Publications by authors named "Xiao-Rong Han"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Roles of Bacteria and Viruses in Bronchiectasis Exacerbation: A Prospective Study.

Arch Bronconeumol (Engl Ed) 2020 Oct 1;56(10):621-629. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Exacerbations are crucial events during bronchiectasis progression.

Objectives: To explore the associations between bacterial, viral, and bacterial plus viral isolations and bronchiectasis exacerbations.

Methods: In this prospective study, we enrolled 108 patients who were followed up every 3-6 months and at onset of exacerbations between March 2017 and November 2018. Spontaneous sputum was split for detection of bacteria (routine culture) and viruses (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). Symptoms and lung function were assessed during exacerbations.

Results: The median exacerbation rate was 2.0 (interquartile range: 1.0-2.5) per patient-year. At any visit, viral isolations (V+) occurred more frequently during onset of exacerbations [odds ratio (OR): 3.28, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.76-6.12], as did isolation of new bacteria (NB+) (OR: 2.52, 95%CI: 1.35-4.71) and bacterial plus viral isolations (OR: 2.24, 95%CI: 1.11-4.55). Whilst coryza appeared more common in exacerbations with V+ than in exacerbations with no pathogen isolations and those with NB+, lower airway symptoms were more severe in exacerbations with NB+ ( < .05). Sputum interleukin-1β levels were higher in exacerbations with NB+ than in exacerbations with no pathogen isolations and those with V+ (both  < .05). Significantly more coryza symptoms correlated with bacterial plus viral isolations at exacerbations ( = .019). Compared with V+ alone, bacterial with and without viral isolations tended to yield more severe lower airway symptoms, but not sputum cytokine levels at exacerbations.

Conclusions: Viral isolations, isolation of new bacteria and bacterial plus viral isolation are associated with bronchiectasis exacerbations. Symptoms at exacerbations might inform clinicians the possible culprit pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arbr.2019.12.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528950PMC
October 2020

Pregnancy Associated Granulomatous Mastitis: Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Outcome.

Breastfeed Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Breast, Chengdu Women's and Children's Central Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

We have already known that idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign chronic inflammatory disorder that can clinically mimic breast carcinoma, especially affects parous women of childbearing age, but there is little literature to report about pregnancy associated granulomatous mastitis (PAGM). The aim of our study is to report and describe the clinical signs, managements, clinical course, and clinical outcomes after treatment of PAGM in our hospital. We retrospectively analyzed 15 pregnant patients who were diagnosed as PAGM in our hospital collected from December 2018 to December 2020 by reviewing medical records and questionnaire survey, including the patients' characteristics, clinical presentations, microbiological workups, tissue pathology, treatment modalities, outcomes, and follow-up data. The mean age of these patients at diagnosis was 30.5 (range 24-35) years. All patients had one birth before, and had at least two gravida times, 6 of them (40%) had three gravida times, and only one of them had four gravida times at diagnosis. The mean weeks of gestational age were 23.7 (range 4-37) weeks. Two patients' BMI were greater than 30, which were considered obese. The mean time to presentation since last delivery was 38.4 (range 19-78) months. All patients had a history of breastfeeding; the average breastfeeding time was 12.97 months. Just 2 of them were diagnosed with lactational mastitis before. One patient smoked before, 1 patient had oral contraceptive pills before, 4 patients had breast trauma recently, 5 patients had positive bacterial culture of pyogenic fluids, 3 patients had nipple retraction, 6 patients had abnormal humoral immunity, shown as elevated C3 or C4, and 2 patients had elevated serum prolactin. All patients presented as a breast mass with pain; two of them had erythema nodosum and oligoarthritis. Nearly all patients had unilateral lesion. The mean follow-up was 11 (range 1-24) months. Thirteen patients gave birth to a healthy baby, and all babies had a healthy growth and development. Almost all patients chose observation during pregnancy. Nine patients demonstrated complete remission, five of them underwent surgery after steroids and/or antibiotics, one patient had observation alone, two chose postpartum steroids alone, and the last one chose postpartum antibiotics alone. The average time to complete remission was 11.2 (range 7-18) months. In general, PAGM is a much rare disorder which has onset during pregnancy, and mainly happens in the second trimester and the third trimester. PAGM patients were all parous women and generally within 5 years of their last pregnancy, also with uncertain etiology and pathogenesis. Observational therapy during pregnancy for PAGM is reliable and feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2021.0023DOI Listing
April 2021

The Role of Epstein-Barr Virus in Adults With Bronchiectasis: A Prospective Cohort Study.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Aug 19;7(8):ofaa235. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in the progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We aimed to determine whether EBV correlates with bronchiectasis severity, exacerbations, and progression.

