Publications by authors named "XiaoQin Wu"

147 Publications

Population differentiation and epidemic tracking of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in China based on chromosome-level assembly and whole genome sequencing data.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Nov 28. Epub 2021 Nov 28.

The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Valley Laboratory, Windsor, Connecticut, 06095, USA.

Background: Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pinewood nematode, kills millions of pine trees worldwide every year, and causes enormous economic and ecological losses. Despite extensive research on population variation, there is little understanding of the population-wide variation spectrum in China.

Results: We sequenced an inbred B. xylophilus strain using Pacbio+Illumina+Bionano+Hi-C and generated a chromosome-level assembly (AH1) with 6 chromosomes of 77.1 Mb (chromosome N50: 12 Mb). The AH1 assembly shows very high continuity, completeness and contains novel genes with potentially important functions compared with previous assemblies. Subsequently, we sequenced 181 strains from China and USA and found ~7.8 million SNPs. Analysis shows that the B. xylophilus population in China can be divided into geographically bounded subpopulations with severe cross infection and potential migrations. Besides, distribution of B. xylophilus is dominated by temperature zones while geographically associated SNPs are mainly located on adaptation related GPCR gene families, suggesting the nematode has been evolving to adapt to different temperatures. A machine learning based epidemic tracking method has been established to predict their geographical origins which can be applied to any other species.

Conclusion: Our study provides the community with the first high-quality chromosome-level assembly which includes a comprehensive catalogue of genetic variations. It provides insights into population structure and effective tracking method for this invasive species which facilitates future studies to address a variety of applied, genomic and evolutionary questions in the B. xylophilus as well as related species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6738DOI Listing
November 2021

Corrigendum: Efficacy and Safety of CAR-T Cell Products Axicabtagene Ciloleucel, Tisagenlecleucel, and Lisocabtagene Maraleucel for the Treatment of Hematologic Malignancies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 7;11:768128. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2021.698607.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.768128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8530013PMC
October 2021

A current collect-free LiNiCoMnOflexible film for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

Nanotechnology 2021 Nov 3;33(4). Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, People's Republic of China.

Due to the high demand for more convenient flexible devices, there are more requirements for higher performance of flexible batteries. The layered lithium-rich manganese-based LiNiCoMnOcathode material has the advantages of higher energy density, higher discharge capacity and environmentally friendly, so it can be used for high-performance flexible electrode cathode material. Its theoretical capacity can reach more than 250 mAh g, which is higher than most cathode materials currently used in commercialization. Here we synthesize LiNiCoMnO(LNCM) cathode, and then use a simple method to make a current collect-free LNCM flexible film. This film has excellent flexibility and electrochemical performance. At 25 mA g, its initial discharge capacity reaches 314.0 mAh g. After 200 cycles of 500 mA g, its capacity retention rate is 82.1%, the attenuation is about 0.08% per cycle. Moreover, by bending at any position of the flexible film, it can still remain intact, and the soft-packaged battery made by the flexible film can still be used under the bending condition and keep the brightness of the LED lamp unchanged. This shows that using LiNiCoMnOto make high-performance flexible electrodes is a simple and effective method, which is expected to be practically applied to flexible electronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ac302aDOI Listing
November 2021

Nonthrombotic internal jugular venous stenosis may facilitate cerebral venous thrombosis.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 11 16;27(11):1396-1408. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Aims: To explore the effect of nonthrombotic internal jugular venous stenosis (IJVS) exerted on cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT).

Methods: Patients with imaging confirmed CVT were enrolled into this real-world case-control study consecutively from January 2018 through April 2021, and were divided into CVT and IJVS-CVT groups, according to whether or not with non-thrombotic IJVS. Chi-square and logistic regression models were utilized for between-group comparison of thrombotic factors.

Results: A total of 199 eligible patients entered into final analysis, including 92 cases of CVT and 107 cases of IJVS-CVT. Chi-square revealed that thrombophilic conditions were found in majority of CVT, while only minority in the IJVS-CVT group (83.7% vs. 20.6%, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that most identified thrombophilia were negatively related to IJVS-CVT (all p < 0.05), including oral contraceptive use (β = -1.38), hyperhomocysteinemia (β = -1.58), hematology (β = -2.05), protein C/S deficiency (β = -2.28), connective tissue disease (β = -1.18) and infection (β = -2.77). All recruited patients underwent standard anticoagulation, 10 cases in IJVS-CVT group also received jugular angioplasty for IJVS correction. Most participants obtained alleviations during 1-year follow-up. However, both clinical and imaging outcomes in IJVS-CVT group were not as good as those in CVT group (both p < 0.05). Moreover, 8 cases with CVT and 7 cases with IJVS-CVT were rehospitalized for CVT recurrences and underwent customized treatment.

Conclusion: Nonthrombotic IJVS may be one of the risk factors of CVT. Anticoagulation might need to be suggested for IJVS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8504525PMC
November 2021

Efficacy and Safety of CAR-T Cell Products Axicabtagene Ciloleucel, Tisagenlecleucel, and Lisocabtagene Maraleucel for the Treatment of Hematologic Malignancies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:698607. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

Background: Currently, three chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell products axicabtagene ciloleucel, tisagenlecleucel, and lisocabtagene maraleucel have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of large B cell lymphoma, which provide a novel and promising choice for patients with relapsed or refractory to traditional anti-tumor treatments. Thus, it is pertinent to describe the efficacy and safety profile of the three products available by summarizing the current evidence.

