Publications by authors named "Xiao Yu"

1,278 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Automatic design of a mid-wavelength infrared dual-conjugate zoom system based on particle swarm optimization.

Opt Express 2021 May;29(10):14868-14882

This paper presents a method for the automatic design of a special mid-wavelength infrared zoom system in which the positions of both the pupil planes and the image plane are fixed during the zooming process. In this method, the formulas for the desired zoom system are derived to ensure the exact fulfillment of the conditions with three moving components based on Gaussian reduction. A mathematical model is established based on the particle swarm optimization to determine the first-order parameters of the paraxial design. Then, the model is optimized by iteratively updating a candidate solution with regard to a specific merit function that characterizes the zoom ratio, compactness, and aberration terms. In the optimization phase, the physical feasibility is considered as the constraint on the candidate solutions. Using two examples, this work demonstrates that the developed method is an efficient and practical tool for finding a realizable initial configuration of a dual-conjugate zoom system. Since this method is no longer reliant on the traditional trial-and-error technique, it is an important step toward the automatic design of complex optical systems using artificial intelligence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.418584DOI Listing
May 2021

The inhibitory effect of silencing CDCA3 on migration and proliferation in bladder urothelial carcinoma.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 May 12;21(1):257. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Background: CDCA3 is an important component of the E3 ligase complex with SKP1 and CUL1, which could regulate the progress of cell mitosis. CDCA3 has been widely identified as a proto-oncogene in multiple human cancers, however, its role in promoting human bladder urothelial carcinoma has not been fully elucidated.

Methods: Bioinformatic methods were used to analyze the expression level of CDCA3 in human bladder urothelial carcinoma tissues and the relationship between its expression level and key clinical characteristics. In vitro studies were performed to validate the specific functions of CDCA3 in regulating cell proliferation, cell migration and cell cycle process. Alterations of related proteins was investigated by western blot assays. In vivo studies were constructed to validate whether silencing CDCA3 could inhibit the proliferation rate in mice model.

Results: Bioinformatic analysis revealed that CDCA3 was significantly up-regulated in bladder urothelial carcinoma samples and was related to key clinical characteristics, such as tumor grade and metastasis. Moreover, patients who had higher expression level of CDCA3 tend to show a shorter life span. In vitro studies revealed that silencing CDCA3 could impair the migration ability of tumor cells via down-regulating EMT-related proteins such as MMP9 and Vimentin and inhibit tumor cell growth via arresting cells in the G1 cell cycle phase through regulating cell cycle related proteins like p21. In vivo study confirmed that silencing CDCA3 could inhibit the proliferation of bladder urothelial carcinoma cells.

Conclusions: CDCA3 is an important oncogene that could strengthen the migration ability of bladder urothelial carcinoma cells and accelerate tumor cell growth via regulating cell cycle progress and is a potential biomarker of bladder urothelial carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01969-xDOI Listing
May 2021

Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol over Heterogeneous Catalysts: A Short Review on Mechanistic Studies.

Chem Rec 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, College of Chemical Engineering, China University of Petroleum, No. 66 Changjiang West Road, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266580, China.

Catalytic transfer hydrogenolysis, using liquid H-donors in the absence of pressurized H under mild temperatures, is regarded as the most important technology to substitute traditional hydrogenation processes in industry. Despite decade development with several breakthroughs in catalyst design, the reaction mechanism involved in H generation and subsequent hydrogenolysis reactions is still under debate. In this review, transfer hydrogenolysis of glycerol, as a representative example, on metallic catalysts is revised critically with respect to surface reaction mechanism and catalyst design. The detailed reaction pathways for propanol, methanol, formic acid and ethanol for H generation have been discussed systematically. In particular, reaction mechanism for catalytic C-H cleavage, H spillover/transfer and C-O cleavage reaction steps will be critically revised with experimental and theoretical results in literature. Insights into reaction pathways, mechanism and H transfer efficiency and structure-performance relation for Pd, Cu and Ni catalysts will be provided for future development of catalyst manufacture and process development. The outcome of this work is useful for successful implementation of bio-refinery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tcr.202100037DOI Listing
May 2021

Functional paraganglioma with tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava, first case report.

Transl Androl Urol 2021 Apr;10(4):1813-1820

Department of Urology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) is a rare neuroendocrine that tumor originated from the adrenal medulla that secrets catecholamines. Tumors from extra-adrenal chromaffin tissues are called extra-adrenal PHEO or paraganglioma (PGL). To our knowledge, adrenal PHEO and subclinical PGL with inferior vena cava (IVC) invasion had been sporadically reported, while functional PGL with IVC tumor thrombus has not been publicly reported yet. Perioperative management of those diseases is less well established because of their multidisciplinary nature and rarity. We herein present a case of primary malignant PGL with IVC invasion. A 16-year-old female patient with a history of severe paroxysmal hypertension was admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital on suspicion of retroperitoneal mass. In-house diagnostic work-up revealed a malignant PGL with IVC invasion, inferior mesenteric artery encasement and, aorta engagement. Multi-disciplinary discussions were held and careful preoperative preparation plans were made. After everything was ready, the functional PGL and tumor thrombus were completely resected, then a reconstruction of IVC was performed. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 14 and all her clinical symptoms disappeared afterward. No evidence of tumor residual or metastasis was found in the subsequent six months of follow-up. Gene tests were made for her and her family. Albeit its rarity, functional PGL with IVC invasion is not unresectable, a multi-disciplinary task force should be established to settle down every detail. We recommended 3-dimensional imaging reconstruction for gaining a better anatomic understanding. Literature reviews showed that complete resection is the premise of a good prognosis. In particular cases, complementary or alternative therapy like chemotherapy and I-metaiodobenzylguanidine might help, family hereditary genetic tests are advised as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tau-21-50DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8100850PMC
April 2021

