Publications by authors named "Xiaofeng Liu"

502 Publications

Anaerobic digestion of corn straw pretreated by ultrasonic combined with aerobic hydrolysis.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Aug 21;341:125826. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

College of engineering Northeast Agriculture University, Harbin 15000, PR China. Electronic address:

Corn straw (CS) was pretreated by ultrasonic combined aerobic with biogas slurry as medium for anaerobic digestion (AD), that strengthened the degradation efficiency CS, varied in the composition of digestion slurry, thereby the methane production was increased. Central combinatorial design (CCD) test was used to treat CS at ultrasonic power (200, 400, and 600 W), time (10, 20, and 30 min) and AD for 25 days, at 37 ± 1℃. According to data showed that the pH and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) affected methane production directly. With an ultrasonic power 309 W, time 26 min, it reached the maximum content of VFAs with 16.24 g/L, the cumulative methane production achieved the highest with 198.56 mL/g VS, which was 46.73% higher than unpretreated raw material as CK. Ultrasonic-aerobic hydrolysis pretreatment can obtain higher VFAs and methane production content in a short period of time that is great significance to biogas engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125826DOI Listing
August 2021

Integrated Bioinformatic Analysis of the Expression and Prognosis of Caveolae-Related Genes in Human Breast Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:703501. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

The First Department of Breast Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Caveolae-related genes, including CAVs that encodes caveolins and CAVINs that encodes caveolae-associated proteins cavins, have been identified for playing significant roles in a variety of biological processes including cholesterol transport and signal transduction, but evidences related to tumorigenesis and cancer progression are not abundant to correlate with clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients with cancer. In this study, we investigated the expression of these genes at transcriptional and translational levels in patients with breast cancer using Oncomine, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), cBioPortal databases, and immunohistochemistry of the patients in our hospital. Prognosis of patients with breast cancer based on the expressions of CAVs and CAVINs was summarized using Kaplan-Meier Plotter with their correlation to different subtyping. The relevant molecular pathways of these genes were further analyzed using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Results elucidated that expression levels of CAV1, CAV2, CAVIN1, CAVIN2, and CAVIN3 were significantly lower in breast cancer tissues than in normal samples, while the expression level of CAVIN2 was correlated with advanced tumor stage. Furthermore, investigations on survival of patients with breast cancer indicated outstanding associations between prognosis and CAVIN2 levels, especially for the patients with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. In conclusion, our investigation indicated CAVIN2 is a potential therapeutic target for patients with ER+ breast cancer, which may relate to functions of cancer cell surface receptors and adhesion molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.703501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427033PMC
August 2021

LINC01189-miR-586-ZEB1 feedback loop regulates breast cancer progression through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Sep 24;25:455-467. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

The First Department of Breast Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin 300060, China.

Non-coding RNAs play essential roles in breast cancer progression by regulating proliferation, differentiation, invasion, and metastasis. However, our understanding of most microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in breast cancer is still limited. miR-586 has been identified as an important factor in the progression of some types of cancer, but its exact function and relative regulation mechanisms in breast cancer development need to be further investigated. In this study, we showed miR-586 functioned as an oncogene by promoting breast cancer proliferation and metastasis both and . Meanwhile, miR-586 induced Wnt/β-catenin activation by directly targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling antagonists SFRP1 and DKK2/3. Moreover, we demonstrated that LINC01189 functioned as a tumor suppressor and inhibited breast cancer progression through inhibiting an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like phenotype by sponging miR-586. In addition, β-catenin/TCF4 transactivated ZEB1, resulting in a transcriptional repression of LINC01189 expression. In conclusion, our data uncovered the LINC01189-miR-586-ZEB1 feedback loop and provided a novel mechanism participating in the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in breast cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8408558PMC
September 2021

Highly efficient catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol and organic dyes by ultrafine palladium nanoparticles anchored on CeO nanorods.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 5. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Uniformly dispersed Pd nanoparticles on certain supports exhibit exceptional catalytic performance toward various environmental applications. In this work, ultrafine Pd nanoparticles anchored on CeO nanorods were synthesized via an absorption-in situ reduction method. The activity of the CeO/Pd nanocomposites was systematically investigated toward reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and organic dyes including methyl blue, rhodamine B, methyl orange, and Congo red. The results indicated that the CeO/Pd nanocomposites with different weight ratios of Pd nanoparticles (10.23 wt%, 11.01 wt%, and 14.27 wt%) can almost completely reduce 4-NP with a rate constant of 3.31×10, 3.22×10, and 2.23×10 min. Besides, the 10.23 wt% CeO/Pd nanocomposites exhibit remarkable enhanced catalytic activity toward reduction of organic dyes. The catalysts display ideal stability after being used for three times for the reduction of 4-NP. We believe that our strategy demonstrated here offers insights into the design and fabrication of novel Pd-based nanocomposites for various heterogeneous catalysis applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16276-1DOI Listing
September 2021

Compartmentation of microbial communities in structure and function for methane oxidation coupled to nitrification-denitrification.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Aug 14;341:125761. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

