Publications by authors named "Xiao-Qing Shi"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Association of left ventricular systolic dysfunction with coronary artery dilation in Kawasaki disease patients: Assessment with cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Nov 16;145:110039. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Radiology, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To quantify global and regional left ventricular (LV) strain parameters in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) tissue tracking and assess the association of coronary artery dilation (CA dilation) with LV systolic dysfunction.

Methods: Thirty-one KD patients with CA dilation, 22 patients without CA dilation and 27 age- and sex-matched normal controls underwent 3.0 T CMR examination. Z score of >2 was defined as CA dilation. Global LV strain parameters and regional LV strain parameters in 16 American Heart Association segmentation, including radial, circumferential and longitudinal peak strain (PS) and LV function were measured and compared among groups.

Results: No significant difference in LV ejection fraction has been observed among controls, KD patients with CA dilation and without CA dilation (all p > 0.05). However, global longitudinal PS (GLPS) was lower in groups with CA dilation than those without CA dilation (-12.6 ± 4.1% vs -14.9 ± 2.6%, p < 0.05). For regional strain parameters, the segments with CA dilation (n = 301) were lower than those in both normal controls (n = 416) and segments without CA dilation (n = 547) in regional radial, circumferential and longitudinal PS (all p < 0.05). The severity of CA dilation was positively correlated to GLPS and regional longitudinal PS (r = 0.388 and r = 0.222; both p < 0.05) in KD patients. After adjusting for clinical characteristics, the multivariate analysis demonstrated that Z score was independently associated with GLPS in KD patients (β = 0.469, p = 0.000, model R = 0.355).

Conclusions: CMR tissue tracking could sensitively identify subclinical LV dysfunction in KD patients with CA dilation. LV systolic dysfunction occurs particularly in the myocardium dominated by the dilated coronary artery. CA dilation is an independent predictor of LV systolic dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2021.110039DOI Listing
November 2021

Multimodal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of ALCAPA syndrome.

Eur Heart J 2021 02;42(7):798

Department of Radiology, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children of Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa816DOI Listing
February 2021

[Predicting the Recycling Potential and Evaluating the Environmental Benefits of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2020 Apr;41(4):1976-1986

State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or e-waste) is a significant urban mine in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. A comprehensive and systematic assessment of the amount of e-waste generated in the region and the resources and environmental benefits of e-waste recycling can provide scientific basis and methods to support collaborative and accurate management of e-waste in the region to solve resource and environmental problems. Based on the improved ownership coefficient method, material coefficient method, market value method, and pollution coefficient method, this study predicted and evaluated the recycling potential and environmental benefits of e-waste in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei from 2010 to 2025 by estimating the production, amount of recyclable resources, resource recycling value, and environmental benefits of waste televisions, refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, and computers (five major e-wastes). The results show that the amount of five major e-wastes will increase continuously from 2010 to 2025, with an annual average growth rate of 7.75% during the period of 2010 to 2018, and it is expected to increase at 3.07% after that. In 2025, the amount of the five major e-wastes in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei will reach 1861.74×10 units, with recycling of ordinary metal, plastic, and precious metal to 27.19×10, 12.75×10, and 19.45 tons, respectively. From 2019 to 2025, the economic value of recycling waste air conditioners and computers will be relatively higher than that of other e-wastes. The sum of the economic value of waste air conditioners and computers is 77.22% of the total annual recycling value. The economic value contribution ratios of copper and gold are 43.37% and 19.82%, respectively, which are significantly higher than that of other resources. It is estimated that the total value of resource recovery in 2025 will reach 5.02 billion yuan, which is 3.13 times that in 2010. Among them, the recovery values of common metals, precious metals, and plastics will be 2.87, 1.33, and 0.83 billion yuan, respectively. If all the five major e-wastes generated in 2025 are recycled in a standardized way, it will reduce the exploitation of primary ores by 913.23×10 tons, the utilization of standard coal by 122.71×10 tons, the emission of waste water, waste gas, waste residue, and heavy metals by 1231.19×10, 473.89×10, 785.10×10, and 6.08×10 tons, respectively, and the emission of greenhouse gases by 32.92×10 tons CO-eq. Waste air conditioners have the greatest recycling potential, but the recycling capacity of waste air conditioners in processing enterprises needs to be improved urgently. To effectively exploit e-waste in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the fund subsidy system should be improved as soon as possible, the supervision and management of informal dismantling departments should be strengthened, and a regional information sharing platform should be established to realize regional collaborative management of e-waste throughout its life cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.201909249DOI Listing
April 2020

Pulmonary hypertension in late-onset Methylmalonic Aciduria and Homocystinemia: a case report.

