Publications by authors named "Xiao-Ying Fu"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Diagnosis and treatment of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus: a rare case report and review of the literature.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211014360

Center of Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis, ZheJiang QuHua Hospital, QuZhou, ZheJiang, China.

Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomas of the uterus (PRMSu) is a rare malignant tumor of the female genital tract. Accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of PRMSu are important. We report an 81-year-old woman who was diagnosed with PRMSu. She had an extremely unusual presentation of secondary dyspnea because of an extremely large uterus (26.0 cm). Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging showed rare severe enlargement and intrauterine filling with tumor tissue, and she was initially diagnosed with uterine leiomyosarcoma. The patient underwent hysterectomy, as well as bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy, and was finally confirmed as having PRMSu by histopathology combined with immunohistochemistry. We performed a systematic review of the literature between 1982 and 2020 and focused on different treatment strategies and prognosis of PRMSu. A retrospective review of 28 cases was conducted and survival analysis was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. We found that the accuracy of diagnosis of PRMSu completely depends on histopathology and immunohistochemistry because of no special clinical symptoms, no sensitive tumor markers, and no special imaging findings. Although there is no standardized approach for treating this rare disease, the treatment strategy of a surgical operation combined with adjuvant chemotherapy appears to be the best choice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211014360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161909PMC
May 2021

Genetic risk factors identified in populations of European descent do not improve the prediction of osteoporotic fracture and bone mineral density in Chinese populations.

Sci Rep 2019 04 15;9(1):6086. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Center for Bioinformatics and Genomics, Department of Global Biostatistics and Data Science, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA.

Aiming to investigate whether genetic risk factors (GRFs) for fracture and bone mineral density (BMD) identified from people of European descent can help improve the prediction of osteoporotic fracture (OF) risk and BMD in Chinese populations, we built assessment models for femoral neck (FN)-fracture prediction and BMD value prediction using 700 elderly Chinese Han subjects and 1,620 unrelated Chinese Han subjects, respectively. 17 fracture-associated genes and 82 FN-BMD associated genes identified in people of European descent were used to build a logistic regression model with clinical risk factors (CRFs) for FN-fracture prediction in Chinese. Meanwhile 107 BMD-associated genes from people of European descent were used to build a multiple linear regression model with CRFs for BMD prediction in Chinese. A Lasso algorithm was employed for informative SNP selection to construct the genetic risk score (GRS) with ten-fold cross-validation. The results showed that, adding fracture GRF and FN-BMD GRF to the model with CRFs, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) decrease from 0.653 to 0.587 and 0.588, respectively, for FN fracture prediction. 62.3% and 61.8% of the risk variation were explained by the Model with CRFs and fracture GRF and by the Model with CRFs and FN-BMD GRF, respectively, as compared to 65.5% in the Model with CRFs only. The net reclassification improvement (NRI) index in the reclassification analysis is 0.56% (P = 0.57) and 1.13% (P = 0.29), respectively. There is no significant difference either between the performance of the model with CRFs and that of the model with both CRFs and GRF for BMD prediction. We concluded that, in the current study, GRF of fracture identified in people of European descent does not contributes to improve the fracture prediction in Chinese; and GRF of BMD from people of European descent cannot help improve the accuracy of the fracture prediction in Chinese perhaps partially because GRF of BMD from people of European descent may not contribute to BMD prediction in Chinese. This study highlights the limited utility of the current genetics studies largely focused on people of European descent for disease or risk factor prediction in other ethnic groups, and calls for more and larger scale studies focused on other ethnic groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42606-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6465274PMC
April 2019

Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and serum testosterone levels in adult males 20-39 years old in the United States.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2018 Jun 23;16(1):61. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

The First Division in the Department of Endocrinology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106th of Zhongshan Er Road, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

Background: This population-based study was designed to investigate whether consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) is associated with lower serum total testosterone concentration in men 20-39 years old.

Methods: All data for this study were retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012. The primary outcome was serum testosterone concentration, and main independent variable was SSB intake. Other variables included age, race/ethnicity, poverty/income ratio, body mass index (BMI), serum cotinine, heavy drinking, and physical activity.

