliferation caused by cucurbitacin I appeared to involve JAK2/STAT3 signalling pathway inhibition, and the use of JAK2/STAT3 activators effectively restored the inhibition. In conclusion, our research may provide a basis for the further development of pancreatic cancer treatment drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.65875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9066209PMC
March 2022

Study on acoustic radiation force of an elastic sphere in an off-axial Gaussian beam using localized approximation.

J Acoust Soc Am 2022 Apr;151(4):2602

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Ultrasonics, School of Physics and Information Technology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China.

In this paper, the expansion coefficients of the off-axial Gaussian beam are obtained using the localized approximation and the translational addition theorem for spherical wave function. The three-dimensional acoustic radiation force of a sphere positioned in an off-axial Gaussian beam is derived. The axial acoustic radiation force of a rigid sphere is computed to verify the derived expressions. The effect of the position of a polystyrene sphere in an off-axial Gaussian beam on the transverse and axial acoustic radiation forces is studied to explore the changing law of particle acoustic manipulation using a Gaussian beam. The calculated results show that the axial force repels the polystyrene particle away from the center of the beam. However, for the transverse force, there is a negative acoustic radiation force at some positions, which is related to the position of the polystyrene sphere in the Gaussian beam, and the negative transverse forces usually pull the polystyrene particle toward the beam axis. In addition, the numerical simulations based on the finite element method are presented to validate the analytical theory, and the comparison results are in good agreement with each other. The study may provide a theoretical basis for the development of single-beam acoustic tweezers using a Gaussian beam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/10.0010240DOI Listing
April 2022
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