Publications by authors named "Xiaobo Zheng"

181 Publications

Linking Tumor Microenvironment to Plasticity of Cancer Stem Cells: Mechanisms and Application in Cancer Therapy.

Front Oncol 2021 28;11:678333. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Liver Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a minority subset of cancer cells that can drive tumor initiation, promote tumor progression, and induce drug resistance. CSCs are difficult to eliminate by conventional therapies and eventually mediate tumor relapse and metastasis. Moreover, recent studies have shown that CSCs display plasticity that renders them to alter their phenotype and function. Consequently, the varied phenotypes result in varied tumorigenesis, dissemination, and drug-resistance potential, thereby adding to the complexity of tumor heterogeneity and further challenging clinical management of cancers. In recent years, tumor microenvironment (TME) has become a hotspot in cancer research owing to its successful application in clinical tumor immunotherapy. Notably, emerging evidence shows that the TME is involved in regulating CSC plasticity. TME can activate stemness pathways and promote immune escape through cytokines and exosomes secreted by immune cells or stromal cells, thereby inducing non-CSCs to acquire CSC properties and increasing CSC plasticity. However, the relationship between TME and plasticity of CSCs remains poorly understood. In this review, we discuss the emerging investigations on TME and CSC plasticity to illustrate the underlying mechanisms and potential implications in suppressing cancer progression and drug resistance. We consider that this review can help develop novel therapeutic strategies by taking into account the interlink between TME and CSC plasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.678333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273276PMC
June 2021

The rice blast fungus MoRgs1 functioning in cAMP signaling and pathogenicity is regulated by casein kinase MoCk2 phosphorylation and modulated by membrane protein MoEmc2.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jun 16;17(6):e1009657. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, and Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, China, The Key Laboratory of Plant Immunity, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

GTP-binding protein (G-protein) and regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) mediated signal transduction are critical in the growth and virulence of the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. We have previously reported that there are eight RGS and RGS-like proteins named MoRgs1 to MoRgs8 playing distinct and shared regulatory functions in M. oryzae and that MoRgs1 has a more prominent role compared to others in the fungus. To further explore the unique regulatory mechanism of MoRgs1, we screened a M. oryzae cDNA library for genes encoding MoRgs1-interacting proteins and identified MoCkb2, one of the two regulatory subunits of the casein kinase (CK) 2 MoCk2. We found that MoCkb2 and the sole catalytic subunit MoCka1 are required for the phosphorylation of MoRgs1 at the plasma membrane (PM) and late endosome (LE). We further found that an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein complex (EMC) subunit, MoEmc2, modulates the phosphorylation of MoRgs1 by MoCk2. Interestingly, this phosphorylation is also essential for the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) function of MoRgs1. The balance among MoRgs1, MoCk2, and MoEmc2 ensures normal operation of the G-protein MoMagA-cAMP signaling required for appressorium formation and pathogenicity of the fungus. This has been the first report that an EMC subunit is directly linked to G-protein signaling through modulation of an RGS-casein kinase interaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009657DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208561PMC
June 2021

First report of soybean stem blight caused by Diaporthe phaseolorum in Sichuan province, China.

Plant Dis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Nanjing Agricultural University, 70578, Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China;

In September 2020, a disease resembling stem blight on soybean was found in Chengdu city, Sichuan province, southwestern of China. Symptoms began as a brown lesion on the stems, usually at the nodes, then lesions expanded, darkened, and even girdled the stems, causing wilt of the above stems (Figure 1A). In three 0.33-ha fields, a total of 300 soybean plants (20 plants/site × 5 sites/filed × 3 fields) were investigated, and 3% of the plants showed the disease symptoms. The symptoms were consistent with those previously reported for stem canker and stem blight on soybean caused by Diaporthe complex (Cui et al. 2009; Mena et al. 2019; Santos et al. 2011). The tissues of symptomatic soybean stems were rinsed by water, disinfected by submerging them in 75% ethanol for 30 s and in 2% sodium hypochlorite solution for 2 min, then followed by washing with sterile distilled water. Small diseased tissue fragments were placed on selective potato dextrose agar (PDA) containing rifampicin and ampicillin (both 50 mg/μl). Plates were sealed and incubated at 26°C for two days. Developing mycelia of isolates were transferred to fresh PDA and purified by single hyphal tip. For the five obtained isolates (Figure 1B), five markers, including the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA, parts of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1), part of the histone H3 (HIS) gene, the calmodulin gene (CAL), and the beta-tubulin gene (TUB), were amplified using the established primers ITS4/ITS5 (White et al. 1990), EF1-728F/EF1-986R (Carbone and Kohn 1999), CYLH3F (Crous et al. 2006) and H3-1b (Glass and Donaldson 1995), CAL228F/CAL737R (Carbone and Kohn 1999), and Bt-2a/Bt-2b (Glass and Donaldson 1995), respectively, and sequenced (GenBank IDs: MW595761-MW595780 and MW624472-MW624476). Phylogenetic trees were constructed based on concatenated sequences of the five markers using the maximum-likelihood (ML) method in MEGA-5.2.2. Based the results of morphological (Figure 1C-E) and phylogenetic analysis (Figure 2), the five isolates were all identified as D. phaseolorum. Pathogenicity tests for the isolates were conducted on 7-day-old soybean seedlings (cv. Shangdou 1310) using a hypocotyl slit inoculation method. At the stem 2-cm below cotyledon, a 6-mm long slit was cut with a sterile scalpel, and placed inside with a 3 mm × 3 mm PDA plug with or without mycelia of pathogen. Ten plants were assayed for each treatment, and the plants were maintained in greenhouse at 26°C, with humidity higher than 90% for the first two days. The assay was repeated at least three times. Typical brown lesions on the stems were observed four days after inoculation (Figure 1F), even 20% treated plants died. The D. phaseolorum was reisolated from these stem lesions. No disease symptom was observed on control plants (Figure 1G). Thus D. phaseolorum was the pathogen causing the soybean stem blight in field. To our knowledge, this is the first report of D. phaseolorum causing this disease in Sichuan province, China. The result may provide useful information for soybean disease control in this region of China. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Funding: China Agriculture Research System (CARS-004-PS14).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-21-0697-PDNDOI Listing
May 2021