Results: Among all subjects (N = 545), 486 (90.4%) had normal testosterone levels (defined as ≥231 ng/dL) and 59 (9.6%) had low testosterone levels (defined as < 231 ng/dL). Multivariate logistic regression revealed the odds of low testosterone was significantly greater with increasing SSB consumption (Q4 [≥442 kcal/day] vs. Q1 [≤137 kcal/day]), adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.29, p = 0.041]. After adjusting for possible confounding variables, BMI was an independent risk factor for low testosterone level; subjects with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m had a higher risk of having a low testosterone level than those with BMI < 25 kg/m (aOR = 3.68, p = 0.044).

Conclusion: SSB consumption is significantly associated with low serum testosterone in men 20-39 years old in the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12958-018-0378-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6015465PMC
June 2018

[Assessment of hypoglycemic status among hospitalized elderly patients with type 2 diabetes].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2018 May;38(5):591-595

Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.E-mail:

Objective: To investigate the hypoglycemic characteristics of hospitalized elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: From January, 2014 to December, 2015, the data of 58 565 blood measurements using a standard blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) were collected from 1187 cases of patients with type 2 diabetes during hospitalization in the Department of Endocrinology, Guangdong General Hospital (Guangzhou, China). Stratified analyses were conducted by dividing the patients into 3 age groups, namely <45 years group (128 cases), 45-64 years group (594 cases), and ≥65 years group (465 cases). The incidence and time distribution of hypoglycemia in these patients were compared among the 3 age groups.

Results: The risk of hypoglycemia increased with age. Compared with those below 45 years of age, the patients beyond or equal to 65 years had a significantly increased hypoglycemic density (0.95% vs 0.40%, P<0.001), a higher proportion of patients with hypoglycemia (28.17% vs 10.94%, P<0.001), and greater patient-days with hypoglycemia (4.48% vs 1.76%, P<0.001). In the elderly patients, hypoglycemia occurred most frequently before dawn, at which time the hypoglycemic density was 2.66% in patients ≥65 years of age, significantly higher than that in patients below 45 years (1.09%, P<0.05) and between 45 and 64 years (1.90%, P<0.05); the proportion of patients with hypoglycemia was also significantly higher in the elderly patients (14.57%) than in those below 45 years (3.77%, P<0.02) and between 45 and 64 years (9.42%, P<0.02). The proportion of patients with recurrent hypoglycemia (≥2 times) was significantly higher in patients ≥65 years (13.33%) than in younger patients (2.34% in <45 years group and 9.43% in 45-64 years group, P<0.05).

Conclusion: The hypoglycemic risk in hospitalized elderly patients with T2DM is significantly higher than that in younger patients, especially before dawn and in terms of recurrent hypoglycemia. Clinicians should develop differential blood glucose monitoring and management strategies for these elderly patients to improve the clinical safety.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6743887PMC
May 2018

[Exogenous H₂O₂ regulated secondary metabolism of Scutellaria baicalensis and enhanced drug quality].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2018 Jan;43(2):271-287

Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040, China.

The increasing demand of Chinese materia medica could not be supplied by wild resource, and the cultivated medicinal materials become popular, which led to decreased quality of many medicinal materials due to the difference of the circumstance between the wild and the cultivated. How to improve quality becomes key points of Chinese medicine resource. The leaves of Scutellaria baicalensis were sprayed with H₂O₂, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) changed little, but there had been a marked decrease of peroxidase (POD) and ascorbic oxidase (APX), which showed that the antioxidase system declined. Meanwhile, H₂O₂, as enhanced the expression of phenylalnine ammonialyase (PAL) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) as well as activity of PAL, promoted the biosynthesis and biotransformation of flavonoids. At the day 2 after treated, H₂O₂ of 0.004 μmol·L⁻¹ the contents of the baicalin and the wogonoside decreased slightly, but the contents of the baicalein and the wogonin increased significantly, the baicalein from 0.094% to 0.324%, the wogonin from 0.060% to 0.110%, i. e. increased 246% and 83.3%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20171030.009DOI Listing
January 2018

A feasible diagnostic approach for the translocation carrier from the indication of products of conception.

Mol Cytogenet 2018 30;11:12. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

1Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, 1, Xueshi Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310006 People's Republic of China.

Background: Chromosome translocations are rare but frequently associated with infertility. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) on products of conception (POC) samples as an indicator of parental balanced translocation. From January 2011 to December 2016, CMA using Affymetrix Cytoscan™750K array was performed on 1294 POC samples in our hospital. Karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using parental blood samples were performed to validate the origin of subchromosomal copy number variations (CNVs).