Harnessing the therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles for cancer treatment.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100082, China; Tsinghua University-Peking University Joint Center for Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China; Beijing Advanced Innovation, Center for Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Cancer therapeutic strategies include surgeries, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immunotherapies. However, current cancer treatment still faces challenges such as postoperative residuals, postoperative recurrence, chemoradiotherapy resistance and lack of drugs with high specificity, due to the complexity of the cancer environment. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid-capsuled membrane vesicles secreted from cells, communicating vital messages between cells and regarding function in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Investigation of compositions and functions of EVs may open unprecedented, promising avenues for cancer therapeutics. This review brings new perspectives from both researchers and clinicians in the EV field, emphasizing the ties between basic research and ongoing clinical trials. In sum, our review summarizes the roles EVs play in cancer therapy, ranging from mechanisms to applications in cancer treatment. In particular, it focuses on their therapeutic potential with an eye toward clinical relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2021.05.001DOI Listing
May 2021

MiR-34a suppression targets Nampt to ameliorate bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell senescence by regulating NAD-Sirt1 pathway.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 May 6;12(1):271. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Key Laboratory of Pathobiology, Ministry of Education, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, 126 Xin Min Street, Changchun, Jilin Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Expansion-mediated replicative senescence and age-related natural senescence have adverse effects on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) regenerative capability and functionality, thus severely impairing the extensive applications of MSC-based therapies. Emerging evidences suggest that microRNA-34a (miR-34a) has been implicated in the process of MSC senescence; however, the molecular mechanisms with regard to how miR-34a influencing MSC senescence remain largely undetermined.

Methods: MiR-34a expression in MSCs was evaluated utilizing RT-qPCR. The functional effects of miR-34a exerting on MSC senescence were investigated via gene manipulation. Relevant gene and protein expression levels were analyzed by RT-qPCR and western blot. Luciferase reporter assays were applied to confirm that Nampt is a direct target of miR-34a. The underlying regulatory mechanism of miR-34a targeting Nampt in MSC senescence was further explored by measuring intracellular NAD content, NAD/NADH ratio and Sirt1 activity.

Results: In contrast to Nampt expression, miR-34a expression incremented in senescent MSCs. MiR-34a overexpression in young MSCs resulted in senescence-associated characteristics as displayed by senescence-like morphology, prolonged cell proliferation, declined osteogenic differentiation potency, heightened senescence-associated-β-galactosidase activity, and upregulated expression levels of the senescence-associated factors. Conversely, miR-34a suppression in replicative senescent and natural senescent MSCs contributed to diminished senescence-related phenotypic features. We identified Nampt as a direct target gene of miR-34a. In addition, miR-34a repletion resulted in prominent reductions in Nampt expression levels, NAD content, NAD/NADH ratio, and Sirt1 activity, whereas anti-miR-34a treatment exerted the opposite effects. Furthermore, miR-34a-mediated MSC senescence was evidently rescued following the co-treatment with Nampt overexpression.

Conclusion: This study identifies a significant role of miR-34a playing in MSC replicative senescence and natural senescence via targeting Nampt and further mediating by NAD-Sirt1 pathway, carrying great implications for optimal strategies for MSC therapeutic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02339-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8101138PMC
May 2021

Reduced Retinal Microvascular Perfusion in Patients With Stroke Detected by Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 13;13:628336. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Guangdong Eye Institute, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Currently there is a shortage of biomarkers for stroke, one of the leading causes of death and disability in aging populations. Retinal vessels offer a unique and accessible "window" to study the microvasculature . However, the relationship between the retinal microvasculature and stroke is not entirely clear. To investigate the retinal microvascular characteristics in stroke, we recruited patients with stroke and age-matched control subjects from a tertiary hospital in China. The macular vessel density (VD) in the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP), foveal avascular zone (FAZ) metrics, and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) measured optic disc VD were recorded for analysis. A total of 189 patients with stroke and 195 control subjects were included. After adjusting for sex, visual acuity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, a history of smoking, levels of hemoglobulin (HbA1c), cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), the macular VD of SCP and DCP in all sectors was decreased in patients with stroke. In the stroke group, the VD around the FAZ and the VD of the optic disk were lower. Logistic regression found the parafovea-superior-hemi VD of DCP > 54.53% [odds ratio (OR): 0.169] as a protective factor of stroke. Using the integration of all OCTA parameters and traditional risk factors, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUC) curve of distinguishing patients with stroke was 0.962, with a sensitivity of 0.944 and a specificity of 0.871. Our study demonstrates that the retinal VD is decreased in patients with stroke independently of the traditional risk factors of stroke, which may shed light on the monitoring of stroke using the retinal microvascular parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.628336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078175PMC
April 2021

Insight into Liver lncRNA and mRNA Profiling at Four Developmental Stages in Ningxiang Pig.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Apr 8;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China.