Methods: Two reviewers independently searched the Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library, to identify studies related to the use of the three CAR-T cell products for treating hematologic malignancies published up to October 5, 2020. We pooled the overall response rate, complete response rate, cytokine release syndrome, and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome of three products, and then performed subgroup analysis based on the type of product and type of tumor.

Results: Thirty-three studies involving 2,172 patients were included in the analysis. All three products showed promising results in patients with different pathological subtypes and clinical characteristics that included those who did not meet the eligibility criteria of licensing trials, with overall response rates of nearly 70% or above and complete response rates of more than 50%. However, high rates of severe immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome in patients undergoing axicabtagene ciloleucel treatment and life-threatening cytokine release syndrome in patients with leukemia undergoing tisagenlecleucel treatment required special attention in practice (31%; 95% CI: 0.27-0.35 and 55%; 95% CI: 0.45-0.64, respectively). Moreover, lisocabtagene maraleucel that showed a favorable efficacy and safety in the licensing trial lacked corresponding real-world data.

Conclusion: Both axicabtagene ciloleucel and tisagenlecleucel showed considerable efficacy in practice, but need special attention with respect to life-threatening toxicity that can occur in certain situations. Lisocabtagene maraleucel demonstrated excellent efficacy and safety profiles in the licensing trial, but lacked corresponding real-world data. Additional data on the three products are needed in rare histological subtypes to benefit a broader patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.698607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350577PMC
July 2021

New insights into the interactions between humic acid and three neonicotinoid pesticides, with multiple spectroscopy technologies, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy analysis and density functional theory.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Dec 29;798:149237. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Quality and Safety of Agricultural Products, College of Resources and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China. Electronic address:

The widespread use of neonicotinoid pesticides in agricultural production has caused pressure on the environment. In the present work, the interactions between humic acid (HA) and three neonicotinoid insecticides, dinotefuran, clothianidin and nitenpyram, were investigated by using multiple spectroscopy techniques combined with two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy analysis and density functional theory (DFT). Dinotefuran, clothianidin and nitenpyram could quench the endogenous fluorescence of HA through a static quenching process dominated by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. According to the revised Stern-Volmer equation and DFT calculation, the binding abilities of the three pesticides with HA were ranked as dinotefuran < clothianidin < nitenpyram. The results of dynamic light scattering showed that neutral conditions were more conducive to the combination of HA and dinotefuran, clothianidin and nitenpyram. Through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional correlation analysis (2D-COS), the functional group with the strongest binding ability in the HA-dinotefuran, HA-clothianidin and HA-nitenpyram system was CH, CO and CO, respectively. The work will help to further understand the behavior of neonicotinoid pesticides in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149237DOI Listing
December 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Axicabtagene Ciloleucel and Tisagenlecleucel Administration in Lymphoma Patients With Secondary CNS Involvement: A Systematic Review.

Front Immunol 2021 5;12:693200. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

Background: The efficacy and safety of chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has already been demonstrated. However, patients with a history of/active secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma were excluded from the licensing trials conducted on two widely used CAR-T cell products, Axicabtagene ciloleucel (Axi-cel) and Tisagenlecleucel (Tisa-cel). Hence, the objective of the present review was to assess whether secondary CNS lymphoma patients would derive a benefit from Axi-cel or Tisa-cel therapy, while maintaining controllable safety.

Method: Two reviewers searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library independently in order to identify all records associated with Axi-cel and Tisa-cel published prior to February 15, 2021. Studies that included secondary CNS lymphoma patients treated with Axi-cel and Tisa-cel and reported or could be inferred efficacy and safety endpoints of secondary CNS lymphoma patients were included. A tool designed specifically to evaluate the risk of bias in case series and reports and the ROBINS-I tool applied for cohort studies were used.

Results: Ten studies involving forty-four patients were included. Of these, seven were case reports or series. The other three reports were cohort studies involving twenty-five patients. Current evidence indicates that secondary CNS lymphoma patients could achieve long-term remission following Axi-cel and Tisa-cel treatment. Compared with the non-CNS cohort, however, progression-free survival and overall survival tended to be shorter. This was possibly due to the relatively small size of the CNS cohort. The incidence and grades of adverse effects in secondary CNS lymphoma patients resembled those in the non-CNS cohort. No incidences of CAR-T cell-related deaths were reported. Nevertheless, the small sample size introduced a high risk of bias and prevented the identification of specific patients who could benefit more from CAR-T cell therapy.

Conclusion: Secondary CNS lymphoma patients could seem to benefit from both Axi-cel and Tisa-cel treatment, with controllable risks. Thus, CAR-T cell therapy has potential as a candidate treatment for lymphoma patients with CNS involvement. Further prospective studies with larger samples and longer follow-up periods are warranted and recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.693200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287648PMC
July 2021

Ecogenomics of Groundwater Phages Suggests Niche Differentiation Linked to Specific Environmental Tolerance.

mSystems 2021 Jun 29:e0053721. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Biological Systems and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratorygrid.184769.5, Berkeley, California, USA.