Communication Between Epithelial-Mesenchymal Plasticity and Cancer Stem Cells: New Insights Into Cancer Progression.

Front Oncol 2021 21;11:617597. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Liver Surgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is closely associated with the acquisition of aggressive traits by carcinoma cells and is considered responsible for metastasis, relapse, and chemoresistance. Molecular links between the EMT and cancer stem cells (CSCs) have indicated that EMT processes play important roles in the expression of CSC-like properties. It is generally thought that EMT-related transcription factors (EMT-TFs) need to be downregulated to confer an epithelial phenotype to mesenchymal cells and increase cell proliferation, thereby promoting metastasis formation. However, the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that regulate EMT and CSC activation are contradictory. Emerging evidence suggests that EMT need not be a binary model and instead a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal state. This dynamic process correlates with epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity, which indicates a contradictory role of EMT during cancer progression. Recent studies have linked the epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity and stem cell-like traits, providing new insights into the conflicting relationship between EMT and CSCs. In this review, we examine the current knowledge about the interplay between epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity and CSCs in cancer biology and evaluate the controversies and future perspectives. Understanding the biology of epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity and CSCs and their implications in therapeutic treatment may provide new opportunities for targeted intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.617597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097085PMC
April 2021

sp. nov. isolated from soybean: morphology, molecular phylogeny and pathogenicity.

Biodivers Data J 2021 22;9:e65227. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University Nanjing 210095 China.

Background: Soybean () is a major source of edible oil and protein. A novel species of the genus , , isolated from soybean seedlings in China, is described and illustrated on the basis of morphological characters and molecular evidence.

New Information: sp. nov. is closely related to species of the genus in clade F, as evidenced by the presence of hyphal swellings and its relatively rapid morphological growth. However, it differs by having relatively small sporangia and plerotic or nearly plerotic and thin-walled oospores. A pathogenicity test confirmed the newly-identified species as a pathogen of soybean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.9.e65227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084853PMC
April 2021

Development of LAMP assays using a novel target gene for specific detection of Pythium terrestris, Pythium spinosum, and "Candidatus Pythium huanghuaiense".

Plant Dis 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Nanjing Agricultural University, 70578, Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China;

Pythium terrestris, Pythium spinosum, and "Candidatus Pythium huanghuaiense" are closely related species and important pathogens of soybean that cause root rot. However, the sequences of commonly-used molecular markers, such as rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 and cytochrome oxidase 1 gene, are similar among these species, making it difficult to design species-specific primers for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays. The genome sequences of these species are also currently unavailable. Based on a comparative genomic analysis and de novo RNA-seq transcript assemblies, we identified and cloned the sequences of the M90 gene, a conserved but highly polymorphic single-copy gene encoding a Puf family RNA-binding protein among oomycetes. After primer design and screening, three LAMP assays were developed that specifically amplified the targeted DNA sequences in P. terrestris and P. spinosum at 62°C for 70 min and in "Ca. Pythium huanghuaiense" at 62°C for 60 min. After adding SYBR Green I, a positive yellow-green color (under natural light) or intense green fluorescence (under ultraviolet light) was observed by the naked eye only in the presence of the target species. The minimum concentration of target DNA detected in all three LAMP assays was 100 pg·μL-1. The assays also successfully detected the target Pythium spp. with high accuracy and sensitivity from inoculated soybean seedlings and soils collected from soybean fields. This study provides a method for identification and cloning of candidate detection targets without a reference genome sequence, and identified M90 as a novel specific target for molecular detection of three Pythium species causing soybean root rot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-21-0068-REDOI Listing
April 2021

Unintended changes in ocular biometric parameters during a 6-month follow-up period after FS-LASIK and SMILE.

Eye Vis (Lond) 2021 Mar 19;8(1). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L69 3GH, UK.

Background: Corneal refractive surgery has become reliable for correcting refractive errors, but it can induce unintended ocular changes that alter refractive outcomes. This study is to evaluate the unintended changes in ocular biometric parameters over a 6-month follow-up period after femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) and small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE).

Methods: 156 consecutive myopic patients scheduled for FS-LASIK and SMILE were included in this study. Central corneal thickness (CCT), mean curvature of the corneal posterior surface (K), internal anterior chamber depth (IACD) and the length from corneal endothelium to retina (ER) were evaluated before and after surgery over a 6-month period.

