Publications by authors named "Xiao-Mei Zhang"

276 Publications

Fine-Tuning Florigen Increases Field Yield Through Improving Photosynthesis in Soybean.

Front Plant Sci 2021 16;12:710754. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

MOA Key Laboratory of Soybean Biology, National Key Facility of Crop Gene Resource and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Crop yield has been maintaining its attraction for researchers because of the demand of global population growth. Mutation of flowering activators, such as florigen, increases plant biomass at the expense of later flowering, which prevents crop maturity in the field. As a result, it is difficult to apply flowering activators in agriculture production. Here, we developed a strategy to utilize florigen to significantly improve soybean yield in the field. Through the screening of transgenic lines of RNAi-silenced florigen homologs in soybean (, ), we identified a line, -RNAi#1, with minor changes in both expression and flowering time but with notable increase in soybean yield. As expected, -RNAi#1 matured normally in the field and exhibited markedly high yield over multiple locations and years, indicating that it is possible to reach a trade-off between flowering time and high yield through the fine-tuning expression of flowering activators. Further studies uncovered an unknown mechanism by which negatively regulates photosynthesis, a substantial source of crop yield, demonstrating a novel function of florigen. Thus, because of the highly conserved functions of florigen in plants and the classical RNAi approach, the findings provide a promising strategy to harness early flowering genes to improve crop yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.710754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415793PMC
August 2021

Phospholipids (PLs) know-how: exploring and exploiting phospholipase D for its industrial dissemination.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2021 May 13:1-22. Epub 2021 May 13.

Key Laboratory of Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, P. R. China.

Owing to their numerous nutritional and bioactive functions, phospholipids (PLs), which are major components of biological membranes in all living organisms, have been widely applied as nutraceuticals, food supplements, and cosmetic ingredients. To date, PLs are extracted solely from soybean or egg yolk, despite the diverse market demands and high cost, owing to a tedious and inefficient manufacturing process. A microbial-based manufacturing process, specifically phospholipase D (PLD)-based biocatalysis and biotransformation process for PLs, has the potential to address several challenges associated with the soybean- or egg yolk-based supply chain. However, poor enzyme properties and inefficient microbial expression systems for PLD limit their wide industrial dissemination. Therefore, sourcing new enzyme variants with improved properties and developing advanced PLD expression systems are important. In the present review, we systematically summarize recent achievements and trends in the discovery, their structural properties, catalytic mechanisms, expression strategies for enhancing PLD production, and its multiple applications in the context of PLs. This review is expected to assist researchers to understand current advances in this field and provide insights for further molecular engineering efforts toward PLD-mediated bioprocessing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07388551.2021.1921690DOI Listing
May 2021

Iodide-promoted transformations of imidazopyridines into sulfur-bridged imidazopyridines or 1,2,4-thiadiazoles.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 May;57(43):5338-5341

College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan Key Laboratory of Cold Chain Food Quality and Safety Control, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, Zhengzhou, 450000, China.

A NaI-promoted sequential double carbon-sulfur bond formation was developed to afford sulfur-bridged imidazopyridines, using Deoxofluor as the sulfur source and requiring only 15 min at room temperature. Using this process, imidazo[1,5-a]pyridines could also be transformed to 1,2,4-thiadiazoles in the presence of ammonium salt with the formation of both carbon-sulfur and nitrogen-sulfur bonds. This mechanistically unique method is distinguished by its wide substrate scope, lack of requirement for transition metals and mild conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01044aDOI Listing
May 2021

Embryonic Origin and Subclonal Evolution of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Imply Preventive Care for Cancer.

Cells 2021 04 14;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Laboratory of Radiation Biology, Laboratory Medicine Center, Department of Blood Transfusion, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Army Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037, China.

Macrophages are widely distributed in tissues and function in homeostasis. During cancer development, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) dominatingly support disease progression and resistance to therapy by promoting tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunosuppression, thereby making TAMs a target for tumor immunotherapy. Here, we started with evidence that TAMs are highly plastic and heterogeneous in phenotype and function in response to microenvironmental cues. We pointed out that efforts to tear off the heterogeneous "camouflage" in TAMs conduce to target de facto protumoral TAMs efficiently. In particular, several fate-mapping models suggest that most tissue-resident macrophages (TRMs) are generated from embryonic progenitors, and new paradigms uncover the ontogeny of TAMs. First, TAMs from embryonic modeling of TRMs and circulating monocytes have distinct transcriptional profiling and function, suggesting that the ontogeny of TAMs is responsible for the functional heterogeneity of TAMs, in addition to microenvironmental cues. Second, metabolic remodeling helps determine the mechanism of phenotypic and functional characteristics in TAMs, including metabolic bias from macrophages' ontogeny in macrophages' functional plasticity under physiological and pathological conditions. Both models aim at dissecting the ontogeny-related metabolic regulation in the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in TAMs. We argue that gleaning from the single-cell transcriptomics on subclonal TAMs' origins may help understand the classification of TAMs' population in subclonal evolution and their distinct roles in tumor development. We envision that TAM-subclone-specific metabolic reprogramming may round-up with future cancer therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10040903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071014PMC
April 2021

