Publications by authors named "Xiao Yin"

450 Publications

Multifunctional Ca-Zn-Si-based micro-nano spheres with anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, and dentin regenerative properties for pulp capping application.

J Mater Chem B 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Affiliated Stomatology Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Key Laboratory of Basic and Applied Research of Oral Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510182, China.

While pulp capping using a variety of materials has been applied clinically to preserve the health and vitality of the dental pulp and induce dentin repair no material meets all the anti-infection, anti-inflammation, and promoting pulp tissue regeneration criteria. Micro-nano materials of bioactive glasses (BG) with the biocompatibility and osteogenesis-promoting properties were developed for this study using Zn-doped bioactive glass (BGz) micro-nano spheres for dental pulp capping to control infection and inflammation and promote tissue regeneration. Of three key findings, the co-culture of showed that the BGz had an excellent antibacterial effect, and after being stimulated with BGz , macrophages showed a significant decrease of pro-inflammatory M1 markers compared with the undoped BG group. It is also noted that the conditioned medium derived from BGz-stimulated macrophages could significantly promote mineralized dentin formation of dental pulp cells (DPCs). In rats, acute pulp restoration experiments proved that BGz used as a pulp capping agent had excellent dentin regenerative properties. This work may provide a novel strategy to promote osteo/dentinogenic differentiation through regulating early inflammation, with potential applications in pulp capping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb01517fDOI Listing
September 2021

Endogenous nitric oxide-generating surfaces via polydopamine-copper coatings for preventing biofilm dispersal and promoting microbial killing.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Sep 7;128:112297. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia; Australia-China Centre for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Peri-implantitis is a bacterially induced inflammatory disease which affects the hard and soft tissues around a dental implant. Microbial biofilm formation is an important causative factor in peri-implantitis. The aim of this study is to develop an effective multifunctional surface coating for antimicrobial property and to counteract oral biofilm-associated infections via a single polydopamine copper coating ([email protected]) on titanium implant surface to regulate endogenous nitric oxide (NO) generation.

Methods: [email protected] coatings were made with different concentrations of CuCl on titanium surfaces with a simple dip coating technique. Coatings were characterised to evaluate Cu concentrations as well as NO release rates from the coatings. Further, salivary biofilms were made on the coatings using Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) media in an anaerobic chamber. Biofilms were prepared with three different mixtures, one of which was saliva only, the second had an addition of sheep's blood, and the third was prepared with NO donors S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and L-glutathione (GSH) in the mixture of saliva and blood to evaluate the effects of endogenously produced NO on biofilms. The effectiveness of coated surfaces on biofilms were assessed using four different methods, namely, crystal violet assay, scanning electron microscopy imaging, 2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT) metabolic assay, and live/dead staining.

Results: NO release rates could be controlled with different Cu concentration in [email protected] coatings. NO generated from the [email protected] coatings effectively induced dispersal of biofilms shown by the reduction in biofilm biomass as well as reduced biofilm attachment in samples prepared with blood and NO donors. Cu ions released from the [email protected] coatings resulted in killing of the dispersed bacteria, which was evidenced by the live/dead cell staining and reduced metabolic activity noted from the XTT assay. In contrast, samples prepared with saliva showed no significant reduction in biofilms, indicating the important effect of endogenously generated NO on biofilm dispersal.

Conclusion: In conclusion, [email protected] coatings with NO generating surfaces have a dual anti-biofilm function, with a synergistic effect on biofilm dispersal from regulated NO generation and bactericidal effects from Cu ions from the coatings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112297DOI Listing
September 2021

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated VvPR4b editing decreases downy mildew resistance in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.).

Hortic Res 2020 Sep 1;7(1):149. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China.

