Publications by authors named "Xiao-Hong Zhang"

273 Publications

Approaching Efficient and Narrow RGB Electroluminescence from D-A-Type TADF Emitters Containing an Identical Multiple Resonance Backbone as the Acceptor.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices, Joint International Research Laboratory of Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, P. R. China.

Highly twisted electron donor (D)-electron acceptor (A)-type thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters can achieve high efficiency while suffering from serious structural relaxations and broad emissions. Multiple resonance (MR)-type TADF emitters can realize narrow emission. However, until now, only a few efficient MR-emitting cores are reported and custom tunning of their emission color remains a major challenge in their wider applications. In this work, by combining the conventional TADF and MR-TADF designs, we demonstrate that color tuning and narrowing the spectral width of conventional TADF emission can be easily achieved simultaneously. We select a prototypical carbonyl (C═O)/N-based MR core as a backbone and attach it with D segments of different electron-donating abilities and numbers to obtain three different TADF emitters with emissions from sky blue to green and orange-red while maintaining the narrow emission of the original MR core. The corresponding sky blue, green, and orange-red organic light-emitting diodes achieve maximum external quantum efficiencies of 20.3, 27.3, and 26.3%, respectively, and narrow full widths at half-maximum all below 0.28 eV. These results provide a new molecular design strategy for developing narrowband TADF emitters with easily tunable emissions covering the full visible range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c09743DOI Listing
July 2021

Using fluorene to lock electronically active moieties in thermally activated delayed fluorescence emitters for high-performance non-doped organic light-emitting diodes with suppressed roll-off.

Chem Sci 2020 Nov 26;12(4):1495-1502. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices, Soochow University Suzhou Jiangsu 215123 P.R. China

Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) features are hot candidates for non-doped organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), as they are highly emissive in solid states upon photoexcitation. Nevertheless, not every AIE-TADF emitter in the past had guaranteed decent efficiencies in non-doped devices, indicating that the AIE character alone does not necessarily afford ideal non-doped TADF emitters. As intermolecular electron-exchange interaction that involves long-lived triplet excitons plays a dominant role in the whole quenching process of TADF, we anticipate that it is the main reason for the different electroluminescence performances of AIE-TADF emitters. Therefore, in this work, we designed two TADF emitters SPBP-DPAC and SPBP-SPAC by modifying a reported less successful emitter BP-DPAC with extra fluorenes to increase intermolecular distances and attenuate this electron-exchange interaction. With the fluorene lock as steric hindrance, SPBP-DPAC and SPBP-SPAC exhibit significantly higher exciton utilization in non-doped films due to the suppressed concentration quenching. The non-doped OLEDs based on SPBP-DPAC and SPBP-SPAC show an excellent maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 22.8% and 21.3% respectively, and what's even more promising is that ignorable roll-offs at practical brightness (, 1000 and 5000 cd m) were realized. These results reveal that locking the phenyl rings as steric hindrance can not only enhance the molecular rigidity, but also cause immediate relief of concentration quenching, and result in significant performance improvement under non-doped conditions. Our approach proposes a feasible molecular modification strategy for AIE-TADF emitters, potentially increasing their applicability in OLEDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc05631fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8179127PMC
November 2020

Genome-wide analysis of the serine carboxypeptidase-like protein family in Triticum aestivum reveals TaSCPL184-6D is involved in abiotic stress response.

BMC Genomics 2021 May 15;22(1):350. Epub 2021 May 15.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas and College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, China.

Background: The serine carboxypeptidase-like protein (SCPL) family plays a vital role in stress response, growth, development and pathogen defense. However, the identification and functional analysis of SCPL gene family members have not yet been performed in wheat.

Results: In this study, we identified a total of 210 candidate genes encoding SCPL proteins in wheat. According to their structural characteristics, it is possible to divide these members into three subfamilies: CPI, CPII and CPIII. We uncovered a total of 209 TaSCPL genes unevenly distributed across 21 wheat chromosomes, of which 65.7% are present in triads. Gene duplication analysis showed that ~ 10.5% and ~ 64.8% of the TaSCPL genes are derived from tandem and segmental duplication events, respectively. Moreover, the Ka/Ks ratios between duplicated TaSCPL gene pairs were lower than 0.6, which suggests the action of strong purifying selection. Gene structure analysis showed that most of the TaSCPL genes contain multiple introns and that the motifs present in each subfamily are relatively conserved. Our analysis on cis-acting elements showed that the promoter sequences of TaSCPL genes are enriched in drought-, ABA- and MeJA-responsive elements. In addition, we studied the expression profiles of TaSCPL genes in different tissues at different developmental stages. We then evaluated the expression levels of four TaSCPL genes by qRT-PCR, and selected TaSCPL184-6D for further downstream analysis. The results showed an enhanced drought and salt tolerance among TaSCPL184-6D transgenic Arabidopsis plants, and that the overexpression of the gene increased proline and decreased malondialdehyde levels, which might help plants adapting to adverse environments. Our results provide comprehensive analyses of wheat SCPL genes that might work as a reference for future studies aimed at improving drought and salt tolerance in wheat.

Conclusions: We conducte a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the TaSCPL gene family in wheat, which revealing the potential roles of TaSCPL genes in abiotic stress. Our analysis also provides useful resources for improving the resistance of wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07647-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126144PMC
May 2021

Single-Crystalline Silicon Frameworks: A New Platform for Transparent Flexible Optoelectronics.

Adv Mater 2021 Jun 8;33(24):e2008171. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123, P. R. China.