Distinguishing Rectal Cancer from Colon Cancer Based on the Support Vector Machine Method and RNA-sequencing Data.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Apr 20;41(2):368-374. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Jiangsu Cancer Hospital, Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210009, China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Several studies have indicated that rectal cancer is significantly different from colon cancer in terms of treatment, prognosis, and metastasis. Recently, the differential mRNA expression of colon cancer and rectal cancer has received a great deal of attention. The current study aimed to identify significant differences between colon cancer and rectal cancer based on RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data via support vector machines (SVM). Here, 393 CRC samples from the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were investigated, including 298 patients with colon cancer and 95 with rectal cancer. Following the random forest (RF) analysis of the mRNA expression data, 96 genes such as HOXB13, PRAC, and BCLAF1 were identified and utilized to build the SVM classification model with the Leave-One-Out Cross-validation (LOOCV) algorithm. In the training (n=196) and the validation cohorts (n=197), the accuracy (82.1 % and 82.2 %, respectively) and the AUC (0.87 and 0.91, respectively) indicated that the established optimal SVM classification model distinguished colon cancer from rectal cancer reasonably. However, additional experiments are required to validate the predicted gene expression levels and functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-021-2356-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Expert consensus of Chinese Association for the Study of Pain on the radiofrequency therapy technology in the Department of Pain.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Mar;9(9):2123-2135

Department of Algology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China.

On the basis of continuous improvement in recent years, radiofrequency therapy technology has been widely developed, and has become an effective method for the treatment of various intractable pain. Radiofrequency therapy is a technique that uses special equipment and puncture needles to output ultra-high frequency radio waves and accurately act on local tissues. In order to standardize the application of radiofrequency technology in the treatment of painful diseases, Chinese Association for the Study of Pain (CASP) has developed a consensus proposed by many domestic experts and scholars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i9.2123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017496PMC
March 2021

Expert consensus of the Chinese Association for the Study of Pain on ion channel drugs for neuropathic pain.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Mar;9(9):2100-2109

Department of Algology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China.

Neuropathic pain (NPP) is a kind of pain caused by disease or damage impacting the somatosensory system. Ion channel drugs are the main treatment for NPP; however, their irregular usage leads to unsatisfactory pain relief. To regulate the treatment of NPP with ion channel drugs in clinical practice, the Chinese Association for the Study of Pain organized first-line pain management experts from China to write an expert consensus as the reference for the use of ion channels drugs . Here, we reviewed the mechanism and characteristics of sodium and calcium channel drugs, and developed recommendations for the therapeutic principles and clinical practice for carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, lidocaine, bulleyaconitine A, pregabalin, and gabapentin. We hope this guideline provides guidance to clinicians and patients on the use of ion channel drugs for the management of NPP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i9.2100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017507PMC
March 2021

Expert panel's guideline on cervicogenic headache: The Chinese Association for the Study of Pain recommendation.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Mar;9(9):2027-2036

Department of Algology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China.

Cervicogenic headache (CEH) has been recognized as a unique category of headache that can be difficult to diagnose and treat. In China, CEH patients are managed by many different specialties, and the treatment plans remain controversial. Therefore, there is a great need for comprehensive evidence-based Chinese experts' recommendations for the management of CEH. The Chinese Association for the Study of Pain asked an expert panel to develop recommendations for a series of questions that are essential for daily clinical management of patients with CEH. A group of multidisciplinary Chinese Association for the Study of Pain experts identified the clinically relevant topics in CEH. A systematic review of the literature was performed, and evidence supporting the benefits and harms for the management of CEH was summarized. Twenty-four recommendations were finally developed through expert consensus voting for evidence quality and recommendation strength. We hope this guideline provides direction for clinicians and patients making treatment decisions for the management of CEH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i9.2027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017501PMC
March 2021

Nanostructure of Porous Si and Anodic SiO Surface Passivation for Improved Efficiency Porous Si Solar Cells.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Feb 11;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan.

The photovoltaic effect in the anodic formation of silicon dioxide (SiO) on porous silicon (PS) surfaces was investigated toward developing a potential passivation technique to achieve high efficiency nanostructured Si solar cells. The PS layers were prepared by electrochemical anodization in hydrofluoric acid (HF) containing electrolyte. An anodic SiO layer was formed on the PS surface via a bottom-up anodization mechanism in HCl/HO solution at room temperature. The thickness of the oxide layer for surface passivation was precisely controlled by adjusting the anodizing current density and the passivation time, for optimal oxidation on the PS layer while maintaining its original nanostructure. HRTEM characterization of the microstructure of the PS layer confirms an atomic lattice matching at the PS/Si interface. The dependence of photovoltaic performance, series resistance, and shunt resistance on passivation time was examined. Due to sufficient passivation on the PS surface, a sample with anodization duration of 30 s achieved the best conversion efficiency of 10.7%. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) indicate a significant decrease in reflectivity due to the PS anti-reflection property and indicate superior performance due to SiO surface passivation. In conclusion, the surface of PS solar cells could be successfully passivated by electrochemical anodization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11020459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916900PMC
February 2021

Altererythrobacter flava sp. nov., a new member of the family Erythrobacteraceae, isolated from a surface seawater sample.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 May 4;114(5):497-506. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, 210037, People's Republic of China.