Downy mildew of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), caused by the oomycete pathogen Plasmopara viticola, is one of the most serious concerns for grape production worldwide. It has been widely reported that the pathogenesis-related 4 (PR4) protein plays important roles in plant resistance to diseases. However, little is known about the role of PR4 in the defense of grapevine against P. viticola. In this study, we engineered loss-of-function mutations in the VvPR4b gene from the cultivar "Thompson Seedless" using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and evaluated the consequences for downy mildew resistance. Sequencing results showed that deletions were the main type of mutation introduced and that no off-target events occurred. Infection assays using leaf discs showed that, compared to wild-type plants, the VvPR4b knockout lines had increased susceptibility to P. viticola. This was accompanied by reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species around stomata. Measurement of the relative genomic abundance of P. viticola in VvPR4b knockout lines also demonstrated that the mutants had increased susceptibility to the pathogen. Our results confirm that VvPR4b plays an active role in the defense of grapevine against downy mildew.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-020-00371-4DOI Listing
September 2020

Modulatory Role of Silver Nanoparticles and Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosome-Modified Barrier Membrane on Macrophages and Osteogenesis.

Front Chem 2021 2;9:699802. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, China.

As a wound dressing and barrier membrane, surface modification of polycaprolactone (PCL) is needed in order to achieve better biological activities. Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold significant tissue regeneration promise. Silver nanoparticles (Ag) have been suggested as the surface modification technique for various medical devices. Ag and human bone marrow MSC (hBMSC)-derived exosomes (MSCs-exo) were used to modify the PCL scaffold. The impact of different scaffolds on immune cells and MSC proliferation and differentiation was further evaluated. MSCs-exo exhibited cup-shaped morphology with a diameter around 100 nm. MSCs-exo were enriched with exosome marker CD81 and showed good internalization into recipient cells. 200 ng/ml Ag nanoparticles and MSCs-exo were further used to modify the PCL scaffold. The internalization study further indicated a similar releasing pattern of exosomes from Ag/MSCs-exo hybrid scaffolds into RAW264.7 and hBMSCs at 12 and 24 h, respectively. Macrophages play an important role during different stages of bone regeneration. The MTT and confocal microscopy study demonstrated no significant toxicity of exosome and/or Ag hybrid scaffolds for macrophages and MSCs. Inflammatory macrophages were further used to mimic the inflammatory environment. A mixed population of elongated and round morphology was noted in the exosome and Ag hybrid group, in which the proinflammatory genes and secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly reduced. In addition, the exosome and Ag hybrid scaffolds could significantly boost the osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. This study highlights the possibility of using Ag nanoparticles and MSCs-exo to modify the PCL scaffold, thus providing new insight into the development of the novel immunomodulatory biomembrane.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2021.699802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8365089PMC
August 2021

Osteocytes but not osteoblasts directly build mineralized bone structures.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 11;17(10):2430-2448. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX 75246, USA.

Bone-forming osteoblasts have been a cornerstone of bone biology for more than a century. Most research toward bone biology and bone diseases center on osteoblasts. Overlooked are the 90% of bone cells, called osteocytes. This study aims to test the hypothesis that osteocytes but not osteoblasts directly build mineralized bone structures, and that defects in osteocytes lead to the onset of hypophosphatemia rickets. The hypothesis was tested by developing and modifying multiple imaging techniques, including both and models plus two types of hypophosphatemia rickets models (-null and Hyp, Phex mutation mice), and -Cre induced high level of β-catenin models. Our key findings were that osteocytes (not osteoblasts) build bone similar to the construction of a high-rise building, with a wire mesh frame (i.e., osteocyte dendrites) and cement (mineral matrices secreted from osteocytes), which is a lengthy and slow process whose mineralization direction is from the inside toward the outside. When osteoblasts fail to differentiate into osteocytes but remain highly active in -1-null or Hyp mice, aberrant and poor bone mineralization occurs, caused by a sharp increase in Wnt-β-catenin signaling. Further, the constitutive expression of β-catenin in osteocytes recaptures a similar osteomalacia phenotype as shown in null or mice. Thus, we conclude that osteocytes directly build bone, and osteoblasts with a short life span serve as a precursor to osteocytes, which challenges the existing dogma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.61012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315029PMC
June 2021

Maternal urinary cadmium concentrations in early pregnancy in relation to prenatal and postpartum size of offspring.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Jul 16;68:126823. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

National Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: The impacts of environmental cadmium (Cd) exposure on birth size parameters including weight, length and head circumference (HC) have been reported in multiple studies. However, little remains known of the impacts of maternal Cd exposure during pregnancy on size during in utero development and during early childhood. The aim of this study was to comprehensively investigate impacts of maternal Cd exposure during pregnancy on the size of offspring in utero (from 24 weeks pregnancy) until six months of age.

