Publications by authors named "Xiao-Yuan Feng"

44 Publications

Inhibition of Notch1 Signaling at the Subacute Stage of Stroke Promotes Endogenous Neurogenesis and Motor Recovery After Stroke.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 7;12:245. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

It is still not clear whether Notch1 signaling inhibition can promote functional outcomes after stroke, given that it plays time-dependent roles in the sequential process of endogenous neurogenesis. The purpose of this study was to identify the appropriate time frame for Notch1 signaling inhibition according to the temporal evolution of Notch1 signaling activation and the responses of neural stem cells (NSCs), in order to target it for therapeutic intervention and stimulate neurorestorative strategies after stroke. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to 90-min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats were sacrificed before, and at day 1, day 2, day 3, day 4, and day 7 after ischemia for immunohistochemical analysis of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), Nestin and doublecortin (Dcx). Next, MCAO rats were treated with the γ-secretase inhibitor -[-(3,5-di uorophenacetyl)-1-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butylester (DAPT) or with saline at day 4 after ischemia, and subsequently evaluated with behavioral test analysis and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The rat brains were then harvested for immunohistochemical analysis of Dcx, NeuN and myelin basic protein (MBP) at 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks. Notch1 signaling was maximally activated at day 3 after ischemia in parallel with the temporal evolution of NSCs. Inhibiting Notch1 signaling at day 4 after reperfusion with DAPT further promoted recovery of MRI parameters of the corticospinal tract (CST) and the functional outcomes, concomitantly with an increase in neuroblasts, their migration to the ischemic boundary, and potential differentiation to mature neurons, as well as the amelioration of axonal bundle integrity. Inhibition of Notch1 signaling at the subacute stage of stroke could maximally promote endogenous neurogenesis and axonal reorganization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2018.00245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6091141PMC
August 2018

Small-worldness of brain networks after brachial plexus injury: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

Neural Regen Res 2018 Jun;13(6):1061-1065

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Research on brain function after brachial plexus injury focuses on local cortical functional reorganization, and few studies have focused on brain networks after brachial plexus injury. Changes in brain networks may help understanding of brain plasticity at the global level. We hypothesized that topology of the global cerebral resting-state functional network changes after unilateral brachial plexus injury. Thus, in this cross-sectional study, we recruited eight male patients with unilateral brachial plexus injury (right handedness, mean age of 27.9 ± 5.4 years old) and eight male healthy controls (right handedness, mean age of 28.6 ± 3.2). After acquiring and preprocessing resting-state magnetic resonance imaging data, the cerebrum was divided into 90 regions and Pearson's correlation coefficient calculated between regions. These correlation matrices were then converted into a binary matrix with affixed sparsity values of 0.1-0.46. Under sparsity conditions, both groups satisfied this small-world property. The clustering coefficient was markedly lower, while average shortest path remarkably higher in patients compared with healthy controls. These findings confirm that cerebral functional networks in patients still show small-world characteristics, which are highly effective in information transmission in the brain, as well as normal controls. Alternatively, varied small-worldness suggests that capacity of information transmission and integration in different brain regions in brachial plexus injury patients is damaged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.233450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6022461PMC
June 2018

Dynamic Evaluation of Notch Signaling-Mediated Angiogenesis in Ischemic Rats Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Behav Neurol 2018 6;2018:8351053. Epub 2018 May 6.

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

Objective: The Notch signaling pathway is involved in angiogenesis induced by brain ischemia and can be efficiently inhibited by the -secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-1-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT). The aim of the present study was to noninvasively investigate the effect of DAPT treatment on angiogenesis in brain repair after stroke using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats ( = 40) were subjected to 90 minutes of transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and treated with PBS ( = 20) or DAPT ( = 20) at 72 hours after the onset of ischemia. MRI measurements including T2-weighted imaging (T2WI), susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were performed at 24 hours after reperfusion and weekly up to 4 weeks using a 3-Tesla system. Histological measurements were obtained at each time point after MRI scans.

Results: SWI showed that DAPT treatment significantly enhanced angiogenesis in the ischemic boundary zone (IBZ) with respect to the control group, with local CBF in the angiogenic area elevated, along with increases in vascular density confirmed by histology.

Conclusion: Treatment of ischemic stroke with DAPT significantly augments angiogenesis, which promotes poststroke brain remodeling by elevating CBF level, and these processes can be dynamically monitored and evaluated by MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/8351053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5960569PMC
September 2018

Low-density point eating algorithm for surface reconstruction from dense scans.

Appl Opt 2018 Mar;57(8):1887-1898

We present a low-density point eating algorithm for surface reconstruction from dense scans. First, the density map for each scan is estimated and the boundary densities are down-weighted. Subsequently, the poorly scanned low-density overlapping points are eaten up based on a user-specified threshold. Finally, the overlapping areas are thinned by using the moving least-squares operator and the homogeneous points are weighted averaged. The new algorithm can extract smooth but detailed point set surfaces that are as close as possible to the ground truth. The good performance of the new algorithm is demonstrated by comparison with several advanced surface reconstruction algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.57.001887DOI Listing
March 2018

Predictors of short-term outcome in patients with acute middle cerebral artery occlusion: unsuitability of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensity scores.

Neural Regen Res 2018 Jan;13(1):69-76

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensity (FVH) is used to assess leptomeningeal collateral circulation, but clinical outcomes of patients with FVH can be very different. The aim of the present study was to assess a FVH score and explore its relationship with clinical outcomes. Patients with acute ischemic stroke due to middle cerebral artery M1 occlusion underwent magnetic resonance imaging and were followed up at 10 days (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) and 90 days (modified Rankin Scale) to determine short-term clinical outcomes. Effective collateral circulation indirectly improved recovery of neurological function and short-term clinical outcome by extending the size of the pial penumbra and reducing infarct lesions. FVH score showed no correlation with 90-day functional clinical outcome and was not sufficient as an independent predictor of short-term clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.224375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5840994PMC
January 2018

Characterization of Free, Conjugated, and Bound Phenolic Acids in Seven Commonly Consumed Vegetables.