BMC Pediatr 2020 05 22;20(1):243. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Cardiology, Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children of Ministry of Education, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, 20# Section 3 South Renmin Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: Methylmalonic Aciduria and Homocystinemia, cobalamin C (cblC) is an inherited disease of vitamin B metabolism with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. cblC presenting with pulmonary hypertension (PH) as leading sympotom is rare and easily misdiagnosed because of limited awareness. Timely diagnosis is crucial by the relentless progression without appropriate treatment.

Case Presentation: We reported a 12-year-old girl with a 3-year history of progressively reduced activity tolerance and a 3-month history of orthopnea. Metabolic testing revealed increased levels of plasma homocysteine and urine methylmalonic acid. cblC deficiency was subsequently confirmed by genetic testing. The patient was treated with hydroxocobalamin, betaine, folinic acid and levocarnitine for cblC disease. Sildenafil, bosentan, spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide was administrated for PH and right heart failure. At 3-month follow-up, she had an apparent resolution of dyspnea and cyanosis. Metabolic abnormalities resolved the decrease of plasma homocysteine and urine methylmalonic acid. A right heart catheterization showed a reduced pulmonary pressure.

Conclusions: This case emphasizes the importance of an early diagnosis and initiation of treatment for cblC deficiency. Unexplained PH in children and young adults should prompt metabolic screening for the differential diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-020-02130-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243308PMC
May 2020

Metabolic and genetic assessments interpret unexplained aggressive pulmonary hypertension induced by methylmalonic acidemia: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Mar;8(6):1137-1141

Department of Pediatrics and Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Women and Children's Diseases and Birth Defects, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan Province, China.

Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) causes significant morbidity and mortality in diverse childhood diseases. However, limited information has been reported to obtain a good understanding of pediatric PH. Gaps exist between genome sequencing and metabolic assessments and lead to misinterpretations of the complicated symptoms of PH. Here, we report a rare case of a patient who presented with severe PH as the first manifestation without significant cardiovascular malformation and was finally diagnosed with methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) after metabolic and genomic assessments.

Case Summary: An 11-year-old female presented with an aggressive reduction in activity capability and shortness of breath for only 4 mo and suffered from unexplained PH. A series of examinations was performed to evaluate any possible malformations or abnormalities of the cardiovascular system and lungs, but negative results were obtained. The blood tests were normal except for manifestations of microcytic anemia and elevated total homocysteine. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging failed to identify any pulmonary diseases. Cardiac catheterization examination identified a small right coronary artery to pulmonary artery shunt and severe PH. During the follow-up, PH progressed rapidly. Then, genome sequencing and metabolic disorder screening were performed, which confirmed a diagnosis of MMA with MMACHC c.80A > G/c and 609G > A mutations. Vitamin B12, betaine and bosentan were then administered as the main treatments. During the 6-mo follow-up, the pulmonary artery pressure dropped to 45 mmHg, while the right ventricle structure recovered. The patient's heart function recovered to NYHA class II. Metabolic disorder analysis failed to identify significant abnormalities.

Conclusion: As emerging types of metabolic dysfunction have been shown to present as the first manifestation of PH, and taking advantage of next generation sequencing technology, genome sequencing and metabolic disorder screening are recommended to have a more superior role when attempting to understand unclear or aggressive PH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i6.1137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7103965PMC
March 2020

Meta-analysis of the association of IL1-RN variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism with osteoarthritis risk.

Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2019 Nov 21;53(6):497-501. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of TCM, Jiangsu Province Hospital of TCM, Nanjing, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify the role of Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1-RN) Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) polymorphism on the risk of OA by means of meta-analysis.

Methods: Eligible articles were retrieved from PubMed, Web of science and Google scholar with a total of 1187 OA cases and 2659 controls. The strength of the association between the IL1-RN VNTR polymorphism and the risk of OA was assessed by odds ratios (ORs) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study.

Results: The meta-analysis of seven published studies retrieved from the literature search showed a significantly increased OA risk in the recessive model analysis (22 vs 2L + LL: P = 0.18, I = 32.8, OR(95% CI) = 1.50(1.12, 2.02), P = 0.007), the additive model analysis (22 vs LL: P = 0.08, I = 46.8, OR(95% CI) = 1.56(1.15, 2.12), P = 0.004) and in the allele contrast model (2 vs L: P = 0.02, I = 58.8, OR(95% CI) = 1.20(1.05, 1.36), P = 0.007). By subgroup analysis, the IL1-RN VNTR polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with OA susceptibility in Caucasian and Hospital based case-control study (HCC) groups.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed that IL1-RN VNTR polymorphism may increase the susceptibility to OA. More studies with detailed information are needed to validate our conclusion.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, diagnostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aott.2019.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6939037PMC
November 2019

The complete chloroplast genome of (Malvaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2019 Jul 13;4(2):2533-2534. Epub 2019 Jul 13.

Chengdu Institute of Landscape Architecture, Chengdu, Sichuan, P. R. China.

S. Y. Hu is an ornamental plant of , native to Taiwan. Here, we reported the complete chloroplast genome of . The chloroplast genome of was 161,056 bp in length, containing a couple of inverted repeat (IR) regions of 26,300 bp, a large single-copy (LSC) region of 89,538 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,918 bp. The complete chloroplast genome annotation revealed a total of 131 genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 7 rRNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes. The entire GC content was 36.9%. Phylogenetic tree analyses indicated that was closely clustered with and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2019.1640084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687590PMC
July 2019

[Diagnostic Value of Cystain C in Contrast Associated Acute Kidney Injury after Transcatheter Closure for Children with Congenital Heart Disease].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2016 Jul;47(4):556-559

Pediatric Cardiovascular Department, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic value of cystain C (SCys-C) in contrast associated acute kidney injury (AKI) after transcatheter closure for children with congenital heart disease.

Methods: There were 128 children with congenital heart disease (interventricular septal defect or patent ductus arteriosus) underwent transcatheter closure in West China Second University Hospital during 2013. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr) and SCys-C were examined before surgery and at 24 and 48 h after surgery. The incidence of AKI was calculated. The children were divided into two groups according to glomerular filtration rate: AKI group (renal function stage 1, renal function stage 2 subgroups) and non-AKI group. Differences in renal function indexes and SCys-C were compared between AKI group ( =16) and non-AKI group ( =112), renal function stage 1 and stage 2 subgroups. ROC curve analysis was used to calculate the cut-off value of SCys-C in the diagnosis of AKI .

Results: The levels of SCr and SCys-C in AKI group were significantly higher than those in non-AKI group ( <0.05). However, there was no significant difference in BUN between the two groups ( >0.05). Only SCys-C had a significant difference between renal function stage 1 and stage 2 subgroups ( <0.05). The cut-off value of 24 h SCys-C in the diagnosis of AKI was 1.055 mg/L according to area under curve (). indicated that AKI could be diagnosed earlier with SCys-C than SCr ( <0.05).