Methods: We collected induced sputum in healthy controls and spontaneous sputum at 3-6-month intervals and onset of exacerbations in bronchiectasis patients between March 2017 and October 2018. EBV DNA was detected with quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results: We collected 442 sputum samples from 108 bronchiectasis patients and 50 induced sputum samples from 50 healthy controls. When stable, bronchiectasis patients yielded higher detection rates of EBV DNA (48.1% vs 20.0%; = .001), but not viral loads (mean log load, 4.45 vs 4.76; = .266), compared with controls; 64.9% of patients yielded consistent detection status between 2 consecutive stable visits. Neither detection rate (40.8% vs 48.1%; = .393) nor load (mean log load, 4.34 vs 4.45; = .580) differed between the onset of exacerbations and stable visits, nor between exacerbations and convalescence. Neither detection status nor viral loads correlated with bronchiectasis severity. EBV loads correlated negatively with sputum interleukin-1β ( = .002), CXC motif chemokine-8 ( = .008), and tumor necrosis factor-α levels ( = .005). Patients initially detected with, or repeatedly detected with, EBV DNA had significantly faster lung function decline and shorter time to next exacerbations (both < .05) than those without. Detection of EBV DNA was unrelated to influenza virus and opportunistic bacteria (all > .05). The EBV strains detected in bronchiectasis patients were phylogenetically homologous.

Conclusions: Patients with detection of EBV DNA have a shorter time to bronchiectasis exacerbations. EBV may contribute to bronchiectasis progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7397835PMC
August 2020

Decreased ventilatory efficiency during incremental exercise in bronchiectasis.

J Thorac Dis 2020 May;12(5):2717-2723

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510120, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2020.03.113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330375PMC
May 2020

The Roles of Bacteria and Viruses in Bronchiectasis Exacerbation: A Prospective Study.

Arch Bronconeumol (Engl Ed) 2020 Oct 8;56(10):621-629. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Exacerbations are crucial events during bronchiectasis progression.

Objectives: To explore the associations between bacterial, viral, and bacterial plus viral isolations and bronchiectasis exacerbations.

Methods: In this prospective study, we enrolled 108 patients who were followed up every 3-6 months and at onset of exacerbations between March 2017 and November 2018. Spontaneous sputum was split for detection of bacteria (routine culture) and viruses (quantitative polymerase chain reaction). Symptoms and lung function were assessed during exacerbations.

Results: The median exacerbation rate was 2.0 (interquartile range: 1.0-2.5) per patient-year. At any visit, viral isolations (V+) occurred more frequently during onset of exacerbations [odds ratio (OR): 3.28, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.76-6.12], as did isolation of new bacteria (NB+) (OR: 2.52, 95%CI: 1.35-4.71) and bacterial plus viral isolations (OR: 2.24, 95%CI: 1.11-4.55). Whilst coryza appeared more common in exacerbations with V+ than in exacerbations with no pathogen isolations and those with NB+, lower airway symptoms were more severe in exacerbations with NB+ (P<.05). Sputum interleukin-1β levels were higher in exacerbations with NB+ than in exacerbations with no pathogen isolations and those with V+ (both P<.05). Significantly more coryza symptoms correlated with bacterial plus viral isolations at exacerbations (P=.019). Compared with V+ alone, bacterial with and without viral isolations tended to yield more severe lower airway symptoms, but not sputum cytokine levels at exacerbations.