CAS Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

A hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor was designed and constructed to achieve simultaneous nitrification-denitrification coupled to methane oxidation in low O/CH ratio and high nitrogen removal rate. Three O/CH ratio stages were operated. Ammonia removal rates reached 77.5 and 95 mg/(L·d) at the O/CH ratio of 1.47 and 2.1, respectively. Microbial community analysis revealed that aeration through physical partition and O/CH ratio stages achieved compartmentation of microbial community in structure and function. Combined functional genes analysis using qPCR, the aeration through gas distributer was proved to promote the enrichment of autotrophic ammonia oxidizers in the suspended liquid/mixed filler samples, and the aeration through hollow-fiber membrane favored the growth of methanotrophs and heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria. This study helps to develop effective regulatory strategies for high nitrogen removal based on the understanding of the community assembly process and the key driving factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125761DOI Listing
August 2021

A Core Drug Discovery Framework from Large-Scale Literature for Cold Pathogenic Disease Treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

J Healthc Eng 2021 4;2021:9930543. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

School of Basic Medical Science, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China.

Cold pathogenic disease is a widespread disease in traditional Chinese medicine, which includes influenza and respiratory infection associated with high incidence and mortality. Discovering effective core drugs in Chinese medicine prescriptions for treating the disease and reducing patients' symptoms has attracted great interest. In this paper, we explore the core drugs for curing various syndromes of cold pathogenic disease from large-scale literature. We propose a core drug discovery framework incorporating word embedding and community detection algorithms, which contains three parts: disease corpus construction, drug network generation, and core drug discovery. First, disease corpus is established by collecting and preprocessing large-scale literature about the Chinese medicine treatment of cold pathogenic disease from China National Knowledge Infrastructure. Second, we adopt the Chinese word embedding model SSP2VEC for mining the drug implication implied in the literature; then, a drug network is established by the semantic similarity among drugs. Third, the community detection method COPRA based on label propagation is adopted to reveal drug communities and identify core drugs in the drug network. We compute the community size, closeness centrality, and degree distributions of the drug network to analyse the patterns of core drugs. We acquire 4681 literature from China national knowledge infrastructure. Twelve significant drug communities are discovered, in which the top-10 drugs in every drug community are recognized as core drugs with high accuracy, and four classical prescriptions for treating different syndromes of cold pathogenic disease are discovered. The proposed framework can identify effective core drugs for curing cold pathogenic disease, and the research can help doctors to verify the compatibility laws of Chinese medicine prescriptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9930543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360722PMC
August 2021

VoxelHop: Successive Subspace Learning for ALS Disease Classification Using Structural MRI.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Aug 2;PP. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Deep learning has great potential for accurate detection and classification of diseases with medical imaging data, but the performance is often limited by the number of training datasets and memory requirements. In addition, many deep learning models are considered a ``black-box," thereby often limiting their adoption in clinical applications. To address this, we present a successive subspace learning model, termed VoxelHop, for accurate classification of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) using T2-weighted structural MRI data. Compared with popular convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures, VoxelHop has modular and transparent structures with fewer parameters without any backpropagation, so is well-suited to small dataset size and 3D volume data. Our VoxelHop has four key components, including (1) sequential expansion of near-to-far neighborhood for multi-channel 3D data; (2) subspace approximation for unsupervised dimension reduction; (3) label-assisted regression for supervised dimension reduction; and (4) concatenation of features and classification between controls and patients. Our experimental results demonstrate that our framework using a total of 20 controls and 26 patients achieves an accuracy of 93.48 % and an AUC score of 0.9394 in differentiating patients from controls, even with a relatively small number of datasets, showing its robustness and effectiveness. Our thorough evaluations also show its validity and superiority to the state-of-the-art 3D CNN classification methods. Our framework can easily be generalized to other classification tasks using different modalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2021.3097735DOI Listing
August 2021

Benefits of Dietary Management in Breast Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Nutr Cancer 2021 Jul 28:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Graduate School, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, China.

The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer Research recommendations include guidance on diet, nutrition, and weight management for people with cancer. However, for women diagnosed with breast cancer there is a lack of comprehensive analyses on the effects of dietary interventions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of changes in dietary behavior and body composition on breast cancer development. A comprehensive and systematic literature search of 12 electronic databases was undertaken on January 27, 2021 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary interventions for breast cancer. The Cochrane risk bias assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality of the trials identified with the data analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software. The results showed that dietary interventions probably did not modify servings of fruit (P = 0.08), fat intake (P = 0.10), total cholesterol level (P = 0.82), body weight (P = 0.08), waist circumference (P = 0.15), or waist-to-hip ratio (P = 0.32). However, a significant reduction in body mass index (P = 0.03), and hip circumference (P = 0.03), and improvement in energy intake (P = 0.02), vegetable servings (P < 0.0001), and fiber intake (P < 0.00001) were observed. Future studies should investigate the benefits of exercise in combination with dietary interventions in breast cancer patients.Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1957129.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2021.1957129DOI Listing
July 2021

Modeling the survival times of the COVID-19 patients with a new statistical model: A case study from China.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(7):e0254999. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Mathematics, College of Science and Arts, Qassim University, Ar Rass, Saudi Arabia.