Viruses are ubiquitous microbiome components, shaping ecosystems via strain-specific predation, horizontal gene transfer and redistribution of nutrients through host lysis. Viral impacts are important in groundwater ecosystems, where microbes drive many nutrient fluxes and metabolic processes; however, little is known about the diversity of viruses in these environments. We analyzed four groundwater plasmidomes (the entire plasmid content of an environment) and identified 200 viral sequences, which clustered into 41 genus-level viral clusters (approximately equivalent to viral genera) including 9 known and 32 putative new genera. We used publicly available bacterial whole-genome sequences (WGS) and WGS from 261 bacterial isolates from this groundwater environment to identify potential viral hosts. We linked 76 of the 200 viral sequences to a range of bacterial phyla, the majority associated with , followed by , , and . The publicly available WGS enabled mapping bacterial hosts to several viral sequences. The WGS of groundwater isolates increased the depth of host prediction by allowing host identification at the strain level. The latter included 4 viruses that were almost entirely (>99% query coverage, >99% identity) identified as integrated in the genomes of Pseudomonas, , and strains, resulting in high-confidence host assignments. Lastly, 21 of these viruses carried putative auxiliary metabolite genes for metal and antibiotic resistance, which might drive their infection cycles and/or provide selective advantage to infected hosts. Exploring the groundwater virome provides a necessary foundation for integration of viruses into ecosystem models where they are key players in microbial adaption to environmental stress. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify the bacteriophage distribution in a groundwater ecosystem shedding light on their prevalence and distribution across metal-contaminated and background sites. Our study is uniquely based on selective sequencing of solely the extrachromosomal elements of a microbiome followed by analysis for viral signatures, thus establishing a more focused approach for phage identifications. Using this method, we detected several novel phage genera along with those previously established. Our approach of using the whole-genome sequences of hundreds of bacterial isolates from the same site enabled us to make host assignments with high confidence, several at strain levels. Certain phage genes suggest that they provide an environment-specific selective advantage to their bacterial hosts. Our study lays the foundation for future research on directed phage isolations using specific bacterial host strains to further characterize groundwater phages, their life cycles, and their effects on groundwater microbiome and biogeochemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00537-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269241PMC
June 2021

Characteristics of cerebral ischemic stroke based on moyamoya disease and atherosclerosis-associated intracranial arterial stenosis.

Neurol Sci 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053, China.

Purpose: To analyze the characteristics of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) resulting from moyamoya disease (MMD) and intracranial large artery atherosclerotic stenosis (LAS).

Method: This real-world case control study enrolled imaging-confirmed AIS patients owing to MMD or LAS hospitalized from January 2015 through September 2020 consecutively. The features of risk factors, peripheral blood, and imaging presentations were compared between the two cohorts.

Results: A total of 191 eligible patients entered into final analysis, including 70 cases with MMD stroke and 121 with LAS stroke. LAS stroke vs. MMD stroke, the ratios of hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperhomocysteinemia were higher in the former (65.3 vs.12.9%, 65.3% vs. 4.3%, 39.7% vs. 2.9%, and 43.8% vs.12.9%; all p < 0.01) as well as baseline plasma arachidonic acid (AA) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-stimulated maximum platelet aggregation rates (75.3% vs. 60.8% and 73.1% vs.64.9%, respectively, all p < 0.01), which were positively correlated with triglycerides and cholesterol levels, blood glucose, age, and platelet counts (all p < 0.01). Classical watershed infarction (WSI) accounted for 87.14% in MMD stroke and 40.49% in LAS stroke, respectively (p < 0.01). Almost all of the patients with LAS showed plaques in arterial walls on CTA maps and non-homogeneous thickening with irregular luminal narrowing on HRMRI, while plaques were seldom found in MMD besides homogeneous thickening with regular luminal narrowing.

Conclusions: Differing from LAS stroke, MMD stroke mainly presents with WSI and does not feature with platelet hyper-aggregation and fragmentation of ulcer plaque. Whereby, focusing on perfusion improvement rather than antiplatelets and statins may be the predominant step in MMD-stroke correction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-021-05359-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Alcohol Consumption Is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Obese Patients with COVID-19: A Mendelian Randomization Study Using UK Biobank.

Nutrients 2021 May 10;13(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

Background: Acute and chronic alcohol abuse has adverse impacts on both the innate and adaptive immune response, which may result in reduced resistance to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and promote the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are no large population-based data evaluating potential causal associations between alcohol consumption and COVID-19.

Methods: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study using data from UK Biobank to explore the association between alcohol consumption and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and serious clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. A total of 12,937 participants aged 50-83 who tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 16 March to 27 July 2020 (12.1% tested positive) were included in the analysis. The exposure factor was alcohol consumption. Main outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 positivity and death in COVID-19 patients. We generated allele scores using three genetic variants (rs1229984 (Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1B, ), rs1260326 (Glucokinase Regulator, ), and rs13107325 (Solute Carrier Family 39 Member 8, )) and applied the allele scores as the instrumental variables to assess the effect of alcohol consumption on outcomes. Analyses were conducted separately for white participants with and without obesity.

Results: Of the 12,937 participants, 4496 were never or infrequent drinkers and 8441 were frequent drinkers. Both logistic regression and Mendelian randomization analyses found no evidence that alcohol consumption was associated with risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in participants either with or without obesity (All > 0.10). However, frequent drinking, especially heavy drinking (HR = 2.07, 95%CI 1.24-3.47; = 0.054), was associated with higher risk of death in patients with obesity and COVID-19, but not in patients without obesity. Notably, the risk of death in frequent drinkers with obesity increased slightly with the average amount of alcohol consumed weekly (All < 0.10).

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that alcohol consumption has adverse effects on the progression of COVID-19 in white participants with obesity, but was not associated with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13051592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152000PMC
May 2021

Identification of a MicroRNA-E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Regulatory Network for Hepatocyte Death in Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis.

Hepatol Commun 2021 May 16;5(5):830-845. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity Cleveland Clinic Cleveland OH USA.