Results: Both the FS-LASIK and SMILE groups (closely matched at the pre-surgery stage) experienced flatter K, shallower IACD and decreased ER 1 week post-surgery (P < 0.01), and these changes were larger in FS-LASIK than in SMILE group. During the 1 week to 6 months follow up period, K, IACD and ER remained stable unlike CCT which increased significantly (P < 0.05), more in the FS-LASIK group.

Conclusions: During the follow up, the posterior corneal surface became flatter and shifted posteriorly, the anterior chamber depth and the length from the corneal endothelium to retina decreased significantly compared with the pre-surgery stage. These unintended changes in ocular biometric parameters were greater in patients undergoing FS-LASIK than SMILE. The changes present clear challenges for IOL power calculations and should be considered to avoid affecting the outcome of cataract surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40662-021-00232-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7977186PMC
March 2021

Genome sequence resource of Phomopsis longicolla strain YC2-1, a fungal pathogen causing Phomopsis stem blight in soybean.

Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Nanjing Agricultural University, 70578, Plant Pathology, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China;

Diaporthe-Phomopsis disease complex causes considerable yield losses in soybean production worldwide. As one of the major pathogens, Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is not only the primary agent of Phomopsis seed decay, but also one of the agents of Phomopsis pod and stem blight, and Phomopsis stem canker. We performed both PacBio long read sequencing and Illumina short read sequencing, and obtained a genome assembly for the P. longicolla strain YC2-1, which was isolated from soybean stem with Phomopsis stem blight disease. The 63.1 Mb genome assembly contains 87 scaffolds, with a minimum, maximum, and N50 scaffold length of 20 kb, 4.6 Mb, and 1.5 Mb respectively, and a total of 17,407 protein-coding genes. The high-quality data expand the genomic resource of P. longicolla species and will provide a solid foundation for a better understanding of their genetic diversity and pathogenic mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/MPMI-12-20-0340-ADOI Listing
February 2021

Trace elements in green turtle eggshells and coral sand sediments from the Xisha Islands, South China Sea.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Mar 30;164:112036. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Ecology of Tropical Islands, Key Laboratory of Tropical Animal and Plant Ecology of Hainan Province, College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158, China. Electronic address:

This study investigated 12 trace elements in paired green turtle (Chelonia mydas) eggshell composites and coral sand samples to examine within-habitat heavy metal pollution from 40 nesting sites in the Xisha Islands. The concentrations of the elements (μg·g) found in the eggshells ranged as follows: Sr (41.3) > Zn (20.3) > Cu (12.8) > Fe (4.92) > Al (4.37) > Se (2.44) > Mn (0.91) > Cr (0.81) > Ba (0.44) > Pb (0.14) > As (0.08) > Cd (0.02). Significant correlations were observed between the levels of Cd and Se and the levels of Zn, Cu, and Pb in eggshells. The concentrations of Mn, Zn, Se, As, Cd, and Pb in C. mydas eggshells were significantly correlated with those in coral sand sediments. Cu concentrations in the eggshells exceeded the toxic reference value for bird eggs and Se concentrations were between the worst- and best-case scenario hazard quotients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112036DOI Listing
March 2021

A CRISPR/Cas9-mediated in situ complementation method for Phytophthora sojae mutants.

Mol Plant Pathol 2021 03 23;22(3):373-381. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Phytophthora sojae is an important model species for oomycete functional genomics research. Recently, a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome-editing technology has been successfully established in P. sojae, which has been rapidly and widely applied in oomycete research. However, there is an emerging consensus in the biological community that a complete functional gene research system is needed such as developed in the investigations in functional complementation carried out in this study. We report the development of an in situ complementation method for accurate restoration of the mutated gene. We targeted a regulatory B-subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PsPP2Ab1) to verify this knockout and subsequent complementation system. We found that the deletion of PsPP2Ab1 in P. sojae leads to severe defects in vegetative hyphal growth, soybean infection, and loss of the ability to produce sporangia. Subsequently, the reintroduction of PsPP2Ab1 into the knockout mutant remedied all of the deficiencies. This study demonstrates the successful implementation of an in situ complementation system by CRISPR/Cas9, which will greatly accelerate functional genomics research of oomycetes in the post-genomic era.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mpp.13028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865083PMC
March 2021

Auxilin-like protein MoSwa2 promotes effector secretion and virulence as a clathrin uncoating factor in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

New Phytol 2021 04 13;230(2):720-736. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Plant pathogens exploit the extracellular matrix (ECM) to inhibit host immunity during their interactions with the host. The formation of ECM involves a series of continuous steps of vesicular transport events. To understand how such vesicle trafficking impacts ECM and virulence in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, we characterised MoSwa2, a previously identified actin-regulating kinase MoArk1 interacting protein, as an orthologue of the auxilin-like clathrin uncoating factor Swa2 of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that MoSwa2 functions as an uncoating factor of the coat protein complex II (COPII) via an interaction with the COPII subunit MoSec24-2. Loss of MoSwa2 led to a deficiency in the secretion of extracellular proteins, resulting in both restricted growth of invasive hyphae and reduced inhibition of host immunity. Additionally, extracellular fluid (ECF) proteome analysis revealed that MoSwa2-regulated extracellular proteins include many redox proteins such as the berberine bridge enzyme-like (BBE-like) protein MoSef1. We further found that MoSef1 functions as an apoplastic virulent factor that inhibits the host immune response. Our studies revealed a novel function of a COPII uncoating factor in vesicular transport that is critical in the suppression of host immunity and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048681PMC
April 2021

Balancing of the mitotic exit network and cell wall integrity signaling governs the development and pathogenicity in Magnaporthe oryzae.