Molecules 2017 Nov 1;22(11). Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Beijing Research Center for Agricultural Standards and Testing, No. 9 Middle Road of Shuguanghuayuan, Haidian Dist., Beijing 100097, China.

Phenolic acids are thought to be beneficial for human health and responsible for vegetables' health-promoting properties. Free, conjugated, and bound phenolic acids of seven commonly consumed vegetables, including kidney bean, cow pea, snow pea, hyacinth bean, green soy bean, soybean sprouts and daylily, from the regions of Beijing, Hangzhou, and Guangzhou, were identified and quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Three vegetables, namely green soy bean, soybean sprouts, and daylily ( L.), from the Beijing region contained higher concentrations of total phenolic acids than those from the Hangzhou and Guangzhou regions. The results indicated that the phenolic acid content in the seven vegetables appeared to be species-dependent. The highest content of phenolic acids was found in daylily, followed by green soy bean, while the least amounts were identified in kidney bean and hyacinth bean. Typically, phenolic acids are predominantly found in conjugated forms. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed some key compounds that differentiated the seven vegetables. Green soy bean, compared to the other six vegetables, was characterized by higher levels of syringic acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, and sinapic acid. Other compounds, particularly -coumaric acid, neochlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, exhibited significantly higher concentrations in daylily. In addition, -coumaric acid was the characteristic substance in cow pea. Results from this study can contribute to the development of vegetables with specific phytochemicals and health benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22111878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6150285PMC
November 2017

MRI detects protective effects of DAPT treatment with modulation of microglia/macrophages at subacute and chronic stages following cerebral ischemia.

Mol Med Rep 2017 Oct 9;16(4):4493-4500. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, P.R. China.

Notch homolog 1 (Notch 1) signaling is regarded as a potential therapeutic target for modulating the inflammatory response and exhibiting neuroprotective effects in cerebral injury following stroke. N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-1-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t‑butylester (DAPT) efficiently inhibits activation of the Notch 1 signaling pathway in microglia and may protect brain tissue from ischemic damage. However, the temporal proliferation and morphological alterations of microglia/macrophages throughout progression of the disease, as well as the comprehensive alterations of the whole brain following DAPT treatment, remain to be elucidated. The present study evaluated the temporal proliferation and the morphological alterations of microglia/macrophages over the period of the subacute and chronic stages, in addition to dynamic alterations of brain tissue, using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method, following DAPT treatment. Sprague‑Dawley rats (n=40) were subjected to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion and were treated with DAPT (n=20) or acted as controls with no treatment (n=20). The two groups of rats underwent MRI scans prior to the induction of stroke symptoms and at 24 h, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days following the stroke. A total of five rats from each group were sacrificed at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days following induction of stroke. Compared with control rats, the MRI data of the ipsilateral striatum in treated rats revealed ameliorated brain edema at the subacute stage and recovered brain tissue at the chronic stage. In addition to this, treatment attenuated the round‑shape and promoted a ramified‑shape of microglia/macrophages. The present study confirmed the protective effect of DAPT treatment by dynamically monitoring the cerebral alterations and indicated the possibility of DAPT treatment to alter microglial characteristics to induce a protective effect, via inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2017.7200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5647009PMC
October 2017

Imaging the Transformation of Ipsilateral Internal Capsule Following Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat by Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2017 Jan 29;26(1):42-48. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: The purpose of our study is to explore the relationship between recovery of neural function and transformation of the internal capsule (IC) after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI).

Methods: Six male adult Sprague-Dawley rats implemented with transient MCAO were used in this study. Sensorimotor function was assessed according to repetitive behavioral testing on day 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 after cerebral ischemia. Metrics of DKI were acquired, and the time course of the region-to-normal ratio was evaluated in IC.

Results: After cerebral ischemia, relative fractional anisotropy in IC decreased on day 3 (P < .01). Relative mean diffusivity (rMD) increased on day 28 (P < .05). Relative mean diffusional kurtosis (rMK) increased on day 3 (P < .01) and decreased on day 7 (P < .05). Relative axial diffusional kurtosis (rKa) increased on day 3 (P < .01) and declined on day 7 (P < .05). Relative radial diffusional kurtosis (rKr) was reduced on day 7 (P < .05). Changes in rMK were larger than changes in rMD on day 3 (P < .05). The factor of rKa and rKr revealed marked difference on day 7 (P < .05) and day 14 (P < .05). Neurological function score showed that rats exhibited functional recovery from day 7 (P < .01) post stroke.

Conclusions: This longitudinal multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging study suggested that K metrics offers information complimentary to conventional diffusion metrics and revealed the procedure during the structural modification in the ipsilateral IC following focal cerebral ischemia. After transient MCAO, the neural transformation occurred in a time-dependent procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.08.026DOI Listing
January 2017

Comparison of the Outcomes of Modified Artificial Chordae Technique for Mitral Regurgitation through Right Minithoracotomy or Median Sternotomy.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2016 09;129(18):2153-9

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China.

Background: Right minithoracotomy (RM) has been proven to be a safe and effective approach for mitral valve surgery, but the differences of artificial chordae technique between RM and median sternotomy (MS) were seldom reported. Here, we compared the outcomes of modified artificial chordae technique for mitral regurgitation (MR) through RM or MS approaches.

Methods: One hundred and eighteen consecutive adult patients who received mitral valve repair with artificial chordae and annuloplasty for MR through RM (n = 58) or MS (n = 60) from January 2006 to January 2015 were analyzed.