Over the past few months, the spread of the current COVID-19 epidemic has caused tremendous damage worldwide, and unstable many countries economically. Detailed scientific analysis of this event is currently underway to come. However, it is very important to have the right facts and figures to take all possible actions that are needed to avoid COVID-19. In the practice and application of big data sciences, it is always of interest to provide the best description of the data under consideration. The recent studies have shown the potential of statistical distributions in modeling data in applied sciences, especially in medical science. In this article, we continue to carry this area of research, and introduce a new statistical model called the arcsine modified Weibull distribution. The proposed model is introduced using the modified Weibull distribution with the arcsine-X approach which is based on the trigonometric strategy. The maximum likelihood estimators of the parameters of the new model are obtained and the performance these estimators are assessed by conducting a Monte Carlo simulation study. Finally, the effectiveness and utility of the arcsine modified Weibull distribution are demonstrated by modeling COVID-19 patients data. The data set represents the survival times of fifty-three patients taken from a hospital in China. The practical application shows that the proposed model out-classed the competitive models and can be chosen as a good candidate distribution for modeling COVID-19, and other related data sets.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254999PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312982PMC
August 2021

The synergistic effect of rumen cellulolytic bacteria and activated carbon on thermophilic digestion of cornstalk.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Oct 16;338:125566. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

CAS Key Laboratory of Environmental and Applied Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China; College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, No. 600, Changjiang Road, Xiangfang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang, 150030, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

To explore the bioaugmentation of rumen cellulolytic bacteria (RCB) and activated carbon (AC) on thermophilic digestion of cornstalk, biochemical methane potential tests were carried out. Adding RCB or AC can improve methane production, while simultaneous existence of AC (10 g/L) and RCB (5%) obtained the best performance. The maximum cellulose degradation rate, methane production rate and methane yield were 66.92%, 32.2 L/(kgVS·d), and 144.9 L/kgVS, which increased by 30.23%, 51.17%, and 20.35% compared with control group. The cellulolytic and fermentative bacteria (Hydrogenispora), syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (norank_o_MBA03), and hydrogenotrophic Methanothermobacter were crucial for thermophilic digestion of cornstalk. The enhancement of AC was due to the enrichment of Hydrogenispora and Methanothermobacter, while RCB can increase the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria (Halocella and norank_o_M55-D21) and mixotrophic Methanosarcina. The synergetic effect of AC and RCB owing to the enriched cellulolytic bacteria, the enhanced syntrophic acetate oxidation and the concentrated carbon metabolic flow to methane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125566DOI Listing
October 2021

Portal vein thrombosis associated with high 14-day and 6-week rebleeding in patients after oesophageal variceal band ligation: a retrospective, multicentre, nested case-control study.

Hepatol Int 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.

Background And Aims: The association between prognosis of variceal bleeding and portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is unclear. In this multicentre study, we determined the effect of PVT on rebleeding and mortality in patients with acute variceal bleeding (AVB) after oesophageal variceal band ligation (EVL).

Methods: Cirrhotic patients with AVB who had undergone EVL were included. The patients were allocated to either the PVT group or the control cirrhotic group (CCG) based on the presence or absence of PVT. One-year rebleeding episodes and mortality after EVL were recorded.

Results: A total of 218 cirrhotic patients with AVB from 3 centres were included. Patients with PVT had a higher rate of 14-day and 6-week rebleeding than those without PVT (14-day: 8.26% vs. 1.83%, p = 0.03; 6-week: 11.92% vs. 1.83%, p = 0.003). The rates of 5-day failure (3.67% vs. 0.92%, p = 0.175), 1-year rebleeding (21.10% vs. 20.18%, p = 0.867), and 14-day, 6-week, and 1-year mortality were similar between the groups (14-day: 3.67% vs. 0.92%, p = 0.175; 6-week: 3.67% vs. 0.92%, p = 0.175; 1-year: 3.67% vs. 1.83%, p = 0.408). The Child-Pugh class [p = 0.022, hazard ratio (HR): 1.453; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.056-1.998], PVT (p = 0.050, HR: 4.622, 95% CI 0.999-21.395), albumin < 30 g/L (p = 0.023, HR: 5.886, 95% CI 1.272-27.245), and number of bands (p = 0.010, HR: 1.207, 95% CI 1.046-1.393) were identified as the predictors for 14-day rebleeding; the multivariate analysis revealed only the number of bands (p = 0.009, HR: 1.247, 95% CI 1.056-1.473) as the independent factor. PVT (p = 0.012, HR: 6.732, 95% CI 1.519-29.835) and albumin < 30 g/L (p = 0.027, HR: 3.643, 95% CI 1.160-11.441) were identified as predictors for 6-week rebleeding; however, only PVT (p = 0.015, HR: 6.380, 95% CI 1.427-28.515) was found to be the independent factor in the multivariate analysis. Further analysis showed that superior mesenteric vein (SMV) thrombosis is the only risk factor predicting 6-week rebleeding in patients with PVT (p = 0.032, HR: 3.405, 95% CI 1.112-10.429).

