Publications by authors named "Xiaofen Wu"

48 Publications

RIPK1 regulates starvation resistance by modulating aspartate catabolism.

Nat Commun 2021 10 22;12(1):6144. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Interdisciplinary Research Center on Biology and Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200032, P. R. China.

RIPK1 is a crucial regulator of cell death and survival. Ripk1 deficiency promotes mouse survival in the prenatal period while inhibits survival in the early postnatal period without a clear mechanism. Metabolism regulation and autophagy are critical to neonatal survival from severe starvation at birth. However, the mechanism by which RIPK1 regulates starvation resistance and survival remains unclear. Here, we address this question by discovering the metabolic regulatory role of RIPK1. First, metabolomics analysis reveals that Ripk1 deficiency specifically increases aspartate levels in both mouse neonates and mammalian cells under starvation conditions. Increased aspartate in Ripk1 cells enhances the TCA  flux and ATP production. The energy imbalance causes defective autophagy induction by inhibiting the AMPK/ULK1 pathway. Transcriptional analyses demonstrate that Ripk1 deficiency downregulates gene expression in aspartate catabolism by inactivating SP1. To summarize, this study reveals that RIPK1 serves as a metabolic regulator responsible for starvation resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26423-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8536712PMC
October 2021

Comparative Metagenomics of the Active Layer and Permafrost from Low-Carbon Soil in the Canadian High Arctic.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 09 2;55(18):12683-12693. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Center for Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, United States.

Approximately 87% of the Arctic consists of low-organic carbon mineral soil, but knowledge of microbial activity in low-carbon permafrost (PF) and active layer soils remains limited. This study investigated the taxonomic composition and genetic potential of microbial communities at contrasting depths of the active layer (5, 35, and 65 cm below surface, bls) and PF (80 cm bls). We showed microbial communities in PF to be taxonomically and functionally different from those in the active layer. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed higher biodiversity in the active layer than in PF, and biodiversity decreased significantly with depth. The reconstructed 91 metagenome-assembled genomes showed that PF was dominated by heterotrophic, fermenting Bacteroidota using nitrite as their main electron acceptor. Prevalent microbes identified in the active layer belonged to bacterial taxa, gaining energy via aerobic respiration. Gene abundance in metagenomes revealed enrichment of genes encoding the plant-derived polysaccharide degradation and metabolism of nitrate and sulfate in PF, whereas genes encoding methane/ammonia oxidation, cold-shock protein, and two-component systems were generally more abundant in the active layer, particularly at 5 cm bls. The results of this study deepen our understanding of the low-carbon Arctic soil microbiome and improve prediction of the impacts of thawing PF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.1c00802DOI Listing
September 2021

Value of preoperative staging of endometrial carcinoma with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: A PRISMA compliant meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25434

Department of Ultrasound, Yiwu Maternity and Children Hospital, Yiwu, Jinhua, Zhejiang, China.

Introduction: Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynecologic carcinoma in developed countries and accounts for nearly 5% of carcinoma cases and more than 2% of deaths due to female carcinomas worldwide. Because of this reported risk, it is very important to diagnose and stage it accurately. Therefore, we investigated the staging accuracy of EC with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). Due to a lack of studies on the use of CEUS in staging EC, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Method: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and CBM for studies on CEUS in EC diagnosis. Our search keywords were "ultrasonic angiography," "endometrial neoplasms," and their synonyms. The studies were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 4 tabular data were extracted. Quality evaluation was performed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) scale. Statistical analysis was done with Stata version 15.1. A random effect model was selected to calculate the pooled sensitivity and specificity. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was obtained, and the area under the curve was calculated.

Result: Fifteen studies with 685 patients were included in this quantitative synthesis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio (OR) of CEUS in the diagnosis of EC was 0.81 (95% confidence interval, .76-.85), .90 (.87-.92), 8 (5.8-11.1), .21 (.16-.28), and 38 (22-67), respectively. The area under the curve was 0.93 (.90-.95).

Conclusion: CEUS has a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of EC. It can be considered as an effective and feasible method for EC staging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036062PMC
April 2021

Longitudinal association between cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness in the Chinese adult population.

J Int Med Res 2021 Mar;49(3):300060521998889

Department of Geriatrics, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Objective: Arterial stiffness may be an intermediary biological pathway involved in the association between cardiovascular health (CVH) and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to evaluate the effect of CVH on progression of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) over approximately 4 years.

Methods: We included 1315 cardiovascular disease-free adults (49±12 years) who had two checkups from 2010 to 2019. CVH metrics (current smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were assessed at baseline, and the number of ideal CVH metrics and CVH score were calculated. Additionally, baPWV was examined at baseline and follow-up.

Results: Median baPWV increased from 1340 cm/s to 1400 cm/s, with an average annual change in baPWV of 15 cm/s. More ideal CVH metrics and a higher CVH score were associated with lower baseline and follow-up baPWV, and the annual change in baPWV, even after adjustment for confounding variables. Associations between CVH parameters and baseline and follow-up baPWV remained robust in different sex and age subgroups, but they were only able to predict the annual change in baPWV in men and individuals older than 50 years.