A Gram-stain-negative, light yellow pigmented, non-motile and aerobic bacterial strain, designated HHU E2-1, was isolated from a surface seawater sample. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that HHU E2-1 shared the highest sequence similarity to the type strain Qipengyuania gaetbuli DSM 16225 (96.90%), which belongs to the family Erythrobacteraceae. Combined phylogeny of 288 single-copy orthologous gene clusters, analysis of average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH), average amino acid identity (AAI) and evolutionary distances suggested that HHU E2-1 can be considered as a member of the genus Altererythrobacter based on the recently proposed standard for defining genera of Erythrobacteraceae. Strain HHU E2-1 grew at 15-35 °C and pH 5.0-8.0, with optimum growth at 28 °C and pH 7.0. Tolerance to NaCl was up to 4% (w/v) with optimum growth in 2-3% NaCl. The major fatty acids (> 10%) were Cω7c11-methyl, summed feature 3 (Cω7c and/or Cω6c), and summed feature 8 (Cω7c and/or Cω6c). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was ubiquinone-10. The genomic G + C content was 57.40%. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characterizations, HHU E2-1 represents a novel species of the genus Altererythrobacter, for which the name Altererythrobacter flava sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HHU E2-1 (= CGMCC 1.17394 = KCTC 72835 = MCCC 1K04226).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10482-021-01531-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Complex microbial communities inhabiting natural Cordyceps militaris and the habitat soil and their predicted functions.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 Apr 27;114(4):465-477. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Yunnan Herbal Laboratory, Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Yunnan University, No. 2 Cuihu Lake North Road, Kunming, 650091, Yunnan, China.

Cordyceps militaris is a traditional Chinese medicinal food that is challenging to quality maintaining while mass cultivation. Many studies have found that abundant microbes inhabit Ophiocordyceps sinensis and perform important functions for their host. In this study, our objective was to reveal the microbial communities that inhabit C. militaris and analyze their potential functions. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and ITS genes was used to compare the diversity and composition of the bacterial and fungal communities associated with naturally occurring C. militaris collected from Yunnan Province, southwestern China. The diversity and richness of the microbial communities and the number of function genes of the bacteria were significantly higher in the habitat soil than in the fruiting body. The sclerotia and stromata samples shared the same microbiota and functions. The main bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, and Ascomycota was the main fungal phylum. The growth-promoting bacteria Herbaspirillum and the plant probiotic Phyllobacterium, which may enhance C. militaris quality and facilitate its cultivation, were detected in the fruiting body samples. Genes related to metabolism were more abundant in the soil bacteria, while membrane transport genes were more abundant in the endophytic bacteria of C. militaris. Our study is the first to reveal the unexpectedly high diversity of the microbial communities and the bacterial functions inhabiting the natural C. militaris using high-throughput sequencing, and our results provide insights into mining the functions of microorganisms in the development and quality of C. militaris.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10482-021-01534-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Description of Salinimonas profundi sp. nov., a deep-sea bacterium harboring a transposon Tn6333.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 Jan 3;114(1):69-81. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Institute of Marine Biology, College of Oceanography, Hohai University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China.

A Gram-staining-negative bacterium, strain HHU 13199, was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from South China Sea (119°19.896'E, 19°41.569'N) at a depth of 2918 m. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain HHU 13199 represents a member of the genus Salinimonas with the highest sequence similarity (99.8%) to the type strain S. iocasae KX18D6. However, the average nucleotide identity values and digital DNA-DNA hybridization between strain HHU 13199 and closely related members of the genus Salinimonas were all below the cut-off level (95-96 % and 70%, respectively) for species delineation. This strain grew with sea salt of 0.5-18% (w/v) (optimum, 2-5%), but no growth observed when using NaCl instead. The major fatty acids are C, summed feature 3 (Cω7c and/or Cω6c), and summed feature 8 (Cω7c and/or Cω6c). The predominant isoprenoid quinone is ubiquinone-8. The polar lipids mainly consist of phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylglycerol. Genomic characterization revealed that strain HHU 13199 harbors a distinct type I-F CRISPR-Cas system and plenty of genes associated with heavy metal resistance, including a transposon (Tn6333) conferring mercury resistance. In addition, a phylogenetic tree based on the bac120 core genes suggested that the genus Salinimonas should be a subclade within Alteromonas. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characterizations, strain HHU 13199 represents a novel species of the genus Salinimonas, for which the name Salinimonas profundi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is HHU 13199 (= KCTC 72837 = MCCC 1K04127).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10482-020-01501-7DOI Listing
January 2021

Diversity and composition of microbiota during fermentation of traditional Nuodeng ham.

J Microbiol 2021 Jan 23;59(1):20-28. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

The Nuodeng Ham Plant Based in Dali State, Yunnan, Dali, P. R. China.