Single-crystalline silicon (sc-Si) is the dominant semiconductor material for the modern electronics industry. Despite their excellent photoelectric and electronic properties, the rigidity, brittleness, and nontransparency of commonly used silicon wafers limit their application in transparent flexible optoelectronics. In this study, a new type of Si microstructure, named single-crystalline Si frameworks (sc-SiFs), is developed, through a combination of wet-etching and microfabrication technologies. The sc-SiFs are self-supported, flexible, lightweight, tailorable, and highly transparent. They can withstand a small bending radius of less than 0.5 mm and have a transparency of up to 96% in all wavelength ranges, owing to the hollowed-out framework structures. Thus, the sc-SiFs provide a new platform for high-performance transparent flexible optoelectronics. Taking transparent flexible photodetectors (TFPDs) as an example, substrate-free and self-driven TFPDs are achieved based on the sc-SiFs. The devices exhibit superior performance compared to other reported TFPDs and reveal the great potential for integrated optoelectronic applications. The development of sc-SiFs paves the way toward the fabrication of high-performance transparent flexible devices for a host of applications, including e-skins, the Internet of Things, transparent flexible displays, and artificial visual cortexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202008171DOI Listing
June 2021

ADGRA1 negatively regulates energy expenditure and thermogenesis through both sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in male mice.

Cell Death Dis 2021 04 6;12(4):362. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Adhesion G protein-coupled receptor A1 (ADGRA1, also known as GPR123) belongs to the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) family and is well conserved in the vertebrate lineage. However, the structure of ADGRA1 is unique and its physiological function remains unknown. Previous studies have shown that Adgra1 is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), indicating its important role in the transduction of neural signals. The aim of this study is to investigate the central function of Adgra1 in vivo and clarify its physiological significance by establishing an Adgra1-deficient mouse (Adgra1) model. The results show that Adgra1 male mice exhibit decreased body weight with normal food intake and locomotion, shrinkage of body mass, increased lipolysis, and hypermetabolic activity. Meanwhile, mutant male mice present elevated core temperature coupled with resistance to hypothermia upon cold stimulus. Further studies show that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-AR), indicators of sympathetic nerve excitability, are activated as well as their downstream molecules including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1-α) in brown adipose tissue (BAT), and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in white adipose tissue (WAT). In addition, mutant male mice have higher levels of serum T3, T4, accompanied by increased mRNAs of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Finally, Adgra1 male mice present abnormal activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK3β and MEK/ERK pathways in hypothalamus. Overexpression of ADGRA1 in Neuro2A cell line appears to suppress these two signaling pathways. In contrast, Adgra1 female mice show comparable body weight along with normal metabolic process to their sex-matched controls. Collectively, ADGRA1 is a negative regulator of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis by regulating PI3K/AKT/GSK3β and MEK/ERK pathways in hypothalamus of male mice, suggesting an important role of ADGRA1 in maintaining metabolic homeostasis including energy expenditure and thermogenic balance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03634-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024368PMC
April 2021

Genomic-Wide Analysis of the PLC Family and Detection of GmPI-PLC7 Responses to Drought and Salt Stresses in Soybean.

Front Plant Sci 2021 3;12:631470. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University/State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Yangling, China.

Phospholipase C (PLC) performs significant functions in a variety of biological processes, including plant growth and development. The PLC family of enzymes principally catalyze the hydrolysis of phospholipids in organisms. This exhaustive exploration of soybean GmPLC members using genome databases resulted in the identification of 15 phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC (GmPI-PLC) and 9 phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing PLC (GmNPC) genes. Chromosomal location analysis indicated that GmPLC genes mapped to 10 of the 20 soybean chromosomes. Phylogenetic relationship analysis revealed that GmPLC genes distributed into two groups in soybean, the PI-PLC and NPC groups. The expression patterns and tissue expression analysis showed that GmPLCs were differentially expressed in response to abiotic stresses. was selected to further explore the role of PLC in soybean response to drought and salt stresses by a series of experiments. Compared with the transgenic empty vector (EV) control lines, over-expression of (OE) conferred higher drought and salt tolerance in soybean, while the -RNAi (RNAi) lines exhibited the opposite phenotypes. Plant tissue staining and physiological parameters observed from drought- and salt-stressed plants showed that stress increased the contents of chlorophyll, oxygen free radical (O ), hydrogen peroxide (HO) and NADH oxidase (NOX) to amounts higher than those observed in non-stressed plants. This study provides new insights in the functional analysis of genes in response to abiotic stresses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.631470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982816PMC
March 2021

Coupling coordination and interaction between urbanization and eco-environment in Cheng-Yu urban agglomeration, China.

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 Mar;32(3):993-1004

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, China.

We built a comprehensive evaluation index system of urbanization in Chengdu-Chongqing (Cheng-Yu) urban agglomeration from four subsystems, including the economic, social, ecological, and urban and rural coordination. The comprehensive evaluation index system of eco-environment was constructed by combining ecological environment carrying capacity and ecological flexibi-lity. The coupling coordination degree model was applied to quantify the coupling coordination degree between urbanization and eco-environment in the prefecture-level cities of Cheng-Yu urban agglo-meration from 2005 to 2018. With GIS spatial analysis, phenomenon analysis and Tapio model, we analyzed the interaction type, evolution path and path of decoupling between urbanization and eco-environment in the prefecture-level cities of Cheng-Yu urban agglomeration. The results showed that the urbanization quality of Cheng-Yu urban agglomeration showed a trend of fluctuation and rise during the study period. Both Chengdu and Chongqing as high value areas showed "double-core" radia-ting to the surrounding areas. The eco-environment quality showed a slowly rising trend. The spatial pattern was a " U " shape with a north opening, high perimeter and low center. The degree of coupling coordination between the urbanization system and the eco-environment system was rising, with a spatial pattern of low in the middle and high in the east and west. The overall level of coupling coordination was relatively high. The type of coupling coordination degree was gradually evolving from near-disorder and reluctant coordination to moderate coordination. The evolution paths of urbanization and eco-environmental interaction were divided into two categories: stable and changing. The stable type included 20 cities in 5 subcategories, with Chengdu, Deyang, Mianyang, being always well-coordination. The change type included 16 cities in 9 subcategories. The coordination degree of Chongqing main urban area, Tongliang and most other cities was improved, showing "rising" development. Hechuan, Zigong and a few other cities showed "sinking" development. The growth rates of both ecological environment and urbanization were positive. The decoupling state of urbanization and ecological environment was mainly characterized by weak decoupling and expansion connection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202103.012DOI Listing
March 2021

Towards the elimination of leprosy in Yunnan, China: A time-series analysis of surveillance data.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 03 16;15(3):e0009201. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Beijing Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: This study reviews the progress of leprosy elimination in Yunnan, China, over the past 30 years and identifies the challenges for the next stage of the program.