Conclusions: PVT was associated with high 14-day and 6-week rebleeding in patients after EVL. SMV thrombosis was the only risk factor for 6-week rebleeding in patients with PVT. High albumin levels may serve as a protective factor for the 14-day and 6-week rebleeding risk. PVT was not responsible for mortality after EVL during 1-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-021-10224-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Discovery of cinnoline derivatives as potent PI3K inhibitors with antiproliferative activity.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Sep 17;48:128271. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Cinnoline is a potential pharmacophore which has rarely been reported for uses as PI3K inhibitors. In this study, a series of cinnoline derivatives were developed as PI3K inhibitors and evaluated for enzymatic and cellular activities. Most compounds displayed nanomolar inhibitory activities against PI3Ks, among which 25 displayed high LLE and micromolar inhibitory potency against three human tumor cell lines (IC = 0.264 μM, 2.04 μM, 1.14 μM).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2021.128271DOI Listing
September 2021

Aero-engine health degradation estimation based on an underdetermined extended Kalman filter and convergence proof.

ISA Trans 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

School of Transportation Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, PR China. Electronic address:

In order to improve the reliability of aero-engine, reduce maintenance cost, and promote aircraft safety, lots of attention is paid to health monitoring of aero-engine. The aero-engine gas components involve flow and efficiency parameters, which are key health parameters to obtain the aero-engine' performance degradation. A challenge has to be faced is that these health parameters needed to know are more than the available sensors, which cannot be estimated by the ordinary estimator like Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). In this paper, a system approach is raised to use model tuning parameter to solve the estimation problem mentioned before. To implement it, an underdetermined EKF estimator is constructed from previous achievement and applied to an aero-engine for health state estimation, to address the problem that there are fewer sensor data available with more unknown health parameters. And convergence proof of underdetermined EKF is also provided to make sure that the experimental result is deterministic rather than occasional, deducing that the convergence of this estimator can be verified with some mild constraints. It is found in this study that the covariance matrices Q and R can meet the conditions of linear matrix inequality (LMI) by designing and setting specific ranges, leading to rapid convergence of the estimator. In addition, semi-physical experiments are shown to verify the feasibility of the proposed method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2021.06.040DOI Listing
July 2021

A fast protein binding site comparison algorithm for proteome-wide protein function prediction and drug repurposing.

Proteins 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.

The expansion of three-dimensional protein structures and enhanced computing power have significantly facilitated our understanding of protein sequence/structure/function relationships. A challenge in structural genomics is to predict the function of uncharacterized proteins. Protein function deconvolution based on global sequence or structural homology is impracticable when a protein relates to no other proteins with known function, and in such cases, functional relationships can be established by detecting their local ligand binding site similarity. Here, we introduce a sequence order-independent comparison algorithm, PocketShape, for structural proteome-wide exploration of protein functional site by fully considering the geometry of the backbones, orientation of the sidechains, and physiochemical properties of the pocket-lining residues. PocketShape is efficient in distinguishing similar from dissimilar ligand binding site pairs by retrieving 99.3% of the similar pairs while rejecting 100% of the dissimilar pairs on a dataset containing 1538 binding site pairs. This method successfully classifies 83 enzyme structures with diverse functions into 12 clusters, which is highly in accordance with the actual structural classification of proteins classification. PocketShape also achieves superior performances than other methods in protein profiling based on experimental data. Potential new applications for representative SARS-CoV-2 drugs Remdesivir and 11a are predicted. The high accuracy and time-efficient characteristics of PocketShape will undoubtedly make it a promising complementary tool for proteome-wide protein function inference and drug repurposing study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prot.26176DOI Listing
July 2021

Bioisosteric replacements of the indole moiety for the development of a potent and selective PI3Kδ inhibitor: Design, synthesis and biological evaluation.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Nov 21;223:113661. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China. Electronic address:

Based on indole scaffold, a potent and selective phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitor, namely FD223, was developed by the bioisosteric replacement drug discovery approach and studied for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In vitro studies revealed that FD223 displays high potency (IC = 1 nM) and selectivity (29-51 fold over other PI3K isoforms) against PI3Kδ, and exhibits efficient inhibition of the proliferation of AML cell lines (MOLM-16, HL-60, EOL-1 and KG-1) by suppressing p-AKT Ser473 thus causing G1 phase arrest during the cell cycle. Further given the favorable pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of FD223, in vivo studies were evaluated using xenograft model in nude mice, confirming its significant antitumor efficacy meanwhile with no observable toxicity. All these results are comparable to the positive group of Idelalisib (CAL-101), indicating that FD223 has potential for further development as a promising PI3Kδ inhibitor for the treatment of leukemia such as AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113661DOI Listing
November 2021

Genetic regulation of shoot architecture in cucumber.

Hortic Res 2021 Jul 1;8(1):143. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

State Key Laboratories of Agrobiotechnology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Growth and Developmental Regulation for Protected Vegetable Crops, College of Horticulture, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is an important vegetable crop species with great economic value. Shoot architecture determines the visual appearance of plants and has a strong impact on crop management and yield. Unlike most model plant species, cucumber undergoes vegetative growth and reproductive growth simultaneously, in which leaves are produced from the shoot apical meristem and flowers are generated from leaf axils, during the majority of its life, a feature representative of the Cucurbitaceae family. Despite substantial advances achieved in understanding the regulation of plant form in Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, and maize, our understanding of the mechanisms controlling shoot architecture in Cucurbitaceae crop species is still limited. In this review, we focus on recent progress on elucidating the genetic regulatory pathways underlying the determinant/indeterminant growth habit, leaf shape, branch outgrowth, tendril identity, and vine length determination in cucumber. We also discuss the potential of applying biotechnology tools and resources for the generation of ideal plant types with desired architectural features to improve cucumber productivity and cultivation efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00577-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245548PMC
July 2021

Low-dose real-time X-ray imaging with nontoxic double perovskite scintillators.