Conclusions: The contrast agent could increase the risk of child AKI after transcatheter closure for congenital disease children.SCys-C is an important index for this risk with its cut-off value of 1.055 mg/L at 24 h post-surgery.
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July 2016

[Laboratory Investigation of DNAPL Migration Behavior and Distribution at Varying Flow Velocities Based on Light Transmission Method].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2015 Jul;36(7):2532-9

The migration and distribution of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAFL) in subsurtace are attectea ny many factors. We selected PCE as the substitute contaminant, and performed several well-controlled two-dimensional sandbox experiments to investigate the effect of flow velocity on DNAPL infiltration and redistribution. Light transmission method (LTM) was used to monitor the transport process of DNAPL in the sandbox and quantitatively measure DNAPL saturation. The spatial moments based on measured DNAPL saturation were used to describe the average spatial behavior of DNAPL plume at various times. Experimental results showed a strong correlation between results obtained by LTM and the known amounts of DNAPL added into the sandbox (R2 >0.98). The LTM accurately reflected the infiltration and redistribution processes. The results of DNAPL saturation and first moment (mass center) showed that the increased velocity promoted not only lateral but also vertical migration, leading to an inclined percolation path. Also vertical migration reacted more sensitive to flow velocity. The second moment (spread variance) showed that the increased velocity promoted lateral and vertical spread, increasing the pollution scope. The histogram of DNAPL saturation showed a unimodal distribution at low flow velocity, but showed a bimodal distribution at lager flow velocity, and the distance between two peaks became higher with the increasing flow velocity.
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July 2015

[Comparative life cycle environmental assessment between electric taxi and gasoline taxi in Beijing].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2015 Mar;36(3):1105-16

Tailpipe emission of internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) is one of the main sources leading to atmospheric environmental problems such as haze. Substituting electric vehicles for conventional gasoline vehicles is an important solution for reducing urban air pollution. In 2011, as a pilot city of electric vehicle, Beijing launched a promotion plan of electric vehicle. In order to compare the environmental impacts between Midi electric vehicle (Midi EV) and Hyundai gasoline taxi (ICEV), this study created an inventory with local data and well-reasoned assumptions, and contributed a life cycle assessment (LCA) model with GaBi4.4 software and comparative life cycle environmental assessment by Life cycle impact analysis models of CML2001(Problem oriented) and EI99 (Damage oriented), which included the environmental impacts of full life cycle, manufacture phase, use phase and end of life. The sensitivity analysis of lifetime mileage and power structure was also provided. The results indicated that the full life cycle environmental impact of Midi EV was smaller than Hyundai ICEV, which was mainly due to the lower fossil fuel consumption. On the contrary, Midi EV exhibited the potential of increasing the environmental impacts of ecosystem quality influence and Human health influence. By CML2001 model, the results indicated that Midi EV might decrease the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Global Warming Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential and so on. However, in the production phase, the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Ozone Layer Depletion Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Terrestric Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential of Midi EV were increased relative to Hyundai ICEV because of emissions impacts from its power system especially the battery production. Besides, in the use phase, electricity production was the main process leading to the impact of Abiotic Depletion Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential, Global Warming Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential, Marine Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Freshwater Aquatic Ecotoxicity Potential, Human Toxicity Potential. While for Hyundai ICEV, gasoline production and tailpipe emission were the primary sources of environmental impact in the use phase. Tailpipe emission was a significant cause for increase in Eutrophication Potential and Global Warming Potential, and so forth. On the basis of inventory data analysis and 2010 Beijing electricity mix, the comparative results of haze-induced pollutants emissions showed that the full life cycle emissions of PM2.5, NO(x), SO(x), VOCs of Midi EV were higher than those of Hyundai ICEV, but the emission of NH3 was lower than that of Hyundai ICEV. Different emissions in use phase were the chief reason leading to this trend. In addition, by sensitivity analysis the results indicated that with the increase of lifetime mileage and proportion of cleaning energy, the rate of GHG( Green House Gas) emission reduction per kilometer of Midi EV became higher with respect to Hyundai ICEV. Haze-induced pollutants emission from EV could be significantly reduced using cleaner power energy. According to the assessment results, some management strategies aiming at electric car promotion were proposed.
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March 2015

[Perinatal integrative intervention for critical pulmonary artery valve stenosis].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2013 Aug;51(8):584-9

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, West China Second Hospital and West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu.

Objective: To investigate the effect of different operation time to percutaneous balloon pulmonic valvuloplasty (PBPV) to critical pulmonary valve stenosis (CPS).