PLoS Pathog 2021 01 7;17(1):e1009080. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, and Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, China.

The fungal cell wall plays an essential role in maintaining cell morphology, transmitting external signals, controlling cell growth, and even virulence. Relaxation and irreversible stretching of the cell wall are the prerequisites of cell division and development, but they also inevitably cause cell wall stress. Both Mitotic Exit Network (MEN) and Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) are signaling pathways that govern cell division and cell stress response, respectively, how these pathways cross talk to govern and coordinate cellular growth, development, and pathogenicity remains not fully understood. We have identified MoSep1, MoDbf2, and MoMob1 as the conserved components of MEN from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. We have found that blocking cell division results in abnormal CWI signaling. In addition, we discovered that MoSep1 targets MoMkk1, a conserved key MAP kinase of the CWI pathway, through protein phosphorylation that promotes CWI signaling. Moreover, we provided evidence demonstrating that MoSep1-dependent MoMkk1 phosphorylation is essential for balancing cell division with CWI that maintains the dynamic stability required for virulence of the blast fungus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7817018PMC
January 2021

A self-balancing circuit centered on MoOsm1 kinase governs adaptive responses to host-derived ROS in .

Elife 2020 12 4;9. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, and Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, China.

The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a ubiquitous defense response in plants. Adapted pathogens evolved mechanisms to counteract the deleterious effects of host-derived ROS and promote infection. How plant pathogens regulate this elaborate response against ROS burst remains unclear. Using the rice blast fungus , we uncovered a self-balancing circuit controlling response to ROS in planta and virulence. During infection, ROS induces phosphorylation of the high osmolarity glycerol pathway kinase MoOsm1 and its nuclear translocation. There, MoOsm1 phosphorylates transcription factor MoAtf1 and dissociates MoAtf1-MoTup1 complex. This releases MoTup1-mediated transcriptional repression on oxidoreduction-pathway genes and activates the transcription of MoPtp1/2 protein phosphatases. In turn, MoPtp1/2 dephosphorylate MoOsm1, restoring the circuit to its initial state. Balanced interactions among proteins centered on MoOsm1 provide a means to counter host-derived ROS. Our findings thereby reveal new insights into how utilizes a phosphor-regulatory circuitry to face plant immunity during infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.61605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717906PMC
December 2020

Pollution of plastic debris and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in soil from an abandoned e-waste recycling site: Do plastics contribute to (HFRs) in soil?

J Hazard Mater 2021 05 24;410:124649. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China; Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Joint Laboratory for Environmental Pollution and Control, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, PR China.

Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site may be a "hotspot" for pollution of plastic debris, which has not been well studied. Eighteen halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) were measured in plastics and soil separated from twenty soil samples, respectively, from an abandoned e-waste recycling site. Abundances and concentrations of plastic debris ranged from 600 to 14,200 particles/kg and 0.24-153 mg/g, respectively, which were at the high end in literature. Blue, black, and red were main plastic colors, and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) was the main type of plastics. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) 209 was the main chemical, with median concentrations of 6.22-40.6 μg/g in soil and 28.1-47.2 μg/g in plastics, respectively. Contributions of HFRs in plastics were less than 10% in total HFR masses in bulk soil samples. Exposure values to HFRs from plastics via soil ingestion and dermal contact with soil were generally two orders of magnitude lower than those from soil. The results indicate that plastics in soil have little contribution to total HFR burden in soil and human exposure risks to HFRs in this study. However, ecological risks of plastics to terrestrial wildlife in e-waste sites should be paid attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124649DOI Listing
May 2021

Cleavage of a pathogen apoplastic protein by plant subtilases activates host immunity.

New Phytol 2021 03 6;229(6):3424-3439. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

The plant apoplast is a harsh environment in which hydrolytic enzymes, especially proteases, accumulate during pathogen infection. However, the defense functions of most apoplastic proteases remain largely elusive. We show here that a newly identified small cysteine-rich secreted protein PC2 from the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans induces immunity in Solanum plants only after cleavage by plant apoplastic subtilisin-like proteases, such as tomato P69B. A minimal 61 amino acid core peptide carrying two key cysteines, conserved widely in most oomycete species, is sufficient for PC2-induced cell death. Furthermore, we showed that Kazal-like protease inhibitors, such as EPI1, produced by P. infestans prevent PC2 cleavage and dampen PC2 elicited host immunity. This study reveals that cleavage of pathogen proteins to release immunogenic peptides is an important function of plant apoplastic proteases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17120DOI Listing
March 2021

Brominated and phosphate flame retardants from interior and surface dust of personal computers: insights into sources for human dermal exposure.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 20;28(10):12566-12575. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, People's Republic of China.