Conclusions: Our findings highlight the benefit of a better baseline CVH profile for progression of arterial stiffness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060521998889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020111PMC
March 2021

Pilot study of minimum occlusive force of vascular clamps on arterial vessels in rats.

Sci Rep 2021 03 15;11(1):6042. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Our aims were to determine the accuracy of an improved formula for determining the minimum occlusive force (MOF) of a vascular clamp on rats' abdominal aortas, compare our findings with the calculated theoretical MOF, and provide reference data for clinical research and development of medical instruments that cause minimal damage. We created a vessel closure model and developed a formula for calculating the theoretical MOF of arterial vessels when they are occluded. This formula utilises the blood pressure in the blood vessel, its diameter, and the width of the vascular clamp. We then measured the actual MOF in 24 rat abdominal aortic segments with different diameters and different blood pressures and compared the theoretical and actual MOFs. Analysis of the experimental data showed a probability of 0.315, which means that, under the condition of normal distribution, the difference between the theoretical and actual MOF is not significant at the α = 0.05 level. Thus, the actual measured MOF tended to be consistent with the theoretical MOF calculated by the formula we developed. The improved formula will provide a reference for clinical research and development of medical instruments that cause minimal injury, thus contributing to the development of microsurgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84346-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7960717PMC
March 2021

The Fennoscandian Shield deep terrestrial virosphere suggests slow motion 'boom and burst' cycles.

Commun Biol 2021 03 8;4(1):307. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.

The deep biosphere contains members from all three domains of life along with viruses. Here we investigate the deep terrestrial virosphere by sequencing community nucleic acids from three groundwaters of contrasting chemistries, origins, and ages. These viromes constitute a highly unique community compared to other environmental viromes and sequenced viral isolates. Viral host prediction suggests that many of the viruses are associated with Firmicutes and Patescibacteria, a superphylum lacking previously described active viruses. RNA transcript-based activity implies viral predation in the shallower marine water-fed groundwater, while the deeper and more oligotrophic waters appear to be in 'metabolic standby'. Viral encoded antibiotic production and resistance systems suggest competition and antagonistic interactions. The data demonstrate a viral community with a wide range of predicted hosts that mediates nutrient recycling to support a higher microbial turnover than previously anticipated. This suggests the presence of 'kill-the-winner' oscillations creating slow motion 'boom and burst' cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01810-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940616PMC
March 2021

Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of a tropical sea cucumber, .

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jul 6;5(3):2677-2678. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology (LMB)/Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology (LAMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

In this study, the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of was unraveled to be 15,890 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes. The PCGs were initiated by four initiation codons (ATG, TAC, ATC, and ATA). Only one PCG () and five tRNA genes ( , , , and ) were encoded on the light chain, and the other genes were encoded on the heavy chain. A phylogenetic tree constructed with 16S rRNA sequences showed that is most closely related to .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1787264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782842PMC
July 2020

Use of lipid parameters to identify apparently healthy men at high risk of arterial stiffness progression.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 01 13;21(1):34. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Geriatrics, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Dyslipidemia contributes to the development and progression of arterial stiffness. We aimed to identify the most informative measures of serum lipids and their calculated ratios in terms of arterial stiffness progression risk.

Methods: Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) of 659 healthy males (47.4 ± 10.7 years) were measured at baseline. Values for non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, and non-HDL-C/HDL-C were calculated. BaPWV was re-performed after 4.1 years follow-up. Elevated baPWV was defined as baPWV ≥ 1400 cm/s.

Results: Over the follow-up period, the mean baPWV value increased from 1340 cm/s to 1410 cm/s, and 331 individuals increased/persisted with high baPWV (outcome 1). Among the 448 subjects who had normal baseline baPWV, 100 incident elevated baPWV occurred (outcome 2). Only baseline logTG (OR 1.64 [95% CI: 1.14-2.37] for outcome 1; 1.89 [1.14-3.17] for outcome 2) and logTG/HDL-C (1.54 [1.15-2.10] for outcome 1; 1.60 [1.05-2.45] for outcome 2) were significantly associated with arterial stiffness progression after adjusting for confounding factors. Adding logTG or logTG/HDL-C to age and blood pressure improved the accuracy of risk predictions for arterial stiffness progression. These associations remained significant when lipids were analyzed as categorical variables.