The microbial community is one of the most important factors in shaping the characteristics of fermented food. Nuodeng ham, traditionally produced and subjected to 1-4 years of fermentation, is a dry fermented food product with cultural and economic significance to locals in southwestern China. In this study, we aimed to characterize the microbiota and physicochemical profiles of Nuodeng ham across different stages of fermentation. Ham samples from each of the four years were analyzed by sequencing bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer sequence, in order to characterize the diversity and composition of their microflora. A total of 2,679,483 bacterial and 2,983,234 fungal sequences of high quality were obtained and assigned to 514 and 57 genera, respectively. Among these microbes, Staphylococcus and Candida were the most abundant genera observed in the ham samples, though samples from different years showed differences in their microbial abundance. Results of physicochemical properties (pH, water, amino acid, NaCl, nitrate and nitrite contents, and the composition of volatile compounds) revealed differences among the ham samples in the composition of volatile compounds, especially in the third year samples, in which no nitrite was detected. These results suggest that the structure and diversity of microbial communities significantly differed across different stages of fermentation. Moreover, the third year hams exhibits a unique and balanced microbial community, which might contribute to the special flavor in the green and safe food products. Thus, our study lends insights into the production of high quality Nuodeng ham.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-021-0219-4DOI Listing
January 2021

Six 19,20-epoxycytochalasans from endophytic sp. RJ-47.

Nat Prod Res 2020 Dec 16:1-6. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

College of Basic Medicine, College of Chinese Material Medical, Yunnan University of Chinese Medicine, Kun Ming, P. R. China.

Two new cytochalasins, deacetyl-19cytochalasin P1 (), deacetyl-19,20-epoxycytochalasin D () were isolated from the endophytic fungus sp. RJ-47, along with four known compounds deacetyl-5,6-dihydro-7-oxo-19,20-epoxycytochalasin C (), 19,20-epoxycytochalasin Q (), 19,20-epoxycytochalasin C () and deacetyl-19,20-epoxy cytochalasin C (). Their structures were unambiguously elucidated on the basis of the comprehensive analysis of extensive spectroscopic data. The antimicrobial effects of these compounds were evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1859504DOI Listing
December 2020

Analysis of 234 cases of colorectal polyps treated by endoscopic mucosal resection.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Nov;8(21):5180-5187

-Department of Gastroenterology, Maanshan Central Hospital, Maanshan 243000, Anhui Province, China.

Background: Colorectal polyps refer to all neoplasms that protrude into the intestinal cavity. Researchers believe that 50%-70% of colorectal cancers originate from adenomatous polyps.

Aim: To investigate the endoscopic morphologic features, pathologic types, and clinical situation; evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR); and guide clinicians in their daily practice.

Methods: Two hundred thirty-four patients who underwent EMR in our hospital from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2019 were recruited. Data including sex, age, endoscopic morphology of the polyps, and pathological characteristics were analyzed among groups.

Results: A total of 295 polyps were resected from the 234 subjects enrolled in the study, of which 4 (1.36%) were Yamada type I. There were 75 (25.42%) type II, 101 (34.24%) type III, and 115 (38.98%) type IV adenomas. Among them, 41 were non-adenomas, 110 were low-risk adenomas, 139 were high-risk adenomas, and 5 were carcinomas. The differences in distribution were not statistically significant, with values greater than 0.05. The risk of cancer significantly increased for polyps ≥ 1 cm in diameter (c = 199.825, = 0.00). Regarding the endoscopic morphological features, congestion, erosion, and lobulation were more common on the surface morphology of high-risk adenomas and cancerous polyps (c = 75.257, = 0.00), and most of them were Yamada types III and IV. In all, 6 of the 295 polyps could not be removed completely, with a one-time resection rate of 97.97%. There were two cases of postoperative bleeding and no cases of perforation, with an overall complication rate of 0.09%.

Conclusion: Colorectal polyps ranging from non-adenomatous polyps, low-risk adenomas, and high-risk adenomas to adenocarcinomas each has their own endoscopic features, while EMR, as a mature intervention, has good safety and operability and should be promoted clinically, especially at the primary care level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i21.5180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674734PMC
November 2020

Abnormal expression of autophagy-related proteins in immune thrombocytopenia.

Scand J Immunol 2021 Feb 20;93(2):e12992. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Hematology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Autophagy is a highly conserved protein degradation pathway that is essential for affecting some autoimmune diseases. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common autoimmune disorder, and the complex dysregulation of cellular immunity has been observed; however, the relationship between autophagy-related proteins and immune responses in ITP remains unclear. Using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the mRNA expression levels of Beclin-1, SQSTM1/p62 and LC3 were measured in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 20 newly diagnosed patients with active ITP, 16 ITP patients in remission and 21 healthy volunteers. The stained Beclin-1 and SQSTM1/p62 proteins were also observed in the bone marrow of active ITP patients and normal controls by immunofluorescence. SQSTM1/p62 mRNA expression in PBMCs in newly diagnosed patients was significantly decreased. At the same time, Beclin-1 mRNA was increased significantly. During the remission stages, the levels of these autophagy-related proteins were comparable with those observed in healthy controls. Taken together, these results suggest that the aberrant expression of autophagy-related proteins might be involved in the pathogenesis of ITP. Further study of the autophagy pathway may provide a new strategy and direction for the treatment of ITP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sji.12992DOI Listing
February 2021

A Construction of α-Alkenyl Lactones via Reduction Radical Cascade Reaction of Allyl Alcohols and Acetylenic Acids.

Org Lett 2020 11 11;22(21):8337-8344. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China.