It remains unclear whether internal or external sources play the more significant role in flame retardant (FR) contamination of surface dust from personal computers (PCs), which may lead to bias on dermal exposure assessment of FRs. In the present study, the occurrence and profiles of several brominated and phosphate FRs were measured in the interior dust, and the upper surface (keyboard) and bottom surface (bottom cover) wipes of PCs. BDE 209 (639 ng/g), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE, 885 ng/g), and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP, 1880 ng/g) were the most abundant chemicals in interior PC dust, while tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), TPHP, and DBDPE were dominant on both surfaces of PCs. No significant correlation between interior dust and both PC surfaces was observed for concentrations of most FRs except BDE 183. Different sources of FRs for interior and surface dust of PCs were further revealed by principal component analysis (PCA). FRs from external sources, rather than emission from inner PC components, are likely the main contributor for FR profiles on PC surfaces. Exposure assessment results demonstrated a minor contribution from PC dermal contact, compared with hand-to-mouth uptake, to total exposure. The applicability of surface wipes to assess dermal exposure to FR-treated products needs to be further investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11132-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Genome Analysis of Two Newly Emerged Potato Late Blight Isolates Sheds Light on Pathogen Adaptation and Provides Tools for Disease Management.

Phytopathology 2021 Jan 21;111(1):96-107. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China.

, the causal agent of the Irish Potato Famine in the 1840s, is one of the most destructive crop pathogens that threaten global food security. Host resistance () genes may help to control the disease, but recognition by through the gene products can be evaded by newly emerging isolates. Such isolates are dangerous as they may cause disease outbreaks under favorable conditions. However, our lack of knowledge about adaptation in these isolates jeopardizes an apt response to resistance breakdown. Here we performed genome and transcriptome sequencing of HB1501 and HN1602, two field isolates from distinct Chinese geographic regions. We found extensive polymorphisms in these isolates, including gene copy number variations, nucleotide polymorphisms, and gene expression changes. Effector encoding genes, which contribute to virulence, show distinct expression landscapes in isolates HB1501 and HN1602. In particular, polymorphisms at multiple effectors required for recognition ( loci) enabled these isolates to overcome corresponding gene based resistance. Although the isolates evolved multiple strategies to evade recognition, we experimentally verified that several genes such as , , and remain effective against these isolates and are valuable to potato breeding in the future. In summary, rapid characterization of the adaptation in emerging field isolates through genomic tools inform rational agricultural management to prevent potential future epidemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-05-20-0208-FIDOI Listing
January 2021

RNA-seq Used to Explore circRNA Expression and Identify Key circRNAs During the DNA Synthesis Phase of Mice Liver Regeneration.

DNA Cell Biol 2020 Nov 22;39(11):2059-2076. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Liver Surgery and Liver Transplantation Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, P.R. China.

The liver has an excellent capacity for regeneration when faced with external injury and the damage differs from that of other organs in the body. Our aim was to identify the role of circular RNA (circRNA) during the DNA synthesis phase (36 h) of mice liver regeneration. High-throughput RNA sequencing was conducted to explore circRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in three pairs of mice liver tissue at 0 and 36 h after 2/3 partial hepatectomy. One hundred differentially expressed circRNAs were detected, including 66 upregulated and 34 downregulated circRNAs. We also explored 2483 differentially expressed mRNAs, including 1422 upregulated and 1061 downregulated mRNAs. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes indicated that cell cycle regulation, material metabolism, and multiple classical pathways were involved in the DNA synthesis process. A competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network containing 5 circRNAs, 28 target genes, and 533 microRNAs (miRNAs) was constructed, and we selected the top 5 miRNAs to map it. Potential key circRNAs were validated with the quantitative real-time PCR technique and their regeneration curves, including consecutive time points, were produced. Finally, a cell counting kit-8 assay on key circRNAs of ceRNA network was performed to further confirm their roles in the DNA synthesis phase of liver regeneration. This study provides a circRNA expression profile for liver regeneration and contributes valuable information for future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2020.5750DOI Listing
November 2020

Spatial distribution, source identification, and risk assessment of organochlorines in wild tilapia from Guangxi, South China.

Sci Rep 2020 09 16;10(1):15179. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

School of Marine Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning, 530004, China.

Seventy-five wild tilapia samples from six rivers (ten sites) in Guangxi province were collected and analyzed for 53 organochlorine compounds. DDTs, endosulfan, and PCBs were the most dominant compounds found in this study. Tiandong County (TD) and Guigang City (GG) sites were found to be heavily contaminated with high levels of endosulfan (385-925 ng/g lw) and/or DDTs (20.1-422 ng/g lw). The diagnostic ratios indicated that the residues of DDTs and endosulfan in wild tilapia are associated with historical applications as well as the recent introduction of technical DDTs and endosulfan at some sampling sites. The correlation between total length, body mass, and organochlorines (OCs) was higher than the correlation between age and lipid content. There was no significant correlation between organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and lipid content. Therefore, for organisms, the feeding intensity (related to length and mass) of fish could better reflect degree of pollution than exposure time (age) of fish. The hazardous ratios for the 50th and 95th percentile data of OCPs and PCBs in fish were both below 1, suggesting that daily exposure to OCPs and PCBs yields a lifetime cancer risk lower than 1 in 10,000.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72160-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495417PMC
September 2020

Aerodynamics of the Wells turbine with a Hawkmoth-inspired blade design.

Bioinspir Biomim 2020 09 14;15(6):066001. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Multifunction Towing Tank Laboratory, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering (NAOCE), Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), Shanghai 200240, People's Republic of China.