We aimed to identify a microRNA (miRNA)-E3 ubiquitin ligase regulatory network for protein substrates enriched in cell death pathways and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms in alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH). An miRNA-E3 ubiquitin ligase regulatory network for protein substrates enriched in cell death pathways was constructed using integrated bioinformatics analysis. Differentially expressed hub miRNAs (GSE59492) and their validated miRNA target genes (GSE28619) were identified in the liver of patients with AH compared with healthy controls. Liver samples from patients with AH and healthy individuals and mice exposed to Gao-binge (acute on chronic) ethanol were used for experimental validation. Using hub miRNAs identified by weighted correlation network analysis, a miRNA-E3 ubiquitin ligase regulatory network was established based on 17 miRNAs and 7 E3 ligase genes targeted by these miRNAs that were down-regulated in AH. Among the miRNAs in this regulatory network, miR-150-5p was the only miRNA regulating the E3 ligase cytokine-inducible SH2 containing protein (CISH), the E3 ligase that regulates the largest number of substrates among all E3 ligase family members. Therefore, the CISH regulatory pathway for ubiquitinated substrates was selected for subsequent experimental validation. Consistent with the bioinformatics analysis results, expression of miR-150-5p was markedly increased, while CISH was decreased, in the livers of patients with AH and mice exposed to Gao-binge ethanol. Moreover, ubiquitination of Fas-associated protein with death domain, a predicted CISH substrate involved in the regulation of programmed cell death, was reduced in livers from mice after Gao-binge ethanol. Identification of the miRNA-E3 ubiquitin ligase regulatory network for protein substrates enriched in the cell death pathways provides insights into the molecular mechanisms contributing to hepatocyte death in AH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122386PMC
May 2021

Magnetic resonance black-blood thrombus imaging can confirm chronic cerebral venous thrombosis: a case report and literature review.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211017001

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is easily missed or misdiagnosed in clinical settings because of its high variability in terms of symptoms and radiological findings. Herein, we aimed to explore a promising modality for confirming presumed CVT in the hope to uncover its superior diagnostic performance to conventional imaging modalities. The patient complained of intolerable pain in her forehead and left eye. Her lumbar puncture opening pressure was 140 mmHO, and her cerebrospinal fluid composition was normal. No marked abnormalities were observed in routine brain images, including non-contrast computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography. However, chronic mural thrombi in the lumen of the left cortical veins, transverse/sigmoid sinus, and superior sagittal sinus were identified in magnetic resonance black-blood thrombus imaging (MRBTI) maps.

Conclusions: MRBTI can be used to directly and non-invasively visualize thrombi, and may thus be a promising tool over alternative routine techniques for confirming the diagnosis of CVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211017001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142535PMC
May 2021

Stimulated Chiral Light-Matter Interactions in Biological Microlasers.

ACS Nano 2021 05 14;15(5):8965-8975. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore.

Chiral light-matter interactions have emerged as a promising area in biophysics and quantum optics. Great progress in enhancing chiral light-matter interactions have been investigated through passive resonators or spontaneous emission. Nevertheless, the interaction between chiral biomolecules and stimulated emission remains unexplored. Here we introduce the concept of a biological chiral laser by amplifying chiral light-matter interactions in an active resonator through stimulated emission process. Green fluorescent proteins or chiral biomolecules encapsulated in Fabry-Perot microcavity served as the gain material while excited by either left-handed or right-handed circularly polarized pump laser. Owing to the nonlinear pump energy dependence of stimulated emission, significant enhancement of chiral light-matter interactions was demonstrated. Detailed experiments and theory revealed that a lasing dissymmetry factor is determined by molecular absorption dissymmetry factor at its excitation wavelength. Finally, chirality transfer was investigated under a stimulated emission process through resonance energy transfer. Our findings elucidate the mechanism of stimulated chiral light-matter interactions, providing better understanding of light-matter interaction in biophysics, chiral sensing, and quantum biophotonics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c01805DOI Listing
May 2021

Fas/FasL mediates NF-κBp65/PUMA-modulated hepatocytes apoptosis via autophagy to drive liver fibrosis.

Cell Death Dis 2021 05 12;12(5):474. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510630, China.

Fas/Fas ligand (FasL)-mediated cell apoptosis involves a variety of physiological and pathological processes including chronic hepatic diseases, and hepatocytes apoptosis contributes to the development of liver fibrosis following various causes. However, the mechanism of the Fas/FasL signaling and hepatocytes apoptosis in liver fibrogenesis remains unclear. The Fas/FasL signaling and hepatocytes apoptosis in liver samples from both human sections and mouse models were investigated. NF-κBp65 wild-type mice (p65), hepatocytes specific NF-κBp65 deletion mice (p65Δhepa), p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) wild-type (PUMA-WT) and PUMA knockout (PUMA-KO) littermate models, and primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were also used. The mechanism underlying Fas/FasL-regulated hepatocytes apoptosis to drive HSCs activation in fibrosis was further analyzed. We found Fas/FasL promoted PUMA-mediated hepatocytes apoptosis via regulating autophagy signaling and NF-κBp65 phosphorylation, while inhibition of autophagy or PUMA deficiency attenuated Fas/FasL-modulated hepatocytes apoptosis and liver fibrosis. Furthermore, NF-κBp65 in hepatocytes repressed PUMA-mediated hepatocytes apoptosis via regulating the Bcl-2 family, while NF-κBp65 deficiency in hepatocytes promoted PUMA-mediated hepatocytes apoptosis and enhanced apoptosis-linked inflammatory response, which contributed to the activation of HSCs and liver fibrogenesis. These results suggest that Fas/FasL contributes to NF-κBp65/PUMA-modulated hepatocytes apoptosis via autophagy to enhance liver fibrogenesis, and this network could be a potential therapeutic target for liver fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03749-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8115181PMC
May 2021

The Association Between Glucocorticoid Administration and the Risk of Impaired Efficacy of Axicabtagene Ciloleucel Treatment: A Systematic Review.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:646450. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang, China.