Results: In the 1294 cases of POCs, we detected CNVs of terminal duplication and deletion that imply unbalanced translocation derivatives in 16 cases, and accurate diagnosis with the parental study was made in all the cases by karyotyping and/or FISH. In 10/16 (62.5%) of these cases, CNVs were inherited from one carrier parent of balanced translocation (Cases 1 to 10), while 6/16 (37.5%) cases occurred de novo (Cases 11 to 16).

Conclusion: This study clearly illustrated the importance of the utilization of CMA on POC, followed by parental karyotyping and FISH to better characterize CNVs. This approach is especially useful for couples in whom one partner carries a cryptic/submicroscopic balanced translocation but has an apparently normal karyotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13039-018-0362-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5791184PMC
January 2018

[Establishment of reference ranges of sex hormones for healthy children in Shenzhen, China based on chemiluminescence].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2017 Dec;19(12):1257-1262

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Children's Hospital of Shenzhen, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518038, China.

Objective: To study the reference ranges of six sex hormones, i.e., luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, prolactin, estradiol, and testosterone, for healthy children aged 0-18 years in Shenzhen, China.

Methods: Stratified cluster sampling was performed to select 2 178 healthy children aged 0-18 years in the districts of Futian, Luohu, Nanshan, Bao'an, and Longgang in Shenzhen between September 2015 and September 2016. There were 1 219 boys and 959 girls, including 81 neonates, 335 infants, 346 young children, 469 preschool children, 419 school-aged children, and 528 adolescents. The American Beckman DXI800 chemiluminescence meter was used to measure the levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, prolactin, estradiol, and testosterone.

Results: There were significant differences in the levels of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, prolactin, estradiol, and testosterone between different age groups (P<0.05). There were also significant differences in the levels of these sex hormones between boys and girls in the same age group (P<0.05). The reference ranges of six sex hormones were established for healthy children aged 0-18 years in Shenzhen based on the levels of these hormones in different age groups.

Conclusions: There are significant differences in sex hormones between different age groups or sex groups. The reference ranges of six sex hormones established for different sexes or ages have great significance in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine diseases in children.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7389796PMC
December 2017

Detection of fetal duplication 16p11.2q12.1 by next-generation sequencing of maternal plasma and invasive diagnosis.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2019 Jan 7;32(1):38-45. Epub 2017 Sep 7.

a Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University , Hangzhou , China.

Objective: The objective of study is to report the feasibility of non-invasive prenatal screening (NIPS) combined with invasive detection by chromosomal analysis in identifying fetal duplication, providing clinical performance of NIPS on copy number variations (CNVs) detection.

Material And Methods: NIPS was offered to a 35-year-old pregnant woman. Amniocentesis was performed to confirm the positive screening result. Fetal sample was detected by karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and chromosomal microarray (CMA). Parental karyotyping was also conducted.

Results: NIPS result was positive for chromosome 16, indicating an extra copy of chromosome 16. FISH and chromosomal karyotyping revealed that the fetus had a marker chromosome derived from chromosome 16. CMA further demonstrated an approximately 19-Mb duplication in chromosome 16. The final fetal karyotype was 47,XY,+mar. ish der (16)(D16Z3+).arr 16p11.2q12.1 (30 624 186-49 696 337 × 3). Ultrasound scan and MRI showed some structure malformations.

Conclusions: A protocol for CNVs detection by combining a series of genetic methods was presented in this study and a novel marker duplication 16p11.2q12.1 was reported. With the ability to identify subchromosomal deletions and duplications in fetus, NIPS could reduce the possibility of invasive diagnosis. The followed confirmation test for positive sample is necessary and ensures the accuracy of the diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2017.1369947DOI Listing
January 2019

Continuous positive airway pressure and diabetes risk in sleep apnea patients: A systemic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Intern Med 2017 Apr 1;39:39-50. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

The First Division in the Department of Endocrinology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The study assessed the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes by evaluating change in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting insulin following CPAP treatment in non-diabetic patients and pre-diabetic with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Methods: Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases were searched until August 24, 2015. The analysis included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), two arm prospective studies, cohort studies, and retrospective studies. The primary outcome measure was change of HOMA-IR in pre-diabetic patients receiving CPAP treatment.

