Publications by authors named "Xiaofeng Wu"

260 Publications

Application of Deep Learning in Lung Cancer Imaging Diagnosis.

J Healthc Eng 2022 3;2022:6107940. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Thoracic Surgery Department, GanZhou People's Hospital, Ganzhou 341000, China.

Lung cancer is one of the malignant tumors with the highest fatality rate and nearest to our lives. It poses a great threat to human health and it mainly occurs in smokers. In our country, with the acceleration of industrialization, environmental pollution, and population aging, the cancer burden of lung cancer is increasing day by day. In the diagnosis of lung cancer, Computed Tomography (CT) images are a fairly common visualization tool. CT images visualize all tissues based on the absorption of X-rays. The diseased parts of the lung are collectively referred to as pulmonary nodules, the shape of nodules is different, and the risk of cancer will vary with the shape of nodules. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is a very suitable method to solve this problem because the computer vision model can quickly scan every part of the CT image of the same quality for analysis and will not be affected by fatigue and emotion. The latest advances in deep learning enable computer vision models to help doctors diagnose various diseases, and in some cases, models have shown greater competitiveness than doctors. Based on the opportunity of technological development, the application of computer vision in medical imaging diagnosis of diseases has important research significance and value. In this paper, we have used a deep learning-based model on CT images of lung cancer and verified its effectiveness in the timely and accurate prediction of lungs disease. The proposed model has three parts: (i) detection of lung nodules, (ii) False Positive Reduction of the detected nodules to filter out "false nodules," and (iii) classification of benign and malignant lung nodules. Furthermore, different network structures and loss functions were designed and realized at different stages. Additionally, to fine-tune the proposed deep learning-based mode and improve its accuracy in the detection Lung Nodule Detection, Noudule-Net, which is a detection network structure that combines U-Net and RPN, is proposed. Experimental observations have verified that the proposed scheme has exceptionally improved the expected accuracy and precision ratio of the underlined disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/6107940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8749371PMC
January 2022

A Novel Prognostic and Predictive Signature for Lung Adenocarcinoma Derived from Combined Hypoxia and Infiltrating Immune Cell-Related Genes in TCGA Patients.

Int J Gen Med 2021 30;14:10467-10481. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: The hypoxia and immune status of the lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) microenvironment appear to have combined impacts on prognosis. Therefore, deriving a prognostic signature by integrating hypoxia- and immune infiltrating cell-related genes (H&IICRGs) may add value over prognostic indices derived from genes driving either process alone.

Methods: Differentially expressed H&IICRGs (DE-H&IICRGs) were identified in The Cancer Genome Atlas transcriptomic data using , CIBERSORT, weighted gene co-expression network analysis, and intersection analysis. A stepwise Cox regression model was constructed to identify prognostic genes and to produce a gene signature based on DE-H&IICRGs. The potential biological functions associated with the gene signature were explored using functional enrichment analysis. The prognostic signature was externally validated in a separate cohort from the Gene Expression Omnibus database.

Results: Five prognostic genes associated with overall survival in LUAD were used in the DE-H&IICRG-based prognostic signature. Patients in the high-risk group had an inferior prognosis, which was validated in an independent external cohort, and had lower expression of most immune checkpoint genes. In multivariate analysis, only risk score and T stage were independent prognostic factors. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the risk score were enriched for pathways related to cell cycle, hypoxia regulation, and immune response. TIDE analyses showed that low-risk LUAD patients might also respond better to immunotherapy.

Conclusion: This study establishes and validates a prognostic profile for LUAD patients that combines hypoxia and immune infiltrating cell-related genes. This signature may have clinical application both for prognostication and guiding individualized immunotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S342107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8722539PMC
December 2021

Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals regional specialization of gene expression in larval silkworm (Bombyx mori) midgut.

Insect Sci 2022 Jan 8. Epub 2022 Jan 8.

College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Insect midgut plays a central role in food digestion and nutrition absorption. Larval silkworm midgut could be divided into three distinct regions based on their morphological colors. However, it remains rudimentary of regional gene expression and physiological function in larval silkworm midgut. Through transcriptome sequencing of three midgut compartments, a comprehensive analysis of gene expression atlas along the anterior-posterior axis was conducted. Posterior midgut was found transcriptionally divergent from anterior and middle midgut. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis revealed the regional specialization of digestive enzyme production, transmembrane transport, chitin metabolism, and hormone regulation in different midgut regions. In addition, gene subsets of pan-midgut and region-specific transcription factors (TFs) along the length of midgut were also identified. The results suggested that homeobox TFs might play an essential role in transcriptional variations across the midgut. Altogether, our study provided the first fundamental resource to investigate physiological function and regulation mechanism in larval midgut compartmentalization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1744-7917.13001DOI Listing
January 2022

Molecular mechanism responsible for the hyperexpression of baculovirus polyhedrin.

Gene 2021 Dec 28;814:146129. Epub 2021 Dec 28.