Results: All of the selected patients underwent mitral valve repair successfully without any complication during the surgery. There was no significant difference between RM group and MS group in cardiopulmonary bypass time, aortic cross-clamp time, and early postoperative complications. However, compared with the MS group, the RM group had shorter hospital stay and faster surgical recovery. At a mean follow-up of 44.8 ± 25.0 months, the freedom from more than moderate MR was 93.9% ± 3.5% in RM group and 94.8% ± 2.9% in MS group at 3 years postoperatively. Log-rank test showed that there was no significant difference in the freedom from recurrent significant MR between the two groups (χ2 = 0.247, P = 0.619). Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of mild MR at discharge was the independent risk factor for the recurrent significant MR.

Conclusion: Right minithoracotomy can achieve the similar therapeutic effects with MS for the patients who received modified artificial chordae technique for treating MR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.189917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5022333PMC
September 2016

Combining systemic and stereotactic MEMRI to detect the correlation between gliosis and neuronal connective pathway at the chronic stage after stroke.

J Neuroinflammation 2016 06 18;13(1):156. Epub 2016 Jun 18.

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China.

Background: The early dysfunction and subsequent recovery after stroke, characterized by the destruction and remodeling of connective pathways between cortex and subcortical regions, is associated with neuroinflammation. As major components of the inflammatory process, reactive astrocytes have double-edged effects on pathological progression. The temporal patterns of astrocyte and neuronal pathway activity can be revealed by systemic and stereotactic manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), respectively. In the present study, we aimed to detect an association between astrocyte activity and recovery of neuronal connective pathways by combining systemic with stereotactic MEMRI.

Methods: Fifty adult rats, divided into two groups, underwent a 60-min occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. The groups were given either a systemic administration or stereotactic injection of MnCl2 at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after stroke and underwent MRI 4 and 2 days later, respectively. Immunofluorescence (IF) of group 1 was conducted to corroborate the results. Repetitive behavioral testing was also performed with all rats at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days to obtain a functional score.

Results: Ring- or crescent-shaped enhancements formed in the striatal peri-infarct regions (STR) at 11 and 18 days. This was concurrent with the activity of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes, which mainly localized at the peri-infarct region and significantly increased in number at 11 and 18 days after stroke. Microglia/macrophages, detected by IF, mainly localized in the lesion core, rather than in the region of enhancement. The ipsilateral substantia nigra (SN) revealed Mn-related signal enhancement reduction and subsequent signs of the recovery process at 3 to 5 days and 9 to 16 days, respectively. Behavioral testing showed that sensorimotor functions were initially disturbed, but subsequently recovered at 7 and 14 days.

Conclusions: We found a positive temporal correlation between astrogliosis and the recovery of neuronal connective pathways at the chronic stage by using the in vivo method of MEMRI. Our results highlighted the potential contribution of astrocytes to the neuronal recovery of these connective pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-016-0622-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4912752PMC
June 2016

The Initial Exploration of Adamkiewicz Artery Computed Tomographic Angiography With Monochromatic Reconstruction of Gemstone Spectral Imaging.

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2016 Sep-Oct;40(5):820-6

From the *Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai; and †Subei People's Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Objective: The study aimed to explore whether optimal monochromatic reconstruction can improve the depiction of the Adamkiewicz artery (AKA) on gemstone spectral computed tomographic angiography (GSCTA) compared with the polychromatic reconstruction protocol.

Methods: The prospective study was approved by the ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient. The 58 consecutive patients suspected of aortic aneurysm or dissection underwent aortic GSCTA. All images were reconstructed with both polychromatic (group A) and optimal monochromatic (group B) protocol. The CT values of the descending aorta and muscle, background noise, and the contrast-to-noise ratio were measured and calculated. With the criterion standard display of AKA, characteristic hairpin curve sign, 2 blinded radiologists analyzed data independently with the paired samples t, χ, and Mann-Whitney U test.

Results: The CT value of the descending aorta and the contrast-to-noise ratio of group B were significantly superior to group A (t = 12.7, P < 0.01; t = 15.2, P < 0.01). The visual rate of AKA (94.8%) in group B was significantly higher (χ = 4.2, P = 0.04) than group A (82.8%). Using a 5-point scale to assess, the score of the visualization efficiency of group B (226) was significantly higher (Z = -2.4, P = 0.02) than group A (192).

Conclusions: The optimal monochromatic reconstruction for GSCTA can improve the visualization efficiency and quality of the AKA compared with the polychromatic reconstruction protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RCT.0000000000000437DOI Listing
January 2017

Rational Use of Computed Tomography for Individual Health Assessment in Asymptomatic Population: Chinese Experience.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2016 Feb;129(3):348-56

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.174504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4799581PMC
February 2016

CT perfusion with acetazolamide challenge in C6 gliomas and angiogenesis.

PLoS One 2015 17;10(3):e0121631. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Department of Pathology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: This study was performed to investigate the correlation between CT perfusion with acetazolamide challenge and angiogenesis in C6 gliomas.

Methods: Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated. The rats were divided randomly to four groups: eight rats with orthotopically implanted C6 gliomas at 10-days old (Group A), eight rats with gliomas at 14-days old (Group B), eight rats with gliomas at 18-days old (Group C), eight rats with orthotopically injected normal saline served as controls. CT perfusion was performed before and after administration of acetazolamide. Changes in perfusion parameters due to acetazolamide administration were calculated and analyzed.