Results: Twenty-three studies were included with 965 patients who had OSA. Nineteen studies were prospective studies and four were RCTs. CPAP therapy resulted in a significant reduction in the pooled standard difference in means of HOMA-IR (-0.442, P=0.001) from baseline levels compared with the control group. Change in FBG and fasting insulin from baseline levels was similar for the CPAP and control groups. For RCT studies (n=4), there was no difference in change in HOMA-IR or FBG levels from baseline between CPAP and control groups. The combined effect of RCTs showed that CPAP was associated with a significant reduction in change from baseline in fasting insulin than the control group (standardized diff. in means between groups=-0.479, P value=0.003).

Conclusion: These findings support the use of CPAP in non-diabetic and pre-diabetic patients with OSA to reduce change of HOMA-IR and possibly reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2016.11.010DOI Listing
April 2017

Predictors of cardiorespiratory fitness in female and male adults with different body mass index: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 dataset.

Ann Med 2017 02 29;49(1):83-92. Epub 2016 Nov 29.

a The First Division in the Department of Endocrinology , Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences , Guangzhou , China.

Background: The aim of this study was to explore factors affecting cardiorespiratory fitness in males and females with different body mass index (BMI).

Methods: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 data were used for this retrospective study. Estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO) is surrogate for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to explore whether study variables were associated with estimated VO stratified by gender and BMI categories.

Results: A total of 3292 subjects 20-49 years of age were included in the analysis. CRF significantly decreased as BMI increased in both females and males. Ethnic difference was found in normal BMI in both genders and obese females; homocysteine was significantly negatively associated with estimated VO, as was total cholesterol. Obese male subjects with diabetes had a lower estimated VO than those without diabetes, and C-reactive protein (CRP) level and vitamin B12 level were significantly negatively associated with CRF. Female subjects with diabetes had higher estimated VO than those without diabetes. Folate was significantly positively correlated with estimated VO, whereas CRP was negatively correlated in obese female.

Conclusions: There are different predictors of CRF in males and females, and in individuals with different BMI. Key messages Different BMI classes are associated with different predictors of cardiorespiratory fitness. Indicators of cardiorespiratory fitness differ between sexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2016.1252056DOI Listing
February 2017

[IL-12-induced expression of TRAIL enhances the cytotoxicity of NK cells against Jurkat cells].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2012 Sep;28(9):926-9

Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Aim: To study the mechanism underlying the IL-12-induced cytotoxic function of NK cells to Jurkat cells.

Methods: NK cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were purified by magnetic sorting and stimulated with or without IL-12. The expression of genes on IL-12-treated and non-IL-12-treated NK cells was analyzed by gene chips and the expression of cytolytic molecules was evaluated by flow cytometry.

Results: Seventeen genes were up- (5/17) or down-regulated (12/17) on IL-12-treated NK cells compared with non-IL-12-treated NK cells (fold change≥10). IL-12-induced expression of TRAIL on NK cells mediated the cytotoxicity to Jurkat cells. The expression of TRAIL on subsets of CD56(+);CD16(+); and CD56(-);CD16(+); NK cells significantly increased after the stimulation with IL-12 and Jurkat cells expressed high level of TRAIL receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2). Importantly, the neutralizing mAbs against TRAIL (RIK-2) significantly inhibited the cytotoxicity of NK cells induced by IL-12.

Conclusion: The expression of TRAIL on human NK cells induced by IL-12 was one of the major mechanisms of cytotoxicity to Jurkat cells.
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September 2012

[Effect of different dietary loads on glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subjects with normal glucose tolerance].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2011 Dec;31(12):2031-4

Department of Endocrinology, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: To investigate the secretion patterns of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) after different dietary loads in subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and their relation to insulin secretion and plasma glucose levels.

Methods: Fourteen subjects with normal glucose tolerance underwent 75 g glucose tolerance test(OGTT) followed by mixed meal tolerance test(MMT) one week later. Blood glucose, insulin, and GIP were measured in the fasting state and at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after glucose load or mixed meal load.