An iron-catalyzed cascade reaction of radical reduction of allyl alcohols and acetylenic acids to construct polysubstituted α-alkenyl lactones has been developed. In this paper, various allyl alcohols can form allyl ester intermediates and are further transformed into alkyl radicals, which form products through intramolecular reflex-Michael addition. In addition, this method can be used to prepare spirocycloalkenyl lactones. Interestingly, this protocol can be used to synthesize the skeleton structure of natural products. Moreover, the product can be further transformed into a β-methylene tetrahydrofuran and tetrahydrofuran diene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c02973DOI Listing
November 2020

CircRNA-0008717 promotes cell proliferation, migration, and invasion by regulating miR-203/Slug in esophageal cancer cells.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Aug;8(16):999

Department of Radiotherapy, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been implicated in the regulation of multiple human diseases, including cancer. In particular, the dysregulation of circRNA-0008717 has been linked to multiple types of cancer. However, the clinical significance and the molecular mechanisms of circRNA-0008717 in EC need to be further investigated. Therefore, this study aimed to prove the role of circRNA-0008717 in EC and its underlying molecular mechanism of action.

Methods: The expression of circRNA-0008717, miR-203, and the Slug was measured in two EC cell lines (EC109 and KYSE-150) by qRT-RCR. EC109 and KYSE-150 cells were first transfected with circRNA-0008717 siRNA (si-circRNA). After that, the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion of EC109 and KYSE-150 cells were measured. The western blot detected Slug, Vimentin, and E-cadherin protein levels. A dual-luciferase reporter gene assay was used to set up the interactions among circRNA-0008717, miR-203, and Slug.

Results: circRNA-0008717 expression was significantly upregulated in EC cells, and miR-2031 expression was decreased. Moreover, si-circRNA-0008717 or si-Slug inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of EC cells. We found that circRNA-0008717 functioned as a sponge of miR-203, resulting in increased expression of Slug. We also reversed the effect of circRNA-0008717 knockdown on the EC progression by co-transfecting EC cells with a miR-203 inhibitor or Slug.

Conclusions: The proliferation, invasion, and migration of EC cells were enhanced by circRNA-0008717 sponging the miR-203 to increase Slug expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-5205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7475474PMC
August 2020

Natural Shrimp () Tropomyosin Shows Higher Allergic Properties than Recombinant Ones as Compared through SWATH-MS-Based Proteomics and Immunological Response.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Oct 5;68(41):11553-11567. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, No.5, Yushan Road, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266003, P. R. China.

Tropomyosin (TM) is the major shrimp allergen that could trigger anaphylactic reactions. Recently, recombinant TM (rTM) has been accepted widely in the field of allergen-specific immunotherapy, but the allergenicity of rTM has not been compared with natural TM (nTM) based on an digestion profile. In this work, IgG-/IgE binding, allergen peptides, and degranulation ability of the digested samples in simulated gastric fluid/simulated intestinal fluid/gastrointestinal models from nTM and rTM were evaluated by immunoassays, proteomics, and basophil degranulation assay. Results showed that pepsin-digested and trypsin-digested samples of rTM exhibited lower IgG-/IgE binding and degranulation than those of nTM. More peptides of the digested samples from rTM (57.8%) matched shrimp allergic epitopes than those from nTM (33.3%). However, the peptide SITDELDQTF (269-278) appeared most frequently. These findings would supply foundation data for epitope-based immunotherapy to shrimp allergic individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c03840DOI Listing
October 2020

Spatial Divergence of Modules Maintains Phosphorus Homeostasis in Soybean Nodules.

Plant Physiol 2020 09 17;184(1):236-250. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People's Republic of China Key Laboratory of Soybean Biology (Beijing), National Key Facility of Crop Gene Resource and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 100081 Beijing, China

Maintaining phosphorus (Pi) homeostasis in nodules is the key to nodule development and nitrogen fixation, an important source of nitrogen for agriculture and ecosystems. () and its regulator (), which constitute the module, play important roles in maintaining Pi homeostasis in different organs. However, the module and its functions in nodules remain unknown. We identified one () and four () homologs in soybean () plants, which displayed specific expression patterns in different tissues in nodules, similar to previously reported and Through the integration of different approaches, modules were confirmed. Combining our results and previous reports, we established multiple modules acting in the infected or noninfected tissues in nodules. A single had more than one target, and vice versa. Therefore, overlapping and cross-talking modules monitored the wave of available Pi to maintain Pi homeostasis in nodules, which sequentially regulated nodule initiation and development. High levels of enhanced Pi accumulation in nodules, increased nodule size, but decreased nodule number. Nitrogenase activity was also enhanced by Our findings uncover modules in nodules, which expands our understanding of the mechanism of maintaining Pi homeostasis in soybean plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.19.01209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479890PMC
September 2020

Combination treatment with artemisinin and oxaliplatin inhibits tumorigenesis in esophageal cancer EC109 cell through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

Thorac Cancer 2020 08 12;11(8):2316-2324. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Department of Radiotherapy, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Esophageal cancer (EC) is a prevalent malignant cancer worldwide. Interestingly, the antimalaria compound artemisinin (ART) is also reported to have anticancer potential, although its underlying mechanism in EC is unclear. In this study, we explored the anticancer role of ART in EC109 and further explored the combination of ART and oxaliplatin (OXA) for their synergetic anticancer functions.

Methods: Human EC cell line EC109 was used. After ART or oxaliplatin (OXA) treatment, cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were measured by MTT, transwell, and scratch wound assays, respectively. Flow cytometry was performed to examine the cell cycle and apoptosis. The mRNA and protein levels were determined using qRT-PCR and western blotting.