Conclusions: Baseline serum TG and TG/HDL-C were independently associated with increases in/persistently high baPWV and incident elevated baPWV, and they performed more effectively than other lipid variables in identifying healthy men at high risk of arterial stiffness progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-020-01846-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807880PMC
January 2021

Premature CD4 T Cells Senescence Induced by Chronic Infection in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Aging Dis 2020 Dec 1;11(6):1471-1480. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Gerontology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Acquired immune responses mediated by CD4 T cells contribute to the initiation and progression of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ACS patients show acquired immune system abnormalities that resemble the characteristics of autoimmune dysfunction described in the elderly. This study aimed to investigate the role of premature CD4 T cells senescence in ACS and the underlying mechanism. We compared the immunological status of 25 ACS patients, 15 young healthy individuals (C1), and 20 elderly individuals with absence of ACS (C2). The percentages of CD4 T lymphocyte subsets (including naïve, regulatory, memory and effector T cells) in peripheral blood were analyzed. In ACS patients, a significant expansion of CD4CD28 effector T cells and a decline of CD4CD25CD62LTreg cells were observed. In addition, patients with ACS showed an accelerated loss of CD4CD45RACD62L naïve T cells and a compensatory increase in the number of CD4CD45RO memory T cells. ACS patients demonstrated no significant difference in frequency of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) compared to age-matched healthy volunteers. The expression of p16 was increased while CD62L was decreased in CD4CD28 T cells of ACS patients. Compared to healthy donors, ACS patients demonstrated the lowest telomerase activity in both CD4CD28and CD4CD28 T cells. The serum levels of C-reactive protein, Cytomegalovirus IgG, IgG and IgG were significantly higher in ACS patients. The results suggested that the percentage of CD4 T cell subpopulations correlated with chronic infection, which contributes to immunosenescence. In conclusion, chronic infection induced senescence of premature CD4T cells, which may be responsible for the development of ACS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14336/AD.2020.0203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7673853PMC
December 2020

Insights into community of photosynthetic microorganisms from permafrost.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2020 11;96(12)

Soil Cryology Laboratory, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Institutskaya Street, Bldg. 2, Pushchino, Russia.

This work integrates cultivation studies of Siberian permafrost and analyses of metagenomes from different locations in the Arctic with the aim of obtaining insights into the community of photosynthetic microorganisms in perennially frozen deposits. Cyanobacteria and microalgae have been described in Arctic aquatic and surface soil environments, but their diversity and ability to withstand harsh conditions within the permafrost are still largely unknown. Community structure of photosynthetic organisms in permafrost sediments was explored using Arctic metagenomes available through the MG-RAST. Sequences affiliated with cyanobacteria represented from 0.25 to 3.03% of total sequences, followed by sequences affiliated with Streptophyta (algae and vascular plants) 0.01-0.45% and Chlorophyta (green algae) 0.01-0.1%. Enrichment and cultivation approaches revealed that cyanobacteria and green algae survive in permafrost and they could be revived during prolonged incubation at low light intensity. Among photosynthetic microorganisms isolated from permafrost, the filamentous Oscillatoria-like cyanobacteria and unicellular green algae of the genus Chlorella were dominant. Our findings suggest that permafrost cyanobacteria and green algae are expected to be effective members of the re-assembled community after permafrost thawing and soil collapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiaa229DOI Listing
November 2020

Automatic segmentation of prostate magnetic resonance imaging using generative adversarial networks.

Clin Imaging 2021 Feb 17;70:1-9. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital of Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Automatic and detailed segmentation of the prostate using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an essential role in prostate imaging diagnosis. Traditionally, prostate gland was manually delineated by the clinician in a time-consuming process that requires professional experience of the observer. Thus, we proposed an automatic prostate segmentation method, called SegDGAN, which is based on a classic generative adversarial network model.

Material And Methods: The proposed method comprises a fully convolutional generation network of densely con- nected blocks and a critic network with multi-scale feature extraction. In these computations, the objective function is optimized using mean absolute error and the Dice coefficient, leading to improved accuracy of segmentation results and correspondence with the ground truth. The common and similar medical image segmentation networks U-Net, FCN, and SegAN were selected for qualitative and quantitative comparisons with SegDGAN using a 220-patient dataset and the public datasets. The commonly used segmentation evaluation metrics DSC, VOE, ASD, and HD were used to compare the accuracy of segmentation between these methods.

Results: SegDGAN achieved the highest DSC value of 91.66%, the lowest VOE value of 15.28%, the lowest ASD values of 0.51 mm and the lowest HD value of 11.58 mm with the clinical dataset. In addition, the highest DSC value, and the lowest VOE, ASD and HD values obtained with the public data set PROMISE12 were 86.24%, 23.60%, 1.02 mm and 7.57 mm, respectively.

Conclusions: Our experimental results show that the SegDGAN model have the potential to improve the accuracy of MRI-based prostate gland segmentation. Code has been made available at: https://github.com/w3user/SegDGAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.10.014DOI Listing
February 2021

First echinoderm alpha-amylase from a tropical sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota): Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, cellular localization and functional production in a heterogenous E.coli system with codon optimization.

PLoS One 2020 15;15(9):e0239044. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology (LMB), Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology (LAMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, PR China.