Results: Elevated carbon dioxide partial pressure and decreased pH were found in all 32 rats post acetazolamide challenge (P<0.01). Cerebral blood flow(pre-challenge) was increased in group C (95.0±2.5 ml/100 g/min), as compared to group B (80.1±11.3 ml/100 g/min) and group A (63.1±2.1 ml/100 g/min). Cerebral blood flow percentage changes were detected with a reduction in group C (54.2±4.8%) as compared to controls (111.3±22.2%). Cerebral blood volume(pre-challenge) was increased in group C (50.8±1.7 ml/100 g), as compared to group B (45.7±1.9 ml/100 g) and group A (38.2±0.8 ml/100 g). Cerebral blood volume percentage changes were decreased in group C (23.5±4.6%) as compared to controls (113.5±30.4%). Angiogenesis ratio = [(CD105-MVD) / (FVIII-MVD)] ×100%. Positive correlations were observed between CD105-microvessel density, angiogenesis ratio, vascular endothelial growth factor, proliferation marker and cerebral blood flow(pre-challenge), cerebral blood volume(pre-challenge). Negative correlations were observed between CD105-microvessel density and cerebral blood flow percentage changes (P<0.01, correlation coefficient r=-0.788), cerebral blood volume percentage changes (P<0.01, r=-0.703). Negative correlations were observed between angiogenesis ratio, vascular endothelial growth factor, proliferation marker and cerebral blood flow percentage changes, cerebral blood volume percentage changes.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that CT perfusion with challenge can provide new insight into non-invasive assessment of rat C6 glioma angiogenesis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0121631PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4363697PMC
February 2016

Cross-modality PET/CT and contrast-enhanced CT imaging for pancreatic cancer.

World J Gastroenterol 2015 Mar;21(10):2988-96

Jian Zhang, Chang-Jing Zuo, Sheng-Ping Hu, An-Yu Zhang, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Aim: To explore the diagnostic value of the cross-modality fusion images provided by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) for pancreatic cancer (PC).

Methods: Data from 70 patients with pancreatic lesions who underwent CECT and PET/CT examinations at our hospital from August 2010 to October 2012 were analyzed. PET/CECT for the cross-modality image fusion was obtained using TureD software. The diagnostic efficiencies of PET/CT, CECT and PET/CECT were calculated and compared with each other using a χ(2) test. P < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.

Results: Of the total 70 patients, 50 had PC and 20 had benign lesions. The differences in the sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy between CECT and PET/CECT in detecting PC were statistically significant (P < 0.05 for each). In 15 of the 31 patients with PC who underwent a surgical operation, peripancreatic vessel invasion was verified. The differences in the sensitivity, positive predictive value, NPV, and accuracy of CECT vs PET/CT and PET/CECT vs PET/CT in diagnosing peripancreatic vessel invasion were statistically significant (P < 0.05 for each). In 19 of the 31 patients with PC who underwent a surgical operation, regional lymph node metastasis was verified by postsurgical histology. There was no statistically significant difference among the three methods in detecting regional lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05 for each). In 17 of the 50 patients with PC confirmed by histology or clinical follow-up, distant metastasis was confirmed. The differences in the sensitivity and NPV between CECT and PET/CECT in detecting distant metastasis were statistically significant (P < 0.05 for each).

Conclusion: Cross-modality image fusion of PET/CT and CECT is a convenient and effective method that can be used to diagnose and stage PC, compensating for the defects of PET/CT and CECT when they are conducted individually.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v21.i10.2988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4356919PMC
March 2015

Molecular imaging of angiogenesis to delineate the tumor margins in glioma rat model with endoglin-targeted paramagnetic liposomes using 3T MRI.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2015 Apr 27;41(4):1056-64. Epub 2014 Mar 27.

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the use of endoglin-targeted paramagnetic liposomes in delineating the glioma margins using magnetic resonance (MR) angiogenesis imaging in a rat model.

Materials And Methods: Four liposome preparations, including nontargeted paramagnetic liposomes (Gd-SLs), isotype control IgG-coupled paramagnetic liposomes (IgG-Gd-SLs), endoglin monoclonal antibody coupled paramagnetic liposomes (MAb-Gd-SLs), and biotinylated antibodies (Bio-MAb)/streptavidin-coupled paramagnetic liposomes (SAv-Gd-SLs) for two-step pretargeting imaging, were formulated. All animal experiments were carried out with the approval of the Shanghai Animal Care. C6 glioma-bearing Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously injected with gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) or the previously mentioned liposomes (n = 5) and imaged with MR. T1 -weighted MRI was performed before and dynamically repeated after different contrast agents were injected. The enhancement features of the tumors were compared.

Results: The signal enhancement of the tumor in the two-step pretargeting group increased by 117.9 ± 5.3% at the periphery and 109.2 ± 3.5% in the center (P = 0.032) at the 8-hour timepoint after SAv-Gd-SLs injection. Ring-like enhancement margins were demonstrated at the periphery of the tumor in the two-step targeted group. The specificity of the targeted liposomes was supported by the competitive study. The signal of peak enhancement using MAb-Gd-SLs was 59% less than that of the two-step group and only slightly higher than the non-targeted groups.

Conclusion: The two-step endoglin-targeted imaging using biotin-streptavidin interaction was demonstrated to induce intense enhancement of the tumor periphery, which implies that this advanced MR molecular contrast agent may be suitable for accurately delineating glioma tumor margins. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015;41:1056-1064. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.24628DOI Listing
April 2015

Infective severe acute pancreatitis: a comparison of 99mTc-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy and computed tomography.

World J Gastroenterol 2013 Aug;19(30):4897-906

Jian-Hua Wang, Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Ningbo University, Ningbo 315020, Zhejiang Province, China.

Aim: To evaluate (99m)Tc-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy compared with computed tomography (CT) for detecting secondary infections associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in swine.

Methods: Six healthy swine were assigned to a normal control group (group A, n = 6). SAP was induced in group B (n = 9) and C (n = 18), followed by inoculation of the resulting pancreatic necroses with inactive Escherichia coli (E. coli) (group B) and active E. coli (group C), respectively. At 7 d after inoculation, a CT scan and a series of analyses using infecton imaging (at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 h after the administration of 370 MBq of intravenous infecton) were performed. The scintigrams were visually evaluated and semi-quantitatively analyzed using region of interest assignments. The differences in infecton uptake and changes in the lesion-background radioactive count ratios (L/B) in the 3 groups were recorded and compared. After imaging detection, histopathology and bacterial examinations were performed, and infected SAP was regarded as positive. The imaging findings were compared with histopathological and bacteriological results.