Ningxiang pigs, a fat-type pig, are native to Ningxiang County in Hunan Province, with thousands of years of breeding history. This study aims to explore the expression profiles and functional networks on messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the liver. Liver tissue of Ningxiang piglets was collected at 30, 90, 150, and 210 days after birth (four development stages), and the mRNA and lncRNA expression was profiled. Compared to mRNA and lncRNA expression profiles, most differentially expressed mRNAs (DEmRNAs) were upregulated at 30 days; however, most DElncRNAs were downregulated at 210 days. Via Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) analysis and weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), a complex interaction between mRNAs and lncRNAs was identified, indicating that lncRNAs may be a critical regulatory element for mRNAs. One module of genes in particular (module profile 4) was related to fibril organization, vasculogenesis, GTPase activator activity, and regulation of kinase activity. The mRNAs and lncRNAs in module profile 4 had a similar pattern of expression, indicating that they have functional and regulatory relationships. Only , , and in the particular mRNA profile 4 were the target genes of lncRNAs in that profile, which shows the possible regulatory relationship between lncRNAs and mRNAs. The expression of these genes and lncRNAs in profile 4 was the highest at 30 days, and it is believed that these RNAs may play a critical role during the suckling period in order to meet the dietary requirements of piglets. In the lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network, the identified gene hubs and associated lncRNAs were shown to be involved in saccharide, lipid, and glucose metabolism, which may play an important role in the development and health of the liver. This result will lead to further investigation of liver lncRNA functions at various stages of development in Ningxiang pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology10040310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068270PMC
April 2021

The Mechanism of Facultative Intracellular Parasitism of .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 1;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Southwest University, Chongqing 402460, China.

Brucellosis is a highly prevalent zoonotic disease characterized by abortion and reproductive dysfunction in pregnant animals. Although the mortality rate of Brucellosis is low, it is harmful to human health, and also seriously affects the development of animal husbandry, tourism and international trade. Brucellosis is caused by , which is a facultative intracellular parasitic bacteria. It mainly forms -containing vacuoles (BCV) in the host cell to avoid the combination with lysosome (Lys), so as to avoid the elimination of it by the host immune system. not only has the ability to resist the phagocytic bactericidal effect, but also can make the host cells form a microenvironment which is conducive to its survival, reproduction and replication, and survive in the host cells for a long time, which eventually leads to the formation of chronic persistent infection. can proliferate and replicate in cells, evade host immune response and induce persistent infection, which are difficult problems in the treatment and prevention of Brucellosis. Therefore, the paper provides a preliminary overview of the facultative intracellular parasitic and immune escape mechanisms of , which provides a theoretical basis for the later study on the pathogenesis of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22073673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036852PMC
April 2021

Spatiotemporal Patterns and Determinants of Grain Self-Sufficiency in China.

Foods 2021 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, A11 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China.

The pattern of grain self-sufficiency plays a fundamental role in maintaining food security. We analyzed the patterns and determinants of grain production and demand, as well as grain self-sufficiency, in China over a 30-year period. The results show that China's total grain production, with an obvious northeast-southwest direction, increased by 63%, and yields of rice, wheat, corn, tubers, and beans increased by 16, 49, 224, 6, and 103%, respectively. The trends in ration and feed grain consumption changes at the provincial scale were roughly the same as at the national scale, with the ration consumption ratio decreasing and the ratio of feed grain consumption increasing. The ration consumption in Northwest China was relatively high, while the feed grain consumption rates in Shanghai, Guangdong, Beijing, Tianjin, and Chongqing were higher. Compared with ration and feed grain, the proportions of seed grain and grain loss were relatively small. China's grain consumption mainly concentrated in the central and eastern regions of China. Total grain, rice, corn, wheat, tubers, and beans consumption in feed grain showed a northeast-southwest trend, with consumption centers all shifting southward in the 30-year period. Corn accounted for the largest proportion in feed grain, followed by beans. Urban feed grain and urban ration hot spot areas have gradually transferred from the northwest to southeast coastal areas. The hot spots of rural feed grain consumption and rural ration consumption remained almost unchanged, located in the south of the Yangtze River and Central and Southern China, respectively. The grain self-sufficiency level developed well in the study period, while the areas with grain deficit were Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, and Hainan. The areas with high supply and high demand were mainly located in Central and East China, the areas with high supply and low demand were mainly distributed in Northeast China, and the areas with low supply and low demand were mainly located in Western China. The pattern of self-sufficiency of corn in feed grain has remained basically unchanged; the areas with corn feed grain deficit were Central and Southeast China, while North China had corn feed grain surplus. Compared with corn feed, the surplus of soybean feed was relatively poor. Factor detector analysis revealed that in different periods, the same impact factor had different explanatory power in the supply and demand pattern, and the comprehensive consideration of any two factors will enhance the explanatory power of grain supply and demand pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10040747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066067PMC
April 2021