Light Sci Appl 2020 Jun 30;9(1):112. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, College of Optical Science and Engineering, International Research Center for Advanced Photonics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

X-rays are widely used in probing inside information nondestructively, enabling broad applications in the medical radiography and electronic industries. X-ray imaging based on emerging lead halide perovskite scintillators has received extensive attention recently. However, the strong self-absorption, relatively low light yield and lead toxicity of these perovskites restrict their practical applications. Here, we report a series of nontoxic double-perovskite scintillators of CsAgNaInBiCl. By controlling the content of the heavy atom Bi, the X-ray absorption coefficient, radiative emission efficiency, light yield and light decay were manipulated to maximise the scintillator performance. A light yield of up to 39,000 ± 7000 photons/MeV for CsAgNaInBiCl was obtained, which is much higher than that for the previously reported lead halide perovskite colloidal CsPbBr (21,000 photons/MeV). The large Stokes shift between the radioluminescence (RL) and absorption spectra benefiting from self-trapped excitons (STEs) led to a negligible self-absorption effect. Given the high light output and fast light decay of this scintillator, static X-ray imaging was attained under an extremely low dose of ∼1 μGy, and dynamic X-ray imaging of finger bending without a ghosting effect was demonstrated under a low-dose rate of 47.2 μGy s. After thermal treatment at 85 °C for 50 h followed by X-ray irradiation for 50 h in ambient air, the scintillator performance in terms of the RL intensity and X-ray image quality remained almost unchanged. Our results shed light on exploring highly competitive scintillators beyond the scope of lead halide perovskites, not only for avoiding toxicity but also for better performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41377-020-00353-0DOI Listing
June 2020

Interpreting Depression From Question-wise Long-term Video Recording of SDS Evaluation.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Jun 25;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) questionnaire has frequently been used for efficient depression preliminary screening. However, the uncontrollable self-administered measure can be easily affected by insouciantly or deceptively answering, and producing the different results with the clinician-administered Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the final diagnosis. Clinically, facial expression (FE) and actions play a vital role in clinician-administered evaluation, while FE and action are underexplored for self-administered evaluations. In this work, we collect a novel dataset of 200 subjects to evidence the validity of self-rating questionnaires with their corresponding question-wise video recording. To automatically interpret depression from the SDS evaluation and the paired video, we propose an end-to-end hierarchical framework for the long-term variable-length video, which is also conditioned on the questionnaire results and the answering time. Specifically, we resort to a hierarchical model which utilizes a 3D CNN for local temporal pattern exploration and a redundancy-aware self-attention (RAS) scheme for question-wise global feature aggregation. Targeting for the redundant long-term FE video processing, our RAS is able to effectively exploit the correlations of each video clip within a question set to emphasize the discriminative information and eliminate the redundancy based on feature pair-wise affinity. Then, the question-wise video feature is concatenated with the questionnaire scores for final depression detection. Our thorough evaluations also show the validity of fusing SDS evaluation and its video recording, and the superiority of our framework to the conventional state-of-the-art temporal modeling methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2021.3092628DOI Listing
June 2021

Hollow carbon nanospheres dotted with Gd-Fe nanoparticles for magnetic resonance and photoacoustic imaging.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun 16;13(24):10943-10952. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Integrating magnetic resonance (MR) and photoacoustic (PA) contrast agents into porous nanomaterials is a favorable way for screening of potential theranostic nanomedicines. Hollow carbon nanospheres (HCSs) dotted with GdPO and γ-FeO (Gd-Fe) nanoparticles are therefore prepared and studied in this work. The resultant Gd-Fe/HCSs possess a size of ∼100 nm with a cavity of ∼80 nm and a shell thickness of ∼10 nm, where the magnetic Gd-Fe nanoparticles are dotted. Owing to the synergistic effects, the Gd-Fe/HCSs give 2.5 times enhanced PA signals as compared with HCSs as well as the inherited MR imaging properties from Gd-Fe nanoparticles. In vivo MR and PA imaging of the liver in mice are consequently evaluated and validated. Furthermore, taking the tunable particle size, hollow cavity, shell thickness, and dotted amounts of nanoparticles into consideration, our studies here provide a useful structural model for the synergistic integration of MR and PA imaging in HCSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr02914bDOI Listing
June 2021

Characterization and Selection of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paracasei for prevention of oral bacterial infections from Chinese pickle.

AMB Express 2021 Jun 9;11(1):84. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

School of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, 318 Liuhe Road, Hangzhou, 310023, Zhejiang, China.