College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Key Laboratory of Silkworm and Bee Resource Utilization and Innovation of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

One of the amazing phenomena in the baculovirus life cycle is the hyperexpression of the very late gene, polyhedrin (polh), causing the production of the occlusion bodies where progeny virions are embedded. However, to date, the molecular mechanism underlying its hyperexpression is not completely elucidated. Considering that, in this review, the mechanism responsible for its hyperexpression from the previous studies up to now was comprehensively summarized from three aspects, namely, the structure characteristics of the polh promoter and transcription regulation, the structure and translation regulation of the polh mRNA, and especially the regulators that influence the expression of polh gene. Moreover, this review will help us obtain a better understanding about the hyperexpression of polh, and also provide guidance for improving the expression efficiency of the foreign proteins by adopting the baculovirus expression vector system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.146129DOI Listing
December 2021

Conversion of lignin-derived 3-methoxycatechol to the natural product purpurogallin using bacterial P450 GcoAB and laccase CueO.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Dec 31. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd., Minhang District, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Purpurogallin is a natural benzotropolone extracted from Quercus spp, which has antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. Purpurogallin is typically synthesized from pyrogallol using enzymatic or metal catalysts, neither economically feasible nor environmentally friendly. 3-Methoxycatechol (3-MC) is a lignin-derived renewable chemical with the potential to be a substrate for the biosynthesis of purpurogallin. In this study, we designed a pathway to produce purpurogallin from 3-MC. We first characterized four bacterial laccases and identified the laccase CueO from Escherichia coli, which converts pyrogallol to purpurogallin. Then, we used CueO and the P450 GcoAB reported to convert 3-MC to pyrogallol, to construct a method for producing purpurogallin directly from 3-MC. A total of 0.21 ± 0.05 mM purpurogallin was produced from 5 mM 3-MC by whole-cell conversion. This study provides a new method to enable efficient and sustainable synthesis of purpurogallin and offers new insights into lignin valorization. KEY POINTS: • Screening four bacterial laccases for converting pyrogallol to purpurogallin. • Laccase CueO from Escherichia coli presenting the activity for purpurogallin yield. • A novel pathway for converting lignin-derived 3-methoxycatechol to purpurogallin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-021-11738-5DOI Listing
December 2021

Activatable fluorescent probes for imaging of enzymes.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Dec 24. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.

As the main biomarkers of most diseases, enzymes play fundamental but extremely critical roles in biosystems. High-resolution studies of enzymes using activatable fluorescence imaging may help to better elucidate their dynamics in living systems. Currently, most activatable probes can realize changeable imaging of enzymes but inevitably tend to diffuse away from the original active site of the enzyme and even translocate out of cells, seriously impairing high-resolution observation of the enzymes. fluorescence imaging of enzymes can be realized by labelling probes or antibodies with always-on signals that fail to enable activatable imaging of enzymes. Thus, fluorescent probes with both "activatable" and "" properties will enable high-resolution studies of enzymes in living systems. In this tutorial review, we summarize the existing methods ranging from design strategies to bioimaging applications that could be used to develop activatable fluorescent probes for imaging of enzymes. It is expected that this tutorial review will promote the new methods generated to design such probes for better deciphering enzymes in complex biosystems and further extend the application of these methods to other fields of enzymes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cs00543jDOI Listing
December 2021

Genome-wide identification of lipases in silkworm (Bombyx mori) and their spatio-temporal expression in larval midgut.

Gene 2021 Dec 13;813:146121. Epub 2021 Dec 13.

College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Key Laboratory of Silkworm and Bee Resource Utilization and Innovation of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Lipases play crucial roles in food digestion by degrading dietary lipids into free fatty acids and glycerols. The domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) has been widely used as an important Lepidopteran model for decades. However, little is known about the lipase gene family in the silkworm, especially their hydrolytic activities as digestive enzymes. In this study, a total of 38 lipase genes were identified in the silkworm genome. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that they were divided into three major groups. Twelve lipases were confirmed to be expressed in the midgut at both transcriptional and translational levels. They were grouped into the same gene cluster, suggesting that they could have similar physiological functions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses indicated that lipases were mainly expressed in anterior and middle midgut regions, and their expression levels varied greatly along the length of midgut. A majority of lipases were down-regulated in the midgut when larvae stopped feeding. However, a unique lipase gene (Bmlip10583) showed low expression level during feeding stage, but it was significantly up-regulated during the larvae-pupae transition. These results demonstrated that expression of silkworm lipases was spatially and temporally regulated in the midgut during larval development. Taken together, our results provide a fundamental research of the lipase gene family in the silkworm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.146121DOI Listing
December 2021

Oil extraction following digestion to separate microplastics from mussels.