Methodology/principal Findings: Data were collected from the Leprosy Management Information System in China (LEPMIS). The progress made in the elimination of leprosy between 1990 and 2019 was measured. We defined two time periods, time period 1 (1990-2003) and time period 2 (2004-2019), because multidrug therapy (MDT) was launched for the treatment of leprosy in 1990 and a special fund from the central government was established for leprosy in 2004. During the past 30 years, the number of newly detected leprosy patients in Yunnan has steadily declined. In total, 703 newly detected leprosy patients were reported in 1990, and 353 and 136 cases were reported at the end of 2003 and 2019, respectively. At the end of 1990, 90.7% (117/129) of counties in Yunnan Province were identified as leprosy-endemic counties (>1 case per 100,000 population). By the end of 2003 and 2019, 39.3% (46/117) and 85.5% (100/117) of the leprosy-endemic counties, respectively, had dropped below the elimination threshold. The main challenges are the remaining leprosy-endemic counties, the high rate of cases with a contact history, insufficient early detection, and leprosy cases resulting in physical disability.

Conclusions/significance: A multifaceted strategy for leprosy elimination in Yunnan Province has been successfully implemented, and remarkable progress has been made in the elimination of leprosy in this area. The priorities for leprosy elimination in the next stage are securing sustainable support and investment from the government, establishing an effective surveillance system, ensuring prompt early detection, providing treatment with MDT, preventing transmission of M. leprae, preventing disability, providing health education, and preventing recurrence of the epidemic situation of leprosy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7963107PMC
March 2021

Thalamic Structural Connectivity Abnormalities in Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy.

Front Neuroanat 2021 25;15:592772. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Numerous studies have demonstrated thalamus-related structural, functional, and metabolic abnormalities in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). We conducted the first study to investigate thalamic structural connectivity alterations in MHE.

Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based probabilistic tractography was employed to determine the structural linkage between the thalamus and cortical/subcortical regions in 52 cirrhotic patients [22 with MHE; 30 without MHE (NHE)] and 30 controls. We measured these thalamic connections, which included connectivity strength (CS), fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD), and then compared these among the three groups. Neurocognitive assessment was also performed. Correlation analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between neurocognitive performance and the above measurements. Classification analysis was performed to determine whether thalamic connection measurements can distinguish MHE from NHE.

Results: The probabilistic tractography revealed thalamic structural connections, which were disrupted in cirrhotic patients (as reflected by a decrease in CS/FA and an increase in MD/AD/RD). Abnormal thalamic connections primarily involved the prefrontal cortex, sensorimotor cortex, parietal cortex, medial temporal cortex and hippocampus, and striatum. Thalamic connectivity abnormalities deteriorated from NHE to MHE, and they were correlated with patients' neurocognitive performance. The moderate classification accuracy was obtained using CS and MD as discriminating indexes.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated the altered thalamic structural connectivity involving both cortical and subcortical regions in MHE, which could be regarded as representative of MHE-related widespread impairments in white matter pathways. The disturbed thalamic connectivity may underlie the mechanism of cognitive deficits in MHE and may potentially be utilized as a biomarker for diagnosing MHE and in monitoring disease progression. In addition to thalamic-cortical/subcortical connections, further studies are recommended to explore the structural alterations in other white matter pathways in MHE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnana.2021.592772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947347PMC
February 2021

Prediction of postpartum hemorrhage in pregnant women with immune thrombocytopenia: Development and validation of the MONITOR model in a nationwide multicenter study.

Am J Hematol 2021 05 7;96(5):561-570. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Peking University People's Hospital, Peking University Institute of Hematology; National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Disease; Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology; Beijing Key Laboratory of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Beijing, China.

Globally, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal death. Women with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) are at increased risk of developing PPH. Early identification of PPH helps to prevent adverse outcomes, but is underused because clinicians do not have a tool to predict PPH for women with ITP. We therefore conducted a nationwide multicenter retrospective study to develop and validate a prediction model of PPH in patients with ITP. We included 432 pregnant women (677 pregnancies) with primary ITP from 18 academic tertiary centers in China from January 2008 to August 2018. A total of 157 (23.2%) pregnancies experienced PPH. The derivation cohort included 450 pregnancies. For the validation cohort, we included 117 pregnancies in the temporal validation cohort and 110 pregnancies in the geographical validation cohort. We assessed 25 clinical parameters as candidate predictors and used multivariable logistic regression to develop our prediction model. The final model included seven variables and was named MONITOR (maternal complication, WHO bleeding score, antepartum platelet transfusion, placental abnormalities, platelet count, previous uterine surgery, and primiparity). We established an easy-to-use risk heatmap and risk score of PPH based on the seven risk factors. We externally validated this model using both a temporal validation cohort and a geographical validation cohort. The MONITOR model had an AUC of 0.868 (95% CI 0.828-0.909) in internal validation, 0.869 (95% CI 0.802-0.937) in the temporal validation, and 0.811 (95% CI 0.713-0.908) in the geographical validation. Calibration plots demonstrated good agreement between MONITOR-predicted probability and actual observation in both internal validation and external validation. Therefore, we developed and validated a very accurate prediction model for PPH. We hope that the model will contribute to more precise clinical care, decreased adverse outcomes, and better health care resource allocation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26134DOI Listing
May 2021

Dynamic Changes in Functional Network Connectivity Involving Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Its Correlation With Disease Severity.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 07 8;54(1):239-248. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

Background: Aberrant static functional connectivity (FC) has been well demonstrated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); however, ALS-related alterations in FC dynamic properties remain unclear, although dynamic FC analyses contribute to uncover mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders.