Conclusions: Viral isolations, isolation of new bacteria and bacterial plus viral isolation are associated with bronchiectasis exacerbations. Symptoms at exacerbations might inform clinicians the possible culprit pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arbres.2019.12.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7141478PMC
October 2020

Aberrant Epithelial Cell Proliferation in Peripheral Airways in Bronchiectasis.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 20;8:88. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Dilation of bronchi and bronchioles caused by destruction and excessive epithelial remodeling is a characteristic feature of bronchiectasis. It is not known how epithelial progenitor cells contribute to these pathologic conditions in peripheral airways (bronchioles) in bronchiectasis. We aimed to explore the expression levels of signature airway progenitor cells in the dilated bronchioles in patients with bronchiectasis. We obtained the surgically resected peripheral lung tissues from 43 patients with bronchiectasis and 33 control subjects. Immunostaining was performed to determine the expression patterns of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1, for labeling progenitor cells in distal airways), P63 (basal cells), club cell 10 kDa protein (CC10, club cells), and surfactant protein C (SPC, alveolar type II epithelial cells) in epithelium or sub-epithelium. Here, we reported significantly lower percentage of TTF-1 cells and CC10 cells, and higher percentage of P63 cells within the epithelium of dilated bronchioles compared with control bronchioles. In airway sub-epithelium of the dilated bronchioles, epithelial hyperplasia with disarrangement of TTF-1 cells yielded cuboidal (100%) and columnar (93.0%) type among bronchiectasis patients. Most progenitor cell markers co-localized with TTF-1. The median (the 1st, 3rd quartile) percentage of P63TTF-1, CC10TTF-1, and SPCTTF-1 cells was 16.0% (8.9, 24.0%), 14.5% (7.1, 20.8%), and 52% (40.3, 64.4%), respectively. For cuboidal epithelial hyperplasia, 91.0% (86.5, 94.0%) of areas co-stained with SPC and TTF-1. Columnar epithelial hyperplasia was characterized by TTF-1 co-staining with P63TTF-1 and CC10TTF-1 cells. Taken together, aberrant proliferation of airway progenitor cells in both epithelium and sub-epithelium are implicated in bronchiectasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044270PMC
February 2020

Sputum Exosomal microRNAs Profiling Reveals Critical Pathways Modulated By Colonization In Bronchiectasis.

Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2019 22;14:2563-2573. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute for Respiratory Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Background: (PA) colonization confers poor prognosis in bronchiectasis. However, the biomarkers and biological pathways underlying these associations are unclear.

Objective: To identify the roles of PA colonization in bronchiectasis by exploring for sputum exosomal microRNA profiles.

Methods: We enrolled 98 patients with clinically stable bronchiectasis and 17 healthy subjects. Sputum was split for bacterial culture and exosomal microRNA sequencing, followed by validation with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bronchiectasis patients were stratified into PA and non-PA colonization groups based on sputum culture findings. We applied Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway enrichment analysis to explore biological pathways corresponding to the differentially expressed microRNAs (DEMs) associated with PA colonization.

Results: Eighty-two bronchiectasis patients and 9 healthy subjects yielded sufficient sputum that passed quality control. We identified 10 overlap DEMs for the comparison between bronchiectasis patients and healthy subjects, and between PA and non-PA colonization group. Both miR-92b-5p and miR-223-3p could discriminate PA colonization (C-statistic >0.60) and independently correlated with PA colonization in multiple linear regression analysis. The differential expression of miR-92b-5p was validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (<0.05), whereas the differential expression of miR-223 trended towards statistical significance (=0.06). These DEMs, whose expression levels correlated significantly with sputum inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-1β and interleukin-8) level, were implicated in the modulation of the nuclear factor-κB, phosphatidylinositol and longevity regulation pathways.

Conclusion: Sputum exosomal microRNAs are implicated in PA colonization in bronchiectasis, highlighting candidate targets for therapeutic interventions to mitigate the adverse impacts conferred by PA colonization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S219821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6878997PMC
April 2020

The significant global economic burden of bronchiectasis: a pending matter.

Eur Respir J 2019 02 28;53(2). Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Pneumology Dept, University and Politechnic La Fe Hospital, Valencia, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02392-2018DOI Listing
February 2019

Determinants of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burn out in nursing: A correlative meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Jun;97(26):e11086

Outpatient Department, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining Department of Neurology, Zouping County People's Hospital, Binzhou, Shandong Department of Respiratory Intervention, Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University Nursing Department Urology Department, Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, Shandong, China.

Background: Compassionate care is essential for better clinical and patient outcomes, but during healthcare provision it can be compromised by several factors. This study evaluates factors affecting compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout in nursing.

Methods: Literature search in electronic databases was followed by data extraction, conversion, and meta-analyses under random effect model. Correlation coefficients (r) reported by individual studies were first converted to z-scores for meta-analyses and the overall effect sizes were then back-transformed into r.