Methods: Pregnant mothers were recruited as part of an ongoing prospective birth cohort study based in Guangdong, China. Maternal urine samples were collected in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, in which Cd concentrations were measured by inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). In utero size indicators at 24 and 32 week of gestation, including biparietal diameter (BPD), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and HC were derived from ultrasound examinations. Anthropometric measures of weight, height and HC at birth and one, three and six months of age were also collected. Associations of size measures at the various time points with maternal urinary Cd concentrations were assessed using linear regression models.

Results: The median urinary Cd concentration was 1.00 and 0.98 μg/g creatinine in the first and third trimesters respectively. In univariate analysis, increased maternal Cd levels in the first trimester were associated with decreased HC (-0.17 cm/ug/g urinary Cd) at birth, and the association was particularly pronounced among males (-0.30 cm/ug/g urinary Cd). First trimester Cd exposure was also found to be significantly associated with decreased infant weight at three and six months of age among girls (-101 g/ug/g and -97 g/ug/g urinary Cd, respectively). Associations of similar magnitude were observed after adjustment for various maternal factors. No significant associations were observed with infant size measures or with measures of Cd in the third trimester.

Conclusions: Our detailed study suggests that the first trimester is particularly critical window of susceptibility to sex-specific effects of Cd on size parameters at birth, with some effects persisting to six months of age. These compelling sex-dependent effects on HC and body weight warrant future studies examining longer-term health effects of pregnancy-related Cd exposures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2021.126823DOI Listing
July 2021

Construction and Application of Graphene Oxide-Bovine Serum Albumin Modified Extended Gate Field Effect Transistor Chiral Sensor.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jun 7;21(11). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Science, Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Chirality is an essential natural attribute of organisms. Chiral molecules exhibit differences in biochemical processes, pharmacodynamics, and toxicological properties, and their enantioselective recognition plays an important role in explaining life science processes and guiding drug design. Herein, we developed an ultra-sensitive enantiomer recognition platform based on an extended-gate metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect-transistor ([email protected]) that achieved effective chiral resolution of ultra-sensitive Lysine (Lys) and α-Methylbenzylamine (α-Met) enantiodiscrimination at the femtomole level. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was immobilized on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) through amide bond coupling to prepare the [email protected] complex. [email protected] was drop-cast on deposited Au surfaces with a Nafion solution to afford the extended-gate sensing unit. Effective recognition of chiral enantiomers of mandelic acid (MA), tartaric acid (TA), tryptophan (Trp), Lys and α-Met was realized. Moreover, the introduction of GO reduced non-specific adsorption, and the chiral resolution concentration of α-Met reached the level of picomole in a 5-fold diluted fetal bovine serum (FBS). Finally, the chiral recognition mechanism of the as-fabricated sensor was proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21113921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8201299PMC
June 2021

Chirality in polythiophenes: A review.

Authors:
Kun Wang Yin Xiao

Chirality 2021 08 24;33(8):424-446. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin Engineering Research Center of Functional Fine Chemicals, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

Chiroptical polythiophene (PTh), as one of the most important chiral conductive polymers, is an emerging and hot topic in chiral materials, which shows great application potentials in fields as diverse as chiral sensing and separation, asymmetry catalysis, chiroptoelectronics, and even chiro-spintronics. This review summarizes progress in chiral polythiophenes (PThs) in the past 10 years, including the synthesis, properties and applications. Main focus is placed on the manner in which chirality is implemented and the optical activity of the chiral PThs. We showcase examples in which the chirality of PThs is induced by side chain substituents with point, planar, and axial chirality or arises from external chiral media. Application of chiral PThs is also included. Finally, perspectives for further development are offered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chir.23333DOI Listing
August 2021

Dual-Wavelength Photosensitive Nano-in-Micro Scaffold Regulates Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses for Osteogenesis.

