Publications by authors named "Xiaofan Jia"

18 Publications

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Improving clinical utility of GAD65 autoantibodies by electrochemiluminescence assay and clinical phenotype when identifying autoimmune adult-onset diabetes.

Diabetologia 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Centre for Immunobiology, Blizard Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Aims/hypothesis: It is important to differentiate the two major phenotypes of adult-onset diabetes, autoimmune type 1 diabetes and non-autoimmune type 2 diabetes, especially as type 1 diabetes presents in adulthood. Serum GAD65 autoantibodies (GADA) are the most sensitive biomarker for adult-onset autoimmune type 1 diabetes, but the clinical value of GADA by current standard radiobinding assays (RBA) remains questionable. The present study focused on the clinical utility of GADA differentiated by a new electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay in patients with adult-onset diabetes.

Methods: Two cohorts were analysed including 771 diabetic participants, 30-70 years old, from the Action LADA study (n = 6156), and 2063 diabetic participants, 20-45 years old, from the Diabetes in Young Adults (DiYA) study. Clinical characteristics of participants, including requirement of early insulin treatment, BMI and development of multiple islet autoantibodies, were analysed according to the status of RBA-GADA and ECL-GADA, respectively, and compared between these two assays.

Results: GADA was the most prevalent and predominant autoantibody, >90% in both cohorts. GADA positivity by either RBA or ECL assay significantly discriminated clinical type 1 from type 2 diabetes. However, in both cohorts, participants with ECL-GADA positivity were more likely to require early insulin treatment, have multiple islet autoantibodies, and be less overweight (for all p < 0.0001). However, clinical phenotype, age at diagnosis and BMI independently improved positive predictive value (PPV) for the requirement of insulin treatment, even augmenting ECL-GADA. Participants with GADA detectable by RBA, but not confirmed by ECL, had a phenotype more similar to type 2 diabetes. These RBA-GADA positive individuals had lower affinity GADA compared with participants in which GADA was confirmed by ECL assay.

Conclusions/interpretation: Detection of GADA by ECL assay, given technical advantages over RBA-GADA, identified adult-onset diabetes patients at higher risk of requiring early insulin treatment, as did clinical phenotype, together allowing for more accurate clinical diagnosis and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-021-05492-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Novel autoantibodies to the β-cell surface epitopes of ZnT8 in patients progressing to type-1 diabetes.

J Autoimmun 2021 Aug 12;122:102677. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Physiology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β-cells in pancreatic islets. Seroconversions to islet autoantibodies (IAbs) precede the disease onset by many years, but the role of humoral autoimmunity in the disease initiation and progression are unclear. In the present study, we identified a new IAb directed to the extracellular epitopes of ZnT8 (ZnT8ec) in newly diagnosed patients with T1D, and demonstrated immunofluorescence staining of the surface of human β-cells by autoantibodies to ZnT8ec (ZnT8ecA). With the assay specificity set on 99th percentile of 336 healthy controls, the ZnT8ecA positivity rate was 23.6% (74/313) in patients with T1D. Moreover, 30 children in a longitudinal follow up of clinical T1D development were selected for sequential expression of four major IAbs (IAA, GADA, IA-2A and ZnT8icA). Among them, 10 children were ZnT8ecA positive. Remarkably, ZnT8ecA was the earliest IAb to appear in all 10 children. The identification of ZnT8ec as a cell surface target of humoral autoimmunity in the earliest phase of IAb responses opens a new avenue of investigation into the role of IAbs in the development of β-cell autoimmunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2021.102677DOI Listing
August 2021

Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Children and Adults with Type 1 Diabetes.

Diabetes Technol Ther 2021 07 25;23(7):517-521. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

As diabetes is a risk factor for severe symptoms, hospitalization, and death with COVID-19 disease, we aimed to assess the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in children and adults with and without type 1 diabetes in Colorado during 2020. We developed a highly sensitive and specific test for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and measured the antibodies in children and adults with new-onset ( = 129) and established type 1 diabetes ( = 94) seen for routine diabetes care at our center between January and October 2020. The antibodies were also measured in 562 children and 102 adults from the general population of Colorado. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in persons with new-onset type 1 diabetes (0.8%; 95% confidence interval 0.1%-4.2%) or those with established disease (4.3%; 1.7%-10.4%) did not differ from that in the general population children (2.8%; 1.8%-4.6%) or adults (3.9%; 1.5%-9.7%). In a subset of individuals with positive antibodies ( = 31), antibodies remained positive for up to 9 months, although the levels decreased starting 3 months after the infection ( = 0.007). From January to October 2020, the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were not different in children and adults with and without type 1 diabetes in Colorado. We found no evidence for increased prevalence of COVID-19 infections among youth with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. (COMIRB Protocol 20-1007).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2020.0609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8252893PMC
July 2021

Large-Scale Screening in General Population Children for Celiac Disease with a Multiplex Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) Assay.