This work introduces a new biomimetic design for the well-known Wells turbine to enhance its efficiency for harvesting energy. In this paper, a biomimetic Wells turbine inspired by the geometry of hawkmoth wings is presented. Aerodynamics of both the bio-inspired design and the conventional design are investigated through computational fluid dynamics. Non-dimensional performance indicators of the bio-inspired design are compared to those of the conventional turbine, including the torque coefficient, the pressure drop coefficient, the turbine efficiency. The velocity and pressure distribution as well as the vortices shed from the blades are illustrated to understand the differences in flow phenomena. The results indicate that the biomimetic design changes the flow field and can attain a higher peak efficiency, especially at high angle of attack. Finally, the performance of blades with various aspect ratios is investigated to better understand the biomimetic design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-3190/abab67DOI Listing
September 2020

Conserved Subgroups of the Plant-Specific RWP-RK Transcription Factor Family Are Present in Oomycete Pathogens.

Front Microbiol 2020 28;11:1724. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Nitrogen is a major constituent of proteins, chlorophyll, nucleotides, and hormones and has profound effects on plant growth and productivity. RWP-RK family transcription factors (TFs) are key regulators that bind to -acting elements in the promoter regions of nitrogen use efficiency-related genes and genes responsible for gametogenesis and embryogenesis. The proteins share a conserved RWPxRK motif; have been found in all vascular plants, green algae, and slime molds; and are considered to be a plant-specific TF family. In this study, we show that RWP-RK proteins are also widely present in the Stramenopila kingdom, particularly among the oomycetes, with 12-15 members per species. These proteins form three distinct phylogenetic subgroups, two of which are relatively closely related to the nodule inception (NIN)-like protein (NLP) or the RWP-RK domain protein (RKD) subfamilies of plant RWP-RK proteins. The donor for horizontal gene transfer of RWP-RK domains to slime molds is likely to have been among the Stramenopila, predating the divide between brown algae and oomycetes. The RWP-RK domain has secondary structures that are conserved across plants and oomycetes, but several amino acids that may affect DNA-binding affinity differ. The transcriptional activities of orthologous RWP-RK genes were found to be conserved in oomycetes. Our results demonstrate that RWP-RK family TF genes are present in the oomycetes and form specific subgroups with functions that are likely conserved. Our results provide new insights for further understanding the evolution and function of this TF family in specific eukaryotic organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399023PMC
July 2020

Biomechanical Effects of Two Forms of PGF2α on Ex-vivo Rabbit Cornea.

Curr Eye Res 2021 Apr 11;46(4):452-460. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

School of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Purpose: To investigate the biomechanical effects of two synthetic prostaglandin F2α analogues (PGF2α), namely Travoprost and Tafluprost, on the ex-vivo rabbit cornea.

Materials And Methods: Ninety-six eyes of 48 Japanese white rabbits were divided into 3 equal groups randomly; the Travoprost treated group (Tra), the Tafluprost treated group (Taf) and the control group (Co). Eyes in Tra and Taf groups were preserved in storage medium for 10 days with 1:10 Travoprost and Tafluprost diluents, respectively; while the Co eyes were preserved in a similar but PGF2α-free medium. Twenty-four corneas of each group were tested under inflation conditions with up to 30 mmHg posterior pressure. The pressure-deformation data obtained experimentally were used in an inverse analysis process to derive the stress-strain behavior of the tissue, using which the tangent modulus, a direct measure of the tissue's material stiffness, was calculated. The remaining eight specimens of each group were analyzed using electron microscopy for fibril diameter and interfibrillar spacing.

Results: Although the central corneal thickness increased significantly in the three groups after storage ( < .01), it was similar in all groups both before ( = .598) and after storage ( = .181). After treatment with Travoprost and Tafluprost, the corneas exhibited lower tangent modulus (by 29.2% and 29.8%, respectively, at 6 kPa stress) and larger stromal interfibril spacing (by 21.9% and 23.6%) compared with the control group. There was no significant change in fibril diameter with either Travoprost or Tafluprost treatment ( = .769).

Conclusions: The results demonstrated significant reductions in tangent modulus and increases in interfibrillar spacing, which were of similar magnitudes, with the application of two different forms of PGF2α.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2020.1805771DOI Listing
April 2021

Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of organophosphate esters in tropical marine food web, South China Sea.

Environ Int 2020 10 2;143:105919. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Resources Utilization and Protection, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Environmental exposure to organophosphate esters (OPEs) continues to be a concern. Little is known about their bioaccumulation and trophodynamics, especially in tropical food webs. This study collected seawater and fifteen types of organism from a tropical ecosystem, South China Sea, to investigate the species-specific compositional, bioaccumulation, and trophic transfer of OPEs. The total concentrations of 11 target OPEs (ng/g dw) in the organisms decreased with the increase of their trophic levels in the order: phytoplankton (922) > zooplankton (660) > oysters (309) > crabs (225) > coral tissues (202) > fishes (58.2). The composition profiles (relative abundances) of OPEs were different among the species of organisms, which is likely affected by metabolism and the physicochemical property of OPEs. The trophic biomagnification of tripentyl phosphate (TPTP) in the pelagic food web was unexpected and requires further investigation. The trophic magnification factors (TMFs) of OPEs were generally lower in this tropical aquatic food web than in temperate and frigid aquatic food web. Our analysis suggests that there is a significant positive linear correlation between latitude and TMF. Intakes of OPEs through the consumption of the seafood involved in this work does not pose health risk to adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105919DOI Listing
October 2020

Phosphatase-associated protein MoTip41 interacts with the phosphatase MoPpe1 to mediate crosstalk between TOR and cell wall integrity signalling during infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae.