Results: The first peak value of GIP after glucose load occurred at 15 min (45.09∓4.67 pmol/L). After a brief decline, GIP continued to increase till reaching 59.66∓11.73 pmol/L at 120 min after the load. After the mixed meal load, GIP secretion presented with two peaks: the first peak appeared at 15 min (71.69∓14.19 pmol/L) with a level significantly higher than that at 15 min following glucose load (P<0.05), and the second occurred at 90 min (55.35∓13.19 pmol/L). The area under curve of GIP showed no significant difference between the two loads (P>0.05). Compared with glucose load, mixed meal load resulted in an increase of the first GIP peak and an earlier insulin peak (30 min vs 60 min), but a significant decrease of blood glucose at 15 min (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Compared with glucose load, mixed meal (containing fat) can strongly stimulate GIP release and cause earlier occurrence of the insulin peak, which might be an important reason for the lower blood glucose after mixed meal.
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December 2011

[Phenotypic analysis of BCG-specific effector memory CD4+ T cells in PBMCs by eight-color flow cytometry].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2011 May;27(5):491-3, 497

Institute of Immunology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Control Research of Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Aim: To evaluate cytokine production and subsets in PBMCs from PPD+ normal donors after stimulation with BCG.

Methods: PBMCs were isolated from PPD+ normal individuals, and cytokine production and BCG-specific T cell subsets were assessed by eight-color flow cytometry.

Results: Following stimulation with BCG, CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells expressed IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α. Phenotypic analysis indicated that cytokine-producing cells were CD4+CD45RO+CD62L-CD27- and CD4+CD45RO+CD62L-CD27+.

Conclusion: BCG predominantly induced CD4+ T cells to produce cytokines following stimulation with BCG. Further analysis indicated that these cells are CD4+CD45RO+CD62L- effector memory cells, suggesting that these cells probably played essential role in preventing TB infection.
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May 2011

Clinical characteristics of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy in Chinese patients.

Ophthalmologica 2008 22;222(3):149-56. Epub 2008 May 22.

Eye Hospital Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, China.

Purpose: To review the clinical features of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR) in Chinese patients.

Methods: All patients with AZOOR during 2002-2004 in our hospitals were reviewed retrospectively.

Results: Seven consecutive Chinese patients with AZOOR were recruited and followed up for 4-18 months. Their age ranged from 26 to 47 years and all were affected bilaterally. They were from the cities near the Pacific Ocean and were used to eating seafood. The common complaints were slightly reduced visual acuity and photopsia. At least one eye of each patient had a visual field defect or decreased local area sensitivity and one patient had bilateral blind spot enlargement. Ten in 14 eyes showed increased numbers of vitreous cells and 4 eyes had anterior chamber inflammatory cells and a keratic precipitate. In their initial examination, minimal or no fundus changes were found, only yellow-white dots or gray dots presented on the deep retina or outer retinal layer. Fundus fluorescent angiography showed large-area depigmentation and hyperfluorescein spots corresponding to fundus findings. Electroretinogram (ERG) or multifocal ERG was abnormal in all eyes with no changes in their follow-up examination. Not all of the initial diagnoses of these patients were consistent with the final ones.

Conclusions: AZOOR is not a common disease in China, but easy to misdiagnose. Female predilection, photopsia, visual field defect, ERG abnormality and minimal ophthalmoscopic changes are the common characteristics of AZOOR in Chinese patients. Living habits may play a role in the development of AZOOR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000126076DOI Listing
July 2008

Proposed classification of lens capsule defects.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2007 Nov 12;245(11):1653-8. Epub 2007 Jun 12.

Affiliated Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027, People's Republic of China.

Background: Capsule defects are common during or after intraocular surgery of various kinds. The purpose of this work is to establish a classification system of lens capsule defects to provide uniform description of these defects for ophthalmic research and IOL implantation.

Methods: A retrospective study of 128 patients (156 eyes) with lens capsule injury after ocular trauma and intraocular surgery was performed. The patients were divided into two groups. Capsule defects were defined and classified according to the location, size, shape and tension of the capsule and its effect on posterior chamber IOL implantation.

Results: Lens capsule defects were classified into four types: Type I - complete capsule; Type II - incomplete capsule, but has enough area and tension to support two IOL haptics; Type III - incomplete capsule, is able to support only one IOL haptic and the other haptic needs a suture; Type IV - no capsule, both IOL haptics need suture fixation. Type I and Type II were each divided into three subtypes. Type III was divided into two subtypes. The shape of the capsule defects included fissure-like, triangle, round, irregular and fan-like. All eyes with capsule defects can be sorted into one of these types, and it is easy to guide IOL implantation according to the classification. Type II was the most common among the two groups in this study.