The oral infections were mainly caused by Streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibiotic therapies can eliminate these harmful bacteria. However, it can break beneficial microbes and lead to the persistence of resistant strains. The objective of our study was to select potential probiotic strains for the prevention of oral bacterial infections and evaluate their potential probiotic properties in oral cavity. AR113 (Lactobacillus plantarum) and AR340 (Lactobacillus paracasei) with significantly antimicrobial β-hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus activity were isolated from Chinese pickle through agar well diffusion assay. Through the analyses of probiotic properties in antibiofilm, lysozyme and hydrogen peroxide tolerance, bacterial surface properties, adherence ability, tooth degradation and anti-inflammatory activity, the AR113 and AR340 showed anti-adhesion activity of 45.2-71.1% and 20.3-56.8% against β-hemolytic streptococci and 15.4-52.6% and 30.7-65.9% against Staphylococcus aureus, respectively, at different concentration. The two strains with high hydrophobicity, autoaggregation and survival rate adhered strongly to FaDu cells. AR113 and AR340 exhibited low calcium released from teeth (0.04 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively). ELISA analysis showed that AR113 and AR340 significantly inhibited the LPS-induced increase of NO and TNF-α expression. Strains-fermented skim milk inhibited the growth of β-hemolytic streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus. AR113 and AR340 were considered as probiotic candidates because of their higher antibacterial activity against some oral pathogenic bacteria, no potential of primitive cariogenicity. These candidates were expected as new probiotics with potential oral health benefits and no harmful effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-021-01245-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190212PMC
June 2021

Microcapillary-based multicolor assay for quantitative and sensitive point-of-care testing of proteins.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Oct 31;189:113370. Epub 2021 May 31.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Bio-Nanotechnology and Molecular Engineering of Hunan Province, Hunan University, Changsha, 410082, China.

A microcapillary-based multicolor assay was developed for proteins quantification in serum sample with the assistance of manual centrifugal platform. The proposed assay only required the operation of "one suction and one extrusion" to realize the target detection. Myoglobin (Myo), a biomarker in the early stage of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), was chosen as the model target. The microcapillary was first modified with polydopamine (PDA), then Myo aptamer was immobilized on the PDA modified microcapillary and hybridized with glucose oxidase (Gox) functionalized DNA probe (DNA-Gox). The step "one suction" referred to the inhalation of the sample into the functionalized microcapillary. Then the target Myo in the sample could bind to the Myo aptamer on the microcapillary so that DNA-Gox complexes were released from the microcapillary into solution. Through the step "one extrusion", the DNA-Gox complexes in the solution could catalyze glucose to generate hydrogen peroxide, and then the etching of gold nanorods (AuNRs) was initiated, causing a color change from brown to yellow. According to the color change based on the etching of AuNRs, as low as 0.1 nM Myo was detected with naked eyes. Combined with the manual centrifugal platform, even the Myo in the serum samples could be detected without power supply. It was expected to build a universal and adaptable sensing platform for different targets more quickly and efficiently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2021.113370DOI Listing
October 2021

A sensitive immunosensor based on graphene-PAMAM composites for rapid detection of the CP4-EPSPS protein in genetically modified crops.

Food Chem 2021 Nov 20;361:129901. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

The Biotechnology Research Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Agricultural Genetics and Breeding, Shanghai 201106, China; Crops Ecological Environment Security Inspection and Supervision Center (Shanghai), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Shanghai 201106, China; School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

A simple electrochemical immunosensor based on nitrogen-doped graphene and polyamide-amine (GN-PAM) composites was proposed for the detection of the CP4-EPSPS protein in genetically modified (GM) crops. In this immunosensor, the amplification of the detection signal was realized through antibodies labeled with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The electrochemical responses of the immunosensor were linear (R = 0.9935 and 0.9912) when the GM soybean RRS and maize NK603 content ranged from 0.025% to 1.0% and 0.05% to 1.5%, respectively. The limits of detection for the GM soybean RRS and maize NK603 were as low as 0.01% and 0.03%, respectively. The immunosensor also exhibited high specificity, and satisfactory stability, reproducibility, and accuracy. Our findings indicated that the constructed immunosensor provides a new approach for the sensitive detection of the CP4-EPSPS protein. Notably, the sensor may be applied to other proteins or pathogenic bacteria by simply changing the antibodies, and may also be used for multi-component analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129901DOI Listing
November 2021

Uncovering Inherited Cardiomyopathy With Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 17;9:672039. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of The First Affiliated Hospital & Institute for Cardiovascular Science, Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

In the past decades, researchers discovered the contribution of genetic defects to the pathogenesis of primary cardiomyopathy and tried to explain the pathogenesis of these diseases by establishing a variety of disease models. Although human heart tissues and primary cardiomyocytes have advantages in modeling human heart diseases, they are difficult to obtain and culture . Defects developed in genetically modified animal models are notably different from human diseases at the molecular level. The advent of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) provides an unprecedented opportunity to further investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of inherited cardiomyopathies using patient-specific hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. In this review, we will make a summary of recent advances in inherited cardiomyopathy modeling using hiPSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.672039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8166268PMC
May 2021

Symmetric-Constrained Irregular Structure Inpainting for Brain MRI Registration with Tumor Pathology.