Background: Glucocorticoid is one of the common and important strategies for the treatment of chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell therapy-related toxicity. However, there has been a theoretical concern about whether glucocorticoids use can impact the expansion of CAR-T cells and thus impair its efficacy. Hence, we reviewed studies related to the Axicabtagene ciloleucel (Axi-cel), a first-class and widely used CAR-T cell product, to elucidate the association between glucocorticoids administration and efficacy of Axi-cel.

Method: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library to identify studies of Axi-cel that used glucocorticoids as an intervention for the treatment of CAR-T cell-related adverse events and respectively evaluated any efficacy endpoints of intervention and controlled cohorts, published up to February 17, 2020. There were no restrictions on research type and language.

Results: A total of eight studies with 706 patients were identified in the systematic review. Except for one study found that high cumulative dose, prolonged duration and early use of glucocorticoids could shorten progression-free survival and/or overall survival, and another study that found a negative effect of glucocorticoids administration on overall survival in univariate analysis but disappeared in multivariate analysis, none of other studies observed a statistically significant association between glucocorticoids administration and progression-free survival, overall survival, complete response, and overall response rate.

Conclusion: Our study indicated that the association between glucocorticoids therapy and the efficacy of CAR-T cell may be affected by cumulative dose, duration, and timing. There is currently no robust evidence that glucocorticoids can damage the efficacy of CAR-T cell, but the early use of glucocorticoids should be cautiously recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.646450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093636PMC
September 2021

Role of MIF in coordinated expression of hepatic chemokines in patients with alcohol-associated hepatitis.

JCI Insight 2021 06 8;6(11). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Center for Liver Disease Research, Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

The chemokine system of ligands and receptors is implicated in the progression of alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH). Finding upstream regulators could lead to novel therapies. This study involved coordinated expression of chemokines in livers of healthy controls (HC) and patients with AH in 2 distinct cohorts of patients with various chronic liver diseases. Studies in cultured hepatocytes and in tissue-specific KO were used for mechanistic insight into a potential upstream regulator of chemokine expression in AH. Selected C-X-C chemokine members of the IL-8 chemokine family and C-C chemokine CCL20 were highly associated with AH compared with HC but not in patients with liver diseases of other etiologies (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [NAFLD] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]). Our previous studies implicate macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) as a pleiotropic cytokine/chemokine with the potential to coordinately regulate chemokine expression in AH. LPS-stimulated expression of multiple chemokines in cultured hepatocytes was dependent on MIF. Gao-binge ethanol feeding to mice induced a similar coordinated chemokine expression in livers of WT mice; this was prevented in hepatocyte-specific Mif-KO (MifΔHep) mice. This study demonstrates that patients with AH exhibit a specific, coordinately expressed chemokine signature and that hepatocyte-derived MIF might drive this inflammatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.141420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262327PMC
June 2021

Gene Deconvolution Reveals Aberrant Liver Regeneration and Immune Cell Infiltration in Alcohol-Associated Hepatitis.

Hepatology 2021 Aug 15;74(2):987-1002. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Northern Ohio Alcohol Center, Center for Liver Disease Research, Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background And Aims: Acute liver damage causes hepatocyte stress and death, but in chronic liver disease impaired hepatocyte regeneration and immune cell infiltration prevents recovery. While the roles of both impaired liver regeneration and immune infiltration have been studied extensively in chronic liver diseases, the differential contribution of these factors is difficult to assess.

Approach And Results: We combined single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data from healthy livers and peripheral immune cells to measure cell proportions in chronic liver diseases. Using bulk RNA-seq data from patients with early alcohol-associated hepatitis, severe AH (sAH), HCV, HCV with cirrhosis, and NAFLD, we performed gene deconvolution to predict the contribution of different cell types in each disease. Patients with sAH had the greatest change in cell composition, with increases in both periportal hepatocytes and cholangiocyte populations. Interestingly, while central vein hepatocytes were decreased, central vein endothelial cells were expanded. Endothelial cells are thought to regulate liver regeneration through WNT signaling. WNT2, important in central vein hepatocyte development, was down in sAH, while multiple other WNTs and WNT receptors were up-regulated. Immunohistochemistry revealed up-regulation of FZD6, a noncanonical WNT receptor, in hepatocytes in sAH. Immune cell populations also differed in disease. In sAH, a specific group of inflammatory macrophages was increased and distinct from the macrophage population in patients with HCV. Network and correlation analyses revealed that changes in the cell types in the liver were highly correlated with clinical liver function tests.

Conclusions: These results identify distinct changes in the liver cell populations in chronic liver disease and illustrate the power of using single-cell RNA-seq data from a limited number of samples in understanding multiple different diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475730PMC
August 2021

Differential role of MLKL in alcohol-associated and non-alcohol-associated fatty liver diseases in mice and humans.