Expressional and Prognostic Value of S100A16 in Pancreatic Cancer Integrated Bioinformatics Analyses.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 12;9:645641. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Studies have shown that the calcium-binding protein family S100 may play a role in the development of pancreatic cancer (PC), but the role of S100A16 in PC is still unknown. In this study, Oncomine was first used to detect the expression level and prognosis of S100A16 in PC and other tumors. The results showed that S100A16 was highly expressed in PC tissues compared with a normal pancreas, and the increased expression level may be related to poor prognosis in PC patients. The TCGA and ICGC RNA-seq data of PC patients were downloaded, and the S100A16-related differentially expressed genome (DEGs) was defined by taking the intersection of two gene sets. The GO and KEGG pathways were then analyzed. For clinical analysis, boxplots were depicted for the correlation between clinical characteristics and S100A16 expression. Then Cox regression was applied for exploring the prognostic value of S100A16 for PDAC patients. Based on the Cox regression model, we further estabished a S100A16-related risk score system to strengthen the ability to predict patients' prognosis. After integrating the risk score model and multiple clinicopathological factors, we finally established a nomogram that could predict the survival time of patients. Moreover, Gene set enrichment the effect of S100A16 expression differences on downstream biological processes. At last, using TIMER, ImmuneCellAI and GSEA we analyzed the correlation between S100A16 and pancreatic cancer immune infiltration and predicted the response of patients to checkpoint Blocker (ICB). In summary, S100A16 is involved in the occurrence and development of PC, affecting the prognosis of patients, and may have potential reference values for the immunotherapy of PC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.645641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072221PMC
April 2021

Deletion of Kir5.1 abolishes the effect of high-Na-intake on Kir4.1 and Na-Cl-cotransporter.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Pharmacology, New York Medical College, United States.

High-sodium-intake (HS) inhibited epithelial-sodium-channel (ENaC) in the aldosterone-sensitive-distal-nephron (ASDN) and Na-Cl-cotransporter (NCC) by suppressing basolateral Kir4.1/Kir5.1 in the distal-convoluted-tubule (DCT) thereby increasing renal Na excretion but not affecting K excretion. The aim of the present study is to explore whether the deletion of Kir5.1 compromises the inhibitory effect of HS on NCC expression/activity and renal K-excretion. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that HS failed to inhibit DCT-basolateral K channels and did not depolarize K-currents (I) reversal-potential of the DCT in Kir5.1 knockout (Kir5.1 KO) mice. Moreover, deletion of Kir5.1 not only increased the expression of Kir4.1, phosphor-NCC (pNCC) and total NCC (tNCC) but also abolished the inhibitory effect of HS on the expression of Kir4.1, pNCC and tNCC, and thiazide-induced natriuresis. Also, LS-induced stimulation of NCC expression/activity and the basolateral K channels in the DCT was absent in Kir5.1 KO mice. The deletion of Kir5.1 decreased ENaC currents in DCT2 and HS further inhibited ENaC activity in Kir5.1 KO mice. Finally, the measurement of basal renal K excretion rate with modified renal clearance method demonstrated that long-term HS inhibited renal K excretion rate and steadily increased plasma K levels in Kir5.1 KO mice but not in WT mice. We conclude that Kir5.1 plays an important role in mediating the effect of HS intake on the basolateral K channels in the DCT and NCC activity/expression. Kir5.1 is involved in maintaining renal ability of K excretion during HS intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00004.2021DOI Listing
April 2021

Microbiota regulate innate immune signaling and protective immunity against cancer.

Cell Host Microbe 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA; Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA; Center for Inflammation and Epigenetics, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address:

Microbiota play critical roles in regulating colitis and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, it is unclear how the microbiota generate protective immunity against these disease states. Here, we find that loss of the innate and adaptive immune signaling molecule, TAK1, in myeloid cells (Tak1) yields complete resistance to chemical-induced colitis and CRC through microbiome alterations that drive protective immunity. Tak1 mice exhibit altered microbiota that are critical for resistance, with antibiotic-mediated disruption ablating protection and Tak1 microbiota transfer conferring protection against colitis or CRC. The altered microbiota of Tak1 mice promote IL-1β and IL-6 signaling pathways, which are required for induction of protective intestinal Th17 cells and resistance. Specifically, Odoribacter splanchnicus is abundant in Tak1 mice and sufficient to induce intestinal Th17 cell development and confer resistance against colitis and CRC in wild-type mice. These findings identify specific microbiota strains and immune mechanisms that protect against colitis and CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2021.03.016DOI Listing
April 2021

Development and internal validation of a prediction model of prostate cancer on initial transperineal template-guided prostate biopsy.

BMC Urol 2021 Apr 23;21(1):68. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

The Department of Urology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 1 Shuaifuyuan, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.

Background: Due to the invasiveness of prostate biopsy, a prediction model of the individual risk of a positive biopsy result could be helpful to guide clinical decision-making. Most existing models are based on transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy. On the other hand, transperineal template-guided prostate biopsy (TTPB) has been reported to be more accurate in evaluating prostate cancer. The objective of this study is to develop a prediction model of the detection of high-grade prostate cancer (HGPC) on initial TTPB.

Result: A total of 1352 out of 3794 (35.6%) patients were diagnosed with prostate cancer, 848 of whom had tumour with Grade Group 2-5. Age, PSA, PV, DRE and f/t PSA are independent predictors of HGPC with p < 0.001. The model showed good discrimination ability (c-index 0.886) and calibration during internal validation and good clinical performance was observed through decision curve analysis. The external validation of CPCC-RC, an existing model, demonstrated that models based on TRUS-guided biopsy may underestimate the risk of HGPC in patients who underwent TTPB.