Chemosphere 2022 Feb 7;289:133187. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

Center for Environmental Metrology, National Institute of Metrology PR China, PR China. Electronic address:

Mussels are often used as biological indicators for monitoring marine microplastic pollution. The crucial procedure during monitoring is the separation of microplastics from mussel samples. We investigated the separation efficiencies of six combinations of two digestion solutions (10% KOH and 30% HO) and three extraction solutions (NaCl, oil in HO, and oil in NaCl) for mussels with low- and high-density microplastics. After KOH digestion, no polyethylene terephthalate (PET) could be extracted using the three extraction solutions, which might be due to the degradation of PET. After HO digestion, the total extraction recovery rates of polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, and PET for oil in HO and oil in NaCl solution ranged from 95.6% ± 5.09%-100%, which were higher than those of the saturated NaCl solution (51.1% ± 17.1%-67.8% ± 13.9%). The first extraction recovery rates of oil in NaCl solution for PP, PET, and PVC were higher than those of oil in HO. In this study, extraction by oil in NaCl solution after 30% HO digestion was suggested to separate microplastics from mussels. This method is conducive to promoting the standardization of microplastic monitoring in mussels and might be suitable for large-scale monitoring of marine microplastic pollution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.133187DOI Listing
February 2022

Regulating oxygen vacancies in CoOby combining solution reduction and Ni impregnation for oxygen evolution reaction.

Nanotechnology 2021 Dec 6;33(9). Epub 2021 Dec 6.

State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, People's Republic of China.

Oxygen vacancies are considered to be an important factor to influence the electronic structure and charge transport of electrocatalysts in the field of energy chemistry. Various strategies focused on oxygen vacancy engineering are proved to be efficient for further improving the electrocatalytic performance of CoO. Herein, an optimal CoOwith rich oxygen vacancies have been synthesized via a two-step process combining solution reduction and Niimpregnation. The as-prepared electrocatalyst exhibits an enhanced oxygen evolution performance with the overpotential of 330 mV at the current density of 10 mA cmin alkaline condition, which is 84 mV lower than that of pristine one. With the increasing of oxygen vacancies, the charge transfer efficiency and surface active area are relatively enhanced reflected by the Tafel slope and double-layer capacitance measurement. These results indicate that combination of solution reduction and heteroatom doping can be a valid way for efficient metal oxides-based electrocatalyst development by constructing higher concentration of oxygen vacancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac3bebDOI Listing
December 2021

The Impact of Clinical Treatment Plan of the New Definition of Precapillary Pulmonary Hypertension.

Chest 2021 11;160(5):e540-e541

Guangzhou Medical University, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2021.06.073DOI Listing
November 2021

Scalable Synthesis of Ultrathin Polyimide Covalent Organic Framework Nanosheets for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Nov 3;143(46):19446-19453. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Supramolecular Coordination Materials and Applications, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China.

Development of new porous materials as hosts to suppress the dissolution and shuttle of lithium polysulfides is beneficial for constructing highly efficient lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs). Although 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs) as host materials exhibit promising potential for LSBs, their performance is still not satisfactory. Herein, we develop polyimide COFs (PI-COF) with a well-defined lamellar structure, which can be exfoliated into ultrathin (∼1.2 nm) 2D polyimide nanosheets (PI-CONs) with a large size (∼6 μm) and large quantity (40 mg/batch). Explored as new sulfur host materials for LSBs, PI-COF and PI-CONs deliver high capacities (1330 and 1205 mA h g at 0.1 C, respectively), excellent rate capabilities (620 and 503 mA h g at 4 C, respectively), and superior cycling stability (96% capacity retention at 0.2 C for PI-CONs) by virtue of the synergy of robust conjugated porous frameworks and strong oxygen-lithium interactions, surpassing the vast majority of organic/polymeric lithium-sulfur battery cathodes ever reported. Our finding demonstrates that ultrathin 2D COF nanosheets with carbonyl groups could be promising host materials for LSBs with excellent electrochemical performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c08675DOI Listing
November 2021

Photocatalytic oxidation of NO on reduction type semiconductor photocatalysts: effect of metallic Bi on CdS nanorods.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Sep 30;57(78):10067-10070. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Key Laboratory of Resources Conversion and Pollution Control of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission, College of Resources and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430074, China.

We report the first visible light photocatalytic oxidation of NO on CdS nanorods (CdS-NRs), one of the typical reduction type semiconductor photocatalysts. The NO removal rate in a continuous reactor sharply increases from 44% to 58% after deposition of Bi nanoplates on CdS-NRs. The LSPR effect of metallic Bi causes the dramatic production of superoxide radicals (˙O) and singlet oxygen (O) that are responsible for the oxidation of NO.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc03516aDOI Listing
September 2021

Early Microstructure Changes of White Matter Fiber Bundles in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Predicts Progression of Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;84(1):179-192

The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, Institute of Health and Rehabilitation Science, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, P.R. China.

Background: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is the transitional stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some aMCI patients will progress into AD eventually, whereas others will not. If the trajectory of aMCI can be predicted, it would enable early diagnosis and early therapy of AD.

Objective: To explore the development trajectory of aMCI patients, we used diffusion tensor imaging to analyze the white matter microstructure changes of patients with different trajectories of aMCI.