Holothuria leucospilota (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) is a widespread tropical sea cucumber with strong value for the ecological restoration of coral reefs. Therefore, some studies regarding the artificial breeding and cultivation of H. leucospilota have been undertaken recently. However, the biological functions of the digestive system of this species have not been elucidated. In this study, a cDNA coding for α-amylase, an indicator of digestive maturity in animals, was identified from H. leucospilota and designated Hl-Amy. The full-length cDNA of the Hl-Amy gene, which is 1734 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1578 bp, encodes a 525 amino acid (a.a.) protein with a deduced molecular weight of 59.34 kDa. According to the CaZy database annotation, Hl-Amy belongs to the class of GH-H with the official nomenclature of α-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) or 4-α-D-glucan glucanohydrolase. The Hl-Amy protein contains a signal peptide at the N-terminal followed by a functional amylase domain, which includes the catalytic activity site. The mRNA expression of Hl-Amy was abundantly exhibited in the intestine, followed by the transverse vessel with a low level, but was hardly detected in other selected tissues. During embryonic and larval development, Hl-Amy was constitutively expressed in all stages, and the highest expression level was observed in the blastula. By in situ hybridization (ISH), positive Hl-Amy signals were observed in different parts of the three different intestinal segments (foregut, midgut and hindgut). The Hl-Amy recombinant protein was generated in an E. coli system with codon optimization, which is necessary for Hl-Amy successfully expressed in this heterogenous system. The Hl-Amy recombinant protein was purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC), and its activity of starch hydrolysis was further detected. The optimal temperatures and pH for Hl-Amy recombinant protein were 55°C and 6.0, respectively, with an activity of 62.2 U/mg. In summary, this current study has filled a knowledge gap on the biological function and expression profiles of an essential digestive enzyme in sea cucumber, which may encourage future investigation toward rationalized diets for H. leucospilota in artificial cultivation, and optimized heterogenous prokaryotic systems for producing recombinant enzymes of marine origins.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239044PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7491741PMC
October 2020

Molecular characterization, inducible expression and functional analysis of an IKKβ from the tropical sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2020 Sep 22;104:622-632. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology (LMB), Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology (LAMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510301, PR China; Institution of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ISEE, CAS, PR China. Electronic address:

The inhibitory kappa B kinase (IKK) is a critical regulator for the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. In this study, an IKKβ named as HLIKKβ was identified from the sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota. The full-length cDNA of HLIKKβ is 4246 bp in size, containing a 132 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 1783 bp 3'-UTR and a 2331 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 776 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 89.66 kDa. HLIKKβ contains a kinase domain (KD) at its N-terminal, a leucine zipper (LZ) and a helix-loop-helix (HLH) motif at its C-terminal. In the KD, a conserved active loop (SXXXS) were identified. The results of luciferase reporter assay and ELISA assay showed that over-expressed HLIKKβ in HEK293T cells could activate the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and induce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. When HLIKKβ was silenced by siRNA, the apoptosis rate of sea cucumber coelomocytes was increased significantly, indicating the anti-apoptotic function of HLIKKβ. Moreover, the up-regulation of HLIKKβ mRNA was observed in the sea cucumber coelomocytes after polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [Poly (I:C)] or lipopolysaccharides (LPS) challenge, suggesting that the HLIKKβ might play important roles in the innate immune defense of sea cucumber against the viral and bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2020.06.024DOI Listing
September 2020

Vitellogenin Receptor (VgR) Mediates Oocyte Maturation and Ovarian Development in the Pacific White Shrimp ().

Front Physiol 2020 15;11:485. Epub 2020 May 15.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology (LMB), Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology (LAMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Oocyte maturation and ovarian development are sequentially coordinated events critical to reproduction. In the ovaries of adult oviparous animals such as birds, bony fish, insects, and crustaceans, vitellogenin receptor (VgR) is a plasma membrane receptor that specifically mediates vitellogenin (Vg) transport into oocytes. Accumulation of Vg drives sexual maturation of the female crustaceans by acting as a pivotal regulator of nutritional accumulation within oocytes, a process known as vitellogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which VgR mediates vitellogenesis are still not fully understood. In this study, we first identified a unique () and characterized its genomic organization and protein structural domains in , a predominant cultured shrimp species worldwide. This newly identified phylogenetically forms a group with VgRs from other crustacean species within the arthropod cluster. Duplicated LBD/EGFD regions are found exclusively among arthropod VgRs but not in paralogs from vertebrates and nematodes. In terms of expression patterns, transcripts are specifically expressed in ovaries of female shrimps, which increases progressively during ovarian development, and rapidly declines toward embryonic development. The cellular and subcellular locations were For analyzed by hybridization and immunofluorescence, respectively. The mRNA was found to be expressed in the oocytes of ovaries, and Lv-VgR protein was found to localize in the cell membrane of maturing oocytes while accumulation of the ligand Vg protein assumed an even cytoplasmic distribution. Silencing of transcript expression by RNAi was effective for stunting ovarian development. This present study has thus provided new insights into the regulatory roles of in crustacean ovarian development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243368PMC
May 2020

Determinants of Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity and Vascular Aging in Healthy Older Subjects.