Purpose: To explore dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) in ALS and its correlation with disease severity.

Study Type: Prospective.

Subjects: Thirty-two ALS patients and 45 healthy controls.

Field Strength/sequence: Multiband resting-state functional images using gradient echo echo-planar imaging and T1-weighted images were acquired at 3.0 T.

Assessment: Disease severity was evaluated with the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) and patients were stratified according to diagnostic category. Independent component analysis was conducted to identify the components of seven intrinsic brain networks (ie, visual/sensorimotor (SMN)/auditory/cognitive-control (CCN)/default-mode (DMN)/subcortical/cerebellar networks). A sliding-window correlation approach was used to compute dFNC. FNC states were determined by k-mean clustering, and state-specific FNC and dynamic indices (fraction time/mean dwell time/transition number) were calculated.

Statistical Tests: Two-sample t test used for comparisons on dynamic measures and Spearman's correlation analysis.

Results: ALS patients showed increased FNC between DMN-SMN in state 1 and between CCN-SMN in state 4. Patients remained in state 2 (showing the weakest FNC) for a significantly longer time (mean dwell time: 49.8 ± 40.1 vs. 93.6 ± 126.3; P < 0.05) and remained in state 1 (showing a relatively strong FNC) for a shorter time (fraction time: 0.27 ± 0.25 vs. 0.13 ± 0.20; P < 0.05). ALS patients exhibited less temporal variability in their FNC (transition number: 10.2 ± 4.4 vs. 7.8 ± 3.8; P < 0.05). A significant correlation was observed between ALSFRS-R and mean dwell time in state 2 (r = -0.414, P < 0.05) and transition number (r = 0.452, P < 0.05). No significant between-subgroup difference in dFNC properties was found (all P > 0.05).

Data Conclusion: Our findings suggest aberrant dFNC properties in ALS, which is associated with disease severity.

Level Of Evidence: 2 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27521DOI Listing
July 2021

Synthesis of Isoselenazoles and Isothiazoles from Demethoxylative Cycloaddition of Alkynyl Oxime Ethers.

J Org Chem 2021 01 30;86(1):632-642. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035, China.

A general method for the synthesis of isoselenazoles and isothiazoles has been developed by the base-promoted demethoxylative cycloaddition of alkynyl oxime ethers using the cheap and inactive Se powder and NaS as selenium and sulfur sources. This transformation features the direct construction of N-, Se-, and S-containing heterocycles through the formation of N-Se/S and C-Se/S bonds in one-pot reactions with excellent functional group tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.0c02286DOI Listing
January 2021

Intrinsic Brain Abnormalities in Patients with Hepatitis C Virus Infection with Cognitive Impairment: A Preliminary Resting-State fMRI Study.

Biomed Res Int 2020 3;2020:1693043. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Radiology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou 350001, China.

Purpose: Patients with a hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently exhibit various neuropsychiatric complications such as cognitive decline. This study is aimed at investigating alterations in regional and network-level neural function in patients with HCV infection and examining the association between these alterations and patients' cognition dysfunction.

Methods: The study included 17 patients with HCV infection and 17 healthy controls. These individuals had undergone resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as cognitive assessment using a battery of tests that were collectively called the "psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES)" examination. Analyses of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) were conducted to assess, respectively, regional neural function and functional integration.

Results: HCV-infected patients performed significantly worse in cognitive tests. In the HCV group, ALFF decreased in Region 1 (left medial frontal gyrus and bilateral anterior cingulate gyrus) and Region 2 (right middle and superior frontal gyrus). The HCV group showed lower FC between Region 1 and right middle frontal gyrus, whereas they presented an increase in FC between Region 2 and the left supramarginal gyrus/superior temporal gyrus and right supramarginal gyrus. No significant correlation was observed between ALFF/FC measurements and PHES result.

Conclusion: This preliminary study presents additional evidence that HCV infection affects brain function, including local intrinsic neural activity and global functional integration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1693043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655249PMC
April 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Sofosbuvir-Based Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents Treatment for Patients with Genotype 3/6 Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 31;2020:8872120. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong, China.

Aims: The aim is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Sofosbuvir- (SOF-) based direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) treatment for patients with genotype (GT) 3/6 hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.

Methods: Patients infected with GT 3/6 HCV and treated with SOF-based DAAs were enrolled in this prospective, open, single-center, and real-world study. Drugs included Sofosbuvir (SOF), Velpatasvir (VEL), Daclatasvir (DCV), and Ribavirin (RBV). The treatment regimens included SOF + RBV for 24 weeks, SOF + DCV ± RBV for 12/24 weeks, and SOF/VEL ± RBV for 12 weeks.

Results: A total of 54 patients were included. Age was 42.5 ± 10.4 years. Baseline HCV RNA was 6.29 ± 0.89log10 IU/mL. The numbers of GT 3a, 3b, and 6a patients were 10, 12, and 32, respectively. The numbers of chronic hepatitis, compensated cirrhosis, and decompensated cirrhosis patients were 39, 9, and 6, respectively. In patients with chronic hepatitis C and liver cirrhosis, sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12) was 97.4% and 96.7%, respectively, and rapid virological response (RVR) was 75.0% and 57.1%, respectively. SVR12 of GT3a, GT3b, and GT6a was 100%, 83.3%, and 97%, respectively. ALT normality rate in chronic hepatitis group is higher than that in cirrhosis group at 4 weeks of treatment (89.7% versus 60.0%,  = 0.033) and at 12 weeks after EOT (94.9% versus 66.7%,  = 0.021). The overall incidence rate of adverse events was 44.4%, with fatigue being the most common (13.0%).

Conclusion: SOF-based DAAs regimen can achieve ideal SVR12 for Chinese patients with both GT3a and GT6a HCV infection. The tolerance and safety of SOF-based DAAs regimen are good.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8872120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7648714PMC
October 2020

Managing Locally Excited and Charge-Transfer Triplet States to Facilitate Up-Conversion in Red TADF Emitters That Are Available for Both Vacuum- and Solution-Processes.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Feb 27;60(5):2478-2484. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123, P. R. China.