Method: Twenty-one infants (age ≤ 60 days at operating day) suffered from CPS, diagnosed by fetal echocardiogram and confirmed by echocardiography after birth, were enrolled in this case-control-study with written informed consent during April 2007 to December 2011. Of the 21 cases, 7 had prenatal diagnosis in our prenatal diagnosis center (prenatal group, Pre) and 14 were referred from other hospitals, who were divided into postpartum group A (Post A, referred within 28 days after birth) and postpartum group B (Post B, referred 29 to 60 days after birth). To Pre-group, the integrative interventional protocol was cautiously made by the consultative specialists, including intrauterine diagnosis, perinatal care and urgent PBPV soon after birth. To Post-group, emergency PBPV was preformed after the referral. Tei index of right ventricular and pressure-gradient (PG) between right ventricular and pulmonary artery were measured before and at different time points one year after PBPV.

Result: The values of SpO2 in Pre-group ranged from 82%-92% (86.57% ± 5.34%) under the state of continuous intravenous infusion of alprostadil. PBPV was successfully preformed within 3-6 days after birth. The values of SpO2 increased to 97.33% ± 1.15% post procedure. The values of PG pre- and post- procedure were (86.34 ± 11.77) mm Hg and (31.43 ± 8.46) mm Hg respectively. Preoperative RV Tei-index was 0.68 ± 0.05, it decreased rapidly after procedure, and recovered to normal one month after procedure. Only one case showed restenosis seven months after procedure and repeated PBPV. Fourteen referral cases (6 cases in Post A group and 8 cases in Post B group, accompanied in 1 and 3 cases with heart failure), the values of SpO2 ranged from 83%-91% under state of continuous intravenous infusion of alprostadil. And the operating time was 10-57 days after birth. The values of SpO2 recovered to normal post procedure, and heart failure alleviated. Increased preoperative RV pressure obviously decreased significantly post-procedure. And increased Tei-index declined gradually, at one-year follow-up, the value of Tei-index in Post A group recovered to normal, whereas that of Post B was (0.51 ± 0.06), compared to Pre and Post A groups, the difference was significant (P < 0.05) . One case showed restenosis nine months after procedure and repeated PBPV was performed. The hypoxic exposure durations were (4.43 ± 0.68) , (16.33 ± 4.46) , (41.25 ± 9.19) , respectively, and the difference among the three groups was significant (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: To the fetuses with definite prenatal diagnosis of critical pulmonary valve stenosis, preoperative general condition can be adjusted to more suitable for emergency operation. Early PBPV can achieve shorter hypoxic exposure and better recovery of right ventricular function post procedure. Perinatal integrated intervention for CPS can significantly improve the prognosis and quality of life in this patient population.
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August 2013

Do specialized flowers promote reproductive isolation? Realized pollination accuracy of three sympatric Pedicularis species.

Ann Bot 2014 Jan 18;113(2):331-40. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 2DY, UK.

Background And Aims: Interest in pollinator-mediated evolutionary divergence of flower phenotype and speciation in plants has been at the core of plant evolutionary studies since Darwin. Specialized pollination is predicted to lead to reproductive isolation and promote speciation among sympatric species by promoting partitioning of (1) the species of pollinators used, (2) when pollinators are used, or (3) the sites of pollen placement. Here this last mechanism is investigated by observing the pollination accuracy of sympatric Pedicularis species (Orobanchacae).

Methods: Pollinator behaviour was observed on three species of Pedicularis (P. densispica, P. tricolor and P. dichotoma) in the Hengduan Mountains, south-west China. Using fluorescent powder and dyed pollen, the accuracy was assessed of stigma contact with, and pollen deposition on, pollinating bumble-bees, respectively.

Key Results: All three species of Pedicularis were pollinated by bumble-bees. It was found that the adaptive accuracy of female function was much higher than that of male function in all three flower species. Although peak pollen deposition corresponded to the optimal location on the pollinator (i.e. the site of stigma contact) for each species, substantial amounts of pollen were scattered over much of the bees' bodies.