Med Sci Monit 2020 May 23;26:e923112. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Geriatrics, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Vascular aging is characterized by increasing arterial stiffness as measured by pulse wave velocity. The present study evaluated the factors influencing vascular aging in Chinese healthy older subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS Disease- and treatment-free aged (≥60 years) participants were recruited from 2014 to 2019. Cardiometabolic risk factors and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were assessed. We defined healthy vascular aging (HVA) as the lowest 10% and early vascular aging (EVA) as the highest 10% of the baPWV distribution, after adjustment for age and blood pressure (BP). We fitted linear and logistic regression models to assess the determinants. RESULTS In all, 794 subjects (mean age 66.5±6.8 years, 71.0% male) were recruited; the 10th and 90th percentiles of baPWV were 1278 cm/s and 1955 cm/s, respectively. Age, BP, heart rate, and triglycerides were all positively associated with baPWV, whereas male subjects and body mass index (BMI) were negatively associated with baPWV. The number of participants diagnosed with either HVA or EVA was 80. Logistic regression models showed that sex, BMI, heart rate, and triglycerides were associated with HVA and EVA after adjustment for age, BP, and other confounding factors. CONCLUSIONS Male, high BMI, low heart rate, and low triglycerides are protective factors for vascular aging in the healthy aged population. Management of BMI, heart rate, triglycerides in a reasonable range may help to alleviate the vascular aging process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/MSM.923112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260998PMC
May 2020

Transcriptomic analysis of sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota) coelomocytes revealed the echinoderm cytokine response during immune challenge.

BMC Genomics 2020 Apr 16;21(1):306. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology (LMB), Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology (LAMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510301, PR China.

Background: The sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota belongs to echinoderm, which is evolutionally the most primitive group of deuterostomes. Sea cucumber has a cavity between its digestive tract and the body wall that is filled with fluid and suspended coelomic cells similar to blood cells. The humoral immune response of the sea cucumber is based on the secretion of various immune factors from coelomocytes into the coelomic cavity. The aim of this study is to lay out a foundation for the immune mechanisms in echinoderms and their origins in chordates by using RNA-seq.

Results: Sea cucumber primary coelomocytes were isolated from healthy H. leucospilota and incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 μg/ml), polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly (I:C), 10 μg/ml] and heat-inactived Vibrio harveyi (10 cell/ml) for 24 h, respectively. After high-throughput mRNA sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq2500, a de novo transcriptome was assembled and the Unigenes were annotated. Thirteen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected randomly from our data and subsequently verified by using RT-qPCR. The results of RT-qPCR were consistent with those of the RNA-seq (R = 0.61). The top 10 significantly enriched signaling pathways and immune-related pathways of the common and unique DEGs were screened from the transcriptome data. Twenty-one cytokine candidate DEGs were identified, which belong to 4 cytokine families, namely, BCL/CLL, EPRF1, IL-17 and TSP/TPO. Gene expression in response to LPS dose-increased treatment (0, 10, 20 and 50 μg/ml) showed that IL-17 family cytokines were significantly upregulated after 10 μg/ml LPS challenge for 24 h.

Conclusion: A de novo transcriptome was sequenced and assembled to generate the gene expression profiling across the sea cucumber coelomocytes treated with LPS, Poly (I:C) and V. harveyi. The cytokine genes identified in DEGs could be classified into 4 cytokine families, in which the expression of IL-17 family cytokines was most significantly induced after 10 μg/ml LPS challenge for 24 h. Our findings have laid the foundation not only for the research of molecular mechanisms related to the immune response in echinoderms but also for their origins in chordates, particularly in higher vertebrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-6698-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161275PMC
April 2020

Metagenomes from Late Pleistocene Ice Complex Sediments of the Siberian Arctic.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2019 Oct 24;8(43). Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Russia

The late Pleistocene Ice Complex (also known as Yedoma) encompasses ice-rich permafrost formed when alluvial and/or aeolian sediments accumulated under cold climatic conditions. Three metagenomes obtained from Yedoma deposits continually frozen for periods up to 60,000 years are reported here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01010-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6813392PMC
October 2019

Functional characterisation of Fas-associated death domain in the innate immune-related signalling pathways.

Innate Immun 2020 02 24;26(2):138-145. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

CAS Key laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-Resources and Ecology (LMB), Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology (LAMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PR China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753425919877680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7016406PMC
February 2020

The complete mitochondrial genome of a tropical sea cucumber, .

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Sep 19;4(2):3118-3119. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology (LMB)/Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology (LAMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou China.

The mitochondrial genome of was 15,906 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and two rRNA genes. There were four initiation codons (ATG, ATT, ATC, and ATA) for the PCGs, and the termination codon of most PCGs was TAA, except for (TAG) and (TAG). Only one PCG () and five tRNA genes ( , , , , and ) were encoded on the light chain; the other genes were encoded on the heavy chain. was most closely related to in a phylogenetic tree.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1668309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707314PMC
September 2019

Recent advancement in lignin biorefinery: With special focus on enzymatic degradation and valorization.