Developing red thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters for high-performance OLEDs is still facing great challenge. Herein, three red TADF emitters, pDBBPZ-DPXZ, pDTBPZ-DPXZ, and oDTBPZ-DPXZ, are designed and synthesized with same donor-acceptor (D-A) backbone with different peripheral groups attaching on the A moieties. Their lowest triplet states change from locally excited to charge transfer character leading to significantly enhance reverse intersystem crossing process. In particular, oDTBPZ-DPXZ exhibits efficient TADF feature and exciton utilization. It not only achieves an external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 20.1 % in red vacuum-processed OLED, but also realize a high EQE of 18.5 % in a solution-processed OLED, which is among the best results in solution-processed red TADF OLEDs. This work provides an effective strategy for designing red TADF molecules by managing energy level alignments to facilitate the up-conversion process and thus enhance exciton harvesting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202012070DOI Listing
February 2021

The threshold of a deterministic and a stochastic SIQS epidemic model with varying total population size.

Appl Math Model 2021 Mar 8;91:749-767. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Applied Mathematics, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, People's Republic of China.

In this paper, a stochastic and a deterministic SIS epidemic model with isolation and varying total population size are proposed. For the deterministic model, we establish the threshold . When is less than 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally stable, which means the disease will die out. While is greater than 1, the endemic equilibrium is globally stable, which implies that the disease will spread. Moreover, there is a critical isolation rate *, when the isolation rate is greater than it, the disease will be eliminated. For the stochastic model, we also present its threshold . When is less than 1, the disease will disappear with probability one. While is greater than 1, the disease will persist. We find that stochastic perturbation of the transmission rate (or the valid contact coefficient) can help to reduce the spread of the disease. That is, compared with stochastic model, the deterministic epidemic model overestimates the spread capacity of disease. We further find that there exists a critical the stochastic perturbation intensity of the transmission rate *, when the stochastic perturbation intensity of the transmission rate is bigger than it, the disease will disappear. At last, we apply our theories to a realistic disease, pneumococcus amongst homosexuals, carry out numerical simulations and obtain the empirical probability density under different parameter values. The critical isolation rate * is presented. When the isolation rate is greater than *, the pneumococcus amongst will be eliminated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2020.09.050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7543952PMC
March 2021

Single-Photomolecular Nanotheranostics for Synergetic Near-Infrared Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Imaging-Guided Highly Effective Photothermal Ablation.

Small 2020 08 22;16(34):e2002672. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR, P. R. China.

Multi-modality imaging-guided cancer therapy is considered as a powerful theranostic platform enabling simultaneous precise diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However, recently reported multifunctional systems with multiple components and sophisticate structures remain major obstacles for further clinical translation. In this work, a single-photomolecular theranostic nanoplatform is fabricated via a facile nanoprecipitation strategy. By encapsulating a semiconductor oligomer (IT-S) into an amphiphilic lipid, water-dispersible IT-S nanoparticles (IT-S NPs) are prepared. The obtained IT-S NPs have a very simple construction and possess ultra-stable near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence (FL)/photoacoustic (PA) dual-modal imaging and high photothermal conversion efficiency of 72.3%. Accurate spatiotemporal distribution profiles of IT-S NPs are successfully visualized by NIR FL/PA dual-modal imaging. With the comprehensive in vivo imaging information provided by IT-S NPs, tumor photothermal ablation is readily realized under precise manipulation of laser irradiation, which greatly improves the therapeutic efficacy without any obvious side effects. Therefore, the IT-S NPs allow high tumor therapeutic efficacy under the precise guidance of FL/PA imaging techniques and thus hold great potential as an effective theranostic platform for future clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202002672DOI Listing
August 2020

Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution, and Expression of GDSL-Type Esterase/Lipase Gene Family in Soybean.

Front Plant Sci 2020 25;11:726. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

College of Life Sciences, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University/State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Yangling, China.

GDSL-type esterase/lipase proteins (GELPs) belong to the SGNH hydrolase superfamily and contain a conserved GDSL motif at their N-terminus. GELPs are widely distributed in nature, from microbes to plants, and play crucial roles in growth and development, stress responses and pathogen defense. However, the identification and functional analysis of genes are hardly explored in soybean. This study describes the identification of 194 genes in the soybean genome and their phylogenetic classification into 11 subfamilies (A-K). genes are disproportionally distributed on 20 soybean chromosomes. Large-scale WGD/segmental duplication events contribute greatly to the expansion of the soybean gene family. The Ka/Ks ratios of more than 70% of duplicated gene pairs ranged from 0.1-0.3, indicating that most genes were under purifying selection pressure. Gene structure analysis indicate that more than 74% of genes are interrupted by 4 introns and composed of 5 exons in their coding regions, and closer homologous genes in the phylogenetic tree often have similar exon-intron organization. Further statistics revealed that approximately 56% of subfamily K members contain more than 4 introns, and about 28% of subfamily I members consist of less than 4 introns. For this reason, the two subfamilies were used to simulate intron gain and loss events, respectively. Furthermore, a new model of intron position distribution was established in current study to explore whether the evolution of multi-gene families resulted from the diversity of gene structure. Finally, RNA-seq data were used to investigate the expression profiles of gene under different tissues and multiple abiotic stress treatments. Subsequently, 7 stress-responsive genes were selected to verify their expression levels by RT-qPCR, the results were consistent with RNA-seq data. Among 7 genes, was selected for further study owing to clear responses to drought, salt and ABA treatments. Transgenic and soybean plants showed drought and salt tolerant phenotype. Overexpression of resulted in the changes of several physiological indicators, which allowed plants to adapt adverse conditions. In all, is a potential candidate gene for improving the salinity and drought tolerance of soybean.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.00726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332888PMC
June 2020

[Effect of electroacupuncture on expressions of Lyn and Syk in mast cells of subcutaneous loose connective tissue in rats with urticarial].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2020 Jul;40(7):765-70

Graduate School, Liaoning University of TCM, Shenyang 110032, China.