Results: The migration and invasion abilities of EC109 were suppressed by ART. This was due to the inhibitory effect of ART on the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The levels of β-catenin, c-myc, and survivin were also downregulated by ART. ART inhibits the proliferation of EC109 cells by arresting the cells in the G1-phase of cell cycle. By using LiCl, an activator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, we further verified that the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway was indeed due to ART. Remarkably, ART enhanced the anticancer effects of OXA in EC109 cells. OXA combined with ART was found to be more efficient in decreasing tumor growth compared to the individual drugs.

Conclusions: ART could suppress tumor progression by inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and it may also enhance the antitumor effect of OXA in EC. Thus, ART could be a novel anticancer drug for EC treatment.

Key Points: SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS OF THE STUDY: ART could be a novel anticancer drug for esophageal cancer (EC) treatment.

What This Study Adds: Combination treatment with artemisinin and oxaliplatin inhibits tumorigenesis in esophageal cancer EC109 cells through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.13570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7396387PMC
August 2020

Two Nucleoporin98 homologous genes jointly participate in the regulation of starch degradation to repress senescence in Arabidopsis.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Jun 26;20(1):292. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

MOA Key Lab of Soybean Biology (Beijing), National Key Facility of Crop Gene Resource and Genetic Improvement, Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nandajie 12, Zhongguancun, Haidian District, Beijing, 100081, China.

Background: Starch is synthesized during daylight for temporary storage in leaves and then degraded during the subsequent night to support plant growth and development. Impairment of starch degradation leads to stunted growth, even senescence and death. The nuclear pore complex is involved in many cellular processes, but its relationship with starch degradation has been unclear until now. We previously identified that two Nucleoporin98 genes (Nup98a and Nup98b) redundantly regulate flowering via the CONSTANS (CO)-independent pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. The double mutant also shows severe senescence phenotypes.

Results: We find that Nucleoporin 98 participates in the regulation of sugar metabolism in leaves and is also involved in senescence regulation in Arabidopsis. We show that Nup98a and Nup98b function redundantly at different stages of starch degradation. The nup98a-1 nup98b-1 double mutant accumulates more starch, showing a severe early senescence phenotype compared to wild type plants. The expression of marker genes related to starch degradation is impaired in the nup98a-1 nup98b-1 double mutant, and marker genes of carbon starvation and senescence express their products earlier and in higher abundance than in wild type plants, suggesting that abnormalities in energy metabolism are the main cause of senescence in the double mutant. Addition of sucrose to the growth medium rescues early senescence phenotypes of the nup98a-1 nup98b-1 mutant.

Conclusions: Our results provide evidence for a novel role of the nuclear pore complex in energy metabolism related to growth and development, in which Nup98 functions in starch degradation to control growth regulation in Arabidopsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02494-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318766PMC
June 2020

Cobalt-Catalyzed Cycloamination: Synthesis and Photophysical Properties of Polycyclic -Heterocycles.

Org Lett 2020 Jul 18;22(13):5151-5156. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China.

The first earth-abundant cobalt-catalyzed cycloamination of indolylquinones and various (hetero)aromatic amine under ligand-free conditions for the synthesis of polycyclic -heterocycles has been developed. The process allows facile access to polycyclic -heterocycles with tolerance of chloride, bromide, amino, thio, etc. groups in moderate to high yields (up to 89%). In addition, The photophysical properties of the synthesized products were evaluated. These products exhibit interesting fluorescence properties, which is promising for fluorescent probes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c01753DOI Listing
July 2020

iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of Colletotrichum lini reveals ethanol induced mechanism for enhancing dihydroxylation efficiency of DHEA.

J Proteomics 2020 07 30;224:103851. Epub 2020 May 30.

National Engineering Laboratory for Cereal Fermentation Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; The Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China; Jiangsu Provincial Research Center for Bioactive Product Processing Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122, China. Electronic address:

Colletotrichum lini is used as an industrial stain for the dihydroxylation of steroid compound dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to biosynthesize 3β,7α,15α-trihydroxy-5-androstene-17-one (7α,15α-diOH-DHEA), a key intermediate of the most popular oral contraceptive "Yasmin". This work aimed to enhance 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA production in C. lini CGMCC 6051 through ethanol induction. With 0.6% (v/v) ethanol induction and 10 g/L DHEA concentration, the 7α,15α-diOH-DHEA molar yield reached 58.8%, which was increased by 67.5% than that of the control. iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis was applied to explore the probable molecular mechanism of C. lini response to ethanol induction. A total of 50 differential expressed proteins was affected by ethanol induction, and could be related to multiple metabolic pathways. Most of differently expressed proteins were functionally mapped into pathways of transport, steroids metabolism, or redox reaction. Other proteins for energy, transcription and translation, and carbohydrate metabolism might have important roles in the cellular response to ethanol induction. In addition, the levels of cytochrome P450 and NAD(P)H-cytochrome P450 reductase were remarkably higher under ethanol induction, and their functions on DHEA dihydroxylation were first proposed in C. lini. Our results provide critical clues in revealing the dihydroxylation mechanism and are important for efficient microbiological hydroxylation of steroidal compounds in the future. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: iTRAQ strategy was first used to compare the proteomes of ethanol induction during the dihydroxylation reaction by Colletotrichum lini CGMCC 6051. The changes in protein provided a comprehensive overview of DHEA dihydroxylation in C. lini, including the proteins for steroids metabolism, redox reaction, transport, transcription and translation, energy and carbohydrate metabolism. Cytochrome P450, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase were highlighted due to their outstanding contribution to DHEA dihydroxylation. The results help us understand the molecular mechanism underlying ethanol induction in C. lini and would guide strain engineering to further improve dihydroxylation efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2020.103851DOI Listing
July 2020

LINC00657/miR-26a-5p/CKS2 ceRNA network promotes the growth of esophageal cancer cells via the MDM2/p53/Bcl2/Bax pathway.