Brainlesion 2021 27;12658:80-91. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Gordon Center for Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Deformable registration of magnetic resonance images between patients with brain tumors and healthy subjects has been an important tool to specify tumor geometry through location alignment and facilitate pathological analysis. Since tumor region does not match with any ordinary brain tissue, it has been difficult to deformably register a patient's brain to a normal one. Many patient images are associated with irregularly distributed lesions, resulting in further distortion of normal tissue structures and complicating registration's similarity measure. In this work, we follow a multi-step context-aware image inpainting framework to generate synthetic tissue intensities in the tumor region. The coarse image-to-image translation is applied to make a rough inference of the missing parts. Then, a feature-level patch-match refinement module is applied to refine the details by modeling the semantic relevance between patch-wise features. A symmetry constraint reflecting a large degree of anatomical symmetry in the brain is further proposed to achieve better structure understanding. Deformable registration is applied between inpainted patient images and normal brains, and the resulting deformation field is eventually used to deform original patient data for the final alignment. The method was applied to the Multimodal Brain Tumor Segmentation (BraTS) 2018 challenge database and compared against three existing inpainting methods. The proposed method yielded results with increased peak signal-to-noise ratio, structural similarity index, inception score, and reduced L1 error, leading to successful patient-to-normal brain image registration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-72084-1_8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130838PMC
March 2021

Floor-of-the-Mouth Muscle Function Analysis Using Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 2021 Feb 15;11596. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Gordon Center for Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, US 02114.

To advance our understanding of speech motor control, it is essential to image and assess dynamic functional patterns of internal structures caused by the complex muscle anatomy inside the human tongue. Speech pathologists are investigating into new tools that help assessment of internal tongue muscle's cooperative mechanics on top of their anatomical differences. Previous studies using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the tongue revealed that tongue muscles tend to function in different groups during speech, especially the floor-of-the-mouth (FOM) muscles. In this work, we developed a method that analyzed the unique functional pattern of the FOM muscles in speech. First, four-dimensional motion fields of the whole tongue were computed using tagged MRI. Meanwhile, a statistical atlas of the tongue was constructed to form a common space for subject comparison, while a manually delineated mask of internal tongue muscles was used to separate individual muscle's motion. Then we computed four-dimensional motion correlation between each muscle and the FOM muscle group. Finally, dynamic correlation of different muscle groups was compared and evaluated. We used data from a study group of nineteen subjects including both healthy controls and oral cancer patients. Results revealed that most internal tongue muscles coordinated in a similar pattern in speech while the FOM muscles followed a unique pattern that helped supporting the tongue body and pivoting its rotation. The proposed method can help provide further interpretation of clinical observations and speech motor control from an imaging point of view.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2581484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8130842PMC
February 2021

Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Northwest China: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Perceptions, Involvement, and Perceived Barriers Among Hospital Pharmacists.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:616503. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) is a key prevention strategy in addressing the global concern of increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Pharmacists are one of the integral members of AMS hospital teams around the world. Toward reducing AMR, a major strategy in China is to improve the capacity and participation of pharmacists in the AMS framework. However, little is known about how hospital pharmacists perceive their position and participation in AMS work, and the barriers to this work in China, especially in the Northwest region. Region this work describes a cross-sectional, anonymous, online survey study. Hospital pharmacists from five provinces/autonomous regions in northwest China were invited to participate in June and July 2020. Participants completed the survey by using WeChat, a popular social application in China. We purposefully distributed the questionnaire link and QR code to hospital pharmacists through the hospital antimicrobial resistance surveillance network, hospital antimicrobial consumption surveillance network, provincial and city pharmaceutical associations, and hospital pharmacist WeChat groups. Out of 1032 respondents, 93.1% believed that AMS programs promote the judicial prescribing of antimicrobials, 95.5% strongly agreed that AMS could reduce the widespread use of antimicrobials, and 92.3% believed that AMS could improve medical services. Pharmacists were most likely to be involved in AMS through reviewing prescriptions of antimicrobials, intervening in inappropriate prescriptions, and providing feedback on antimicrobial prescriptions and medical orders. Barriers to participating in AMS included workload (59.5% of respondents), ineffective communication between pharmacists and doctors (57.7%), and inadequate knowledge of AMS (47.0%). Differences in responses were found between the five surveyed provinces. A significant association was found between median involvement scores and gender, age, education, level of superiority, experience, and type of hospital ( < 0.05). Pharmacists perceived that AMS programs are important, but that their involvement in related activities is limited in all provinces. Further studies and strategies should consider how to overcome the identified barriers to optimize the participation of pharmacists in AMS programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.616503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117155PMC
April 2021

Bioactive peptide release and the absorption tracking of casein in the gastrointestinal digestion of rats.

Food Funct 2021 Jun;12(11):5157-5170

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi'an, 710021, P. R. China.