Results: Eleven studies (4054 respondents; 64.34 [95% confidence interval: 38.82, 89.86] % response rate; age 39.81 [31.36, 48.27] years; 87.11 [79.48, 94.73] % females) were used for meta-analysis. There was a strong positive correlation between compassion fatigue and burnout (r = 0.59), whereas compassion satisfaction had weak negative correlation with compassion fatigue (r = -0.226) but moderate with burnout (r = -0.446). Stress and negative affect were moderately positively associated with compassion fatigue (r = 0.405) but weakly correlated with burnout (r = 0.119). Positive affect and personal/social factors had weak inverse relationship with burnout (r = -0.197). Positive affect also had a moderately positive relationship with compassion satisfaction (r = 0.396). Demographic or professional factors were not significantly related to compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, or burnout.

Conclusion: In nursing, a variety of stressful factors and negative affect promote compassion fatigue and burnout whereas positive affect is helpful in achieving compassion satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000011086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6242309PMC
June 2018

Erratum to: A nomogram based on mammary ductoscopic indicators for evaluating the risk of breast cancer in intraductal neoplasms with nipple discharge.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2016 Feb;155(3):619

Breast Disease Center, Guangdong Women and Children Hospital, Guangzhou, 511400, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-016-3723-1DOI Listing
February 2016

A nomogram based on mammary ductoscopic indicators for evaluating the risk of breast cancer in intraductal neoplasms with nipple discharge.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2015 Apr 7;150(2):373-80. Epub 2015 Mar 7.

Breast Disease Center, Guangdong Women and Children Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, 511400, People's Republic of China,

Mammary ductoscopy (MD) is commonly used to detect intraductal lesions associated with nipple discharge. This study investigated the relationships between ductoscopic image-based indicators and breast cancer risk, and developed a nomogram for evaluating breast cancer risk in intraductal neoplasms with nipple discharge. A total of 879 consecutive inpatients (916 breasts) with nipple discharge who underwent selective duct excision for intraductal neoplasms detected by MD from June 2008 to April 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. A nomogram was developed using a multivariate logistic regression model based on data from a training set (687 cases) and validated in an independent validation set (229 cases). A Youden-derived cut-off value was assigned to the nomogram for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Color of discharge, location, appearance, and surface of neoplasm, and morphology of ductal wall were independent predictors for breast cancer in multivariate logistic regression analysis. A nomogram based on these predictors performed well. The P value of the Hosmer-Lemeshow test for the prediction model was 0.36. Area under the curve values of 0.812 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.763-0.860) and 0.738 (95 % CI 0.635-0.841) was obtained in the training and validation sets, respectively. The accuracies of the nomogram for breast cancer diagnosis were 71.2 % in the training set and 75.5 % in the validation set. We developed a nomogram for evaluating breast cancer risk in intraductal neoplasms with nipple discharge based on MD image findings. This model may aid individual risk assessment and guide treatment in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-015-3320-8DOI Listing
April 2015

[Effect of bronchoscopic cryosurgery in twenty-two children with lower airway stenosis].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2012 Jan;50(1):45-9

Center for Respiratory Intervention, Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Objective: To analyze the effect and safety of bronchoscopic cryosurgery in children with lower airway stenosis caused by granulation and fiber hyperplasia.

Method: Twenty-two patients had undergone bronchoscopic examination and cryosurgery, 18 patients with atelectasis caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, 2 patients with endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB), 1 patient with atelectasis caused by granulation tissue after bronchial foreign body, and 1 case who had severe dyspnea, with tracheal stenosis after long-term endotracheal intubation during surgery for heart disease. All the patients under went bronchoscopic cryosurgery for several times, 1 case with severe tracheal stenosis was operated by electric coagulation before cryosurgery. Before and after the treatment, all the patients were evaluated based on clinical symptoms, tracheal lumen by bronchoscopy, chest CT for atelectasis and pulmonary function for tracheal stenosis.