Conclusion: We established a prediction model which showed good discrimination ability and calibration in predicting the detection of HGPC by initial TTPB. This model can be used to aid clinical decision making for Chinese patients and other Asian populations with similar genomic backgrounds, after external validations are conducted to further confirm its clinical applicability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12894-021-00840-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8063345PMC
April 2021

Mechanochromic properties in a mononuclear Cu(I) complex without cuprophilic interactions.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, Beijing Engineering Technology Research Centre of Active Display, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China.

Two polymorphs of Cu[(3,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)thiophene)(bis(pyrazol-1-yl)borohydrate)] (1) were isolated. The blue luminescent crystals have evident mechanochromic luminescent (MCL) properties. Based on photophysical and structural analysis, the pore structure in the blue crystals is considered to be the main reason for the MCL properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc01229kDOI Listing
April 2021

Structural studies of phosphorylation-dependent interactions between the V2R receptor and arrestin-2.

Nat Commun 2021 04 22;12(1):2396. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Key Laboratory Experimental Teratology of the Ministry of Education and Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Cheeloo college of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Arrestins recognize different receptor phosphorylation patterns and convert this information to selective arrestin functions to expand the functional diversity of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamilies. However, the principles governing arrestin-phospho-receptor interactions, as well as the contribution of each single phospho-interaction to selective arrestin structural and functional states, are undefined. Here, we determined the crystal structures of arrestin2 in complex with four different phosphopeptides derived from the vasopressin receptor-2 (V2R) C-tail. A comparison of these four crystal structures with previously solved Arrestin2 structures demonstrated that a single phospho-interaction change results in measurable conformational changes at remote sites in the complex. This conformational bias introduced by specific phosphorylation patterns was further inspected by FRET and H NMR spectrum analysis facilitated via genetic code expansion. Moreover, an interdependent phospho-binding mechanism of phospho-receptor-arrestin interactions between different phospho-interaction sites was unexpectedly revealed. Taken together, our results provide evidence showing that phospho-interaction changes at different arrestin sites can elicit changes in affinity and structural states at remote sites, which correlate with selective arrestin functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22731-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062632PMC
April 2021

Integrative analysis of the cuticular lipidome and transcriptome of Sorghum bicolor reveals cultivar differences in drought tolerance.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jun 20;163:285-295. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400716, China. Electronic address:

Cuticular wax and cutin are directly involved in the mechanisms by which plants acclimate to water-limited environments. However, how the two lipid forms balance their contributions to plant drought-tolerance is still not clear. The present study examined the responses of cutin monomers and cuticular waxes to drought stress in two sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) cultivars, drought-tolerant cv. Kangsi and drought-sensitive cv. Hongyingzi, by combining lipidomic and transcriptomic analysis. Drought increased total cutin contents by 41.3%, the contents of alkanoic acids by 72.6% and 2-hydroxyacids by 117.8% in Kangsi but unchanged those in Hongyingzi. The abundance of cutin monomers were relatively stable for cv Hongyingzi, excepting for a decrease of ω-hydroxyacids from 35.0% to 27.4% in drought-stressed plants. However, for cv Kangsi, the abundance of ω-hydroxyacids decreased from 36.8% to 21.0% and that of alkanoic acids increased from 30.5% to 37.1% in drought-stressed plants. Drought increased total wax coverage in Hongyingzi but reduced it in Kangsi. However, the abundance of aldehydes decreased from 51.2% to 39.3% in drought-stressed cv Kangsi, but increased from 25.2% to 36.1% in drought-stressed cv Hongyingzi. A decrease of sterols (by 76%) and an increase of primary alcohol (by 443%) was also observed in drought-stressed cv Hongyingzi. Transcriptome analysis also revealed that many genes implicated by homology in cutin monomer and cuticular wax biosynthesis also differed in their responses to drought stress between the two sorghum cultivars. Therefore, sorghum cultivars differed in their mechanisms in adjusting chemical profiles of both cutin and cuticular wax under water deficit condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.04.007DOI Listing
June 2021

Immobilising hairpin DNA-conjugated distyryl boron dipyrromethene on gold@polydopamine core-shell nanorods for microRNA detection and microRNA-mediated photodynamic therapy.

Nanoscale 2021 Apr 24;13(13):6499-6512. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T., Hong Kong, China.

A novel nanosystem of polydopamine-coated gold nanorods (AuNR@PDA) immobilised with molecules of hairpin DNA-conjugated distyryl boron dipyrromethene (DSBDP) was designed and fabricated for detection of microRNA-21 (miR-21). By using this oncogenic stimulus, the photodynamic effect of the DSBDP-based photosensitiser was also activated. In the presence of miR-21, the fluorescence intensity of the nanosystem was increased due to the dissociation of the conjugate from AuNR@PDA upon hybridisation. The intracellular fluorescence intensity triggered by intracellular miR-21 was in the order: MCF-7 > HeLa > HEK-293, which was in accordance with their miR-21 expression levels. The specificity was demonstrated by comparing the results with those of an analogue with a scrambled DNA sequence. The nanosystem could also result in miR-21-mediated photodynamic eradication of miR-21-overexpressed MCF-7 cells. After intravenous injection of the nanosystem into HeLa tumour-bearing nude mice, the fluorescence intensity of the tumour was increased over 24 h and was about 3-fold stronger than that of the scrambled analogue. Upon irradiation, the nanosystem could also greatly reduce the size of the tumour without causing significant tissue damage in the major organs. The overall results showed that this nanoplatform can serve as a specific and potent theranostic agent for simultaneous miR-21 detection and miR-21-mediated photodynamic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr09135aDOI Listing
April 2021

Patients gather in large hospitals: the current situation of Chinese hospitals and the direction of medical reform.