Methods: We included three groups of subjects:1) aMCI patients who convert to AD (MCI-P); 2) aMCI patients who remain in MCI status (MCI-S); 3) normal controls (NC). We analyzed the fractional anisotropy and mean diffusion rate of brain regions, and we adopted logistic binomial regression model to predicate the development trajectory of aMCI.

Results: The fraction anisotropy value is significantly reduced, the mean diffusivity value is significantly increased in the two aMCI patient groups, and the MCI-P patients presented greater changes. Significant changes are mainly located in the cingulum, fornix, hippocampus, and uncinate fasciculus. These changed brain regions significantly correlated with the patient's Mini-Mental State Examination scores.

Conclusion: The study predicted the disease trajectory of different types of aMCI patients based on the characteristic values of the above-mentioned brain regions. The prediction accuracy rate can reach 90.2%, and the microstructure characteristics of the right cingulate band and the right hippocampus may have potential clinical application value to predict the disease trajectory.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210495DOI Listing
January 2022

Activation of apoptosis by rationally constructing NIR amphiphilic AIEgens: surmounting the shackle of mitochondrial membrane potential for amplified tumor ablation.

Chem Sci 2021 Aug 6;12(31):10522-10531. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, Ewha Womans University Seoul 03760 Korea

In recent years, the use of aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens) for biological imaging and phototherapy has become an area of intense research. However, most traditional AIEgens suffer from undesired aggregation in aqueous media with "always on" fluorescence, or their targeting effects cannot be maintained accurately in live cells with the microenvironment changes. These drawbacks seriously impede their application in the fields of bio-imaging and antitumor therapy, which require a high signal-to-noise ratio. Herein, we propose a molecular design strategy to tune the dispersity of AIEgens in both lipophilic and hydrophilic systems to obtain the novel near-infrared (NIR, ∼737 nm) amphiphilic AIE photosensitizer (named ) with two positive charges as well as a triplet lifetime of 11.43 μs. The synergistic effects of lipophilicity, electrostatic interaction, and structure-anchoring enable the wider dynamic range of AIEgen for mitochondrial targeting with tolerance to the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δ ). Intriguingly, was difficult for normal cells to be taken up, indicative of low inherent toxicity for normal cells and tissues. Deeper insight into the changes of mitochondrial membrane potential and cleaved caspase 3 levels further revealed the mechanism of tumor cell apoptosis activated by AIEgen under light irradiation. With its advantages of low dark toxicity and good biocompatibility, acting as an efficient theranostic agent, was successfully applied to kill cancer cells and to efficiently inhibit tumor growth in mice. This study will provide a new avenue for researchers to design more ideal amphiphilic AIE photosensitizers with NIR fluorescence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1sc02227jDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8356816PMC
August 2021

Circularly Polarized Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (C-FRET) for Efficient Chirality Transmission within an Intermolecular System.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 11 7;60(46):24549-24557. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Key Laboratory for Advanced Materials and Joint International Research Laboratory of Precision Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Feringa Nobel Prize Scientist Joint Research Center, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Functional Materials Chemistry, Institute of Fine Chemicals, Frontiers Science Center for Materiobiology and Dynamic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200237, China.

The occurrence and transmission of chirality is a fascinating characteristic of nature. However, the intermolecular transmission efficiency of circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) remains challenging due to poor through-space energy transfer. We report a unique CPL transmission from inducing the achiral acceptor to emit CPL within a specific liquid crystal (LC)-based intermolecular system through a circularly polarized fluorescence resonance energy transfer (C-FRET), wherein the luminescent cholesteric LC is employed as the chirality donor, and rationally designed achiral long-wavelength aggregation-induced emission (AIE) fluorophore acts as the well-assembled acceptor. In contrast to photon-release-and-absorption, the chirality transmission channel of C-FRET is highly dependent upon the energy resonance in the highly intrinsic chiral assembly of cholesteric LC, as verified by deliberately separating the achiral acceptor from the chiral donor to keep it far beyond the resonance distance. This C-FRET mode provides a de novo strategy concept for high-level information processing for applications such as high-density data storage, combinatorial logic calculation, and multilevel data encryption and decryption.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202109054DOI Listing
November 2021

Cation-Exchange-Induced Metal and Alloy Dual-Exsolution in Perovskite Ferrite Oxides Boosting the Performance of Li-O Battery.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Oct 13;60(43):23380-23387. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, P. R. China.

A temperature-controlled cation-exchange approach is introduced to achieve a unique dual-exsolution in perovskite La Fe Co O where both CoFe alloy and Co metal are simultaneously exsolved from the parent perovskite, forming an alloy and metal co-decorated perovskite oxide. Mossbauer spectra show that cation exchange of Fe atoms in CoFe alloy and Co cations in the perovskite is the key to the co-existence of Co metal and CoFe alloy. The obtained composite exhibits an enhanced catalytic activity as Li-O battery cathode catalysts with a specific discharge capacity of 6549.7 mAh g and a cycling performance of 215 cycles without noticeable degradation. Calculations show that the combination of decorated CoFe alloy and Co metal synergistically modulated the discharge reaction pathway that improves the performance of Li-O battery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202110116DOI Listing
October 2021

Exocyst protein subnetworks integrate Hippo and mTOR signaling to promote virus detection and cancer.