Objective: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) preconditioning on the expressions of tyrosine kinase Lyn and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) in mast cells of subcutaneous loose connective tissue in the rats with urticaria and explore the potential biological mechanism of EA in the intervention of urticaria.

Methods: A total of 32 SD rats were randomized into a blank group, a model group, an EA group and a positive medication group, 8 rats in each one. Except of the blank group, the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) was adopted to prepare the model of urticaria in the rats of the rest three groups. In the EA group, EA was applied to bilateral "Quchi" (LI 11), "Xuehai" (SP 10) and "Zusanli" (ST 36), with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/15 Hz in frequency and 1 mA in current intensity, once daily, for 20 min each time, consecutively for 7 days. In the positive medication group, loratadine (1 mg•kg•d) was for intragastric administration, once daily, consecutively for 7 days. The samples were collected for index detection 30 min after PCA antigen challenge in the rats of each group. Spectrophotometer was adopted to determine the effusion quantity of Evans blue in the allergized site of skin. HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes in the allergized site of skin. Toluidine blue staining was provided to observe mast cell degranulation in subcutaneous loose connective tissue in the allergized site of skin. Immunohistochemistry was applied to determine the protein expressions of Lyn and Syk during degranulation of mast cells.

Results: In the rats of the odel group, the eipdermis of allergized site was thickening, cells were disorganized in hierarchy and inflammatory cells were infiltrated largely in the dermis. In the positive medication group and the EA group, the epidermis was getting thin, cell arrangement was clear and the inflammatory cell infiltration was obviously alleviated as compared with the model group. Compared with the blank group, the OD value of skin dye effusion quantity, the degranulation rate of mast cells and the positive expressions of Lyn and Syk were all increased in the model group (<0.01). Compared with the model group, the OD value of skin dye effusion quantity, the degranulation rate of mast cells and the positive expressions of Lyn and Syk were all reduced in the EA group and the positive medication group (<0.01). Compared with the positive medication group, the degranulation rate of mast cells was increased significantly in the EA group (<0.01).

Conclusion: Electroacupuncture at "Quchi" (LI 11), "Xuehai" (SP 10) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) reduces vascular permeability and gives play to the role of anti-allergy by the way of regulating and controlling the degranulation of mast cells in the rats with urticaria and the effect mechanism of electroacupuncture may be related to the inhibition of protein expressions of Lyn and Syk in mast cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20191023-k0005DOI Listing
July 2020

DBU-Promoted Demethoxylative Thioannulation of Alkynyl Oxime Ethers with Sulfur for the Synthesis of Bisisothiazole-4-yl Disulfides.

J Org Chem 2020 08 15;85(15):10083-10090. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

College of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035, China.

An efficient synthesis of bisisothiazole-4-yl disulfides via the demethoxylative thioannulation of alkynyl oxime ethers with odorless elemental sulfur has been first developed. This transformation involves the N-O bond cleavage, the formation of multiple C-S and N-S bonds, providing an efficient way for constructions of both isothiazoles and disulfides. Straightforward elaboration of the products to isothiazole thioethers expands the synthetic utility of this reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.0c01334DOI Listing
August 2020

Identification of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Based on Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Support Vector Machine.

Front Neurol 2020 28;11:275. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Radiology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

White matter (WM) impairments involving both motor and extra-motor areas have been well-documented in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study tested the potential of diffusion measurements in WM for identifying ALS based on support vector machine (SVM). Voxel-wise fractional anisotropy (FA) values of diffusion tensor images (DTI) were extracted from 22 ALS patients and 26 healthy controls and served as discrimination features. The revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) was employed to assess ALS severity. Feature ranking and selection were based on Fisher scores. A linear kernel SVM algorithm was applied to build the classification model, from which the classification performance was evaluated. To promote classifier generalization ability, a leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) method was adopted. By using the 2,400~3,400 ranked features as optimal features, the highest classification accuracy of 83.33% (sensitivity = 77.27% and specificity = 88.46%, = 0.0001) was achieved, with an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.862. The predicted function value was positively correlated with patient ALSFRS-R scores ( = 0.493, = 0.020). In the optimized SVM model, FA values from several regions mostly contributed to classification, primarily involving the corticospinal tract pathway, postcentral gyrus, and frontal and parietal areas. Our results suggest the feasibility of ALS diagnosis based on SVM analysis and diffusion measurements of WM. Additional investigations using a larger cohort is recommended in order to validate the results of this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198809PMC
April 2020

[Electroacupuncture improves cutaneous allergic reaction by inhibiting degranulation of intrape-ritoneal mast cells, MAPK signaling and inflammatory factor levels in urticaria rats].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2020 Apr;45(4):299-304

School of Acupuncture-moxibustion and Tuina, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang 110032.

Objective: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on degranulation of intraperitoneal mast cells (MCs) and expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling related proteins, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in urticaria rats, so as to reveal its mechanisms underlying improvement of urticaria.

Methods: Thirty-two SD rats were randomly divided into control,model,EA and medication groups (=8 in each group). The urticaria model was established by using passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction method. EA (2 Hz /15 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to bilateral "Zusanli"(ST36), "Quchi "(LI11) and "Xuehai"(SP10) for 20 min,once daily for 7 consecutive days before antigen attack. Rats of the medication group were treated by gavage of Loratadine(1 mg•kg•d)for 7 days. The diameter of cutaneous Evan's blue spots was measured to evaluate the severity of PCA. Intraperitoneal fluid smears were prepared to observe the degranulation state of MCs. The contents of TNF-α and IL-6 in the intraperitoneal fluid were detected by ELISA, and the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphorylated (p)-ERK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p-JNK, P38MAPK and p-P38MAPK of the acquired intraperitoneal MCs was detected by Western blot.