Bioresour Technol 2019 Nov 26;291:121898. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Electronic address:

With the intensive development of lignocellulosic biorefineries to produce fuels and chemicals from biomass-derived carbohydrates, lignin was generated at a large quantity every year. Therefore, lignin has received increasing attention as an abundant aromatics resource in terms of research and development efforts for value-added chemicals production. In this review, studies about lignin degradation especially the crucial enzymes involved and the reaction mechanism were substantially discussed, which provided the molecular basis of lignin biodegradation. Then, the latest improvements in lignin valorization by biological methods were summarized and case studies about value-added compounds from lignin were introduced. Afterwards, challenges, opportunities and prospects regarding biorefinery of lignin were presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121898DOI Listing
November 2019

The first cloned echinoderm tumor necrosis factor receptor from Holothuria leucospilota: Molecular characterization and functional analysis.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Oct 5;93:542-550. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology (LMB); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology (LAMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510301, PR China; Institution of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, ISEE, CAS, PR China. Electronic address:

In this study, an echinoderm tumor necrosis factor receptor named HLTNFR-16 was first cloned from the tropical sea cucumber Holothuria leucospilota. The full-length cDNA of HLTNFR-16 is 3675 bp in size, containing a 415 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 2024 bp 3'-UTR and a 1236 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 411 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 45.63 kDa. The HLTNFR-16 protein contains a signal peptide, four TNFR domains (the last three were identified as extracellular cysteine-rich domains), a transmembrane region and a death domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that HLTNFR-16 was clustered into a clade with TNFR-16s in other species, indicating that this echinoderm TNFR may be a new member of the TNFR-16 subfamily. The results of TUNEL assay showed that the over expression of HLTNFR-16 could induce apoptosis in HEK293T cells. When HLTNFR-16 was silenced by siRNA, the apoptosis of sea cucumber coelomocytes induced by inactivated Vibrio harveyi was suppressed significantly, indicating that HLTNFR-16 is important for apoptosis induction. Additionally, luciferase reporter assay exhibited that the over-expressed HLTNFR-16 in HEK293T cells could activate the transcription factors nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). Moreover, the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-18 in HEK293T cells was increased by the over-expression of HLTNFR-16. This study provides evidences for the potential roles of sea cucumber TNFR in the innate immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.08.008DOI Listing
October 2019

Comparison of boreal acid sulfate soil microbial communities in oxidative and reductive environments.

Res Microbiol 2019 Sep - Oct;170(6-7):288-295. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, SE-39182 Kalmar, Sweden.

Due to land uplift after the last ice age, previously stable Baltic Sea sulfidic sediments are becoming dry land. When these sediments are drained, the sulfide minerals are exposed to air and can release large amounts of metals and acid into the environment. This can cause severe ecological damage such as fish kills in rivers feeding the northern Baltic Sea. In this study, five sites were investigated for the occurrence of acid sulfate soils and their geochemistry and microbiology was identified. The pH and soil chemistry identified three of the areas as having classical acid sulfate soil characteristics and culture independent identification of 16S rRNA genes identified populations related to acidophilic bacteria capable of catalyzing sulfidic mineral dissolution, including species likely adapted to low temperature. These results were compared to an acid sulfate soil area that had been flooded for ten years and showed that the previously oxidized sulfidic materials had an increased pH compared to the unremediated oxidized layers. In addition, the microbiology of the flooded soil had changed such that alkalinity producing ferric and sulfate reducing reactions had likely occurred. This suggested that flooding of acid sulfate soils mitigates their environmental impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resmic.2019.06.002DOI Listing
December 2019

Age-Dependent Changes in Transcription Factor FOXO Targeting in Female .

Front Genet 2019 7;10:312. Epub 2019 May 7.

Department of Genetics, Development, and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.

FOXO transcription factors have long been associated with longevity control and tissue homeostasis. Although the transcriptional regulation of FOXO have been previously characterized (especially in long-lived insulin mutants and under stress conditions), how normal aging impacts the transcriptional activity of FOXO is poorly understood. Here, we conducted a chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) analysis in both young (2-week-old) and aged (5-week-old) wild-type female fruit flies, , to evaluate the dynamics of FOXO gene targeting during aging. Intriguingly, the number of FOXO-bound genes dramatically decreases with age (from 2617 to 224). Consistent to the reduction of FOXO binding activity, many genes targeted by FOXO in young flies are transcriptionally altered with age, either up-regulated (FOXO-repressing genes) or down-regulated (FOXO-activating genes) in adult head tissue. In addition, we show that many FOXO-bound genes in wild-type flies are unique from those in insulin receptor substrate mutants. Distinct from mutants, FOXO targets specific cellular processes (e.g., actin cytoskeleton) and signaling pathways (e.g., Hippo, MAPK) in young wild-type female flies. FOXO targeting on these pathways decreases with age. Interestingly, FOXO targets in aged flies are enriched in cellular processes like chromatin organization and nucleosome assembly. Furthermore, FOXO binding to core histone genes is well maintained at aged flies. Together, our findings provide new insights into dynamic FOXO targeting under normal aging and highlight the diverse and understudied regulatory mechanisms for FOXO transcriptional activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.00312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6514159PMC
May 2019

