Publications by authors named "Xiao-Yun Dou"

3 Publications

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Fluoxetine Promotes Hippocampal Oligodendrocyte Maturation and Delays Learning and Memory Decline in APP/PS1 Mice.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 13;12:627362. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Oligodendrogenesis dysfunction impairs memory consolidation in adult mice, and an oligodendrocyte abnormality is an important change occurring in Alzheimer's disease (AD). While fluoxetine (FLX) is known to delay memory decline in AD models, its effects on hippocampal oligodendrogenesis are unclear. Here, we subjected 8-month-old male amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) mice to the FLX intervention for 2 months. Their exploratory behaviors and general activities in a novel environment, spatial learning and memory and working and reference memory were assessed using the open-field test, Morris water maze, and Y maze. Furthermore, changes in hippocampal oligodendrogenesis were investigated using stereology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blotting techniques. FLX delayed declines in the spatial learning and memory, as well as the working and reference memory of APP/PS1 mice. In addition, APP/PS1 mice exhibited immature hippocampal oligodendrogenesis, and FLX increased the numbers of 2'3'cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) and newborn CNPase oligodendrocytes in the hippocampi of APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, FLX increased the density of SRY-related HMG-box 10 protein (SOX10) cells and reduced the percentage of oligodendrocyte lineage cells displaying the senescence phenotype (CDKN2A/p16INK4a) in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. Moreover, FLX had no effect on the serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor (5-HT1AR) content or number of 5-HT1AR oligodendrocytes, but it reduced the content and activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Taken together, FLX delays the senescence of oligodendrocyte lineage cells and promotes oligodendrocyte maturation in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. FLX may regulate GSK3β through a mechanism other than 5-HT1AR and then inhibit the negative effect of GSK3β on oligodendrocyte maturation in the hippocampus of an AD mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.627362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838348PMC
January 2021

Fluoxetine delays the cognitive function decline and synaptic changes in a transgenic mouse model of early Alzheimer's disease.

J Comp Neurol 2019 06 25;527(8):1378-1387. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with cognitive decline. Previous studies have reported that the syndrome of AD begins with subtle alterations in hippocampal synapses prior to frank neuronal degeneration. It has recently been reported that fluoxetine (FLX) shows positive effects on AD patients who have depression and anxiety. However, it is unclear whether FLX can affect the pathogenesis of AD mice in the early stage of AD. To address this question, 8-month-old male APP/PS1 double-transgenic AD mice were administered a 10-week course of FLX (10 mg/kg/day) injections. Then, spatial learning and memory were evaluated using a Morris water maze test. Immunohistological staining and an unbiased stereological method were used to estimate the total number of dendritic spine synapses in the hippocampus. We found that FLX significantly shortened the mean escape latencies of the 10-month-old mice; reduced the elevated levels of soluble Aβ40, Aβ42, and amyloid plaques in the hippocampus; and prevented the decrease in dendritic spine synapses and in postsynaptic protein PSD-95 density in the dentate gyrus, CA1/2 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Our results indicate that reversing synaptic impairment might be considered a promising therapeutic approach for alleviating the cognitive deficits associated with early AD. Moreover, our results suggest that FLX may be a safe and effective drug for delaying the progress of AD, which might provide a starting point for further research into new preventative measures and treatments for AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cne.24616DOI Listing
June 2019

Paeoniflorin exerts neuroprotective effects by modulating the M1/M2 subset polarization of microglia/macrophages in the hippocampal CA1 region of vascular dementia rats via cannabinoid receptor 2.

Chin Med 2018 20;13:14. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

1Chongqing Key Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016 China.

Background: Cerebral hypoperfusion is a pivotal risk factor for vascular dementia (VD), for which effective therapy remains inadequate. Persistent inflammatory responses and excessive chemotaxis of microglia/macrophages in the brain may accelerate the progression of VD. Endocannabinoids are involved in neuronal protection against inflammation-induced neuronal injury. Cannabinoids acting at cannabinoid receptor 2 (CBR) can decrease inflammation. Based on the identification of paeoniflorin (PF) as a CBR agonist, we investigated the neuroprotective and microglia/macrophages M1 to M2 polarization promoting effects of PF in a permanent four-vessel occlusion rat model.

Methods: One week after surgery, PF was intraperitoneally administered at a dose of 40 mg/kg once a day for 28 successive days. The effects of PF on memory deficit were investigated by a Morris water maze test, and the effects of PF on hippocampal neuronal damage were evaluated by light microscope and electron microscope. The mRNA and protein expression levels of key molecules related to the M1/M2 polarization of microglia/macrophages were assessed by RT-qPCR and Western blotting, respectively.

Results: Administration of PF could significantly attenuate cerebral hypoperfusion-induced impairment of learning and memory and reduce the morphological and ultrastructural changes in the hippocampal CA1 region of rats. Moreover, PF promoted an M1 to M2 phenotype transition in microglia/macrophages in the hippocampus of rats. In addition to its inhibitory property against proinflammatory M1 mediator expression, such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and NO, PF dramatically up-regulated expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β1. Importantly, CBR antagonist AM630 abolished these beneficial effects produced by PF on learning, memory and hippocampus structure in rats, as well as the polarization of microglia/macrophages to the M2 phenotype. Additionally, PF treatment significantly inhibited cerebral hypoperfusion-induced mTOR/NF-κB proinflammatory pathway and enhanced PI3K/Akt anti-inflammatory pathway. Effects of PF on these signaling pathways were effectively attenuated when rats were co-treated with PF and AM630, indicating that the mTOR/NF-κB and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways were involved in the PF effects through CBR activation.

Conclusion: These findings demonstrated PF exerts its neuroprotective effect and shifts the inflammatory milieu toward resolution by modulation of microglia/macrophage polarization via CBR activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13020-018-0173-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5859430PMC
March 2018