Results: In group A, 6 animals survived without infection in the pancreas. In group B, 7/9 swine survived and one suffered from infection. In group C, 15/18 animals survived with infection. Hence, the number of normal, non-infected and infected SAP swine was 6, 6 and 16, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the infecton method were 93.8% (15/16), 91.7% (11/12), 92.9% (26/28), 93.8% (15/16) and 91.7% (11/12), whereas these values for CT were 12.5% (2/16), 100.0% (12/12), 50.0% (14/28), 100.0% (2/2) and 46.2% (12/26), respectively. The changes in L/B for the infected SAP were significantly different from those of the non-infected and normal swine (P < 0.001). The mean L/B of the infectious foci at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 h was 1.17 ± 0.10, 1.71 ± 0.30, 2.46 ± 0.45, 3.36 ± 0.33, 2.04 ± 0.37 and 1.1988 ± 0.09, respectively. At 3 h, the radioactive counts (2350.25 ± 602.35 k) and the mean L/B of the infectious foci were significantly higher than that at 0.5 h (P = 0.000), 1 h (P = 0.000), 2 h (P = 0.04), 4 h (P = 0.000) and 6 h (P = 0.000).

Conclusion: (99m)Tc-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy may be an effective procedure for detecting SAP secondary infections with higher sensitivity and accuracy than CT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v19.i30.4897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3740419PMC
August 2013

Discriminative analysis of early-stage Alzheimer's disease and normal aging with automatic segmentation technique in subcortical gray matter structures: a multicenter in vivo MRI volumetric and DTI study.

Acta Radiol 2013 Dec 22;54(10):1191-200. Epub 2013 Jul 22.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Ningbo Medical Treatment Center Lihuili Hospital of Ningbo University, Shanghai, PR China.

Background: Previous studies have revealed that amyloid depositions exist in not only the hippocampus but in other subcortical gray matter structures as well. Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) parameters might be more sensitive measures of early degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) than conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.

Purpose: To evaluate the significance of the volumes and the mean diffusivity (MD) values of subcortical gray matter structures in discrimination between early-stage AD and normal subjects using the Integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool in FMRIB's Software Library.

Material And Methods: Fifty-three cases of early-stage AD and 30 normal aging volunteers from two hospitals were scanned with 3D-FSPGRIR and SSSE-EPI sequences using two similar 1.5T MR systems. The mean relative volumes and mean MD values of subcortical gray matter structures were compared between early-stage AD and control groups. Binary logistic regression analysis and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were applied to assess the diagnostic significance of every structure's relative volume, MD value, and combination of both.

Results: The relative volumes of the left hippocampus, right amygdala, bilateral thalamus, right caudate, left putamen, and bilateral pallidum were significantly lower in the early-stage AD group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The MD values of the bilateral hippocampus and pallidum, and of the right thalamus and caudate were significantly elevated in the early-stage AD group (P < 0.05). In binary logistic regression analysis, the relative volume of left hippocampus and age entered the final model of volumetric analysis. The MD values of bilateral hippocampi and pallidums entered the final model of MD analysis. The MD values of bilateral hippocampi and pallidums, and the relative volume of left pallidum, entered the final model of combination analysis. The accuracy of three models was 84.7%, 88.9%, and 93.1%, respectively.

Conclusion: Pathological changes takes place in the hippocampus and other subcortical gray matter structures in early-stage AD. Diffusive imaging has great diagnostic significance in early-stage AD. The combination of both imaging modalities can lead to better discrimination between early-stage AD and normal aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0284185113492971DOI Listing
December 2013

Reprogramming of adult human neural stem cells into induced pluripotent stem cells.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2013 Mar;126(6):1138-43

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

Background: Since an effective method for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from human neural stem cells (hNSCs) can offer us a promising tool for studying brain diseases, here we reported direct reprogramming of adult hNSCs into iPSCs by retroviral transduction of four defined factors.

Methods: NSCs were successfully isolated and cultured from the hippocampus tissue of epilepsy patients. When combined with four factors (OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC), iPSCs colonies were successfully obtained.

Results: Morphological characterization and specific genetic expression confirmed that these hNSCs-derived iPSCs showed embryonic stem cells-like properties, which include the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusion: Our method would be useful for generating human iPSCs from NSCs and provide an important tool for studying neurological diseases.
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March 2013

MRI features of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors in children.

Pediatr Radiol 2013 Aug 7;43(8):1001-8. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Middle Wulumuqi Rd., Shanghai, 200040, People's Republic of China.

Background: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RTs) are rare, highly malignant tumors of the central nervous system, usually occurring in young children.

Objective: To investigate the MRI features of AT/RT, with special emphasis on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS).

Materials And Methods: MRI findings of 11 children with AT/RT were reviewed retrospectively, including DWI in 9 AT/RT children and MRS in 6 children.

Results: The neoplasms were infratentorial in 4 children and supratentorial in 5 children, both infra- and supratentorial in 1 child and multifocal in 1 child. AT/RT produced heterogeneous signal intensity from peripheral cysts in 7/11 (63%) and hemorrhage in 7/11 (63%). All lesions showed contrast enhancement of varying degrees. Seven (63%) had peritumoral edema. Nine (82%) were hyperintense on DWI with a mean ± SD ADC of 0.60 ± 0.13 × 10(-3) mm(2) s(-1). Six lesions (55%) exhibited elevated levels of choline and decreased NAA, and three had lipid peaks.