J Immunol Res 2020 24;2020:8897656. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: Autoimmunity Screening for Kids (ASK) study was launched to screen general population children for type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD).

Methods: A total of 23,319 children from general population were screened. A high throughput multiplex electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay to screen multiautoantibodies in a single well was applied, parallel with a standard radiobinding assay (RBA). All children with any positive autoantibodies in screening were revisited within one month for confirmation and followed every 6 months.

Results: Among 23,319 children, 2.6% (606/23,319) of children were tested positive for TGA. Multiplex ECL assay detected more TGA (584/23,319) in the initial screening than RBA (490/23,319, = 0.004) and was able to detect TGA earlier than RBA in a subset of children by 0.8 to 34.8 months. Prevalence of TGA by either ECL or RBA in children with islet autoantibodies was found significantly higher than overall prevalence in general population screened.

Conclusions: A multiplex ECL assay was more sensitive than standard RBA by identifying more TGA positivity and detecting TGA earlier in general population screening. It also provides a high efficient tool with its unique advantage of multiplexing measurements to screen for multiple autoimmune diseases simultaneously in general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8897656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775136PMC
December 2020

Occurrence and removal of bisphenol analogues in wastewater treatment plants and activated sludge bioreactor.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 17;758:143606. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecological Remediation, College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China. Electronic address:

The occurrence and removal of ten bisphenol analogues (BPs) in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and laboratory scale activated sludge bioreactor (ASBR) were studied. All targeted BPs except for tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) were detected in the four WWTPs (W1, W2, W3 and W4) in the ng/L and ng/g dry weight range in wastewater and activated sludge, respectively, indicating that in addition to BPA, the BPA substitutes were widely used in our daily life and industrial production. Discrepant results regarding the removal efficiencies of BPs by different wastewater treatment processes were obtained. The removal rates were 55.6%, 24.4%, -10.1%, 71.4%, 38.9%, 58.0%, 39.1% and 6.4% in W1, 65.4%, 32.8%, 44.7, -13.5%, 20.1%, -29.6%, -25.1% and 99.4% in W2, 11.6%, 48.8%, 38.9%, 22.0%, 99.0%, -29.2%, -56.5% and 32.6% in W3, 33.9%, 30.5%, 17.4%, -47.6%, 62.9%, 83.0%, 4.4% and -4.3% in W4, for BPA, BPB, BPE, BPF, BPS, BPZ, BPAF and BPAP, respectively. The removal of ten targeted BPs in lab-scale continuous flow conventional ASBR and the key factors were investigated. The simulated laboratory-scale ASBR were highly effective in removing BPA, BPB, BPE, BPF, BPM and BPS with removal efficiencies of >94.3%, while BPZ, BPAP, BPAF and TCBPA were recalcitrant to elimination in the stimulated bioreactor with removal efficiencies of 71.3 ± 13.7%, 55.1 ± 21.2%, 47.4 ± 9.5% and 45.3 ± 16.6%, respectively. Protonation, hydrophobicity and molecular features of BPs were critical for their elimination in wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143606DOI Listing
March 2021

A High-Throughput Electrochemiluminescence 7-Plex Assay Simultaneously Screening for Type 1 Diabetes and Multiple Autoimmune Diseases.

J Vis Exp 2020 05 29(159). Epub 2020 May 29.

Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine;

Islet autoantibodies (IAbs) are widely used in type 1 diabetes (T1D) diagnosis and prediction. Four major IAbs to insulin (IAA), glutamate decarboxylase-65 (GADA), insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2A), and zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8A) are equally important in disease prediction. Presently, up to 40% of patients diagnosed with T1D go on to develop other autoimmune disorders. Unfortunately, current screening methods using a single autoantibody for measurement are laborious and inefficient for large scale screening studies. We recently developed a simple multiplexed electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay to address these current issues. The assay combines all 7 autoantibody tests into one well. Each well includes three IAbs (IAA, GADA, and IA-2A), autoantibodies to thyroid peroxidase (TPOA) and thyroid globulin (ThGA) to detect autoimmune thyroid disease, autoantibodies to tissue transglutaminase (TGA) for celiac disease, and autoantibodies to interferon alpha (IFNαA) for autoimmune polyglandular syndrome-1 (APS-1); all of which screen for T1D and other relevant autoimmune diseases, simultaneously. The multiplex ECL assay is based on the single ECL assay platform, but instead uses the multiplex plate combining multiple autoantibody assays, up to 10, into a single well. The main difference from the single ECL assay is that each antibody-antigen complex formed in the fluid-phase is restrained onto a specific spot on each well through a linker system on the multiplex plate. The 7-Plex ECL assay, in the present study, is validated against standard radio-binding assays (RBA) and single ECL assays, using a large cohort of newly diagnosed T1D patients and age-matched healthy controls, resulting in excellent assay sensitivity and specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/61160DOI Listing
May 2020

Synthesis of Stilbenes by Rhodium-Catalyzed Aerobic Alkenylation of Arenes via C-H Activation.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 06 26;142(23):10534-10543. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904, United States.

Arene alkenylation is commonly achieved by late transition metal-mediated C(sp)-C(sp) cross-coupling, but this strategy typically requires prefunctionalized substrates (e.g., with halides or pseudohalides) and/or the presence of a directing group on the arene. Transition metal-mediated arene C-H activation and alkenylation offers an alternative method to functionalize arene substrates. Herein, we report a rhodium-catalyzed oxidative arene alkenylation from arenes and styrenes to prepare stilbene and stilbene derivatives. The reaction is successful with several functional groups on both the arene and the olefin including fluoride, chloride, trifluoromethyl, ester, nitro, acetate, cyanide, and ether groups. Reactions of monosubstituted arenes are selective for alkenylation at the and positions, generally with approximately 2:1 selectivity, respectively. Resveratrol and ()-1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(4-methoxystyryl)benzene (DMU-212) are synthesized by this single-step approach in high yield. Comparison with palladium catalysis showed that rhodium catalysis is more selective for -functionalization for monosubstituted arenes and that the Rh catalysis has better tolerance of halogen groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c03935DOI Listing
June 2020

Islet autoantibodies in disease prediction and pathogenesis.

Diabetol Int 2020 Jan 16;11(1):6-10. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

1Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 1775 Aurora Ct, B140, Aurora, CO 80045 USA.

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is now predictable by measuring specific islet autoantibodies (IAbs). Almost all children who developed multiple IAbs will progress to T1D with time, while individuals with single IAb have a very low risk although it is an important earlier biomarker. The poor prediction of single IAb has been found to be associated with IAb affinity. Majority of single IAb generated in current standard IAb radio-binding assay (RBA) are of low affinity, which have been demonstrated low risk in T1D development. New generation of nonradioactive IAb assay with electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technology has been shown to discriminate high-affinity from low-affinity IAbs and greatly improve sensitivity and disease specificity. With a high-affinity IAb assay, like ECL assay, single IAb will be expected to be a reliable biomarker for T1D early prediction. Although appearance of IAbs is most reliable biomarkers for T1D, there are no direct evidences that IAbs contribute to β-cell damage. With recent studies on ZnT8, a merging protein on β-cell surface membrane associated with insulin secretion, a subclass of ZnT8 autoantibodies directed to extra-cellular epitopes of ZnT8 on β-cell surface has recently been identified in T1D patients and these cell surface autoantibodies have been found to appear very early, before other IAbs. These findings lead us to a hypothesis that the immunogenic epitopes on β-cell surface might be early targets for autoimmune disease and IAbs to cell surface epitopes might be involved in β-cell destruction, which will change the paradigm of IAbs in T1D pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13340-019-00414-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942067PMC
January 2020

ELM embedded discriminative dictionary learning for image classification.