Cell Rep 2021 08;36(5):109491

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 600 16th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; UCSF Helen Diller Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, 600 16th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

The exocyst is an evolutionarily conserved protein complex that regulates vesicular trafficking and scaffolds signal transduction. Key upstream components of the exocyst include monomeric RAL GTPases, which help mount cell-autonomous responses to trophic and immunogenic signals. Here, we present a quantitative proteomics-based characterization of dynamic and signal-dependent exocyst protein interactomes. Under viral infection, an Exo84 exocyst subcomplex assembles the immune kinase Protein Kinase R (PKR) together with the Hippo kinase Macrophage Stimulating 1 (MST1). PKR phosphorylates MST1 to activate Hippo signaling and inactivate Yes Associated Protein 1 (YAP1). By contrast, a Sec5 exocyst subcomplex recruits another immune kinase, TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which interacted with and activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). RALB was necessary and sufficient for induction of Hippo and mTOR signaling through parallel exocyst subcomplex engagement, supporting the cellular response to virus infection and oncogenic signaling. This study highlights RALB-exocyst signaling subcomplexes as mechanisms for the integrated engagement of Hippo and mTOR signaling in cells challenged by viral pathogens or oncogenic signaling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383154PMC
August 2021

TNF-α augments CXCL10/CXCR3 axis activity to induce Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in colon cancer cell.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 26;17(11):2683-2702. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burn and Combined Injury, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400042, China.

Chronic inflammation-induced metastases have long been regarded as one of the significant obstacles in treating cancer. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a main inflammation mediator within tumor microenvironment, affects tumor development by inducing multiple chemokines to establish a complex network. Recent reports have revealed that CXCL10/CXCR3 axis affects cancer cells invasiveness and metastases, and Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the main reason for frequent proliferation and distant organ metastases of colon cancer (CC) cells, However, it is unclear whether TNF-α- mediated chronic inflammation can synergically enhance EMT-mediated CC metastasis through promoting chemokine expression. According to this study, TNF-α activated the PI3K/Akt and p38 MAPK parallel signal transduction pathways, then stimulate downstream NF-κB pathway p65 into the nucleus to activate CXCL10 transcription. CXCL10 enhanced the metastases of CC-cells by triggering small GTPases such as RhoA and cdc42. Furthermore, overexpression of CXCL10 significantly enhanced tumorigenicity and mobility of CC cells . We further clarified that CXCL10 activated the PI3K/Akt pathway through CXCR3, resulting in suppression of GSK-3β phosphorylation and leading to upregulation of Snail expression, thereby regulating EMT in CC cells. These outcomes lay the foundation for finding new targets to inhibit CC metastases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.61350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326125PMC
June 2021

Cigarette smoking induces aberrant N-methyladenosine of DAPK2 to promote non-small cell lung cancer progression by activating NF-κB pathway.

Cancer Lett 2021 10 21;518:214-229. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Zhangzhidong Road No. 99, Wuhan, 430060, China. Electronic address:

N-methyladenosine (mA) has recently emerged as an important regulatory mechanism for gene expression and aberrant mA modification plays an important role in tumor progression. Emerging evidence has shown that aberrant mA modification induced by cigarette smoking is involved in carcinogenesis, but whether cigarette smoking affects mA modification and thus deteriorates to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still unclear. Here, we identified a tumor suppressor gene-DAPK2 which was significantly associated with poor prognosis of NSCLC patients, especially in patients with a smoking history. Low levels of DAPK2 were detected in smokers and in NSCLC tissues. Cigarette smoking induced aberrant N-methyladenosine modification of DAPK2, which resulted in decreased DAPK2 mRNA stability and expression of its mRNA and protein. This modification was mediated by the mA "writer" METTL3 and the mA "reader" YTHDF2. Mechanistically, we further demonstrated that DAPK2 functions as a tumor suppressor and downregulation of DAPK2 substantially enhances the proliferation and migration abilities in vitro and in vivo by activating NF-κB signaling pathway. Notably, the BAY 11-7085, a NF-κB signaling selective inhibitor, was shown to efficiently suppressed downregulation of DAPK2-induced oncogenic phenotypes of NSCLC cells. Our study reveals that cigarette smoking induces aberrant N-methyladenosine of DAPK2 to promote NSCLC progression, which provides new insight into the mechanisms of NSCLC progression and a specific therapeutic target for NSCLC patients with a smoking history.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.07.022DOI Listing
October 2021