Conclusions: A childhood intracranial tumor with off-midline location, peripheral cystic components, hemorrhage, low ADC, and lipid peaks on MRS suggests AT/RT to be considered a differential diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00247-013-2646-9DOI Listing
August 2013

In vivo USPIO-enhanced MR signal characteristics of secondary degeneration in the ipsilateral substantia nigra after middle cerebral artery occlusion at 3T.

J Neuroradiol 2013 Jul 18;40(3):198-203. Epub 2013 Feb 18.

Department of Radiology, Hua Shan hospital, Fu Dan university, 12, Wulumuqi Zhong Road, 200040 Shanghai, China.

Background And Purpose: Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles to enhance MRI have been used to study neuroinflammation in vivo. Our purpose was to observe the USPIO-enhanced MR signal alterations in the primary ischemic lesion and ipsilateral substantia nigra after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to verify the subsequent sequelae of neuroinflammation seen in the primary ischemic focus and secondary degeneration region.

Materials And Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to transient MCAO. In addition to conventional T2-, T1-weighted imaging, USPIO-enhanced MRI was performed in USPIO-injected stroke rats, while Gd-enhanced imaging was acquired in control stroke rats, on days 3, 6 using a 3-T MR scanner. The MR signal characteristics in the primary ischemic striatum, ipsilateral substantia nigra were noted, compared on histopathological H&E, Prussian blue (PB) staining.

Results: After MCAO, USPIO-induced T2 hypointensity changes were observed in the primary ischemic region with BBB impairment at both time points. In the substantia nigra ipsilateral to the primary ischemic lesion, there was no evidence of USPIO accumulation detected by MRI and PB staining, and no BBB leakage reflected by Gd-enhanced imaging on days 3 and 6.

Conclusion: USPIO-enhanced MR signals have variable characteristics in both primary and remote sites after focal cerebral ischemia. This suggests that the neuroinflammatory response to brain ischemia in the primary ischemic focus and secondary degeneration region have different temporal patterns and pathophysiological mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurad.2012.11.002DOI Listing
July 2013

Preoperative surgical planning for intracranial meningioma resection by virtual reality.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2012 Jun;125(11):2057-61

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai 200040, China.

Background: The Dextroscope system by Volume Interactions (Singapore) had been applied to minimally invasive neurosurgery in many units. This system enables the neurosurgeon to interact intuitively with the three-dimensional graphics in a direct manner resembling the way one communicates with the real objects. In the paper, we explored its values in pre-operation surgical planning for intracranial meningiomas resection.

Methods: Brain computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and magnetic resonance venography (MRV) were performed on 10 patients with parasagittal and falcine meningiomas located on central groove area; brain CT, MRI and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were performed on 10 patients with anterior skull base meningiomas and 10 patients with sphenoid ridge meningiomas. All these data were transferred to Dextroscope virtual reality system, and reconstructed. Then meningiomas, skull base, brain tissue, drainage vein and cerebral arteries were displayed within the system, and their anatomic relationships were evaluated. Also, the simulation operations were performed.

Results: For parasagittal and falcine meningiomas, the relationships of tumor with drainage vein and superior sagittal sinus were clearly displayed in the Dextroscope system. For anterior skull base and sphenoid ridge meningiomas, the relationships of tumor with bilateral internal carotid arteries, anterior cerebral arteries, middle cerebral arteries and skull base were vividly displayed within the virtual reality system. Surgical planning and simulation operation of all cases were performed as well. The real operations of all patients were conducted according to the simulation with well outcomes.

Conclusions: According to the virtual reality planning, neurosurgeons could get more anatomic information about meningioma and its surrounding structures, especially important vessels, and choose the best approach for tumor resection, which would lead to better prognosis for patients.
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June 2012

Comparison between acetazolamide challenge and 10% carbon dioxide challenge perfusion CT in rat C6 glioma.

Acad Radiol 2012 Feb;19(2):159-65

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Rationale And Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of perfusion computed tomography (PCT) with acetazolamide (ACZ) challenge and compare it to 10% carbon dioxide (CO(2)) challenge in rat C6 glioma.

Materials And Methods: PCT was performed on 32 rats, including 20 with orthotopically implanted C6 gliomas and 12 serving as controls. Ten rats with gliomas and six normal rats underwent PCT with ACZ challenge. The other 10 rats with gliomas and six normal rats underwent PCT with 10% CO(2) challenge. The raw data were processed using Philips computed tomographic brain perfusion software. Perfusion parameters before and after the challenge were recorded. Percentage changes due to ACZ administration and 10% CO(2) challenge were calculated. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to investigate relationships between percentage changes in perfusion parameters and vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density.

Results: In C6 gliomas, percentage change in cerebral blood flow was significantly different between ACZ (72.73%) and 10% CO(2) (28.47%) challenge (P < .01). Percentage change in cerebral blood volume was 37.85% with ACZ and 24.69% with 10% CO(2) challenge (P = .02). In controls, percentage change in cerebral blood flow was significantly different between ACZ (117.42%) and 10% CO(2) (65.86%) challenge (P < .01). For percentage change in cerebral blood volume, there was no significant difference between ACZ (107.51%) and 10% CO(2) (92.95%) challenge. Significant correlations were observed among percentage changes in vascular endothelial growth factor, microvessel density, and cerebral blood volume (P < .01). Percentage change in cerebral blood flow correlated well with vascular endothelial growth factor.

Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that PCT with ACZ challenge is a more reliable technique compared to 10% CO(2) challenge for the quantitative evaluation of microcirculation in gliomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2011.09.017DOI Listing
February 2012

Detection of neural stem cells function in rats with traumatic brain injury by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2011 Jun;124(12):1848-53

Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

Background: Previously we had successfully tracked adult human neural stem cells (NSCs) labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs) in host human brain after transplantation in vivo non-invasively by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, the function of the transplanted NSCs could not be evaluated by the method. In the study, we applied manganese-enhanced MRI (ME-MRI) to detect NSCs function after implantation in brain of rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in vivo.