Conclusions: The Pedicularis species studied in the eastern Himalayan region did not conform with Grant's 'Pedicularis Model' of mechanical reproductive isolation. The specialized flowers of this diverse group of plants seem unlikely to have increased the potential for reproductive isolation or influenced rates of speciation. It is suggested instead that the extreme species richness of the Pedicularis clade was generated in other ways and that specialized flowers and substantial pollination accuracy evolved as a response to selection generated by the diversity of co-occurring congeners.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mct187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3890382PMC
January 2014

Floral isolation in Pedicularis: how do congeners with shared pollinators minimize reproductive interference?

New Phytol 2013 Aug 15;199(3):858-65. Epub 2013 May 15.

State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

To minimize interspecific pollination, it has been suggested that pollen is placed on different parts of a pollinator's body corresponding to the conspecific location of pollen pickup by the stigma. Although Pedicularis is regarded as a classic example of pollinator-mediated floral isolation, such reciprocal pollen placement has not been demonstrated experimentally. This leads us to question previous observations of pollen release in Pedicularis species. Here, we show that pollen grains are released from the tip, rather than the basal opening, of the galea (the hoodlike upper lip of the corolla) in eight nectarless Pedicularis species, mimicking pollen release from poricidal anthers. We used safranin-stained pollen within anthers to track pollen placement in three Pedicularis species, and showed that pollen was deposited on numerous parts of the bumblebee's body. However, fluorescent powder placed on the stigmas to detect the contact location on the bumblebee's body was deposited mainly on the major position of pollen placement in each of the three species. Such segregation of pollen placement and pickup between species sharing the same pollinator probably helps to reduce reproductive interference, but the positions of pollen placement and stigma contact on the bumblebee's body were not as precise as previously thought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.12327DOI Listing
August 2013

[Research on carbon reduction potential of electric vehicles for low-carbon transportation and its influencing factors].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2013 Jan;34(1):385-94

State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Transportation is the key industry of urban energy consumption and carbon emissions. The transformation of conventional gasoline vehicles to new energy vehicles is an important initiative to realize the goal of developing low-carbon city through energy saving and emissions reduction, while electric vehicles (EV) will play an important role in this transition due to their advantage in energy saving and lower carbon emissions. After reviewing the existing researches on energy saving and emissions reduction of electric vehicles, this paper analyzed the factors affecting carbon emissions reduction. Combining with electric vehicles promotion program in Beijing, the paper analyzed carbon emissions and reduction potential of electric vehicles in six scenarios using the optimized energy consumption related carbon emissions model from the perspective of fuel life cycle. The scenarios included power energy structure, fuel type (energy consumption per 100 km), car type (CO2 emission factor of fuel), urban traffic conditions (speed), coal-power technologies and battery type (weight, energy efficiency). The results showed that the optimized model was able to estimate carbon emissions caused by fuel consumption more reasonably; electric vehicles had an obvious restrictive carbon reduction potential with the fluctuation of 57%-81.2% in the analysis of six influencing factors, while power energy structure and coal-power technologies play decisive roles in life-cycle carbon emissions of electric vehicles with the reduction potential of 78.1% and 81.2%, respectively. Finally, some optimized measures were proposed to reduce transport energy consumption and carbon emissions during electric vehicles promotion including improving energy structure and coal technology, popularizing energy saving technologies and electric vehicles, accelerating the battery R&D and so on. The research provides scientific basis and methods for the policy development for the transition of new energy vehicles in low-carbon transport.
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January 2013

[Effect of resveratrol on myocardial fibrosis in mice with chronic viral myocarditis].

Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi 2009 Apr;11(4):291-5

Department of Children's Cardiovascular Disease, West China Second Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: Some research has shown that resveratrol can ameliorate myocardial injury and improve cardiac function in mice with acute viral myocarditis (VMC), and can inhibit cardiac fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation in vitro. This study was designed to investigate whether resveratrol has similar effects in the mouse model of chronic VMC.