Surface-enhanced Raman scattering holography chip for rapid, sensitive and multiplexed detection of human breast cancer-associated MicroRNAs in clinical samples.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Oct 30;190:113470. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Laboratory of Nanoscale Biochemical Analysis, Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123, China. Electronic address:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for the early diagnosis of breast cancer. Yet, simultaneous achievement of rapid, sensitive and accurate detection of diverse miRNAs in clinical samples is still challenging due to the low abundance of miRNAs and the complex procedures of RNA extraction and separation. Herein, we develop an innovative three-dimensional (3D) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) holography sensing strategy for rapid, sensitive and multiplexed detection of human breast cancer-associated miRNAs. To establish a proof of concept, nine kinds of human breast cancer-associated miRNAs are isothermally amplified by Exonuclease (Exo) III enzyme, and the products could be spatially separated to corresponding sensing region on silicon SERS substrates. Each region has been modified with corresponding hairpin DNA probes, which are used to identify and quantify the miRNAs. Different DNA probes are labeled with different Raman reporters, which serve as "SERS tags" to incorporate spectroscopic information into computer-generated 3D SERS hologram within ~9 min. We demonstrate that 3D SERS holography chip not only achieves an ultrahigh sensitivity down to ~1 aM but also feature a high correlation with RT-qPCR in the detection of nine miRNAs in 30 clinical serum samples. This work provides a feasible tool to improve the diagnosis of breast cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113470DOI Listing
October 2021

Correlation between sonographic features and pathological findings of cervical lymph node metastasis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

Gland Surg 2021 May;10(5):1736-1743

Department of Ultrasound, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between the sonographic features and pathological findings of cervical lymph node metastasis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).

Methods: A total of 49 patients who had thyroid surgery and lateral or central cervical lymph node dissection from October to December 2019 in our hospital were selected. All the lymph nodes included in the dissection were examined by intraoperative ultrasound and were divided into 5 groups according to the sonographic characteristics (A: overall hyperechoic group; B: hypoechoic with punctate hyperechoic group; C: mass hyperechoic group; D: cystic degeneration group; E: hypoechoic group without punctate hyperecho). All samples were sent to the Pathology Department according to the area of origin and classified and numbered for comparative analysis of the microscopic pathology and the sonogram.

Results: A total of 120 suspicious metastatic lymph nodes were finally screened out by intraoperative ultrasound. The sonographic signs of these suspicious metastatic lymph nodes in the lateral and central regions of the neck were significantly different from the normal lymph nodes. Besides, the indicators including sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of intraoperative ultrasound for detecting lateral and central lymph nodes were 89.04% 82.98%, 93.83% 80.00%, 90.97% 81.10%, 92.86% 70.91%, and 90.48% 88.89%, respectively. The pathological features of metastatic lymph nodes were shown as follows: group A, diffuse distribution of follicular structure; group C, focal distribution of follicular structure; group B and E, atypical follicular epithelial cells with or without papillary structure. Necrosis and liquefaction were observed in group D.

Conclusions: The relationship between sonographic features and follicular structure of metastatic lymph nodes are firmly related. A correct understanding of these features is practical to improve the diagnostic rate of conventional ultrasonography and reduce the incidences of misdiagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/gs-21-253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184372PMC
May 2021

Microfluidic synthesis of high-valence programmable atom-like nanoparticles for reliable sensing.

Chem Sci 2020 Dec 8;12(3):896-904. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Laboratory of Nanoscale Biochemical Analysis, Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University Suzhou 215123 China

Synthesis of programmable atom-like nanoparticles (PANs) with high valences and high yields remains a grand challenge. Here, a novel synthetic strategy of microfluidic galvanic displacement (μ-GD) coupled with microfluidic DNA nanoassembly is advanced for synthesis of single-stranded DNA encoder (SSE)-encoded PANs for reliable surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing. Notably, PANs with high valences (, -valence, = 12) are synthesized with high yields (, >80%) owing to the effective control of interfacial reactions sequentially occurring in the microfluidic system. On the basis of this, we present the first demonstration of a PAN-based automatic analytical platform, in which sensor construction, sample loading and on-line monitoring are carried out in the microfluidic system, thus guaranteeing reliable quantitative measurement. In the proof-of-concept demonstration, accurate determination of tetracycline (TET) in serum and milk samples with a high recovery close to 100% and a low relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 5.0% is achieved by using this integrated analytical platform.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc05911kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179029PMC
December 2020

Highly selective two-photon fluorescent off-on probes for imaging tyrosinase activity in living cells and tissues.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Jul;57(56):6911-6914

Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120-750, Korea.

A coumarin-based two-photon (TP) fluorescent off-on probe has been developed for detecting tyrosinase activity. High selectivity, sensitivity and biocompatibility enable the probes to successfully image tyrosinase activity in live cells and tissues using TP microscopy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc02374hDOI Listing
July 2021

A molecular approach to rationally constructing specific fluorogenic substrates for the detection of acetylcholinesterase activity in live cells, mice brains and tissues.