Biosci Rep 2020 06;40(6)

Department of Radiotherapy, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012, China.

LncRNA LINC00657 has oncogenic or anti-carcinoma roles in different cancers, and yet its detailed molecular mechanism in esophageal cancer (EC) remains unclear. In addition, competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) regulatory lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks are critical for tumorigenesis and progression. Hence, the present study explored the roles of LINC00657 in EC and identified its relevant ceRNA network. We first detected the expression of LINC00657 in EC. Then, we applied starBase and TargetScan websites to find miR-26a-5p binding to LINC00657 and obtain CKS2 as a target of miR-26a-5p. The roles of LINC00657, miR-26a-5p or CKS2 in the proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of EC cells were respectively assessed by CCK-8, wound healing assay, transwell invasion assay, and flow cytometry. The changes of the MDM2/p53/Bcl2/Bax pathway were measured via Western blot. The results revealed that LINC00657 showed an aberrant high expression in EC cells, which promoted the growth of EC cells. Additionally, LINC00657 functioned as a sponge of miR-26a-5p, and LINC00657 negatively mediated miR-26a-5p to regulate the growth of EC cells. Furthermore, CKS2 was observed as a direct target of miR-26a-5p, and CKS2 controlled the growth of EC cells via the MDM2/p53/Bcl2/Bax pathway. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between LINC00657 and CKS2. LINC00657 knockdown inhibited CKS2 expression to suppress the proliferation, migration, and invasion of EC cells and induced apoptosis via regulating the MDM2/p53/Bcl2/Bax pathway. Collectively, LINC00657/miR-26a-5p/CKS2 ceRNA network could promote the progression of EC, which is good for understanding the molecular mechanism of EC and offers novel biomarkers for EC diagnosis and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20200525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268253PMC
June 2020

Bacterial association and comparison between lung and intestine in rats.

Biosci Rep 2020 04;40(4)

Yunnan Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Chinese Medicine, Yunnan University of Chinese Medicine, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

The association between lung and intestine has already been reported, but the differences in community structures or functions between lung and intestine bacteria yet need to explore. To explore the differences in community structures or functions, the lung tissues and fecal contents in rats were collected and analyzed through 16S rRNA sequencing. It was found that intestine bacteria was more abundant and diverse than lung bacteria. In intestine bacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroides were identified as major phyla while Lactobacillus was among the most abundant genus. However, in lung the major identified phylum was Proteobacteria and genus Pseudomonas was most prominent genus. On the other hand, in contrast the lung bacteria was more concentrated in cytoskeleton and function in energy production and conversion. While, intestine bacteria were enriched in RNA processing, modification chromatin structure, dynamics and amino acid metabolism. The study provides the basis for understanding the relationships between lung and intestine bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20191570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189363PMC
April 2020

CR6-interacting factor-1 contributes to osteoclastogenesis by inducing receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand after radiation.

World J Stem Cells 2020 Mar;12(3):222-240

Laboratory Medicine Center, Department of Blood Transfusion, Lab of Radiation Biology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400037, China.

Background: Radiation induces rapid bone loss and enhances bone resorption and adipogenesis, leading to an increased risk of bone fracture. There is still a lack of effective preventive or therapeutic method for irradiation-induced bone injury. Receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) provides the crucial signal to induce osteoclast differentiation and plays an important role in bone resorption. However, the mechanisms of radiation-induced osteoporosis are not fully understood.

Aim: To investigate the role of CR6-interacting factor-1 (Crif1) in osteoclastogenesis after radiation and its possible mechanism.

Methods: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to Co-60 gamma rays and received 5 Gy of whole-body sublethal irradiation at a rate of 0.69 Gy/min. For study, mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) were irradiated with Co-60 at a single dose of 9 Gy. For osteoclast induction, monocyte-macrophage RAW264.7 cells were cocultured with mouse BM-MSCs for 7 d. ClusPro and InterProSurf were used to investigate the interaction interface in Crif1 and protein kinase cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-activited catalytic subunit alpha complex. Virtual screening using 462608 compounds from the Life Chemicals database around His120 of Crif1 was carried out using the program Autodock_vina. A tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assay was carried out to study the toxicity of compounds to different cells, including human BM-MSCs, mouse BM-MSCs, and Vero cells.