The first cloned sea cucumber FADD from Holothuria leucospilota: Molecular characterization, inducible expression and involvement of apoptosis.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2019 Jun 13;89:548-554. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology (LMB), Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology (LAMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510301, PR China. Electronic address:

In this study, a sea cucumber Fas-associated death domain (FADD) named HLFADD was first cloned from Holothuria leucospilota. The full-length cDNA of HLFADD is 2137 bp in size, containing a 116-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 1334-bp 3'-UTR and a 687-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 228 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 26.42 kDa. HLFADD protein contains a conserved death effector domain at its N-terminal and a conserved death domain at its C-terminal, structurally similar to its counterparts in vertebrates. The over-expressed HLFADD protein could induce apoptosis in HEK293 cells, suggesting a possible death receptor-mediated apoptosis pathway in echinoderms adapted with FADD. Moreover, HLFADD mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues, with the highest transcript level in the coelomocytes, followed by intestine. In vitro experiments performed in the H. leucospilota coelomocytes, the expression of HLFADD mRNA was significantly up-regulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid [poly (I:C)] challenge, suggesting that HLFADD might play important roles in the innate immune defense of sea cucumber against the invasion of bacteria and viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2019.04.030DOI Listing
June 2019

A Novel Inorganic Sulfur Compound Metabolizing -Like Population Is Suggested to Mediate Extracellular Electron Transfer.

Front Microbiol 2018 5;9:2945. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.

Mining and processing of metal sulfide ores produces waters containing metals and inorganic sulfur compounds such as tetrathionate and thiosulfate. If released untreated, these sulfur compounds can be oxidized to generate highly acidic wastewaters [termed 'acid mine drainage (AMD)'] that cause severe environmental pollution. One potential method to remediate mining wastewaters is the maturing biotechnology of 'microbial fuel cells' that offers the sustainable removal of acid generating inorganic sulfur compounds alongside producing an electrical current. Microbial fuel cells exploit the ability of bacterial cells to transfer electrons to a mineral as the terminal electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration by replacing the mineral with a solid anode. In consequence, by substituting natural minerals with electrodes, microbial fuel cells also provide an excellent platform to understand environmental microbe-mineral interactions that are fundamental to element cycling. Previously, tetrathionate degradation coupled to the generation of an electrical current has been demonstrated and here we report a metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis of the microbial community. Reconstruction of inorganic sulfur compound metabolism suggested the substrate tetrathionate was metabolized by the -like and -like populations via multiple pathways. Characterized species do not utilize inorganic sulfur compounds, suggesting a novel -like population had been selected. Oxidation of intermediate sulfide, sulfur, thiosulfate, and adenylyl-sulfate released electrons and the extracellular electron transfer to the anode was suggested to be dominated by candidate soluble electron shuttles produced by the -like population. However, as the soluble electron shuttle compounds also have alternative functions within the cell, it cannot be ruled out that acidophiles use novel, uncharacterized mechanisms to mediate extracellular electron transfer. Several populations within the community were suggested to metabolize intermediate inorganic sulfur compounds by multiple pathways, which highlights the potential for mutualistic or symbiotic relationships. This study provided the genetic base for acidophilic microbial fuel cells utilized for the remediation of inorganic sulfur compounds from AMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.02945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6289977PMC
December 2018

Reply to comment: Serum bilirubin concentrations, type 2 diabetes, and incident coronary heart disease.

Acta Diabetol 2019 03 22;56(3):383-384. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health for Incubating, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-018-1251-7DOI Listing
March 2019

Metatranscriptomes Reveal That All Three Domains of Life Are Active but Are Dominated by Bacteria in the Fennoscandian Crystalline Granitic Continental Deep Biosphere.

mBio 2018 11 20;9(6). Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden.

The continental subsurface is suggested to contain a significant part of the earth's total biomass. However, due to the difficulty of sampling, the deep subsurface is still one of the least understood ecosystems. Therefore, microorganisms inhabiting this environment might profoundly influence the global nutrient and energy cycles. In this study, fixed RNA transcripts from two deep continental groundwaters from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (a Baltic Sea-influenced water with a residence time of <20 years, defined as "modern marine," and an "old saline" groundwater with a residence time of thousands of years) were subjected to metatranscriptome sequencing. Although small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and mRNA transcripts aligned to all three domains of life, supporting activity within these community subsets, the data also suggested that the groundwaters were dominated by bacteria. Many of the SSU rRNA transcripts grouped within newly described candidate phyla or could not be mapped to known branches on the tree of life, suggesting that a large portion of the active biota in the deep biosphere remains unexplored. Despite the extremely oligotrophic conditions, mRNA transcripts revealed a diverse range of metabolic strategies that were carried out by multiple taxa in the modern marine water that is fed by organic carbon from the surface. In contrast, the carbon dioxide- and hydrogen-fed old saline water with a residence time of thousands of years predominantly showed the potential to carry out translation. This suggested these cells were active, but waiting until an energy source episodically becomes available. A newly designed sampling apparatus was used to fix RNA under conditions in the deep continental biosphere and benchmarks a strategy for deep biosphere metatranscriptomic sequencing. This apparatus enabled the identification of active community members and the processes they carry out in this extremely oligotrophic environment. This work presents for the first time evidence of eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial activity in two deep subsurface crystalline rock groundwaters from the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory with different depths and geochemical characteristics. The findings highlight differences between organic carbon-fed shallow communities and carbon dioxide- and hydrogen-fed old saline waters. In addition, the data reveal a large portion of uncharacterized microorganisms, as well as the important role of candidate phyla in the deep biosphere, but also the disparity in microbial diversity when using standard microbial 16S rRNA gene amplification versus the large unknown portion of the community identified with unbiased metatranscriptomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01792-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6247080PMC
November 2018