Methods: Totally 40 TBI rats were randomly divided into 4 groups with 10 rats in each group. In group 1, the TBI rats did not receive NSCs transplantation. MnCl2·4H2O was intravenously injected, hyperosmolar mannitol was delivered to disrupt rightside blood brain barrier, and its contralateral forepaw was electrically stimulated. In group 2, the TBI rats received NSCs (labeled with SPIO) transplantation, and the ME-MRI procedure was same to group 1. In group 3, the TBI rats received NSCs (labeled with SPIO) transplantation, and the ME-MRI procedure was same to group 1, but diltiazem was introduced during the electrical stimulation period. In group 4, the TBI rats received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) injection, and the ME-MRI procedure was same to group 1.

Results: Hyperintense signals were detected by ME-MRI in the cortex areas associated with somatosensory in TBI rats of group 2. These signals, which could not be induced in TBI rats of groups 1 and 4, disappeared when diltiazem was introduced in TBI rats of group 3.

Conclusion: In this initial study, we mapped implanted NSCs activity and its functional participation within local brain area in TBI rats by ME-MRI technique, paving the way for further pre-clinical research.
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June 2011

[Research on nondestructive measurement of soluble tannin content of astringent persimmon using visible and near infrared diffuse reflection spectroscopy].

Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi 2011 Apr;31(4):951-4

College of Food Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161, China.

The objectives of the present study were to establish the relationships of the visible and near infrared diffuse reflection (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy and the soluble tannin content of internal quality index of astringent persimmon, and to evaluate the value of Vis/NIR spectroscopy in measuring the soluble tannin content of internal quality index of astringent persimmon. In the spectral region between 570 and 1 848 nm, calibration results for the soluble tannin content of astringent persimmon were compared with different regression techniques, different derivative treatments and different scatter and standard treatments. The results showed that the modified partial least squares(MPLS) model, with respect to the first derivative D1 log(1/R) and detrend only, provided better prediction performance for the soluble tannin content of astringent persimmon fruit, with the correlation coefficient of cross validation of calibration (R(cv)) and correlation coefficient of prediction (R(p2)), the root mean square error of cross validation of calibration (RMSECV) and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.722 7, 0.678 5, 0.148, and 0.176 3 respectively. The preliminary research on the built models indicated that nondestructive measurement of the soluble tannin content of astringent persimmon using Vis/NIR spectroscopy technique was feasible, but the precision of the models could be improved further.
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April 2011

Imaging findings of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma: report of four cases.

Korean J Radiol 2011 Jan-Feb;12(1):122-8. Epub 2011 Jan 3.

Department of Radiology, Affiliated HuaShan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai 200040, China.

Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm and little is known about its radiological features. We present here four cases of follicular dendritic cell sarcomas and we provide the image characteristics of these tumors to help radiologists recognize this entity when making a diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2011.12.1.122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3017876PMC
April 2011

Detection of Aβ plaques by a novel specific MRI probe precursor CR-BSA-(Gd-DTPA)n in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2010 Dec;293(12):2136-43

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Amyloid plaques are one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The lack of specific probes that can detect individual senile plaques in AD has prompted the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes. In this study, based on DTPA-gadolinium (III) and congo red (CR), a novel specific MRI probe precursor CR-BSA-(Gd-DTPA)n was successfully synthesized. Its ability to bind to amyloid plaques was evaluated by brain sections from APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Its specificity for Aβ plaques was further demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining with the monoclonal antibody to the Aβ protein. Meanwhile, the amyloid deposits detected by the CR-BSA-(Gd-DTPA)n were matched to the amyloid deposits detected by Aβ specific antibody. We also found that a few amyloid-like deposits which was not detected by IHC. The findings indicated that the probe perhaps could detect the neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) similar to the effect of CR itself, and this will be verified in future experiments. The works suggested that the Aβ protein-specific magnetic resonance contrast agent precursor CR-BSA-(Gd-DTPA)n can be used as a potential fluorescence and MR multi-modal imaging probe precursor to display individual senile plaques in AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.21209DOI Listing
December 2010

64-slice CT perfusion imaging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and mass-forming chronic pancreatitis.

Acad Radiol 2011 Jan 15;18(1):81-8. Epub 2010 Oct 15.

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Rationale And Objectives: To investigate 64 computed tomography (CT) perfusion imaging features of patients with pancreatic cancer and mass-forming chronic pancreatitis.

Materials And Methods: Between January 2003 and April 2010, 234 patients with pancreatic mass underwent 64-CT perfusion imaging. Among them, the histopathological results of 64 patients were proven to be pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 15 patients were proven to be mass-forming chronic pancreatitis. Additionally, CT perfusion imaging was performed in 33 healthy volunteers served as controls. The slice data were processed using CT perfusion software. Perfusion parameters including time density curve, blood flow, blood volume, permeability, peak enhancement, and time to peak were recorded.

Results: Blood flow was 77% lower in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma than in controls, 48% lower in patients with mass-forming chronic pancreatitis than in controls, and 56% lower in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma than with mass-forming chronic pancreatitis (P < .016). Blood volume was 65% lower in pancreatic adenocarcinoma than in controls, 27% lower in mass-forming chronic pancreatitis than in controls, and 53% lower in cancer than mass-forming chronic pancreatitis (P < .016). Permeability was 559% higher in pancreatic adenocarcinoma than in controls, 821% higher in mass-forming chronic pancreatitis than in controls, and 28% lower in cancer than mass-forming chronic pancreatitis (P < .016). Peak enhancement was 27% lower and time to peak 23% longer in pancreatic adenocarcinoma than mass-forming chronic pancreatitis (P < .016). Time-density curve showed the peak of mass-forming chronic pancreatitis is earlier and higher than that of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and the peak of mass-forming chronic pancreatitis is later and lower than that of controls.