Postgrad Med J 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Psychiatry, Shantou University Mental Health Center, Shantou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2021-140147DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of different structural flaxseed lignans on the stability of flaxseed oil-in-water emulsion: An interfacial perspective.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 8;357:129522. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hubei Key Laboratory of Lipid Chemistry and Nutrition, and Key Laboratory of Oilseeds Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, Oil Crops and Lipids Process Technology National & Local Joint Engineering Laboratory, Wuhan 430062, China. Electronic address:

The influences of the different structural flaxseed lignans on flaxseed oil (FO) emulsions during storage and digestion were investigated, focusing on their interfacial behavior. From perspective of interface, more than 60% of secoisolariciresinol (SECO) and the acidic hydrolysates of flaxseed lignan macromolecule (FLEH) were located on the interface of FO emulsions. It improved the stability of FO emulsions both during storage and digestion by inhibiting of free radical penetration and improving their targeted antioxidative activity. By comparison, the secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) and the alkaline hydrolysates of flaxseed lignan macromolecule (FLE) largely located in the aqueous and exerted lower antioxidative efficiency in emulsions. Moreover, SDG, SECO, FLE and FLEH slowed down the digestive rate of FO in emulsions, which might be due to flaxseed lignans inhibited the activity of digestive enzymes. These findings suggested that the different structural flaxseed lignans had the potential as antioxidants in emulsions during storage and digestion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129522DOI Listing
April 2021

External Validation of the Extraprostatic Extension Grade on MRI and Its Incremental Value to Clinical Models for Assessing Extraprostatic Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 1;11:655093. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Objectives: To externally validate the extraprostatic extension (EPE) grade criteria on MRI and analyze the incremental value of EPE grade to clinical models of prostate cancer.

Methods: A consecutive 130 patients who underwent preoperative prostate MRI followed by radical prostatectomy between January 2015 to January 2020 in our institution were retrospectively enrolled. The EPE grade, Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA), and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center nomogram (MSKCCn) score for each patient were assigned. Significant clinicopathological factors in univariate and multivariate analyses were combined with EPE grade to build the Clinical + EPE grade model, and the CAPRA and MSKCCn score were also combined with EPE grade to build the CAPRA + EPE grade and MSKCCn + EPE grade model, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity of these models were calculated to evaluate their diagnostic performance. Calibration and decision curve analyses were used to analyze their calibration performance and clinical utility.

Results: The AUC for predicting EPE was 0.767-0.778 for EPE grade, 0.704 for CAPRA, and 0.723 for MSKCCn. After combination with EPE grade, the AUCs of these clinical models increased significantly than using clinical models along ( < 0.05), but was comparable with using EPE grade alone ( > 0.05). The calibration curves of EPE grade, clinical models and combined models showed that these models are well-calibrated for EPE. In the decision curve analysis, EPE grade showed slightly higher net benefit than MSKCCn and CAPRA.

Conclusion: The EPE grade showed good performance for evaluating EPE in our cohort and possessed well clinical utility. Further combinations with the EPE grade could improve the diagnostic performance of clinical models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.655093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047629PMC
April 2021

Pevonedistat and azacitidine upregulate NOXA () to increase sensitivity to venetoclax in preclinical models of acute myeloid leukemia.

Haematologica 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Medicine; Program in Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine; Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center; Center for Immunobiology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232.

Dysregulation of apoptotic machinery is one mechanism by which acute myeloid leukemia (AML) acquires a clonal survival advantage. B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (BCL2) overexpression is a common feature in hematologic malignancies. The selective BCL2 inhibitor, venetoclax (VEN) is used in combination with azacitidine (AZA), a DNA-methyltransferase inhibitor (DNMTi), to treat patients with AML. Despite promising response rates to VEN/AZA, resistance to the agent is common. One identified mechanism of resistance is the upregulation of myeloid cell leukemia-1 protein (MCL1). Pevonedistat (PEV), a novel agent that inhibits NEDD8-activating enzyme, and AZA both upregulate NOXA (PMAIP1), a BCL2 family protein that competes with effector molecules at the BH3 binding site of MCL1. We demonstrate that PEV/AZA combination induces NOXA to a greater degree than either PEV or AZA alone, which enhances VEN-mediated apoptosis. Herein, using AML cell lines and primary AML patient samples ex vivo, including in cells with genetic alterations linked to treatment resistance, we demonstrate robust activity of the PEV/VEN/AZA triplet. These findings were corroborated in preclinical systemic engrafted models of AML. Collectively, these results provide preclinical rational for combining PEV/VEN/AZA as a novel therapeutic approach in overcoming AML resistance current therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.272609DOI Listing
April 2021

Sequential drug delivery of vancomycin and rhBMP-2 via pore-closed PLGA microparticles embedded photo-crosslinked chitosan hydrogel for enhanced osteointegration.