Environ Microbiol 2021 02 22;23(2):791-809. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, and Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, China.

The type 2A (PP2A) and type 2A-like (PP4 and PP6) serine/threonine phosphatases participate in a variety of cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, signal transduction and apoptosis. Previously, we reported that the PP6 catalytic subunit MoPpe1, which interacts with and is suppressed by type 2A associated protein of 42 kDa (MoTap42), an essential protein involved in the target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway, has important roles in development, virulence and activation of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Here, we show that Tap42-interacting protein 41 (MoTip41) mediates crosstalk between the TOR and CWI signalling pathways; and participates in the TOR pathway via interaction with MoPpe1, but not MoTap42. The deletion of MoTIP41 resulted in disruption of CWI signalling, autophagy, vegetative growth, appressorium function and plant infection, as well as increased sensitivity to rapamycin. Further investigation revealed that MoTip41 modulates activation of the CWI pathway in response to infection by interfering with the interaction between MoTap42 and MoPpe1. These findings enhance our understanding of how crosstalk between TOR and CWI signalling modulates the development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15136DOI Listing
February 2021

Multifunctional Active-Center-Transferable Platinum/Lithium Cobalt Oxide Heterostructured Electrocatalysts towards Superior Water Splitting.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 Aug 2;59(34):14533-14540. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, P. R. China.

Designing cost-effective and efficient electrocatalysts plays a pivotal role in advancing the development of electrochemical water splitting for hydrogen generation. Herein, multifunctional active-center-transferable heterostructured electrocatalysts, platinum/lithium cobalt oxide (Pt/LiCoO ) composites with Pt nanoparticles (Pt NPs) anchored on LiCoO nanosheets, are designed towards highly efficient water splitting. In this electrocatalyst system, the active center can be alternatively switched between Pt species and LiCoO for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), respectively. Specifically, Pt species are the active centers and LiCoO acts as the co-catalyst for HER, whereas the active center transfers to LiCoO and Pt turns into the co-catalyst for OER. The unique architecture of Pt/LiCoO heterostructure provides abundant interfaces with favorable electronic structure and coordination environment towards optimal adsorption behavior of reaction intermediates. The 30 % Pt/LiCoO heterostructured electrocatalyst delivers low overpotentials of 61 and 285 mV to achieve 10 mA cm for HER and OER in alkaline medium, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202005241DOI Listing
August 2020

Transcription factor MoMsn2 targets the putative 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase-encoding gene MoAUH1 to govern infectious growth via mitochondrial fusion/fission balance in Magnaporthe oryzae.

Environ Microbiol 2021 02 26;23(2):774-790. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, and Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, Ministry of Education, Nanjing, 210095, China.

Mitochondrial quality and quantity are essential for a cell to maintain normal cellular functions. Our previous study revealed that the transcription factor MoMsn2 plays important roles in the development and virulence of Magnaporthe oryzae. However, to date, no study has reported its underlying regulatory mechanism in phytopathogens. Here, we explored the downstream target genes of MoMsn2 using a chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) approach. In total, 332 target genes and five putative MoMsn2-binding sites were identified. The 332 genes exhibited a diverse array of functions and the highly represented were genes involved in metabolic and catalytic processes. Based on the ChIP-Seq data, we found that MoMsn2 plays a role in maintaining mitochondrial morphology, likely by targeting a number of mitochondria-related genes. Further investigation revealed that MoMsn2 targets the putative 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase-encoding gene (MoAUH1) to control mitochondrial morphology and mitophagy, which are critical for the infectious growth of the pathogen. Meanwhile, the deletion of MoAUH1 resulted in phenotypes similar to the ΔMomsn2 mutant in mitochondrial morphology, mitophagy and virulence. Overall, our results provide evidence for the regulatory mechanisms of MoMsn2, which targets MoAUH1 to modulate its transcript levels, thereby disturbing the mitochondrial fusion/fission balance. This ultimately affects the development and virulence of M. oryzae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15088DOI Listing
February 2021

Identification of Resistance Genes to in Domestic Soybean Cultivars from China Using Particle Bombardment.

Plant Dis 2020 Jul 12;104(7):1888-1893. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Plant Pathology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, China.

Phytophthora root and stem rot caused by is a destructive disease that afflicts soybean plants throughout the world. The use of resistant soybean cultivars is the primary means of managing this disease, as well as the most effective and economical approach. There are abundant soybean germplasm resources in China that could be deployed for breeding programs; however, the resistance genes ( genes) in most cultivars are unknown, leading to uncertainty concerning which are resistant cultivars for use. The resistance genes , , and prevent root and stem rot caused by most . isolates within a Chinese field population. This study identified three genes in Chinese domestic soybean cultivars using three related avirulence genes by particle bombardment. The complex genetic diversity of soybean cultivars and . strains has made it difficult to define single genes without molecular involvement. Gene cobombardment is a method for identifying genes quickly and specifically. We showed that cultivars Dongnong 60 and Henong 72 contained , while Hedou 19, Henong 76, 75-3, Wandou 21020, Zheng 196, Wandou 28, Heinong 71, and Wandou 29 all contained . The cultivars Jidou 12, Henong 72, Heinong 71, and Wandou 29 contained . The cultivar Henong 72 contained both and , while Wandou 29 and Heinong 71 contained both and . We then evaluated the phenotype of 11 domestic soybean cultivars reacting to . using the isolates P6497 and Ps1. The 11 domestic cultivars were all resistant to P6497 and Ps1. This research provides source materials and parent plant strains containing , , and for soybean breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-19-2201-REDOI Listing
July 2020

Bioaccumulation of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in chicken (Gallus domesticus): Comparison to fish.