Conclusion: CT perfusion imaging can provide additional quantitative hemodynamic information of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and mass-forming chronic pancreatitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2010.07.012DOI Listing
January 2011

Quantitative evaluation of benign meningioma and hemangiopericytoma with peritumoral brain edema by 64-slice CT perfusion imaging.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2010 Aug;123(15):2038-44

Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

Background: Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) have a relentless tendency for local recurrence and metastases, differentiating between benign meningiomas and HPCs before surgery is important for both treatment planning and the prognosis appraisal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlations between CT perfusion parameters and microvessel density (MVD) in extra-axial tumors and the possible role of CT perfusion imaging in preoperatively differentiating benign meningiomas and HPCs.

Methods: Seventeen patients with benign meningiomas and peritumoral edema, 12 patients with HPCs and peritumoral edema underwent 64-slice CT perfusion imaging pre-operation. Perfusion was calculated using the Patlak method. The quantitative parameters, include cerebral blood volume (CBV), permeability surface (PS) of parenchyma, peritumoral edema among benign meningiomas and HPCs were compared respectively. CBV and PS in parenchyma, peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were also compared to that of the contrallateral normal white matter respectively. The correlations between CBV, PS of tumoral parenchyma and MVD were examined.

Results: The value of CBV and PS in parenchyma of HPCs were significantly higher than that of benign meningiomas (P < 0.05), while the values of CBV and PS in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were not significantly different (P > 0.05). MVD in parenchyma of HPCs were significantly higher than that of benign meningiomas (P < 0.05). There were positive correlations between CBV and MVD (r = 0.648, P < 0.05), PS and MVD (r = 0.541, P < 0.05) respectively. Furthermore, the value of CBV and PS in parenchyma of benign meningiomas and HPCs were significantly higher than that of contrallateral normal white matter (P < 0.05), the value of CBV in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were significantly lower than that of contrallateral normal white matter (P < 0.05), while the value of PS in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were not significantly different with that of contrallateral normal white matter (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: CT perfusion imaging can provide critical information on the vascularity of HPC and benign meningiomas. Determination of maximal CBV and corresponding PS values in the parenchyma may be useful in the preoperative differentiating HPC from benign meningiomas.
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August 2010

Acute mesenteric ischemia induced by ligation of porcine superior mesenteric vein: multidetector CT evaluations.

Acad Radiol 2010 Sep 19;17(9):1146-52. Epub 2010 Jun 19.

Eye and ENT Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China; Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China.

Rationale And Objectives: To evaluate multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for detecting the early changes and dynamic evolution of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) induced by the ligation of superior mesenteric vein (SMV) in an experimental porcine model.

Materials And Methods: Twelve pigs were randomly assigned to three experimental groups, and one control group with three pigs in each group. After laparotomy, the SMV was separated and ligated in nine pigs and separated without ligation in three controls. MDCT pre- and postcontrast with arterial, venous, and delayed phase scans, and CT angiography reconstructions of mesenteric vessels were carried out at preoperation, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 18 hours after ligation. The findings of mesenteric vessels, bowel, abdominal cavity at pre- and postoperation, and dynamic evolution were correlated with pathology.

Results: AMI-induced pathological changes were identified in all nine experimental pigs. MDCT angiography clearly delineated main trunk of the SMV, peripheral major and minor tributaries up to brushy vasa recta, and the location and shape of ligations. The early ischemic findings were bowel wall thickening, mesenteric edema, ascites, and pronounced bowel enhancement. Superior mesenteric artery and its major branches appeared spasm with poor filling and delayed and prolonged visualization. SMV and its tributaries were poorly delineated with delayed opacification. We also saw thinning of bowel wall, dilatating bowel with fluid, aggravating mesenteric edema and ascites, and poor enhanced bowel over time.

Conclusion: MDCT detects early changes of mesenteric ischemia and its evolution after ligation of porcine SMV, and may find application in early diagnosis of human venous occlusive AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2010.04.014DOI Listing
September 2010

MRI findings of primary CNS lymphoma in 26 immunocompetent patients.

Korean J Radiol 2010 May-Jun;11(3):269-77. Epub 2010 Apr 29.

Department of Radiology, XinQiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, ChongQing, P.R.China.

Objective: To record the MR imaging features of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and compare these features in monofocal and multifocal disease.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-one cases of monofocal disease were compared to five cases of multifocal disease. All patients were examined by non-enhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI. Tumor location, tumor size, signal intensity, enhancement characteristics, age distribution, peritumoral edema, cystic changes, and the presence of calcifications were assessed. The MRI features were compared between the monofocal and multifocal disease cases.

Results: The 26 cases, including both the monofocal and multifocal cases, exhibited 37 lesions. Contrast-enhanced images showed variable enhancement patterns: homogeneous enhancement (33 lesions), ring-like enhancement (2), and 'open-ring-like' enhancement (2). The 'notch sign' was noted in four of 33 homogeneously enhancing lesions. One case of hemorrhage and three cases of cystic formation were observed. Intra-tumoral calcification was not found. The frontal lobe, the corpus callosum and the basal ganglia were commonly affected in both the monofocal and multifocal groups. Tumor size differed significantly between the two groups (t = 3.129, p < 0.01) and mildly or moderately enhanced lesions were more frequently found in the monofocal group (p < 0.05). There was no statistical difference between perifocal edema (p > 0.05) and the signal characteristics (p > 0.05) between the two groups.

Conclusion: Our data show that PCNSL has a variable enhancement pattern on MR images. We first reported two lesions with an 'open-ring' enhancement as well as four cases with a 'notch sign'. Monofocal PCNSL cases typically have larger sized tumors with mild or moderate enhancement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3348/kjr.2010.11.3.269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2864853PMC
August 2010
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