Authors:
Wei Song Yu Xiao

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 7;182:612-625. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No.14, Section 3, Ren Min Nan Rd., Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

As generally accepted, inhibiting the bacterial invasion at initial stage and promoting the behavior of related osteogenesis cells afterwards is crucial to achieve favorable osteointegration after dental implantation. In this study, a novel combined structured hydrogel composed of chitosan and pore-closed poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles was prepared and characterized. In vitro and in-vivo studies have identified that this biocompatible material can rapidly release vancomycin at initial 2 days and then sustainedly release recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for about 12 days, thus respectively accomplish antibacterial and osteogenesis functions. This sequential drug release system can be used as a promising coating material to improve the surface conditions of dental implant to enhance the osteointegration after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.03.181DOI Listing
April 2021

Cultivation of compound ability of postgraduates with medical professional degree: the importance of double tutor system.

Postgrad Med J 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Psychiatry, Shantou University Mental Health Center, Shantou, China.

As we all know, medical postgraduate education is very important for training high-quality clinicians, and can have a long-term impact on the promotion of the global health service system. In recent years, following the example of developed countries in Europe and America, the Chinese government has reformed the training mode of medical postgraduates and implemented the double tutor system. Although this system will bring many positive effects in theory, the difficulties encountered in implementing this system are real and need the joint efforts of schools, tutors and students to solve them. This article closely follows the background of the current era, compares the differences between Chinese and foreign graduate training modes, and emphatically discusses the significance and problems of the double tutor system in the postgraduate education reform in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2021-139779DOI Listing
April 2021

Pollen PCP-B peptides unlock a stigma peptide-receptor kinase gating mechanism for pollination.

Science 2021 04;372(6538):171-175

School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Sexual reproduction in angiosperms relies on precise communications between the pollen and pistil. The molecular mechanisms underlying these communications remain elusive. We established that in , a stigmatic gatekeeper, the ANJEA-FERONIA (ANJ-FER) receptor kinase complex, perceives the RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR peptides RALF23 and RALF33 to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the stigma papillae, whereas pollination reduces stigmatic ROS, allowing pollen hydration. Upon pollination, the POLLEN COAT PROTEIN B-class peptides (PCP-Bs) compete with RALF23/33 for binding to the ANJ-FER complex, leading to a decline of stigmatic ROS that facilitates pollen hydration. Our results elucidate a molecular gating mechanism in which distinct peptide classes from pollen compete with stigma peptides for interaction with a stigmatic receptor kinase complex, allowing the pollen to hydrate and germinate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abc6107DOI Listing
April 2021

In vitro expansion of pancreatic islet clusters facilitated by hormones and chemicals.

Cell Discov 2020 Apr 7;6(1):20. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory Experimental Teratology of the Ministry of Education and Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University, 250012, Jinan, Shandong, China.

Tissue regeneration, such as pancreatic islet tissue propagation in vitro, could serve as a promising strategy for diabetes therapy and personalised drug testing. However, such a strategy has not been realised yet. Propagation could be divided into two steps, in vitro expansion and repeated passaging. Even the first step of the in vitro islet expansion has not been achieved to date. Here, we describe a method that enables the expansion of islet clusters isolated from pregnant mice or wild-type rats by employing a combination of specific regeneration factors and chemical compounds in vitro. The expanded islet clusters expressed insulin, glucagon and somatostatin, which are markers corresponding to pancreatic β cells, α cells and δ cells, respectively. These different types of cells grouped together, were spatially organised and functioned similarly to primary islets. Further mechanistic analysis revealed that forskolin in our recipe contributed to renewal and regeneration, whereas exendin-4 was essential for preserving islet cell identity. Our results provide a novel method for the in vitro expansion of islet clusters, which is an important step forward in developing future protocols and media used for islet tissue propagation in vitro. Such method is important for future regenerative diabetes therapies and personalised medicines using large amounts of pancreatic islets derived from the same person.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0159-xDOI Listing
April 2020

Deletion of renal Nedd4-2 abolishes the effect of high sodium intake (HS) on Kir4.1, ENaC, and NCC and causes hypokalemia during high HS.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2021 May 5;320(5):F883-F896. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York.

Neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated protein 4-2 (Nedd4-2) regulates the expression of Kir4.1, thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC), and epithelial Na channel (ENaC) in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN), and Nedd4-2 deletion causes salt-sensitive hypertension. We now examined whether Nedd4-2 deletion compromises the effect of high-salt (HS) diet on Kir4.1, NCC, ENaC, and renal K excretion. Immunoblot analysis showed that HS diet decreased the expression of Kir4.1, Ca-activated large-conductance K channel subunit-α (BKα), ENaCβ, ENaCγ, total NCC, and phospho-NCC (at Thr) in floxed neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4-like () mice, whereas these effects were absent in kidney-specific Nedd4-2 knockout (Ks-Nedd4-2 KO) mice. Renal clearance experiments also demonstrated that Nedd4-2 deletion abolished the inhibitory effect of HS diet on hydrochlorothiazide-induced natriuresis. Patch-clamp experiments showed that neither HS diet nor low-salt diet had an effect on Kir4.1/Kir5.1 currents of the distal convoluted tubule in Nedd4-2-deficient mice, whereas we confirmed that HS diet inhibited and low-salt diet increased Kir4.1/Kir5.1 activity in mice. Nedd4-2 deletion increased ENaC currents in the ASDN, and this increase was more robust in the cortical collecting duct than in the distal convoluted tubule. Also, HS-induced inhibition of ENaC currents in the ASDN was absent in Nedd4-2-deficient mice. Renal clearance experiments showed that HS intake for 2 wk increased the basal level of renal K excretion and caused hypokalemia in Ks-Nedd4-2-KO mice but not in mice. In contrast, plasma Na concentrations were similar in and Ks-Nedd4-2 KO mice on HS diet. We conclude that Nedd4-2 plays an important role in mediating the inhibitory effect of HS diet on Kir4.1, ENaC, and NCC and is essential for maintaining normal renal K excretion and plasma K ranges during long-term HS diet. The present study suggests that Nedd4-2 is involved in mediating the inhibitory effect of high salt (HS) diet on Kir4.1/kir5.1 in the distal convoluted tubule, NaCl cotransporter function, and epithelial Na channel activity and that Nedd4-2 plays an essential role in maintaining K homeostasis in response to a long-term HS diet. This suggests the possibility that HS intake could lead to hypokalemia in subjects lacking proper Nedd4-2 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00555.2020DOI Listing
May 2021