Chem Sci 2020 Sep 22;11(41):11285-11292. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, Ewha Womans University Seoul 03760 Republic of Korea

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an extremely critical hydrolase tightly associated with neurological diseases. Currently, developing specific substrates for imaging AChE activity still remains a great challenge due to the interference from butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and carboxylesterase (CE). Herein, we propose an approach to designing specific substrates for AChE detection by combining dimethylcarbamate choline with a self-immolative scaffold. The representative can effectively eliminate the interference from CE and BChE. The high specificity of has been proved imaging AChE activity in cells. Moreover, can also be used to successfully map AChE activity in different regions of a normal mouse brain, which may provide important data for AChE evaluation in clinical studies. Such a rational and effective approach can also provide a solid basis for designing probes with different properties to study AChE in biosystems and another way to design specific substrates for other enzymes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc04213gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162927PMC
September 2020

The impact of recent chemotherapy on immunity in 2 COVID-19 cases with gastrointestinal tumors: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(21):e26143

The Enshi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, The Health Committee.

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly emerging infectious respiratory disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Currently, more than 100 million cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed worldwide, with over 2.4 million mortalities. The pandemic affects people of all ages but older individuals and those with severe chronic illnesses, including cancer patients, are at higher risk.

Patient Concerns: The impact of cancer treatment on the progression of COVID-19 is unclear. Therefore, we assessed the effects of chemotherapy on COVID-19 outcomes for 2 cancer patients. On January 24, 2020, a level I response to a major public health emergency was initiated in Hubei Province, China, which includes Enshi Autonomous Prefecture that has a population of 4.026 million people. As of April 30, 2020, 252 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 11 asymptomatic carriers were identified in Enshi.

Diagnosis: Among the confirmed cases and asymptomatic carriers, 2 patients were identified who were previously diagnosed with malignant tumors, including one with hepatocellular carcinoma and the other with cardia carcinoma.

Interventions: These 2 patients were receiving or just completed chemotherapy at the time of their COVID-19 diagnosis.

Outcomes: Both patients were followed and presented favorable outcomes. The positive outcomes for these 2 patients could be partially explained by their recent chemotherapy that impacted their immune status. Also, their relatively younger ages and lack of comorbidities were likely factors in their successful recovery from COVID-19.

Conclusions: Anticancer treatment might enhance a patient's ability to respond favorably to COVID-19 infection. However, anticancer treatment is likely to impact immune function differently in different individuals, which can influence disease outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154490PMC
May 2021

RNAi-based immunity in insects against baculoviruses and the strategies of baculoviruses involved in siRNA and miRNA pathways to weaken the defense.

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 09 12;122:104116. Epub 2021 May 12.

College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China; Key Laboratory of Silkworm and Bee Resource Utilization and Innovation of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Protection against viral infection in hosts concerns diverse cellular and molecular mechanisms, among which RNA interference (RNAi) response is a vital one. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are primary categories of small RNAs involved in RNAi response, playing significant roles in restraining viral invasion. However, during a long-term coevolution, viruses have gained the ability to evade, avoid, or suppress antiviral immunity to ensure efficient replication and transmission. Baculoviruses are enveloped, insect-pathogenic viruses with double-stranded circular DNA genomes, which encode suppressors of siRNA pathway and miRNAs targeting immune-related genes to mask the antiviral activity of their hosts. This review summarized recent findings for the RNAi-based antiviral immunity in insects as well as the strategies that baculoviruses exploit to break the shield of host siRNA pathway, and hijack cellular miRNAs or encode their own miRNAs that regulate both viral and cellular gene expression to create a favorable environment for viral infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dci.2021.104116DOI Listing
September 2021

Predicting related factors of immunological response to hepatitis B vaccine in hemodialysis patients based on integration of decision tree classification and logistic regression.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 09 14;17(9):3214-3220. Epub 2021 May 14.

Chinese Preventive Medicine Association, Beijing, China.

The non/hypo-response rate of the hepatitis B vaccine among hemodialysis (HD) patients is still high, it is of great significance to explore the influencing factors and their relationships. To study the related factors and their relationships using logistic regression model and Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) decision tree model. A randomized controlled trial was conducted between February 2014 and May 2015 in China. HD patients being serologically negative for HBsAg and anti-HBs were randomly assigned to receive three intramuscular injections of the standard dose (20 µg) or high dose (60 µg) of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine at months 0, 1, and 6. Those with anti-HBs concentrations <100 mIU/mL, and ≥100 mIU/mL at month 7 were considered as non/hypo-response and high-level response, respectively. The non/hypo-response was 31.34% (89/284). After adjustment for confounders, logistic analysis showed that males (= 2.203, 95%: 1.109-4.367) and those with higher dialysis frequency (>4 times per 2 weeks) (= 1.918, 95%: 1.015-3.626) had a significant risk of non/hypo-response. While the CHAID analysis showed that gender, dose, and dialysis frequency were influencing factors of non/hypo-response, and gender is most important. The interaction between gender and dialysis frequency had the greatest effect on immunization, and followed by the interaction between dialysis frequency and vaccine dose. Taken together, gender, dose and dialysis frequency were influencing factors of hepatitis B vaccine in HD patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1895603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381824PMC
September 2021

Iodinated disinfection byproduct formation in a MnO/I/EPS system.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 4;280:130643. Epub 2021 May 4.