Neural Netw 2020 Mar 20;123:331-342. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798, Singapore. Electronic address:

Dictionary learning is a widely adopted approach for image classification. Existing methods focus either on finding a dictionary that produces discriminative sparse representation, or on enforcing priors that best describe the dataset distribution. In many cases, the dataset size is often small with large intra-class variability and nondiscriminative feature space. In this work we propose a simple and effective framework called ELM-DDL to address these issues. Specifically, we represent input features with Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) with orthogonal output projection, which enables diverse representation on nonlinear hidden space and task specific feature learning on output space. The embeddings are further regularized via a maximum margin criterion (MMC) to maximize the inter-class variance and minimize intra-class variance. For dictionary learning, we design a novel weighted class specific ℓ norm to regularize the sparse coding vectors, which promotes uniformity of the sparse patterns of samples belonging to the same class and suppresses support overlaps of different classes. We show that such regularization is robust, discriminative and easy to optimize. The proposed method is combined with a sparse representation classifier (SRC) to evaluate on benchmark datasets. Results show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance compared to other dictionary learning methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2019.11.015DOI Listing
March 2020

Simultaneously learning affinity matrix and data representations for machine fault diagnosis.

Neural Netw 2020 Feb 22;122:395-406. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore. Electronic address:

Recently, preserving geometry information of data while learning representations have attracted increasing attention in intelligent machine fault diagnosis. Existing geometry preserving methods require to predefine the similarities between data points in the original data space. The predefined affinity matrix, which is also known as the similarity matrix, is then used to preserve geometry information during the process of representations learning. Hence, the data representations are learned under the assumption of a fixed and known prior knowledge, i.e., similarities between data points. However, the assumed prior knowledge is difficult to precisely determine the real relationships between data points, especially in high dimensional space. Also, using two separated steps to learn affinity matrix and data representations may not be optimal and universal for data classification. In this paper, based on the extreme learning machine autoencoder (ELM-AE), we propose to learn the data representations and the affinity matrix simultaneously. The affinity matrix is treated as a variable and unified in the objective function of ELM-AE. Instead of predefining and fixing the affinity matrix, the proposed method adjusts the similarities by taking into account its capability of capturing the geometry information in both original data space and non-linearly mapped representation space. Meanwhile, the geometry information of original data can be preserved in the embedded representations with the help of the affinity matrix. Experimental results on several benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the empirical study also shows it is an efficient tool on machine fault diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2019.11.007DOI Listing
February 2020

Algal toxicity, accumulation and metabolic pathways of galaxolide.

J Hazard Mater 2020 02 1;384:121360. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, China. Electronic address:

Galaxolide (HHCB) is known to be persistent during wastewater treatment and has raised increasing concern due to its high detection frequency in the environment and potentially negative effects. However, little information is available on the degradation of HHCB by algae, the degradation mechanisms and the toxicity of HHCB on algae. In the present study, HHCB was found to be toxic to Navicula sp. and Scenedesmus quadricauda, with a 3 d EC of 0.050 and 0.336 mg L, respectively. Both microalgae showed high removal efficiency (72.9-100%) for HHCB. S. quadricauda showed a more satisfactory effect in the bioremediation of HHCB than Navicula sp. A total of four metabolites were found in the biotransformation processes of HHCB, and its possible metabolic pathways were proposed. Hydroxylation, methoxylation, methylation, ketonization, demethylation, and oxaloacetate conjunction contributed to the metabolism of HHCB in algal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121360DOI Listing
February 2020

High-throughput multiplexed autoantibody detection to screen type 1 diabetes and multiple autoimmune diseases simultaneously.

EBioMedicine 2019 Sep 22;47:365-372. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background: Islet autoantibodies (IAbs) are the most reliable biomarkers to assess risk of progression to clinical type 1 diabetes (T1D). There are four major biochemically defined IAbs currently used in clinical trials that are equally important for disease prediction. The current screening methods use a radio-binding assay (RBA) for single IAb measurement, which are laborious and inefficient for large-scale screening. More importantly, up to 40% of patients with T1D have other autoimmune conditions that can be identified through relevant autoantibody testing. Thus, there is a need to screen for T1D and other autoimmune diseases simultaneously.

Methods: Based on our well-established electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay platform, we developed a multiplexed ECL assay that combines 7 individual autoantibody assays together in one single well to simultaneously screen T1D, and three other autoimmune diseases including celiac disease, autoimmune thyroid disease and autoimmune poly-glandular syndrome-1 (APS-1). The 7-Plex ECL assay was extensively validated against single antibody measurements including a standard RBA and single ECL assay.

Findings: The 7-Plex ECL assay was well correlated to each single ECL autoantibody assay and each RBA.