Conclusion: The classification of lens capsule defects is feasible and favorable for uniform clinical description, clinical research and IOL implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-007-0614-5DOI Listing
November 2007

Binocular membranous cataract associated with binocular retinal detachment.

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2007 May-Jun;35(4):387-9

A 36-year-old man with a history of consanguineous marriage between his parents presented with bilateral membranous cataract that was complicated by bilateral rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Biomicroscopy revealed an absence of the crystalline lens bilaterally, a single piece of integrated fibrotic membrane in the right eye, and a membrane with a central cleft at the level of the ciliary process in the left eye. A small amount of residual cortex was revealed in the peripheral part of the membranes bilaterally when the pupils were dilated. Funduscopic examination showed that the vitreous liquefied and retina detached bilaterally. The successful retinal reattachment by vitrectomy and the finding of a retinal tear proved that the RD was rhegmatogenous. This case investigates bilateral membranous cataract with bilateral RRD as a new syndrome, or whether RRD may be a new complication of membrane cataract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9071.2007.01495.xDOI Listing
July 2007

[Expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1 in human retinal pigment epithelium].

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2006 Dec;42(12):1109-12

School of Optometry and Ophthalmology, Wenzhou Medical College, Zhejiang 325003, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors-I (M1 receptor) in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in order to determine the role of M1 receptor in the maintenance of function of RPE and its role in the occurrence and development of myopia.

Methods: The 3rd-5th passages of RPE cells established in our laboratory were used in the present study. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect mRNA expression of M1 receptor in cultured RPE. Immunocytochemistry was used to detect M1 receptor protein in the RPE cells.

Results: Cultured RPE demonstrated mRNA expression of M1 receptor in RT-PCR. Protein of M1 receptor was presented in the RPE under immunocytochemistry.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated the presence of M1 receptor in human RPE at both mRNA and protein levels. M1 receptor plays an important role in the maintenance of function of RPE. Injection of M1 receptor antagonist into the vitreous can delay the occurrence and inhibit the development of myopia, which is possibly related to the inhibition of RPE cells function.
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December 2006

[Clinical study on combination of acupuncture, cupping and medicine for treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2006 Jan;26(1):8-10

Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University of TCM, Sichuan 610072, China.

Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture at five mental points and moving cupping on the Hechelu of the back on fibromyalgia syndrome (FS).

Methods: Sixty-six cases who conformed to the criteria were randomly divided into the treatment group treated with acupuncture at five mental points, moving cupping on the Hechelu of the back and amitriptyline, and the control group treated with amitriptyline. Clinical therapeutic effects were assessed with McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and HAMD depression scale.

Results: The therapeutic effect of the treatment group was better than that of the control group with a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: Combination of acupuncture with cupping therapy is an effective therapy for fibromyalgia syndrome.
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January 2006

[Expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-1 in human scleral fibroblasts].

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2005 Nov;41(11):995-9

School of Optometry and Ophthalmology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325003, China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the presence of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors-1 (mAChRs-1) in human sclera in order to determine whether the sclera is a potential site of action for mAChR antagonists.

Methods: Cell lines of human scleral fibroblasts were cultured in Dulbecco Modified Eagle's Medium. Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect mRNA expression of M1 receptors in the fibroblasts. Immunocytochemistry was used to detect proteins of mAChRs in the cell lines. Immunohistochemical study was used to further detect the presence of M1 receptor in the frozen scleral sections.

Results: The cultured fibroblasts demonstrated mRNA expression of M1 receptor in RT-PCR. Protein of the M1 was present in the fibroblasts by examination of immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry staining.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated the presence of M1 receptor in human scleral fibroblasts at both mRNA and protein levels. This finding indicates that the sclera is a potential site of action for the currently used mAChR antagonists in prevention of human myopia.
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November 2005

[Cancer of the nasal cavity].

Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2005 Feb;27(2):117-21

Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China.

Objective: To analyze the factors affecting prognosis of patients with nasal carcinoma.