Nanomicro Lett 2020 Nov 21;13(1):28. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine, Ministry of Education, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430079, People's Republic of China.

The immune response of a biomaterial determines its osteoinductive effect. Although the mechanisms by which some immune cells promote regeneration have been revealed, the biomaterial-induced immune response is a dynamic process involving multiple cells. Currently, it is challenging to accurately regulate the innate and adaptive immune responses to promote osteoinduction in biomaterials. Herein, we investigated the roles of macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) during the osteoinduction of biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds. We found that osteoinductive BCP directed M2 macrophage polarization and inhibited DC maturation, resulting in low T cell response and efficient osteogenesis. Accordingly, a dual-targeting nano-in-micro scaffold (BCP loaded with gold nanocage, BCP-GNC) was designed to regulate the immune responses of macrophages and DCs. Through a dual-wavelength photosensitive switch, BCP-GNC releases interleukin-4 in the early stage of osteoinduction to target M2 macrophages and then releases dexamethasone in the later stage to target immature DCs, creating a desirable inflammatory environment for osteogenesis. This study demonstrates that biomaterials developed to have specific regulatory capacities for immune cells can be used to control the early inflammatory responses of implanted materials and induce osteogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00540-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187671PMC
November 2020

Highly sensitive gas sensing platforms based on field effect Transistor-A review.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Aug 29;1172:338575. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Science, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Science, Department of Chemistry, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, PR China. Electronic address:

Highly selective, sensitive and fast gas sensing has attracted increasing attention in the fields of environmental protection, industrial production, personal safety as well as medical diagnostics. Field effect transistor (FET) sensors have been extensively investigated in gas sensing fields due to their small size, high sensitivity, high reliability and low energy consumption. This comprehensive review aims to discuss the recent advances in FET gas sensors based on materials such as carbon nanotubes, silicon carbide, silicon, metal oxides-, graphene-, transition metal dichalcogenides- and 2-dimensional black phosphorus. We first introduce different types of sensor structures and elaborate the gas-sensing mechanisms. Then, we describe the optimizing strategies for sensing performances, response parameters, FET based dual-mode sensors and FET based logic circuit sensors. Moreover, we present the key advances of the above materials in gas sensing performances. Meanwhile, shortcomings of such materials are also discussed and the future development of this field is proposed in this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338575DOI Listing
August 2021

Manganese-Doped Calcium Silicate Nanowire Composite Hydrogels for Melanoma Treatment and Wound Healing.

Research (Wash D C) 2021 7;2021:9780943. Epub 2021 May 7.

State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China.

Melanoma is a serious malignant skin tumor. Effectively eliminating melanoma and healing after-surgical wounds are always challenges in clinical studies. To address these problems, we propose manganese-doped calcium silicate nanowire-incorporated alginate hydrogels (named MCSA hydrogels) for photothermal ablation of melanoma followed by the wound healing process. The proposed MCSA hydrogel had controllable gelation properties, reasonable strength, and excellent bioactivity due to the incorporated calcium silicate nanowires as the cross-linking agents and bioactive components. The doping of manganese into calcium silicate nanowires gave them excellent photothermal effects for eradicating melanoma effectively under near infrared (NIR) irradiation. Moreover, the synergistic effect of manganese and silicon in the MCSA hydrogel effectively promotes migration and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells and promotes angiogenesis. Hence, such bifunctional bioactive hydrogels could achieve combined functions of photothermal therapy and wound healing, showing great promise for melanoma therapy and tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34133/2021/9780943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125209PMC
May 2021

Macro, Micro, and Molecular. Changes of the Osteochondral Interface in Osteoarthritis Development.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 10;9:659654. Epub 2021 May 10.

Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical, Medical and Process Engineering, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a long-term condition that causes joint pain and reduced movement. Notably, the same pathways governing cell growth, death, and differentiation during the growth and development of the body are also common drivers of OA. The osteochondral interface is a vital structure located between hyaline cartilage and subchondral bone. It plays a critical role in maintaining the physical and biological function, conveying joint mechanical stress, maintaining chondral microenvironment, as well as crosstalk and substance exchange through the osteochondral unit. In this review, we summarized the progress in research concerning the area of osteochondral junction, including its pathophysiological changes, molecular interactions, and signaling pathways that are related to the ultrastructure change. Multiple potential treatment options were also discussed in this review. A thorough understanding of these biological changes and molecular mechanisms in the pathologic process will advance our understanding of OA progression, and inform the development of effective therapeutics targeting OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.659654DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142862PMC
May 2021

Click preparation of multiple-thioether bridged cyclodextrin chiral materials for efficient enantioseparation in high-performance liquid chromatography.

Analyst 2021 May;146(9):3025-3033

School of Science, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Science, Department of Chemistry, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, P. R. China.

A highly efficient covalent immobilization procedure is considered as an essential tool for obtaining stable and reliable cyclodextrin (CD) chiral stationary phases (CSPs). This work reports the "thiolene" click immobilization of heptakis(6-mercapto-6-deoxy)-β-CD-CSP onto alkene functional silica to afford novel multiple-thioether bridged CD CSPs by controlling the surface CD concentration. Solid-state NMR, FTIR, TGA and X-ray photoelectron diffraction spectroscopy (XPS) results proved the successful preparation of the desired CSPs with different surface CD loadings. The surface CD concentrations were calculated to be 0.49 and 0.68 μmol m-2 according to the elemental analysis results. More than 60 chiral enantiomers including isoxazolines, chiral lactides, chiral ketones, dansyl amino acids, small molecule acids and alkalis as well as some flavonoids were resolved or partially separated in the reversed-phase HPLC mode. Compared with the previously prepared single thiolene bridged CD-CSP, the current multiple-thioether CD-CSP afforded much better enantioseparation ability due to the existence of the thiol moiety and a confined structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1an00145kDOI Listing
May 2021

Non-Doped Deep-Blue OLEDs Based on Carbazole-π-Imidazole Derivatives.

Authors:
Pengfei Yu Yin Xiao

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 30;14(9). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin Engineering Research Center of Functional Fine Chemicals, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

In this work, we designed and synthesized four bipolar blue-emitting materials with carbazole, imidazole, and biphenyl as donor, acceptor, and p bridge, respectively. The twisted phenylimidazole acceptor leads to a wider band-gap and hence deeper blue emission than the conjugated phenanthrimidazole acceptor. For the substituents on the carbazole donor, the t-butyl group could prevent the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process more effectively than the methoxy group. A non-doped deep-blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) is obtained with CIE coordinates of (0.159, 0.080), a maximum luminance of 11,364 cd/m, and a maximum EQE of 4.43%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14092349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125583PMC
April 2021

Proteomic analysis of early-stage incompatible and compatible interactions between grapevine and P. viticola.

Hortic Res 2021 May 1;8(1):100. Epub 2021 May 1.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Wild grapevines can show strong resistance to the downy mildew pathogen P. viticola, but the associated mechanisms are poorly described, especially at early stages of infection. Here, we performed comparative proteomic analyses of grapevine leaves from the resistant genotype V. davidii "LiuBa-8" (LB) and susceptible V. vinifera "Pinot Noir" (PN) 12 h after inoculation with P. viticola. By employing the iTRAQ technique, a total of 444 and 349 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified in LB and PN, respectively. The majority of these DEPs were related to photosynthesis, respiration, cell wall modification, protein metabolism, stress, and redox homeostasis. Compared with PN, LB showed fewer downregulated proteins associated with photosynthesis and more upregulated proteins associated with metabolism. At least a subset of PR proteins (PR10.2 and PR10.3) was upregulated upon inoculation in both genotypes, whereas HSP (HSP70.2 and HSP90.6) and cell wall-related XTH and BXL1 proteins were specifically upregulated in LB and PN, respectively. In the incompatible interaction, ROS signaling was evident by the accumulation of HO, and multiple APX and GST proteins were upregulated. These DEPs may play crucial roles in the grapevine response to downy mildew. Our results provide new insights into molecular events associated with downy mildew resistance in grapevine, which may be exploited to develop novel protection strategies against this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00533-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087781PMC
May 2021