JCI Insight 2021 02 22;6(4). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Northern Ohio Alcohol Center, Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Hepatocellular death contributes to progression of alcohol-associated (ALD-associated) and non-alcohol-associated (NAFL/NASH) liver diseases. However, receptor-interaction protein kinase 3 (RIP3), an intermediate in necroptotic cell death, contributes to injury in murine models of ALD but not NAFL/NASH. We show here that a differential role for mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), the downstream effector of RIP3, in murine models of ALD versus NAFL/NASH and that RIP1-RIP3-MLKL can be used as biomarkers to distinguish alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH) from NASH. Phospho-MLKL was higher in livers of patients with NASH compared with AH or healthy controls (HCs). MLKL expression, phosphorylation, oligomerization, and translocation to plasma membrane were induced in WT mice fed diets high in fat, fructose, and cholesterol but not in response to Gao-binge (acute on chronic) ethanol exposure. Mlkl-/- mice were not protected from ethanol-induced hepatocellular injury, which was associated with increased expression of chemokines and neutrophil recruitment. Circulating concentrations of RIP1 and RIP3, but not MLKL, distinguished patients with AH from HCs or patients with NASH. Taken together, these data indicate that MLKL is differentially activated in ALD/AH compared with NAFL/NASH in both murine models and patients. Furthermore, plasma RIP1 and RIP3 may be promising biomarkers for distinguishing AH and NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.140180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934930PMC
February 2021

Multiomics-Identified Intervention to Restore Ethanol-Induced Dysregulated Proteostasis and Secondary Sarcopenia in Alcoholic Liver Disease.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 Feb;55(1):91-116

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA,

Background/aims: Signaling and metabolic perturbations contribute to dysregulated skeletal muscle protein homeostasis and secondary sarcopenia in response to a number of cellular stressors including ethanol exposure. Using an innovative multiomics-based curating of unbiased data, we identified molecular and metabolic therapeutic targets and experimentally validated restoration of protein homeostasis in an ethanol-fed mouse model of liver disease.

Methods: Studies were performed in ethanol-treated differentiated C2C12 myotubes and physiological relevance established in an ethanol-fed mouse model of alcohol-related liver disease (mALD) or pair-fed control C57BL/6 mice. Transcriptome and proteome from ethanol treated-myotubes and gastrocnemius muscle from mALD and pair-fed mice were analyzed to identify target pathways and molecules. Readouts including signaling responses and autophagy markers by immunoblots, mitochondrial oxidative function and free radical generation, and metabolic studies by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and sarcopenic phenotype by imaging.

Results: Multiomics analyses showed that ethanol impaired skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling, mitochondrial oxidative pathways, including intermediary metabolite regulatory genes, interleukin-6, and amino acid degradation pathways are β-hydroxymethyl-butyrate targets. Ethanol decreased mTORC1 signaling, increased autophagy flux, impaired mitochondrial oxidative function with decreased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediary metabolites, ATP synthesis, protein synthesis and myotube diameter that were reversed by HMB. Consistently, skeletal muscle from mALD had decreased mTORC1 signaling, reduced fractional and total muscle protein synthesis rates, increased autophagy markers, lower intermediary metabolite concentrations, and lower muscle mass and fiber diameter that were reversed by β-hydroxymethyl-butyrate treatment.

Conclusion: An innovative multiomics approach followed by experimental validation showed that β-hydroxymethyl-butyrate restores muscle protein homeostasis in liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33594/000000327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8195260PMC
February 2021

Erratum to: "MLKL-dependent signaling regulates autophagic flux in a murine model of non-alcoholic-associated fatty liver and steatohepatitis (J Hepatol 2020; 73: 616-627)".

J Hepatol 2021 Apr 30;74(4):1002. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Center for Liver Disease Research, Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States; Department of Molecular Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2021.01.006DOI Listing
April 2021

Safety and efficacy of normobaric oxygenation on rescuing acute intracerebral hemorrhage-mediated brain damage-a protocol of randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Jan 26;22(1):93. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100053, China.

Background: All of the existing medication and surgical therapies currently cannot completely inhibit intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-mediated brain damage, resulting in disability in different degrees in the involved patients. Normobaric oxygenation (NBO) was reported attenuating ischemic brain injury. Herein, we aimed to explore the safety and efficacy of NBO on rescuing the damaged brain tissues secondary to acute ICH, especially those in the perihematoma area being threatened by ischemia and hypoxia.

Methods: A total of 150 patients confirmed as acute spontaneous ICH by computed tomography (CT) within 6 h after symptoms onset, will enroll in this study after signing the informed consent, and enter into the NBO group or control group randomly according to a random number. In the NBO group, patients will inhale high-flow oxygen (8 L/min, 1 h each time for 6 cycles daily) and intake low-flow oxygen (2 L/min) in intermittent periods by mask for a total of 7 days. While in the control group, patients will breathe in only low-flow oxygen (2 L/min) by mask for 7 consecutive days. Computed tomography and perfusion (CT/CTP) will be used to evaluate cerebral perfusion status and brain edema. CT and CTP maps in the two groups at baseline and day 7 and 14 after NBO or low-flow oxygen control will be compared. The primary endpoint is mRS at both Day14 post-ICH and the end of the 3rd month follow-up. The secondary endpoints include NIHSS and plasma biomarkers at baseline and Day-1, 7, and 14 after treatment, as well as the NIHSS at the end of the 3rd month post-ICH and the incidence of bleeding recurrence and the mortalities within 3 months post-ICH.

Discussion: This study will provide preliminary clinical evidence about the safety and efficacy of NBO on correcting acute ICH and explore some mechanisms accordingly, to offer reference for larger clinical trials in the future.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04144868 . Retrospectively registered on October 29, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-021-05048-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836205PMC
January 2021

Culturing of "Unculturable" Subsurface Microbes: Natural Organic Carbon Source Fuels the Growth of Diverse and Distinct Bacteria From Groundwater.

Front Microbiol 2020 17;11:610001. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Ecology, Earth and Environmental Sciences Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States.