Methods: 163 patients treated from 1985 to 1998 were analyzed. The survival analysis was performed by Kaplan-Meier estimate and the comparison between groups by Log-rank test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by Cox proportional hazard model.

Results: The overall 5-year survival rate was 58.2%. The 5-year survival rate was 55.8% in squamous-cell carcinoma, 44.0% in adenocarcinoma, 59.7% in undifferentiated carcinoma, 76.3% in adenoid cystic carcinoma, 71.4% in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 25.0% in rhabdomyosarcoma, 26.7% in malignant melanoma, 50.0% in neuroblastoma (P > 0.05). Patients with cervical metastasis gave a 5-year survival of 53.5% while those without gave 58.9% (P > 0.05). Patients with involvement of sphenoidal sinus or maxillary sinus gave the worse survival. The 5-year survival rate was 73.8% in patients whose cancer completely disappeared after treatment. It was 41.6% in patients whose cancer incompletely disappeared, and 34.3% in patients whose cancer remained refractory (P < 0.01). The 5-year survival was 78.3% in stage I disease, 56.4% in stage II disease, 54.2% in stage III and 35.9% in stage IV (P < 0.05). The 5-year survival rate of patients who were treated with radiotherapy only was 56.9%. That of patients who were treated with surgery only was 56.6%. That with chemotherapy only was 25.0% whereas that of patients treated with combination treatment was 61.8% (P > 0.05). So far, 85 patients have died up to writing this report, 57.6% (49 patients) of recurrence or uncontrolled.

Conclusion: Clinical stage, immediate therapeutic response and involvement of sphenoidal or maxillary sinus; but not the pathologic type, the presence of cervical metastasis nor the method of treatment, are the factors affecting the prognosis of patients with nasal carcinoma. Recurrence and uncontrolled disease are the cause of death.
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February 2005

[Expression of bFGF receptor and TGF-beta receptors in cultured human scleral fibroblasts].

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2005 May;41(5):464-7

School of Optometry and Ophthalmology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325003, China.

Objective: To examine the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGF R1) and transforming growth factor-beta receptors (TGF-beta RI and TGF-beta RII) in cultured human scleral fibroblasts.

Methods: Scleral fibroblasts of passages 2-4 were used for the present studies. Polyclonal antibodies against FGF R1, TGF-beta RI and TGF-beta RII were used to detect the proteins of these receptors. Indirect immunofluorescence staining method (IIF) was used.

Results: Antibodies for FGF R1, TGF-beta RI and TGF-beta RII produced specific staining of the entire cell surface, including the cell membrane enveloping cytoplasmic projections; positive staining in some cells was most intensive in the perinuclear region. Immunostaining mainly originated from the cell membranes, indicating that the presence of the receptor proteins on the cell surface. The intensity of staining for TGF-beta RI and TGF-beta RII was relatively strong, while staining of FGF R1 was relatively weak. The cells treated with PBS instead of primary antibodies did not produce specific staining.

Conclusion: This study shows that cultured human scleral fibroblasts express the receptor protein for FGF R1, TGF-beta RI and TGF-beta RII and also indicates that these growth factors may influence these cells. Exogenous bFGF and TGF-beta administration may elicit actions through the binding with these receptors in the scleral fibroblasts.
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May 2005

[Clinicopathological characteristics of atypical cystic duct (ACD) of the breast: assessment of ACD as a precancerous lesion].

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2004 Jun;33(3):221-4

Department of Pathology, Nagano Cancer Detection Center, Mastumoto 390, Japan, Department of Pathology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Tianjin 300060, China.

Objective: To assess the clinicopathological features of atypical cystic duct (ACD) as a precancerous lesion of the breast.

Methods: Whole mammary gland serial sections were performed on 200 cases of breast cancer without pre-operative biopsy (prior operation, fine needle aspiration or needle biopsy were routinely performed in each case). The clinicopathological findings and immunohistochemical features of ACD were investigated.