Faculty of Environmental Engineering, University of Kitakyushu, 1-1 Hibikino, Wakamatsu, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

Manganese dioxide (MnO) is a Mn deposit widely accumulated in the corrosion layer of pipelines, and iodide (I) is a halogen ion frequently detected in waters. The biofilm dwelling on the corrosion scales often secretes extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) into drinking water. The paper aimed to study the I oxidation by MnO and iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs) formation with biofilm EPS as a precursor. More than 93% of formed free iodine was finally converted into organic iodine in the MnO/I/EPS system. Compared with humic acid, EPS had a lower carbonaceous I-DBPs (C-IDBPs) formation while a higher nitrogenous I-DBPs (N-IDBPs) formation. The formation of iodomethanes (I-THMs), iodoacetonitriles (I-HANs) and iodoacetic acids (I-HAAs) decreased with the increase of pH due to the weakening of polarization effect and redox potential, while the iodoacetamides (I-HAcAms) formation achieved the maximum at pH 6.0 due to the difference between the hydrolysis rate of I-HANs and decomposition rate of I-HAcAms. The I-DBPs formation was positively correlated with I concentration, while negatively correlated with MnO dose. Protein components displayed a higher formation of N-IDBPs and C-IDBPs than polysaccharide components due to higher nitrogen proportion and more iodination sites. Among 20 protein monomers, aspartic acid was considered as the most important precursor of the four investigated I-DBPs species. The paper is helpful to understand the I-DBPs formation when I in the bulk water come into contact with Mn deposits attached by biofilm.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130643DOI Listing
October 2021

The combination of intermittent electrical stimulation with acute intermittent hypoxia strengthens genioglossus muscle discharge in chronic intermittent hypoxia-pretreated rats.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2021 09 7;291:103680. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Exploring whether the genioglossus discharge in chronic intermittent hypoxia(CIH) - pretreated rats could be enhanced by intermittent electrical stimulation combined with acute intermittent hypoxia(AIH).

Methods: Rats were pretreated with CIH for 4 weeks and then were randomly divided into 6 groups: time control, intermittent electric stimulation, AIH, intermittent electric stimulation + AIH, continuous electric stimulation and continuous hypoxia exposure. The genioglossus discharges were recorded and compared before and after stimulation. Normoxic-treated rats were grouped and treated with the same stimulation protocols.

Results: Intermittent electrical stimulation or AIH temporarily increased the activity of the genioglossus discharge, in which the degree of the increase was significantly higher in CIH-pretreated rats than in normoxic rats.After intermittent electrical stimulation, AIH evoked a sustained elevation of genioglossus discharge activities in CIH-pretreated rats, in which the degree of the increase was significantly higher than in rats induced by a single intermittent electric stimulation.

Conclusion: Intermittent electrical stimulation combined with AIH strengthens the genioglossus plasticity in CIH-pretreated rats.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2021.103680DOI Listing
September 2021

Intracranial Cerebrospinal Fluid Volume Evaluation in Healthy People and Hydrocephalus Patients using SPACE Sequence.

Curr Med Imaging 2021 ;17(7):878-883

Department of Neurosurgery, Jiangyin Hospital, Southeast University, Jiangyin, 214400, Jiangsu province, China.

Introduction: Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) is produced mainly by the choroid plexus but with a substantial influence by the ependymal lining of the ventricles in the brain. Hydrocephalus occurs as a result of discrepancy in the production as well as circulation of CSF as a result of congenital and acquired conditions. Nevertheless, studies on the differences between CSF dynamics according to age and gender are still insufficient. Thus, this study evaluated the volume of intracranial CSF in healthy people and hydrocephalus patients taking into account the differences between CSF dynamics according to age and gender using Sampling Perfection with Application optimised Contrast using different flip-angle Evolution (SPACE) sequence.

Methods: 120 healthy volunteers and 60 patients with hydrocephalus were included in this study. SPACE sequence was used to evaluate intracranial CSF with a 3.0T magnetic resonance machine. The total volume of intracranial CSF and the amount of CSF in the ventricle were obtained using a software, and the volume ratio of CSF in the subarachnoid space, the ventricle and the subarachnoid space were calculated.

Results: The mean volume of intracranial CSF, ventricular CSF, and subarachnoid CSF of male volunteers were (206.9±47.7) cm3, (33.0±10.7) cm3, (173.9±37.9) cm3 respectively. The average volume of intracranial CSF, ventricular CSF, and subarachnoid CSF of female volunteers were (199.7±44.9) cm3, (30.8±9.4) cm3, and (168.9±37.0) cm3, respectively. Thus, no significant statistically (P>0.05) difference between males and females was found. (3) The mean values of intracranial CSF, ventricle CSF and subarachnoid CSF, ventricle and subarachnoid CSF volume ratio in patients with hydrocephalus were significantly greater than health volunteers. Thus, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05).

Conclusion: SPACE sequence can quantitatively determine the content of CSF. The change of CSF volume has nothing to do with gender but with age. It is feasible to use SPACE sequence to evaluate the spatial distribution and volume of intracranial CSF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573405617666210504093557DOI Listing
November 2021
-->