J Hazard Mater 2020 09 2;396:122590. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China. Electronic address:

Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are a complex group of chlorinated organic pollutants that have raised an increasing public attention. However, limited information is currently available on the bioaccumulation of SCCPs in terrestrial birds which are abundant and widely distributed around the world. In the present study, chicken (Gallus domesticus) was used as a model organism to provide significant implications for other avian species. We investigated the transfer of SCCPs from dietary sources (feed and topsoil) to chicken and their tissue distribution behavior. SCCPs were detected in chicken feed (54-170 ng/g, dry weight), topsoil (170-860 ng/g, dry weight), and adult chicken tissues (460-13000 ng/g, lipid weight). Adult chicken tended to accumulate SCCP congeners with lower n-octanol-water partition coefficients (K) and octanol-air partition coefficients (K). The accumulation ratio values for SCCPs of the chicken were more influenced by K than by K, which was contrary to those for aquatic fish. Levels and homologue profiles of SCCPs varied among chicken tissues. SCCP levels in the livers were significantly lower than those in the other tissues (p < 0.05). The accumulation potential for SCCP congeners with higher K increased in the order of muscle < liver < fat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122590DOI Listing
September 2020

Effectiveness of 4 tonometers in measuring IOP after femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK, SMILE, and transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2020 07;46(7):967-974

From the Eye Hospital (Chen, Zheng, J. Wang, Zhu, Y. Li, Q. Wang, H. Li, Bao), Institution of Ocular Biomechanics (Chen, Zheng, J. Wang, Q. Wang, Bao), WenZhou Medical University, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Ningbo Hangzhou Bay Hospital (Huang), NingBo, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Biomedical Engineering, Beihang University (Elsheikh), Beijing, China; School of Engineering, University of Liverpool (Lopes, Elsheikh), Liverpool, National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology (Elsheikh), London, United Kingdom; Humanitas San Pio X Hospital (Vinciguerra), Milan, Italy.

Purpose: To test the performance of 4 tonometers in estimating intraocular pressure (IOP) after 3 forms of refractive surgery.

Setting: Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, China.

Design: Prospective case series.

Methods: Patients matched for preoperative age, corneal thickness, and myopic correction enrolled for femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK), small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE), or transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (tPRK) were included in the study. For each patient, 4 measurements of IOP were obtained preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively, using the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT-IOP), the Dynamic Contour Tonometer (DCT-IOP), corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc) from the Ocular Response Analyzer, and biomechanically corrected IOP (bIOP) from the Corvis ST. Overall corneal stiffness was also estimated based on the stiffness parameter (SP-A1) provided by the Corvis ST.

Results: The study included 144 eyes of 144 patients. Among the 3 procedures, the smallest variances between preoperative and postoperative IOP estimates and SP-A1 values were observed with the tPRK, followed by SMILE and FS-LASIK. In the tPRK group, no significant differences were observed in both bIOP (-0.18 ± 1.63 mm Hg) and DCT-IOP (-.64 ± 2.34 mm Hg), whereas they were larger and significant in GAT-IOP (-1.78 ± 2.29 mm Hg) and IOPcc (-2.77 ± 1.84 mm Hg). In FS-LASIK and SMILE groups, although there were similar significant reductions in IOP postoperatively, these reductions were still lower in bIOP and DCT-IOP than those in GAT-IOP and IOPcc.

Conclusions: The bIOP and DCT-IOP were the least affected IOP estimates between the 3 refractive surgery procedures considered. It was evident that tPRK produced significantly smaller reductions in IOP readings than did FS-LASIK and SMILE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.jcrs.0000000000000204DOI Listing
July 2020

Evidence for complex sources of persistent halogenated compounds in birds from the south China sea.

Environ Res 2020 06 2;185:109462. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Resources Utilization, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640, China.

Persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alternative brominated flame retardants (ABFRs), and dechlorane plus (DP), were analyzed in muscle of six bird species from the South China Sea. DDTs, with concentrations up to 19,000 ng/g lipid weight (lw), were the dominant contaminants contributing to 66-99% of PHCs in birds. Concentrations of PBDEs, ABFRs, and DP ranged from 1.1 to 130, 0.73-40, and 0.21-2.5 ng/g lw, respectively. Historically pollution of DDTs and flame retardants in surrounding Asian lands were the main sources for PHCs in birds. BDE 209 was the primary PBDE congener in all birds. 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were the main ABFRs. Anti-DP and p,p'-DDE were the dominating compounds of DP and DDTs, respectively. Only concentrations of BDEs 153, 203, 196, and 207, p,p'-DDE, and p,p'-DDD showed significant and positive correlations with δN values in samples. The resident birds, red-footed booby (Sula sula), had much lower levels of p,p'-DDE and most of PBDEs than those in migratory birds from the South China Sea. Results of stable isotope ratios of carbon suggest the highly variable food items for the five migratory bird species. The abundance of DBDPE in red-footed booby might be related with the ingestion of plastic debris, which still warrants further verification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109462DOI Listing
June 2020