Results: Forty-four (22%) of the 200 breast cancer patients had ACD breast lesions. The frequency of patients with ACD increased in premenopausal women (P=0.001). A number of ACD lesions displayed a histological transition to adjacent ductal carcinoma in-situ. In 16 of 44 (36%) patients with ACD, carcinoma cells stained positive for p53. In 12 of these 16 cases (75%), ACD cells also stained positive for p53 protein (P=0.001). Myoepithelial cells of ACD appeared attenuated and stained strongly for alpha-smooth muscle actin. There was no correlation between the ACD-present group and the ACD-absent group in tumor size, nodal metastasis, and immunostaining patterns of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), p53, c-erbB-2 and Ki-67 labeling index of cancerous tissues. All 44 ACD lesions showed a negative staining of c-erbB-2, regardless of the staining result in their corresponding carcinomas. The mean Ki-67 labeling index of ACD lesions was low.

Conclusions: ACD is frequently associated with breast cancer. It may represent a precancerous mammary lesion, supported by the frequent histological continuum between ACD and malignancy, and simultaneous p53 over-expression present in both ACD and its corresponding breast carcinoma.
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June 2004

[Culture and study on melanogenesis of mongolian uveal melanocytes in vitro].

Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2004 Feb;40(2):104-7

School of Optometry and Ophthalmology, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325000, China.

Objective: To establish cell lines of Mongolian uveal melanocytes from adult donor eyes, and to study melanogenesis of these cells in vitro.

Methods: After removal of pigment epithelium, UM were isolated by trypsin-collagenase digestion. Isolated cells were cultured with F12 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum, basic fibroblast growth factor, isobutylmethylxanthine and cholera toxin. Melanin content was measured by spectrophotometer. Melanin production was calculated by a formula. The antibodies used in immunocytochemical studies were anti-cytokeratin and anti-S-100 antibodies.

Result: Pure melanocytes cultures were obtained by this method. All of the cells in the cultures stained positively with antibodies to S-100, but not cytokeratin, indicating that they were pure culture of UM. In the growing UM, melanin content was (79.83 +/- 36.20) pg/cell (mean +/- SD). Melanin production was (11.44 +/- 5.77) pg per cell/24 h.

Conclusion: Uveal melanocytes from Mongolian eyes are successfully cultured. Cultured uveal melanocytes can synthesize melanin in vitro. Melanin content and melanin production of Mongolian UM lie between those from black and Caucasian eyes.
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February 2004

[Relationship between biologic behavior and morphologic features of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast].

Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi 2004 Feb;33(1):21-5

Department of Pathology, Nagano Cancer Detection Center, Matsumoto, Japan.

Objective: To clarify the relationship between biologic behavior and morphologic features of invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast.

Methods: Two thousand and eighty-eight cases of clinically defined monocentric breast cancer without pre-operative biopsy (except fine needle aspiration procedure) were examined by whole mammary gland serial sectioning. The clinicopathologic and morphologic features (including microscopic and ultrastructural) of IMPC were analyzed.

Results: One hundred and seventeen cases of IMPC (6.2%, 117/1 880) were diagnosed during the period of study. The incidence of lymphovascular invasion (54.7%, 58/106) and nodal metastases (76.4%, 81/106) was significantly higher in IMPC, as well as the number of metastatic node (on average 9.6) was significantly more in IMPC, as compared with that of the invasive ductal carcinoma. Microscopically, the tumor was characterized by morula-like clusters and small papillae of malignant cells floating within irregular interstitial spaces and separated by fibrous septa. Ultrastructurally, microvilli were observed on the neoplastic cell surface at the periphery of the micropapillae. There were also numerous fine intermediate filaments in the cytoplasm. Newly formed capillaries were noted in the interstitium and some tumor cells were directly in contact with endothelial cells.

Conclusions: A predominant component of IMPC in breast carcinoma is associated with a higher risk of lymphovascular invasion and nodal metastasis. The aggressive behavior of IMPC can be attributed to the proliferative activity of the tumor cells, and its associated angiogenesis.
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February 2004

Effect of hydrodynamic characteristics on reaeration process.

J Environ Sci (China) 2002 Jul;14(3):393-8

State Key Hydraulics Laboratory of High Speed Flows, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China.

The equilibrium-perturb technique was used in the flume reaeration experiment. The interfacial mass transfer coefficients of DO were obtained by implementation of the oxygen-flux theory in the study. The turbulence characteristics of the flow field were investigated by numerical simulation approach. The expression of interfacial mass transfer coefficient related with velocity and turbulence kinetic energy was built. Examination with the experimental datum of different cases showed the validation of the expression.
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July 2002
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