Effect of Dual Pore Size Architecture on In Vitro Osteogenic Differentiation in Additively Manufactured Hierarchical Scaffolds.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 06 21;7(6):2615-2626. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Dentistry, The University of Queensland (UQ), 288 Herston Rd, Hertson, Queensland 4006, Australia.

The combination of macro- and microporosity is a potent manner of enhancing osteogenic potential, but the biological events leading to this increase in osteogenesis are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of a dual pore size scaffold on the physical and biological properties, with the hypothesis that cell condensation is the determining factor for enhanced osteogenic differentiation. To this end, a hierarchical scaffold possessing a dual (large and small) pore size was fabricated by combining two additive manufacturing techniques: melt electrospinning writing (MEW) and fused deposition modeling (FDM). The scaffolds showed a mechanical stiffness of 23.2 ± 1.5 MPa similar to the FDM control scaffold, while the hybrid revealed an increased specific surface area of 1.4 ± 0.1 m/g. The scaffold was cultured with primary human osteoblasts for 28 days, which showed enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. The hierarchical structure was also beneficial for in vitro alkaline phosphate activity and mineralization and showed an increased expression of osteogenic protein and genes. Mesenchymal condensation markers related to osteoblastic differentiation (CDH2, RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42) were upregulated in the hybrid construct, demonstrating that the MEW membrane provided an environment more suitable for the recapitulation of cell condensation, which in turn leads to higher osteogenic differentiation. In summary, this study demonstrated that the hierarchical scaffold developed in this paper leads to a significant improvement in the scaffold properties such as increased specific surface area, initial cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and in vitro osteogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c01719DOI Listing
June 2021

Characterization of Genes From : Searching for the Most Virulent Ones.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:632047. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Grapevine downy mildew is an insurmountable disease that endangers grapevine production and the wine industry worldwide. The causal agent of the disease is the obligate biotrophic oomycete , for which the pathogenic mechanism remains largely unknown. Crinkling and necrosis proteins (CRN) are an ancient class of effectors utilized by pathogens, including oomycetes, that interfere with host plant defense reactions. In this study, 27 genes were cloned from the isolate YL genome, hereafter referred to as genes, and characterized and genes in 'YL' share high sequence identities with their ortholog genes in the other three previously sequenced isolates. Sequence divergence among the genes in the family indicates that different genes have different roles. Phylogenetic analysis of the PvCRN and the CRN proteins encoded by genes in the genome suggests that various functions might have been acquired by the superfamily through independent evolution of species. When transiently expressed in plant cells, the PvCRN protein family shows multiple subcellular localizations. None of the cloned PvCRN proteins induced hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death on the downy mildew-resistant grapevine . This was in accordance with the result that most PvCRN proteins, except PvCRN11, failed to induce necrosis in . Pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) induced by INF1 was hampered by several PvCRN proteins. In addition, 15 PvCRN proteins prevented Bax-induced plant programmed cell death. Among the cell death-suppressing members, PvCRN17, PvCRN20, and PvCRN23 were found to promote the susceptibility of to , which is a semi-biotrophic oomycete. Moreover, the nucleus-targeting member, PvCRN19, promoted the susceptibility of to . Therefore, these PvCRN proteins were estimated to be virulent effectors involved in the pathogenicity of YL. Collectively, this study provides comprehensive insight into the CRN effector repertoire of YL, which will help further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of grapevine downy mildew.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.632047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044898PMC
March 2021

MicroRNA-363-3p promotes apoptosis in response to cadmium-induced renal injury by down-regulating phosphoinositide 3-kinase expression.