Recovery and cultivation of diverse environmentally-relevant microorganisms from the terrestrial subsurface remain a challenge despite recent advances in modern molecular technology. Here, we applied complex carbon (C) sources, i.e., sediment dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bacterial cell lysate, to enrich groundwater microbial communities for 30 days. As comparisons, we also included enrichments amended with simple C sources including glucose, acetate, benzoate, oleic acid, cellulose, and mixed vitamins. Our results demonstrate that complex C is far more effective in enriching diverse and distinct microorganisms from groundwater than simple C. Simple C enrichments yield significantly lower biodiversity, and are dominated by few phyla (e.g., and ), while microcosms enriched with complex C demonstrate significantly higher biodiversity including phyla that are poorly represented in published culture collections (e.g., , , and ). Subsequent isolation from complex C enrichments yielded 228 bacterial isolates representing five phyla, 17 orders, and 56 distinct species, including candidate novel, rarely cultivated, and undescribed organisms. Results from this study will substantially advance cultivation and isolation strategies for recovering diverse and novel subsurface microorganisms. Obtaining axenic representatives of "once-unculturable" microorganisms will enhance our understanding of microbial physiology and function in different biogeochemical niches of terrestrial subsurface ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.610001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773641PMC
December 2020

CVD growth of rhenium sulfide on carbon nanotubes as an anode for improving the performance of lithium ion batteries.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr;32(15):155703

Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, People's Republic of China.

Lithium ion batteries have widely been used for electronic devices and electric vehicles. However, commercial anodes, generally graphite, have not been improved a great deal. Thus, we successfully constructed ReS/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites by a chemical vapor deposition method, which exhibit excellent electrochemical performances when serving as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). We confirmed that ReS crystals are grown on the surface of the CNTs by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the LIBs show much better long-cycle and rate performances than bare ReS and CNTs. The ReS/CNTs were assembled in coin cells CR2025, presenting a stability capacity of 488 mAh g at a rate of 5C. The anodes maintain a reversible capacity of 1050 mAh g after nearly 60 cycles at 0.2C, which indicates that it is a promising technique to improve the performance of LIBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abd788DOI Listing
April 2021

Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Poor Prognosis in Obese Patients with COVID-19: a Mendelian Randomization Study using UK Biobank.

medRxiv 2020 Nov 30. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

Background: Acute and chronic alcohol abuse have adverse impacts on both the innate and adaptive immune response, which may result in reduced resistance to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and promote the progression of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there are no large population-based data evaluating potential causal associations between alcohol consumption and COVID-19.

Method: We conducted a Mendelian randomization study using data from UK Biobank to explore the association between alcohol consumption and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and serious clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. A total of 12,937 participants aged 50-83 who tested for SARS-CoV-2 between 16 March to 27 July 2020 (12.1% tested positive) were included in the analysis. The exposure factor was alcohol consumption. Main outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 positivity and death in COVID-19 patients. We generated weighted and unweighted allele scores using three genetic variants (rs1229984, rs1260326, and rs13107325) and applied the allele scores as the instrumental variables to assess the effect of alcohol consumption on outcomes. Analyses were conducted separately for white participates with and without obesity.

Results: Of the 12,937 participants, 4,496 were never or infrequent drinkers and 8,441 were frequent drinkers. (including 1,156 light drinkers, 3,795 moderate drinkers, and 3,490 heavy drinkers). Both logistic regression and Mendelian randomization analyses found no evidence that alcohol consumption was associated with risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in participants either with (OR=0.963, 95%CI 0.800-1.159; =1.000) or without obesity (OR=0.891, 95%CI 0.755-1.053; =.319). However, frequent drinking (HR=1.565, 95%CI 1.012-2.419; =.079), especially heavy drinking (HR=2.071, 95%CI 1.235-3.472; =.054), was associated with higher risk of death in patients with obesity and COVID-19, but not in patients without obesity. Notably, the risk of death in frequent drinkers with obesity increased slightly with the average amount of alcohol consumed weekly (HR=1.480, 95%CI 1.059-2.069; =.099).

Conclusions: Our findings suggested alcohol consumption may had adverse effects on the progression of COVID-19 in white participants with obesity, but was not associate with susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.25.20238915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709191PMC
November 2020

Photoactivatable diazido Pt(IV) anticancer complex can bind to and oxidize all four nucleosides.

Dalton Trans 2020 Dec;49(47):17157-17163

Key Laboratory of Hubei Province for Coal Conversion and New Carbon Materials; School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, P. R. China.

Photoactivatable diazidodihydroxido Pt(iv) complex trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N3)2(OH)2(py)2] (1; py = pyridine) is a promising anticancer agent which can be activated by visible light to induce cancer cell death. DNA has been thought to be involved in the mechanism of action of this kind of Pt(iv) prodrug. However, the detailed photodecomposition pathways of complex 1 and its interaction modes with DNA are complex. Herein we report that upon light irradiation complex 1 can bind to all four nucleosides covalently with the reduced Pt(ii) species. Moreover, apart from the covalent coordination, various oxidation adducts of these four nucleosides induced by the reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated during the photoactivation of the complex 1 have also been identified, especially the induced oxidation of adenosine and cytidine which was firstly reported for this kind of photoactivatable Pt(iv) prodrug. Such dual-action may contribute to the highly potent photo-antiproliferativity of complex 1 towards cancer cells, which may account for the unique mechanism of action of the photoactivatable diazido Pt(iv) anticancer complexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0dt03090bDOI Listing
December 2020