Investigation of viable taxa in the deep terrestrial biosphere suggests high rates of nutrient recycling.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2018 08;94(8)

Centre for Ecology and Evolution in Microbial Model Systems (EEMiS), Linnaeus University, Barlastgatan 11, Kalmar, Sweden.

The deep biosphere is the largest 'bioreactor' on earth, and microbes inhabiting this biome profoundly influence global nutrient and energy cycles. An important question for deep biosphere microbiology is whether or not specific populations are viable. To address this, we used quantitative PCR and high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of total and viable cells (i.e. with an intact cellular membrane) from three groundwaters with different ages and chemical constituents. There were no statistically significant differences in 16S rRNA gene abundances and microbial diversity between total and viable communities. This suggests that populations were adapted to prevailing oligotrophic conditions and that non-viable cells are rapidly degraded and recycled into new biomass. With higher concentrations of organic carbon, the modern marine and undefined mixed waters hosted a community with a larger range of predicted growth strategies than the ultra-oligotrophic old saline water. These strategies included fermentative and potentially symbiotic lifestyles by candidate phyla that typically have streamlined genomes. In contrast, the old saline waters had more 16S rRNA gene sequences in previously cultured lineages able to oxidize hydrogen and fix carbon dioxide. This matches the paradigm of a hydrogen and carbon dioxide-fed chemolithoautotrophic deep biosphere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiy121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6030916PMC
August 2018

Epigenetic drift of H3K27me3 in aging links glycolysis to healthy longevity in .

Elife 2018 05 29;7. Epub 2018 May 29.

Interdisciplinary Research Center on Biology and Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Pudong, China.

Epigenetic alteration has been implicated in aging. However, the mechanism by which epigenetic change impacts aging remains to be understood. H3K27me3, a highly conserved histone modification signifying transcriptional repression, is marked and maintained by Polycomb Repressive Complexes (PRCs). Here, we explore the mechanism by which age-modulated increase of H3K27me3 impacts adult lifespan. Using , we reveal that aging leads to loss of fidelity in epigenetic marking and drift of H3K27me3 and consequential reduction in the expression of glycolytic genes with negative effects on energy production and redox state. We show that a reduction of H3K27me3 by PRCs-deficiency promotes glycolysis and healthy lifespan. While perturbing glycolysis diminishes the pro-lifespan benefits mediated by PRCs-deficiency, transgenic increase of glycolytic genes in wild-type animals extends longevity. Together, we propose that epigenetic drift of H3K27me3 is one of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to aging and that stimulation of glycolysis promotes metabolic health and longevity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.35368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5991832PMC
May 2018

First echinoderm trehalase from a tropical sea cucumber (Holothuria leucospilota): Molecular cloning and mRNA expression in different tissues, embryonic and larval stages, and under a starvation challenge.

Gene 2018 Jul 30;665:74-81. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology (LMB), Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Marine Biology (LAMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China; South China Sea Bio-Resource Exploitation and Utilization Collaborative Innovation Center, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Trehalases are a group of enzymes that catalyse the conversion of trehalose to glucose, and they are observed in most organisms. In this study, the first echinoderm trehalase, designated Hl-Tre, was identified from a tropical sea cucumber, Holothuria leucospilota. The full-length cDNA of H. leucospilota trehalase (Hl-Tre) is 2461 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1788 bp that encodes a 595-amino-acid protein with a deduced molecular weight of 67.95 KDa. The Hl-Tre protein contains a signal peptide at the N-terminal and a functional trehalase domain, which includes the signature motifs 1 and 2. The mRNA expression of Hl-Tre was ubiquitously detected in all selected tissues, with the highest level being detected in the intestine. By in situ hybridization (ISH), the positive Hl-Tre signals were observed in the brush borders of the intestinal mucosa. In embryonic and larval stages, the transcript levels of Hl-Tre decreased during embryonic development and increased after the pentactula stage. After a challenge of starvation, the intestinal Hl-Tre mRNA levels were observed to be first decreased and partially recovered thereafter. Overall, our study provided the first evidence for trehalase in echinoderms and showed that this enzyme was potentially linked to a trehalose metabolic pathway in sea cucumbers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2018.04.085DOI Listing
July 2018
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