Results: Crif1 expression increased in bone marrow cells after radiation in mice. Overexpression of Crif1 in mouse BM-MSCs and radiation exposure could increase RANKL secretion and promote osteoclastogenesis . Deletion of Crif1 in BM-MSCs could reduce both adipogenesis and RANKL expression, resulting in the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Deletion of Crif1 in RAW264.7 cells did not affect the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB expression or osteoclast differentiation. Following treatment with protein kinase A (PKA) agonist (forskolin) and inhibitor (H-89) in mouse BM-MSCs, Crif1 induced RANKL secretion the cAMP/PKA pathway. Moreover, we identified the Crif1-protein kinase cyclic adenosine monophosphate-activited catalytic subunit alpha interaction interface by studies and shortlisted interface inhibitors through virtual screening on Crif1. Five compounds dramatically suppressed RANKL secretion and adipogenesis by inhibiting the cAMP/PKA pathway.

Conclusion: Crif1 promotes RANKL expression the cAMP/PKA pathway, which induces osteoclastogenesis by binding to receptor activator of nuclear factor κB on monocytes-macrophages in the mouse model. These results suggest a role for Crif1 in modulating osteoclastogenesis and provide insights into potential therapeutic strategies targeting the balance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis for radiation-induced bone injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4252/wjsc.v12.i3.222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118287PMC
March 2020

Bacterial Diversity in Roots, Stems, and Leaves of Chinese Medicinal Plant var. .

Pol J Microbiol 2020 Sep 11;69(1):91-97. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Yunnan Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Chinese Medicine, Faculty of Basic Medical Science, Yunnan University of Chinese Medicine , Kunming, Yunnan , China.

The root of var. , a famous and endangered traditional Chinese herb, has a significant medicinal value. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition and functional characteristics of bacterial endophytes in roots, stems, and leaves of var. . The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and functional prediction of bacterial endophytes in roots, stems, and leaves of var. were conducted. The Chao and Shannon indices of the bacteria in roots were significantly higher than those in stems and leaves. The dominant endophyte phyla were Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The main genera detected in roots were unclassified , and ; the main genera in stems were , and ; the main genera in leaves were and . The microbiota in roots was particularly enriched in functional categories "extracellular structures" and "cytoskeleton" compared with stems and leaves ( < 0.05). Our study reveals the structural and functional characteristics of the endophytic bacteria in roots, stems, and leaves of var. , which aids in the scientific understanding of this plant.

The root of var. , a famous and endangered traditional Chinese herb, has a significant medicinal value. The aim of this study was to analyze the composition and functional characteristics of bacterial endophytes in roots, stems, and leaves of var. . The 16S rRNA gene sequencing and functional prediction of bacterial endophytes in roots, stems, and leaves of var. were conducted. The Chao and Shannon indices of the bacteria in roots were significantly higher than those in stems and leaves. The dominant endophyte phyla were Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The main genera detected in roots were unclassified , and ; the main genera in stems were , and ; the main genera in leaves were and . The microbiota in roots was particularly enriched in functional categories “extracellular structures” and “cytoskeleton” compared with stems and leaves ( < 0.05). Our study reveals the structural and functional characteristics of the endophytic bacteria in roots, stems, and leaves of var. , which aids in the scientific understanding of this plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33073/pjm-2020-012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256839PMC
September 2020

Advances in the role of helper T cells in autoimmune diseases.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2020 Apr;133(8):968-974

Department of Hematology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052, China.

Autoimmune diseases are primary immune diseases in which autoreactive antibodies or sensitized lymphocytes destroy and damage tissue and cellular components, resulting in tissue damage and organ dysfunction. Helper T cells may be involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases under certain conditions. This review summarizes recent research on the role of helper T cells in autoimmune diseases from two aspects, helper T cell-mediated production of autoantibodies by B cells and helper T cell-induced activation of abnormal lymphocytes, and provides ideas for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. The abnormal expression of helper T cells promotes the differentiation of B cells that produce autoantibodies, which leads to the development of different diseases. Among them, abnormal expression of Th2 cells and T follicular helper cells is more likely to cause antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases. In addition, abnormal activation of helper T cells also mediates autoimmune diseases through the production of abnormal cytokines and chemokines. Helper T cells play an essential role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, and a full understanding of their role in autoimmune diseases is helpful for providing ideas for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7176439PMC
April 2020

Two-Stage Semi-Continuous 2-Keto-Gluconic Acid (2KGA) Production by JUIM01 From Rice Starch Hydrolyzate.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2020 28;8:120. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

The Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, National Engineering Laboratory for Cereal Fermentation Technology, School of Biotechnology, Jiangnan University, Ministry of Education, Wuxi, China.

A two-stage semi-continuous strategy for producing 2-keto-gluconic acid (2KGA) by JUIM01 from rice starch hydrolyzate (RSH) has been developed. The initial glucose concentration (140 g/L) was selected for first-stage fermentation due to its highest 2KGA productivity of 7.58 g/(L⋅h), cell weight of 3.91 g/L, and residual glucose concentration of 25.00 g/L. Followed by removing 70.0% (v/v) of the first-stage broth and feeding 400.0 g/L of glucose to the second-stage fermentor, a total of 50680.0 g glucose was consumed, and 50005.20 g 2KGA was obtained with a yield of 0.9867 g/g by JUIM01 after a 3-cycle two-stage semi-continuous fermentation. Our results indicated that the developed two-stage semi-continuous fermentation could be industrially applied due to its high 2KGA concentration, 2KGA yield and operation efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.00120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058588PMC
February 2020
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