Results: The diameter of cutaneous Evan's blue spot was significantly increased in the model group than that in the control group (<0.01), and considerably decreased in both EA and medication groups compared with the model group(<0.01). After modeling,the percentage of degranulated MCs, contents of TNF-α and IL-6, and expression levels of ERK, p-ERK, JNK, p-JNK, P38MAPK and p-P38MAPK were remarkably increased in the mo-del group than those in the control group (<0.01, <0.05). After the treatment, the percentage of degranulated MCs, contents of TNF-α and IL-6, and expression levels of p-ERK, JNK, p-JNK and p-P38MAPK were obviously decreased in both EA and medication groups relevant to the model group (<0.01, <0.05), while no significant changes were found in the expression of ERK in both EA and medication groups, and P38MAPK in the EA group. Compared with the model and EA groups, expression levels of P38MAPK were down-regulated in the medication group (<0.05).

Conclusion: EA can reduce skin allergic reaction in rats with urticaria, which may be related to its effects in inhibiting the degranulation of intraperitoneal MCs, down-regulating the expression of MAPK signaling-related proteins and the level of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6 in intraperitoneal MCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.190263DOI Listing
April 2020

Reduced Cortical Complexity in Cirrhotic Patients with Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy.

Neural Plast 2020 18;2020:7364649. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

Department of Radiology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou 350001, China.

Purpose: Gray matter volume loss, regional cortical thinning, and local gyrification index alteration have been documented in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Fractal dimension (FD), another morphological parameter, has been widely used to describe structural complexity alterations in neurological or psychiatric disease. Here, we conducted the first study to investigate FD alterations in MHE.

Methods And Materials: We performed high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging on cirrhotic patients with MHE ( = 20) and healthy controls ( = 21). We evaluated their cognitive performance using the psychometric hepatic encephalopathy score (PHES). The regional FD value was calculated by Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12) and compared between groups. We further estimated the association between patients' cognitive performance and FD values.

Results: MHE patients presented significantly decreased FD values in the left precuneus, left supramarginal gyrus, right caudal anterior cingulate cortex, right isthmus cingulate cortex, right insula, bilateral pericalcarine cortex, and bilateral paracentral cortex compared to normal controls. In addition, the FD values in the right isthmus cingulate cortex and right insula were shown to be positively correlated with patients' cognitive performance.

Conclusion: Aberrant cortical complexity is an additional characteristic of MHE, and FD analysis may provide novel insight into the neurobiological basis of cognitive dysfunction in MHE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7364649DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7104259PMC
April 2021

Successful treatment with matched unrelated donor peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for very severe aplastic anemia in presence of active infections: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Apr;99(14):e19807

Department of Hematology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Rationale: Very severe aplastic anemia (vSAA) with active infections is always fatal. Adequate infection control before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is recommended.

Patient Concerns: A 38-year-old woman with vSAA suffered from acute perforated appendicitis and invasive pulmonary fungal infection, and she failed to respond to intense antimicrobial therapies.

Diagnosis: She was diagnosed with refractory vSAA with stubborn acute perforated appendicitis and invasive pulmonary fungal infection.

Interventions: We successfully completed an emergent reduced intensity conditioning-matched unrelated donor (MUD)-peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) as a salvage therapy in the presence of active infections. The conditioning regimens consisted of reduced cyclophosphamide 30 mg/kg/day from day-5 to day-3, fludarabine 30 mg/m/day from day-5 to day-3 and porcine-antilymphocyte immunoglobulin 15 mg/kg/day from day-4 to day-2 without total body irradiation. Cyclosporin A, mycophenolate mofetil and short-term methotrexate were administered as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. Neutrophils and platelets were engrafted on day+15 and day+21. Appendiceal abscess and severe pneumonia developed after neutrophil engraftment, which were successfully managed with intense antimicrobial therapy and surgical intervention.

Outcomes: Only limited cutaneous chronic GVHD was observed 5 months after transplantation. The patient still lives in a good quality of life 2 years after transplantation.

Lessons: Active infections may be no longer a contraindication to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for some patients with vSAA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019807DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7220413PMC
April 2020

Right Hemihepatectomy via an Anterior Approach for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in a Situs Inversus Totalis Patient.

Case Rep Gastroenterol 2020 Jan-Apr;14(1):91-97. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Hepatic Surgery, the Affiliated Foshan Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Foshan, China.

Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare congenital condition in which the usual position of the organs is reversed from left to right as a mirror image of the normal situation. Due to the abnormal transposition, this represents a technical challenge for the surgeon. In the present study, right hemihepatectomy via the anterior approach was performed for a 68-year-old hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient with SIT. SIT was diagnosed by chest X-ray and computed tomography. The tumors were located in segments VIII and VI of the liver, and there was no metastasis to the lymph nodes and distant organs. Hemihepatic vascular inflow occlusion was performed using the selective intra-Glissonian approach. The middle hepatic vein was preserved under the guidance with intraoperative ultrasonography. The present case suggests that right hemihepatectomy via the anterior approach may be a safe, feasible, and effective procedure for HCC patients with SIT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000506183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7098364PMC
February 2020

Insufficient CD100 shedding contributes to suppression of CD8 T-cell activity in non-small cell lung cancer.

Immunology 2020 06 7;160(2):209-219. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

CD100 is an immune semaphorin constitutively expressed on T-cells. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) is an important mediator of membrane-bound CD100 (mCD100) cleavage to generate soluble CD100 (sCD100), which has immunoregulatory activity in immune cell responses. The aim of the study was to investigate the level and role of sCD100 and mCD100 in modulating CD8 T-cell function in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). sCD100 and MMP-14 levels in the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and mCD100 expression on peripheral and lung-resident CD8 T-cells were analysed in NSCLC patients. The ability to induce sCD100 and the effect of MMP-14 on mCD100 shedding for the regulation of non-cytolytic and cytolytic functions of CD8 T-cells were also analysed in direct and indirect contact co-culture systems. NSCLC patients had lower serum sCD100 and higher mCD100 levels on CD8 T-cells compared with healthy controls. BALF from the tumour site also had decreased sCD100 and increased mCD100 on CD8 T-cells compared with the non-tumour site. Recombinant CD100 stimulation enhanced non-cytolytic and cytolytic functions of CD8 T-cells from NSCLC patients, whereas blockade of CD100 receptor CD72 attenuated CD8 T-cell activity. NSCLC patients had lower MMP-14 in the serum and in BALF from the tumour site. Recombinant MMP-14 mediated mCD100 shedding from CD8 T-cell membrane, and led to promotion of CD8 T-cell response in NSCLC patients. Overall, decreased MMP-14 resulted in insufficient CD100 shedding, leading to suppression of peripheral and lung-resident CD8 T-cell activity in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218665PMC
June 2020

High-Performance Nondoped Blue Delayed Fluorescence Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Featuring Low Driving Voltage and High Brightness.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Feb 27;7(3):1902508. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials & Devices Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM) Soochow University Suzhou Jiangsu 215123 China.

Thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) provides great potential for the realization of efficient and stable organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, it is still challenging for blue TADF emitters to simultaneously achieve high efficiency, high brightness, and low Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) coordinate (CIE) value. Here, the design and synthesis of two new benzonitrile-based TADF emitters (namely 2,6-di(9-carbazol-9-yl)-3,5-bis(3,6-diphenyl-9-carbazol-9-yl)benzonitrile (2PhCz2CzBn) and 2,6-di(9-carbazol-9-yl)-3,5-bis(3,6-di--butyl-9-carbazol-9-yl)benzonitrile (2tCz2CzBn)) with a symmetrical and rigid heterodonor configuration are reported. The TADF OLEDs doped with both the emitters can achieve a high external quantum efficiency (EQE) over 20% and narrowband blue emission of 464 nm with a CIE < 0.2. Moreover, the incorporation of a terminal -butyl group can weaken the intermolecular π-π stacking in the nondoped TADF emitter, and thus significantly suppress self-aggregation-caused emission quenching for enhanced delayed fluorescence. A peak EQE of 21.6% is realized in the 2tCz2CzBn-based nondoped device with an extremely low turn-on voltage of 2.7 V, high color stability, a high brightness over 20 000 cd m, a narrow full-width at half-maximum of 70 nm, and CIE color coordinates of (0.167, 0.248).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.201902508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001635PMC
February 2020

Manipulating exciton dynamics of thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials for tuning two-photon nanotheranostics.

Chem Sci 2019 Dec 11;11(3):888-895. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong Hong Kong SAR P. R. China

Rational manipulation of energy utilization from excited-state radiation of theranostic agents with a donor-acceptor structure is relatively unexplored. Herein, we present an effective strategy to tune the exciton dynamics of radiative excited state decay for augmenting two-photon nanotheranostics. As a proof of concept, two thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) molecules with different electron-donating segments are engineered, which possess donor-acceptor structures and strong emissions in the deep-red region with aggregation-induced emission characteristics. Molecular simulations demonstrate that change of the electron-donating sections could effectively regulate the singlet-triplet energy gap and oscillator strength, which promises efficient energy flow. A two-photon laser with great permeability is used to excite TADF NPs to perform as theranostic agents with singlet oxygen generation and fluorescence imaging. These unique performances enable the proposed TADF emitters to exhibit tailored balances between two-photon singlet oxygen generation and fluorescence emission. This result demonstrates that TADF emitters can be rationally designed as superior candidates for nanotheranostic agents by the custom controlling exciton dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sc05817fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145712PMC
December 2019

Primary central nervous system lymphoma in China: a single-center retrospective analysis of 167 cases.

Ann Hematol 2020 Jan 22;99(1):93-104. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Department of Hematology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, #88 Jiefang Road, Hangzhou, 310009, China.

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and a limited number of cases have been reported from China. This study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological features of newly diagnosed PCNSLs from a single center in eastern China and to identify the potential prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). All consecutive patients with histopathologically diagnosed PCNSLs at our center between January 2003 and October 2017 were recruited. Demographic and clinicopathological data were collected and reviewed retrospectively. The potential risk factors for OS and PFS were identified using the log-rank test and Cox regression analysis. A total of 167 immunocompetent cases were enrolled. The median age was 58 years (range 17-96 years), and the male:female ratio was 3:2. Headache (n = 65; 39%) and cerebral hemisphere (n = 96; 57%) were the most common presenting complaint and location, respectively. Out of 167 cases, 150 cases were diffuse large B cell lymphomas. With a median follow-up of 25 months (range 1-152 ), the median OS and PFS were 37 months (95% CI, 25-49) and 17 months (95% CI, 13-20), respectively. Residual tumor after operation, chemotherapy without HD-MTX and palliative treatment was revealed as independent prognostic markers. Moreover, ECOG > 3, multifocal lesions, and palliative treatment were revealed as unfavorable independent prognostic markers for PFS. In conclusion, Chinese patients with PCNSL have distinct characteristics. Further studies are warranted to confirm the prognostic value of these factors and to optimize treatments for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03821-9DOI Listing
January 2020

Biodegradable π-Conjugated Oligomer Nanoparticles with High Photothermal Conversion Efficiency for Cancer Theranostics.

ACS Nano 2019 11 11;13(11):12901-12911. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF), Department of Chemistry , City University of Hong Kong , 83 Tat Chee Avenue , Kowloon 999077 , Hong Kong, P.R. China.

We developed a biodegradable photothermal therapeutic (PTT) agent, π-conjugated oligomer nanoparticles (F8-PEG NPs), for highly efficient cancer theranostics. By exploiting an oligomer with excellent near-infrared (NIR) absorption, the nanoparticles show a high photothermal conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 82%, surpassing those of reported inorganic and organic PTT agents. In addition, the oligomer nanoparticles show excellent photostability and good biodegradability. The F8-PEG NPs are also demonstrated to have excellent biosafety and PTT efficacy both and . This contribution not only proposes a promising oligomer-based PTT agent but also provides insight into developing highly efficient nanomaterials for cancer theranostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.9b05383DOI Listing
November 2019
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