Interpretation: The multiplexed ECL assay provides high sensitivity and disease specificity, along with high throughput and a low cost for large-scale screenings of T1D and other relevant autoimmune diseases in the general population. FUND: JDRF grants 2-SRA-2015-51-Q-R, 2-SRA-2018-533-S-B, NIH grants DK32083 and DK32493. NSFC grants 81770777.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.08.036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6796526PMC
September 2019

Associations between urinary iodine concentration, lipid profile and other cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents: a cross-sectional, population-based analysis.

Br J Nutr 2019 05 11;121(9):1039-1048. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

1Department of Endocrinology,Beijing Hospital,National Center of Gerontology, no. 1, Dahua Road, Dongcheng District, Beijing 100730,People's Republic of China.

Low urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is associated with dyslipidaemia in adults but is not well characterised in adolescents. Because dyslipidaemia is a cardiovascular risk factor, identifying such an association in adolescents would allow for the prescription of appropriate measures to maintain cardiovascular health. The present study addresses this question using data in the 2001-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1692 adolescents aged 12-19 years. Primary outcomes were UIC, cardiometabolic risk factors and dyslipidaemia. Data for subjects categorised by low and normal UIC and by sex were analysed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Treating UIC as the independent variable, physical activity level, apoB and lipid profiles differed significantly between subjects with low and normal UIC. Subjects with low UIC had a significantly greater risk of elevated total cholesterol (TC) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81), elevated non-HDL (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) and elevated LDL (95 % CI 1·83, 4·19) compared with those with normal UIC. Treating UIC as a dependent variable, the risk of low UIC was significantly greater in those with higher apoB (95 % CI 1·52, 19·08), elevated TC (≥4·4mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·37, 2·81) and elevated non-HDL (≥3·11mmol/l) (95 % CI 1·33, 2·76) than in those with normal UIC. These results show that male and female adolescents with low UIC tend to be at greater risk of dyslipidaemia and abnormal cardiometabolic biomarkers, though the specific abnormal parameters differed between sexes. These results may help to identify youth who would benefit from interventions to improve their cardiometabolic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114518003860DOI Listing
May 2019

Dynamics of microbial community in the bioreactor for bisphenol S removal.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Apr 15;662:15-21. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Institute for Advanced Study, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Bisphenol S is one of the alternative substitutes of Bisphenol A, a chemical widely recognized as an endocrine disrupting compound. In the past few years, a variety of studies on degradation of BPA demonstrated that microorganisms play important roles in the degradation process. However, the fate of BPS during wastewater treatment processes and the composition of microorganisms that functionalize BPS degradation remain to be explored. In this study, three bioreactors, R-BPS (amended with Bisphenol S), R-BPSHA (amended with Bisphenol S and humic acid) and Con (control bioreactor), were set up to investigate the fate of BPS and the microbial compositions and dynamics in the bioreactors, especially for the microorganisms associated with BPS removal. Results showed that a complete removal was achieved within 24 days. The addition of humic acid accelerated the elimination of BPS in both effluent and sludge. The results of 16S rRNA gene ampilicon sequencing revealed that the most abundant bacteria in all samples were affiliated to Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Seven major genera were likely associated with BPS removal, including Pseudomonas, Azospira, Hydrogenophaga, Devosia, Delftia, Acidovorax and Rhodobacter. Among them, humic acid increased relative abundance of some bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Hydrogenophaga and Acidovorax. These findings would give valuable information on the microbial community composition associated with BPS removal, providing biological background for bioremediation of BPS-contaminated environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.173DOI Listing
April 2019

In Vivo Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Improvement of Corneal Nerve Parameters following Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

J Diabetes Res 2018 24;2018:8516276. Epub 2018 Jun 24.

Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, China.

Aim: This study aimed to investigate whether in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) can detect the improvement of corneal nerve parameters following glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes in natural history.

Methods: Thirty-two patients with diabetes complicated by DPN and 12 age-matched control subjects underwent detailed clinical examination and were assessed per the Toronto Clinical Scoring Scale for DPN, nerve conduction studies, and IVCCM at baseline and after approximately one year from the first visit.