Result: The patients were treated with cryosurgery for 1-4 times. Sixteen cases were markedly improved, clinical symptoms disappeared completely, no granulation and fiber hyperplasia were found during bronchoscopy, and all the atelectasis were cured. After the treatment, the bronchial lumen diameter of the patient with tracheal stenosis was increased from 2 mm to about 5 mm, the tidal volume increased from 3.0 ml/kg to 8.8 ml/kg. Five cases were effectively improved, the clinical symptoms also disappeared, during bronchoscopy and bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL), no granulation and fiber hyperplasia were found, but some distal bronchial tubes were atresia or narrowed, the lumen was patent, the atelectasis recovered partially. In 1 case the treatment was ineffective, as the clinical symptoms and granulation disappeared, but because almost all distal bronchi were atresia or narrow, the lumen was not patent during BAL, there was no change on chest CT. The total effective rate was 21/22 (95.5%). No severe complications occurred during and after the procedures. All the patient were followed up for 1 - 12 months, no case had recurrence.

Conclusion: Treatment with bronchoscopic cryosurgery is a safe and effective methods to tracheal stenosis caused by granulation tissue and fiber hyperplasia in children.
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January 2012

[Application of bronchoalveolar lavage treatment via bronchoscopy in the management of accidental inhalation of liquid and powdery foreign bodies in children].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2011 Dec;49(12):947-51

Center for Respiratory Intervention, Qilu Children's Hospital, Shandong University, Ji'nan 250022, China.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) through bronchoscopy in diagnosis and treatment of accidental inhalation of liquid and powdery foreign bodies in children.

Method: Twenty-one cases of accidental inhalation were classified into the following 4 groups according to the materials inhaled: 3 cases inhaled the lipidic material; 2 cases inhaled chemical material; 15 cases inhaled hydrosoluble materials; 1 case inhaled powdery material. Eighteen cases were hospitalized within 3 days after the accidents, which included 16 cases treated within 1 day in hospital. And 3 cases were hospitalized 3 days after the accident. After hospitalization, all patients were immediately treated with direct aspiration and lavage clearance method through bronchoscopy. The inhaled foreign materials were cleared as soon as possible, which reduced the absorption, stimulation and infection of respiratory mucosa. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by endoscopic findings, clinical manifestation, laboratory examination and chest imaging. At the same time, decision was made on the second BAL and the prognosis was estimated.

Result: Twenty-one cases had dyspnea of certain degree. The bronchial mucous membrane of all the 21 cases showed hyperemia, edema and exudate attached. Lavage fluid looked like broth and contained much of the inhaled material. After two to five times treatment, 18 cases were cured (86%), but 3 cases died (14%). One of these 3 cases fell into an oil well, 1 into mosquito repellent solution, another into manure pit. The patients who could not survive had severe airway obstruction, which was difficult to clean and made the problem deteriorated progressively. One of the patients was sent to a hospital 3 days after the accident and another case developed fungal infection, pneumothorax and finally respiratory failure.

Conclusion: BAL through bronchoscopy is necessary for children who accidentally inhaled liquid and powdery materials. This treatment is safe and effective in diagnosis and treatment of such problems in children. The effect of treatment is influenced by types of inhaled material, the time of lavage clearance through bronchoscopy, and certain complications, such as infection etc.
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December 2011

[Balloon dilatation bronchoplasty in management of bronchial stenosis in children with mycoplasma pneumonia].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2010 Apr;48(4):301-4

Respiratory Interventional Diagnosis and Treatment Center, Qilu Children's Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan 250022, China.

Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of balloon dilatation through flexible bronchoscopy in the management of inflammatory stenosis of grade 4-5 bronchus.

Method: Thirty patients with inflammatory bronchial stenosis caused by mycoplasmal pneumonia complicated with pulmonary atelectasis were treated with balloon dilatation through fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Before the procedure and after the last operation, therapeutic effect on pulmonary atelectasis were evaluated with CT and all of the patients were followed-up for 1 - 6 months.

Result: One to three operations were required to achieve satisfactory dilatation. After balloon dilatation, the average airway diameter increased obviously and the farther airways were opened after the therapy with irrigation. In 25 of 30 cases satisfactory immediate effects were obtained, a narrow airway diameter above expansion significantly increased as compared with preoperative diameter. In 5 children treated with balloon dilatation, the stenosis could not be improved significantly. In 3 patients with hyperplasia of granulation tissue, cryotherapy had to be applied. The operations were ineffective in the other two patients whose course of disease exceeded 3 months. After follow-up periods of 1 - 6 months, chest CT manifestation of expanded sites was improved in 28 patients and atelectasis disappeared. No severe complication was found in any patients.

Conclusion: Bronchoplasty by balloon dilatation through flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is a simple, effective and safe method to treat childhood tracheobronchial stenosis after pulmonary infections.
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April 2010