Methods: One hundred mice were inoculated with 0.3 mL of Coxsackievirus B3 1*106 TCID50. Thirty days later, the survivors (n=62) were used as a model of chronic VMC, and were randomly assigned to 4 groups: untreated VMC, and low- (10 mg/kg), middle- (100 mg/kg) and high-dose (1 000 mg/kg) resveratrol-treated VMC (once daily, for 30 days). Ten mice which received neither Coxsackievirus B3 nor resveratrol treatment served as the control group. After 30 days of resveratrol treatment, the mice were sacrificed. Serum concentrations of collagenous pre-peptides (PINP, PICP and PIIINP) were assessed using ELISA. Hematoxylin-eosin staining, picrosirius red staining and circularly polarized light were used to examine the histochemistry of myocardial collagen.

Results: The myocardial collagen volume fraction in the high-dose (0.74+/-0.19) and the middle-dose (1.07+/-0.12) resveratrol-treated VMC groups was significantly lower than that in the untreated VMC (2.33+/-0.18) and the low-dose resveratrol-treated VMC (2.17+/-0.19) groups (P<0.05). Compared with the untreated VMC group, serum concentrations of PICP and PIIINP in the high-dose and the middle-dose resveratrol-treated VMC groups were significantly reduced (P<0.05), while PINP concentrations increased significantly (P<0.05).

Conclusions: Resveratrol can inhibit hyperplasia of myocardial collagen in the mouse model of chronic VMC, acting as an effective anti-fibrotic agent in the myocardium.
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April 2009

[The research of animal model setting-up in human intra-utero fetal cardiac intervention].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2008 Jul;39(4):641-4

Pediatric Cardiovascular Department, West China Second Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To research the techniques and correlated issues during analogous procedure of human intro-utero fetal cardiac intervention in animal model, so as to impulse the clinical utilizing of cardiac intervention in human fetus with severe cardiovascular malformations.

Methods: Eight bigeminal pregnant ewes in latter 2nd-trimester and 3rd- trimester were taken into the research of fetal cardiac intervention. Under continuous ultrasound guidance, advanced an cannula and stylet needle through the maternal abdomen, uterine wall, and fetal lamb chest wall and into the fetal LV, then imitate human balloon aortic valvuloplasty at valve ring level. Probed into aspects of animal preparation, position of fetal lambs, paracentesis point selecting, main points of intervention, ultrasound utilizing, fetal lambs incubation and protection to placenta as well as umbilical cord.

Results: Eight pregnant ewes were all survival after procedure, 2 was executed after fetus' death, the other 6 continued gestation until spontaneous vaginal delivery after an uneventful pregnancy. After parturition the 6 ewes were in good condition. There were no nick infection, chorioamnionitis and other complications. Eight/sixteen fetal lambs were undergone intro-utero cardiac intervention. The values of body weight and Hct of lambs which were executed, pre-term and full-term delived were (1.77 +/- 0.14) kg vs. (2.15 +/- 0.23) kg vs. (2.41 +/- 0.19) kg and 29%o-33% vs. 27%-35% vs. 37%-41%. In autopsy, hydropericardium was found in 4/8 with 1-2.5 mL and 1/8 with 5 mL. Besides 1/8 with interventricular septum centesis injury, there was no centesis damage to endocardium, valve, chordae tendineae, papillary muscles and sortic tunics intima. Whereas there was no centesis injury to lung, liver and chylostomach, no trace of ericardium and thoracic infection.

Conclusions: Animal model of intra-utero fetal cardiac intervention was setted up successfully, the experiences in this study was worth to be payed attention to in human fetal cardiac intervention.
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July 2008

[Interventional approach to the treatment of aneurysms of the perimembranous ventricular septal defects].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2006 Aug;44(8):611-5

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, West China Second Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objectives: To explore applicable protocol for the positioning of ventricular septal defect (VSD) occluder and the selection of the device by retrospective analysis of transcatheter closure approach to the aneurysms of the perimembranous VSD.

Methods: Thirty-five cases of perimembranous VSD with septal aneurysm (19 males and 16 females) from May, 2004 to May, 2005 were included, with a mean age of 5.3 y and mean weight of 17.6 kg. Their angiographic and ultrasound data, and interventional processes were analyzed. Seven segments of the aneurysms were assessed: the diameter of the defect on the left ventricle, the diameter of the defect on the right ventricle, the thickness of ventricular septum, the distance from the farthest end of the aneurysm to the defect, the diameter of the widest part of the aneurysm and the distance between the two farthest orifices on the aneurysm.