Results: At follow-up, 16 diabetic patients had improved glycemic control (group A, HbA1c < 7.0%, 7.78 ± 1.62% versus 6.52 ± 0.59%, = 0.005), while the remainder continued to have elevated HbA1c levels (group B, HbA1c ≥ 7.0%, 8.55 ± 1.57% versus 8.79 ± 1.05%, = 0.527). For patients in group A, corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD) (18.55 ± 5.25 n/mm versus 21.78 ± 6.13 n/mm, = 0.005) and corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL) (11.62 ± 2.89 mm/mm versus 13.04 ± 2.44 mm/mm, = 0.029) increased significantly compared to baseline. For patients in group B, sural sensory nerve conduction velocity (47.93 ± 7.20 m/s versus 44.67 ± 6.43 m/s, = 0.024), CNFD (17.19 ± 5.31 n/mm versus 15.67 ± 4.16 n/mm, = 0.001), corneal nerve branch density (19.33 ± 12.82 n/mm versus 14.23 ± 6.56 n/mm, = 0.033), and CNFL (11.16 ± 2.57 mm/mm versus 9.90 ± 1.75 mm/mm, = 0.011) decreased significantly.

Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that morphological repair of corneal nerve fibers can be detected when glycemic control improves. In vivo CCM could be a sensitive method that can be applied in future longitudinal or interventional studies on DPN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/8516276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6035811PMC
December 2018

Systematic design of superaerophobic nanotube-array electrode comprised of transition-metal sulfides for overall water splitting.

Nat Commun 2018 06 22;9(1):2452. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Great attention has been focused on the design of electrocatalysts to enable electrochemical water splitting-a technology that allows energy derived from renewable resources to be stored in readily accessible and non-polluting chemical fuels. Herein we report a bifunctional nanotube-array electrode for water splitting in alkaline electrolyte. The electrode requires the overpotentials of 58 mV and 184 mV for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions respectively, meanwhile maintaining remarkable long-term durability. The prominent performance is due to the systematic optimization of chemical composition and geometric structure principally-that is, abundant electrocatalytic active sites, excellent conductivity of metallic 1T' MoS, synergistic effects among iron, cobalt, nickel ions, and the superaerophobicity of electrode surface for fast mass transfer. The electrode is also demonstrated to function as anode and cathode, simultaneously, delivering 10 mA cm at a cell voltage of 1.429 V. Our results demonstrate substantial improvement in the design of high-efficiency electrodes for water electrolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-04888-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6014975PMC
June 2018

A cross-sectional study on the associations of insulin resistance with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in T2DM and IGT patients.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Jun;96(26):e7378

Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, China.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a long-term metabolic disorder. It is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR), and relative impairment in insulin secretion. IR plays a major role in the pathogenesis of T2DM. Many previous studies have investigated the relationship between estrogen, androgen, and obesity, but few focused on the relationship between sex hormones, abnormal lipid metabolism, and IR. The goal for the present study was to identify the association of IR with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) patients.In total 13,400 participants were analyzed based on the results of the glucose tolerance test. Using a cross-sectional study, we showed the relationship between IR and the level of sex hormones among 3 different glucose tolerance states: normal control people, IGT, and T2DM patients. We also analyzed the relationship between IR and abnormal lipid metabolism.Significantly, luteinizing, progesterone, estradiol, prolactin, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels decreased in T2DM and IGT patients compared with those in normal control people. The association between IR and lipid metabolism disorders in T2DM and IGT patients was also observed.Our clinical findings may offer new insights into understanding the mechanism of metabolic disorders and in new therapeutic methods for the treatment of the prevalence of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000007378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5500088PMC
June 2017

Amorphous nickel-cobalt complexes hybridized with 1T-phase molybdenum disulfide via hydrazine-induced phase transformation for water splitting.

Nat Commun 2017 05 9;8:15377. Epub 2017 May 9.

Key Lab of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Highly active and robust eletcrocatalysts based on earth-abundant elements are desirable to generate hydrogen and oxygen as fuels from water sustainably to replace noble metal materials. Here we report an approach to synthesize porous hybrid nanostructures combining amorphous nickel-cobalt complexes with 1T phase molybdenum disulfide (MoS) via hydrazine-induced phase transformation for water splitting. The hybrid nanostructures exhibit overpotentials of 70 mV for hydrogen evolution and 235 mV for oxygen evolution at 10 mA cm with long-term stability, which have superior kinetics for hydrogen- and oxygen-evolution with Tafel slope values of 38.1 and 45.7 mV dec. Moreover, we achieve 10 mA cm at a low voltage of 1.44 V for 48 h in basic media for overall water splitting. We propose that such performance is likely due to the complete transformation of MoS to metallic 1T phase, high porosity and stabilization effect of nickel-cobalt complexes on 1T phase MoS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms15377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5436140PMC
May 2017
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