Anti-inflammatory phytochemicals for the treatment of diabetes and its complications: Lessons learned and future promise.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jan 16;133:110975. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Key Laboratory of Glucolipid Metabolic Diseases of the Ministry of Education, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, China; Guangdong Metabolic Disease Research Center of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Diabetes mellitus (type 1 and type 2) and its various complications continue to place a huge burden on global medical resources, despite the availability of numerous drugs that successfully lower blood glucose levels. The major challenging issue in diabetes management is the prevention of various complications that remain the leading cause of diabetes-related mortality. Moreover, the limited long-term durability of monotherapy and undesirable side effects of currently used anti-diabetic drugs underlie the urgent need for novel therapeutic approaches. Phytochemicals represent a rich source of plant-derived molecules that are of pivotal importance to the identification of compounds with therapeutic potential. In this review, we aim to discuss recent advances in the identification of a large array of phytochemicals with immense potential in the management of diabetes and its complications. Given that metabolic inflammation has been established as a key pathophysiological event that drives the progression of diabetes, we focus on the protective effects of representative phytochemicals in metabolic inflammation. This paper also discusses the potential of phytochemicals in the development of new drugs that target the inflammation in the management of diabetes and its complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110975DOI Listing
January 2021

Catalytic Performances of Cu/MCM-22 Zeolites with Different Cu Loadings in NH-SCR.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Oct 30;10(11). Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Key Laboratory of Hubei Province for Coal Conversion and New Carbon Materials, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081, China.

The NH-SCR activities and hydrothermal stabilities of five Cu/MCM-22 zeolites with different Cu loadings ( = 2-10 wt%) prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method were systematically investigated. The physicochemical properties of Cu/MCM-22 zeolites were analyzed by XRD, nitrogen physisorption, ICP-AES, SEM, NH-TPD, UV-vis, H-TPR and XPS experiments. The Cu species existing in Cu/MCM-22 are mainly isolated Cu, CuO and unreducible copper species. The concentrations of both isolated Cu and CuO species in Cu/MCM-22 increase with Cu contents, but the increment of CuO species is more distinct, especially in high Cu loadings (>4 wt%). NH-SCR experimental results demonstrated that the activity of Cu/MCM-22 is sensitive to Cu content at low Cu loadings (≤4 wt%). When the Cu loading exceeds 4 wt%, the NH-SCR activity of Cu/MCM-22 is irrelevant to Cu content due to the severe pore blockage effects caused by aggregated CuO species. Among the five Cu/MCM-22 zeolites, 4Cu/MCM-22 with moderate Cu content has the best NH-SCR performance, which displays higher than 80% NO conversions in a wide temperature window (160-430 °C). Furthermore, the hydrothermal aging experiments (Cu/MCM-22 was treated at 750 °C for 10 h under 10% water vapor atmosphere) illustrated that all the Cu/MCM-22 zeolites exhibit high hydrothermal stability in NH-SCR reactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10112170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694057PMC
October 2020

Optical coherence tomography and fluorescence microscopy dual-modality imaging for in vivo single-cell tracking with nanowire lasers.

Biomed Opt Express 2020 Jul 9;11(7):3659-3672. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 1101 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Emerging cell-based therapies such as stem cell therapy and immunotherapy have attracted broad attention in both biological research and clinical practice. However, a long-standing technical gap of cell-based therapies is the difficulty of directly assessing treatment efficacy via tracking therapeutically administered cells. Therefore, imaging techniques to follow the distribution and migration of cells are greatly needed. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a clinically available imaging technology with ultrahigh-resolution and excellent imaging depth. It also shows great potential for cellular imaging. However, due to the homogeneity of current OCT cell labeling contrast agents (such as gold and polymer nanoparticles), only the distribution of entire cell populations can be observed. Precise tracking of the trajectory of individual single cells is not possible with such conventional contrast agents. Microlasers may provide a route to track unique cell identifiers given their small size, high emission intensities, rich emission spectra, and narrow linewidths. Here, we demonstrate that nanowire lasers internalized by cells provide both OCT and fluorescence signal. In addition, cells can be individually identified by the unique lasing emission spectra of the nanowires that they carry. Furthermore, single cell migration trajectories can be monitored both and with OCT and fluorescence microscopy dual-modality imaging system. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of nanowire lasers combined with the dual-modality imaging system for single cell tracking with a high spatial resolution and identity verification, an approach with great utility for stem cell and immunomodulatory therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.395369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510899PMC
July 2020

[Analysis of intestinal flora in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis based on highthroughput sequencing].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2020 Sep;40(9):1319-1324

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Objective: To investigate the changes in diversity, relative abundance and distribution of intestinal flora in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps (CRSwNP) using high-throughput sequencing technology identify the intestinal flora significantly related to pathogenesis and progression of CRSwNP.

Methods: Ten patients with CRSwNP hospitalized in the Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery of Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital were selected as the case group with 10 healthy volunteers recruited in the same period as the control group. Fecal genomic DNA extraction kit was used to extract the DNA in the fecal samples, and the DNA fragment length was measured and quantified. The V3 and V4 highly variable regions of the 16S rDNA gene of prokaryotes were amplified followed by library construction, Illumina MiSeq sequencing, sequence alignment and species identification analysis. The relative abundance, diversity and distribution characteristics of the intestinal flora were analyzed, and the relevant metabolic pathways were predicted.

Results: Compared with the control group, the patients with CRSwNP had significant changes in the overall structure of the intestinal flora, highlighted by increased abundance of Saccharopolyspora and decreased contents of , , and . Among the metabolic pathways predicted to be associated with CRSwNP, 9 showed significant changes in patients with CRSwNP as compared with the control group ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: Patients with CRSwNP have significant changes in the structural characteristics of intestinal flora related with multiple metabolic pathways, and these changes may play an important role in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12122/j.issn.1673-4254.2020.09.15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7544583PMC
September 2020
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