Ligand recognition, unconventional activation, and G protein coupling of the prostaglandin E receptor EP2 subtype.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 2;7(14). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Biophysics and Department of Pathology of Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China.

Selective modulation of the heterotrimeric G protein α S subunit-coupled prostaglandin E (PGE) receptor EP2 subtype is a promising therapeutic strategy for osteoporosis, ocular hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disorders. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the EP2-G complex with its endogenous agonist PGE and two synthesized agonists, taprenepag and evatanepag (CP-533536). These structures revealed distinct features of EP2 within the EP receptor family in terms of its unconventional receptor activation and G protein coupling mechanisms, including activation in the absence of a typical W "toggle switch" and coupling to G via helix 8. Moreover, inspection of the agonist-bound EP2 structures uncovered key motifs governing ligand selectivity. Our study provides important knowledge for agonist recognition and activation mechanisms of EP2 and will facilitate the rational design of drugs targeting the PGE signaling system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abf1268DOI Listing
April 2021

Fast computational depth segmentation using orthogonal fringe patterns without pattern sequence changing.

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2021 Apr;38(4):564-572

The recently proposed omnidirectional depth segmentation method (ODSM) has advantages over traditional depth segmentation in terms of robustness and computational costs. However, this method uses at least six fringe patterns and changes their sequences multiple times to perform depth segmentation, which limits its segmentation speed and increases computational complexity. This paper proposes a fast computational depth segmentation (FCDS) method in which only five patterns are used for object segmentation at different depths into isolated regions without the requirement of pattern sequence changing. Phase singularity points are fully utilized due to their significance as depth segmentation markers to extract segmenting lines used for depth determination. Meanwhile, a modified Fourier transform algorithm (MFTA) is introduced to calculate the wrapped phase sequences, which uses two groups of orthogonal phase-shifting fringe patterns and a DC component pattern (five in total). The segmenting lines along orthogonal directions can be extracted with the FCDS method without changing the fringe sequences, which not only solves the problem of phase insensitivity but reduces the calculation costs. Besides, the problem of mis-segmentation is solved with an optimization algorithm for depth segmenting lines and successfully segments objects with abrupt depth changes. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and precision of the proposed method. The experimental results prove the success of the proposed method for segmenting objects of similar color with a segmentation speed that is up to a 120% increase relative to previous methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.414326DOI Listing
April 2021

PRDX2 Protects Against Atherosclerosis by Regulating the Phenotype and Function of the Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 11;8:624796. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Pathology and Forensic Medicine, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

Peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), an inhibitor of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is potentially involved in the progression of atherosclerosis (AS). The aim of this study was to explore the role and mechanism of PRDX2 in AS. The expression of PRDX2 was evaluated in 14 human carotid artery tissues with or without AS. The results showed that the positive reaction of PRDX2 was observed in the carotid artery vascular smooth muscle cells (CAVSMCs). To assess the mechanism by which PRDX2 may function in AS, the CAVSMCs were transfected with pEX4-PRDX2 and si-PRDX2. The catalase, hydrogen peroxide (HO) scavenger, was used to further confirm that PRDX2-induced inhibitory effects might be mediated through reducing ROS levels. Phenotype alteration and functional testing included transcription testing, immunostaining, and expression studies. The drug of MAPK signaling pathway inhibitors SB203580, SP600125, and PD98059 was used to evaluate the underlying mechanism. In this study, we found that the protein level of PRDX2 and the level of HO were higher in the human AS carotid artery tissues than in the normal carotid artery tissues, accompanied with the activation of MAPK signaling pathway. The up-regulation of PRDX2 in the CAVSMCs significantly decreased the expression of ROS, collagen type I (COL I), collagen type III (COL III), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and inhibited the proliferation, migration, and transformation of the CAVSMCs. The up-regulation of PRDX2 reversed the effect of the CAVSMCs treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In addition, PRDX2 down-regulation promoted the protein levels of p-p38, p-JNK, and p-ERK, which was confirmed in relevant MAPK inhibitor treatment experiments. Our results suggest a protective role of PRDX2, as a scavenger of ROS, in AS progression through inhibiting the VSMC phenotype alteration and function MAPK signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.624796DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006347PMC
March 2021