Results: Sixteen cystiform aneurysms and nineteen tubiform ones were identified with left ventricular angiography. The diameters of the orifices of aneurysms and the diameters of the VSDs ranged from 1.5 mm to 4.1 mm and 2.7 mm to 11.9 mm, separately, with the mean of 2.9 mm and 4.3 mm. From the echocardiography, the distances of the rim of defect to the aortic valve ranged from 2.0 mm to 7.0 mm, with the mean of 4.3 mm. All the interventions were successfully done with symmetrical devices from 4 mm to 14 mm. The left disc of the device was positioned at the defect surface from the left ventricle in 29 cases, and was released at the left side of the orifice in 3 cases.

Conclusions: The positioning of the left disc is mostly determined by the condition for the correct formation of the right disc in the right ventricle after deploying. Generally the defect surface in the left ventricle is most ideal to release the left disc of the device. If the body of aneurysm was too long for the right disc to restore its configuration, the left disc should be released on the left side of the orifice. The selection of device size is determined by the placement of the left disc. When the left disc is to be released at the defect surface in the left ventricle, the device size should be equal to or 1 to 2 mm larger than the diameter of the defect on the left ventricle. When the left disc is to be deployed on the left side of an orifice, the device size should be equal to or 1 mm larger than the defect diameter on the left ventricle when there is a single orifice. In the case of multiple orifices, the minimal size of the device which can cover all the orifices should be selected.
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August 2006

[The analysis of T cell receptor Vbeta gene usage of cytolytic T-lymphocytes in coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2006 Jan;37(1):80-3

Children's Cardiovascular Diseases, West China Second Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Objective: To analyze the T cell receptor (TCR) Vbeta gene usage of the cytolytic T-lymphocytes which result in immune-mediated myocyte injury in Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis.

Methods: An experimental murine model with a myocarditic variant of Coxsackievirus B, type 3 has been developed with newborn Balb/c male mice. Mice were killed on day 7 after virus inoculated, which was the time when T cells show significant differentiation. With immunoadsorption, ACTLs, VCTLs, MCTLs are respectively isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes of Balb/c mice suffered from viral myocarditis. T-lymphocytes prepared from mesenteric lymph nodes of uninfected Balb/c mice served as control group. RT-PCR was performed with standard method. The Vbeta gene usage was analyzed by running the electophoresis of PCR products on agarose gel.

Results: T cells of control group expressed all Vbeta genes of 20 families. But the TCR VP gene usage of CTLs in experimental groups was markedly restricted. ACTL expressed predominantly Vbeta6, Vbeta8.1, Vbeta8.2, Vbeta8.3, MCTL expressed predominantly Vbeta5.1, Vbeta8.1, Vbeta8.2, Vbeta8.3 and VCTL expressed predominantly Vbeta7, Vbeta8.1, Vbeta8.2, Vbeta8.3.

Conclusions: The TCR Vbeta gene usage of CTLs which result in immune-mediated myocyte injury in Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis is markedly restricted in cells stimulated by specific antigen.
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January 2006

Dynamic analysis and assessment for sustainable development.

Authors:
Xiao-qing Shi

J Environ Sci (China) 2002 Jan;14(1):88-94

Department of Systems Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

The assessment of sustainable development is crucial for constituting sustainable development strategies. Assessment methods that exist so far usually only use an indicator system for making sustainable judgement. These indicators rarely reflect dynamic characteristics. However, sustainable development is influenced by changes in the social-economic system and in the eco-environmental system at different times. Besides the spatial character, sustainable development has a temporal character that can not be neglected; therefore the research system should also be dynamic. This paper focuses on this dynamic trait, so that the assessment results obtained provide more information for judgements in decision-making processes. Firstly the dynamic characteristics of sustainable development are analyzed, which point to a track of sustainable development that is an upward undulating curve. According to the dynamic character and the development rules of a social, economic and ecological system, a flexible assessment approach that is based on tendency analysis, restrictive conditions and a feedback system is then proposed for sustainable development.
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January 2002
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