Bovine casein is considered as an important source of many bioactive peptides (BAPs), which can also be produced via in vitro simulated gastrointestinal hydrolysis. To perform their physiological functions, some active peptides need to pass through the intestinal epithelial barrier and keep their structural integrity after oral administration. Owing to the complexity of in vivo digestion and absorption, there have been few studies in this area. In this study, casein was labeled with FITC to trace its digestion and absorption in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Gastric juice, intestinal fluid, blood, and intestinal tissue samples were collected at different time-points for preservation and analysis after intragastric administration. The results showed that CN-FITC exhibited good labeling stability in the gastrointestinal digestive juice both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting its potential to be used for the detection and tracking of casein hydrolysate. After the intra-gastric administration of FITC, the diffusion rates of fluorescent substances in serum were much higher than in the CN-FITC group. The maximum peptide content in the CN-FITC group during intestinal digestion was achieved 2 h after administration, and electrophoretic analysis of the hydrolysate composition suggested that the molecular weights of the peptides were mainly concentrated in the range of 3.4-10 kDa. The hydrolyzed peptides from CN-FITC could be absorbed into the blood just 1 h after administration. Frozen sections of rat duodenal tissue were observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope, and they showed that the CN-FITC digested products were absorbed from villi to mucosa in the rat intestines, and the casein-hydrolyzed polypeptides were accumulated significantly in tissue samples 2 h after administration. The peptides were mainly absorbed in the duodenum on the basis of absorption experiments using an everted gut sac. After intestinal digestion for 2 h, peptides with weights less than 5 kDa were enriched and identified using LC-MS-MS, and they were found to be mainly derived from β-casein, containing potential angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitory, antioxidant, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory, and morphine-like peptides. The peptides from casein hydrolysate were tracked entering the blood through the intestinal epithelial barrier in the form of complete fragments, and they might exert potential physiological activity in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00356aDOI Listing
June 2021

Multimetal lanthanide phosphonocarboxylate frameworks: structures, colour tuning and near-infrared emission.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jun;50(21):7380-7387

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China.

A series of isostructural lanthanide phosphonocarboxylate frameworks {(H3O)3[Ln7(pbpdc)6(DMF)4(H2O)3]·4H2O}n (named LnPCF, Ln = Tb, Eu and Gd, H4pbpdc = 4'-phosphono-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3,5-dicarboxylic acid) were solvothermally synthesized and characterized by the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. By combining lanthanide cations with a phosphonocarboxylate ligand, a heptametallic lanthanide phosphonate [Ln7(PO3)6(COO)12] core was obtained. This core exhibited as a rare highly 18-connected node and was linked by the 3-connected pbpdc4- ligand, forming a (3,18)-connected framework with a novel topology of {43}6{438·676·839}. This LnPCF structure is an ideal platform for accommodating various lanthanide ions. The TbPCF and EuPCF show efficient luminescence emission due to the "antenna effect" and incorporating Gd3+ into the TbPCF results in a drastic luminescence enhancement. Fine colour tuning between green and red can be easily achieved in bimetallic TbxGd1-xPCFs. More significantly, upon combining a few percent of Nd3+ and Gd3+ with Tb3+, the resulting trimetallic Tb0.4Gd0.5Nd0.1PCF shows dual emissions of both visible and near-infrared light.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt01052bDOI Listing
June 2021

Genes That Predict Poor Prognosis in Breast Cancer via Bioinformatical Analysis.

Biomed Res Int 2021 17;2021:6649660. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Breast, Women's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing Maternity and Child Health Care Hospital, Nanjing 210004, China.

Background: Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers all over the world, and it is now the leading cause of cancer death among females. The aim of this study was to find DEGs (differentially expressed genes) which can predict poor prognosis in breast cancer and be effective targets for breast cancer patients via bioinformatical analysis.

Methods: GSE86374, GSE5364, and GSE70947 were chosen from the GEO database. DEGs between breast cancer tissues and normal breast tissues were picked out by GEO2R and Venn diagram software. Then, DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery) was used to analyze these DEGs in gene ontology (GO) including molecular function (MF), cellular component (CC), and biological process (BP) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome (KEGG) pathway. Next, STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes) was used to investigate potential protein-protein interaction (PPI) relationships among DEGs and these DEGs were analyzed by Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) in Cytoscape. After that, UALCAN, GEPIA (gene expression profiling interactive analysis), and KM (Kaplan-Meier plotter) were used for the prognostic information and core genes were qualified.

Results: There were 96 upregulated genes and 98 downregulated genes in this study. 55 upregulated genes were selected as hub genes in the PPI network. For validation in UALCAN, GEPIA, and KM, 5 core genes (, , , , and ) were found to highly expressed in breast cancer tissues with poor prognosis. They differentially expressed between different subclasses of breast cancer.

Conclusion: These five genes (, , , , and ) could be potential targets for therapy in breast cancer and prediction of prognosis on the basis of bioinformatical analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6649660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8075678PMC
May 2021

Mutual Information Regularized Feature-level Frankenstein for Discriminative Recognition.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 May 4;PP. Epub 2021 May 4.

Deep learning recognition approaches can potentially perform better if we can extract a discriminative representation that controllably separates nuisance factors. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to explicitly enforce the extracted discriminative representation d, extracted latent variation l (e,g., background, unlabeled nuisance attributes), and semantic variation label vector s (e.g., labeled expressions/pose) to be independent and complementary to each other. We can cast this problem as an adversarial game in the latent space of an auto-encoder. Specifically, with the to-be-disentangled s, we propose to equip an end-to-end conditional adversarial network with the ability to decompose an input sample into d and l. However, we argue that maximizing the cross-entropy loss of semantic variation prediction from d is not sufficient to remove the impact of s from d, and that the uniform-target and entropy regularization are necessary. A collaborative mutual information regularization framework is further proposed to avoid unstable adversarial training. It is able to minimize the differentiable mutual information between the variables to enforce independence. The proposed discriminative representation inherits the desired tolerance property guided by prior knowledge of the task. Our proposed framework achieves top performance on diverse recognition tasks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3077397DOI Listing
May 2021
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