Toxicol Lett 2021 Jul 16;345:12-23. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou, 510310, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

We previously determined that specific microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in renal pathophysiological occurrences induced by cadmium (Cd) in rats. This study expands our studies on miRNAs, determining their role in Cd-induced nephrotoxicity in occupational workers. We performed miRNA microarray analyses of blood and urine samples from patients diagnosed as occupational chronic Cd poisoning (OCCP) with abnormally elevated concentrations of urinary beta-2-microglobulin (U-β-MG), an indicator of tubular proteinuria. We also performed in vitro bioinformatics-based investigations of apoptosis-related genes targeted by miRNAs involved in the biological response to Cd exposure. We tested five differentially expressed miRNAs and determined a significant increase of sera miR-363-3p. Also, we determined that miR-363-3p increase is associated with phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) down-regulation and the suppressed proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of renal tubule epithelial cells. The obtained results suggest miR-363-3p involvement in the pathophysiology of Cd-induced renal injury in humans and maybe considered for possible interventional therapeutic strategies for Cd-associated kidney damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2021.04.002DOI Listing
July 2021

The type 2 diabetes mellitus susceptibility gene CDKAL1 polymorphism is associated with depressive symptom in first-episode drug-naive schizophrenic patients.

Hum Psychopharmacol 2021 Sep 15;36(5):e2790. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research Center of Biological Psychiatry, Suzhou Guangji Hospital, The Affiliated Guangji Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow Unversity, Suzhou, Jiangsu, PR China.

Background: Patients with schizophrenia have an increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus that has shown a significant association with the rs7754840 polymorphism in the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) regulatory subunit-associated protein 1-like 1 (CDKAL1).

Objective: To examine whether this polymorphism was involved in the susceptibility in first-episode drug-naive schizophrenic patients (FDSP), and further influenced their clinical symptoms.

Methods: This polymorphism was genotyped in 239 FDSP and 368 healthy controls. The clinical symptoms in FDSP were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) five-factor models.

Results: There was no significant difference in the allelic and genotypic frequencies of this polymorphism between two groups (both p > 0.05) after adjusting for covariates. However, the PANSS depressive score significantly differed by genotype in FDSP after adjusting for covariates (F = 5.25, p = 0.006). This significant difference also persisted after Bonferroni correction (p < 0.05). FDSP with C/C genotype had significantly higher PANSS depressive score than those with C/G genotype (p = 0.007) and those with G/G genotype (p = 0.005). Moreover, further stepwise multivariate regression analysis showed the significant association between the rs7754840 polymorphism and PANSS depressive score in FDSP (β = -1.07, t = -2.75, p = 0.007).

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that although the CDKAL1 rs7754840 polymorphism did not contribute to the susceptibility to FDSP, it might be implicated in depressive symptoms in this patient group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hup.2790DOI Listing
September 2021

Injectable bone cement with magnesium-containing microspheres enhances osteogenesis via anti-inflammatory immunoregulation.

Bioact Mater 2021 Oct 19;6(10):3411-3423. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Advanced Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Center, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074, China.

Injectable bone cement is especially useful in minimally invasive surgeries to repair small and irregular bone defects. Amongst different kinds of injectable bone cements, bioactive calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) has been widely studied due to its biological activity. However, its dense structure and poor biodegradability prevent the ingrowth of living tissue, which leads to undesirable bone regeneration and clinical translation. To address this issue, we prepared bone cement based on Magnesium-containing microspheres (MMSs) that can not only be cured into a 3D porous scaffold but also have controllable biodegradability that continuously provides space for desired tissue ingrowth. Interestingly, magnesium ions released from MMSs cement (MMSC) trigger positive immunomodulation via upregulation of the anti-inflammatory genes IL-10 and M2 macrophage polarization with increased expression of CD206, which is beneficial to osteogenesis. Moreover, the physicochemical properties of MMSC, including heat release, rheology and setting time, can be tuned to meet the requirements of injectable bone cement for clinical application. Using a rat model, we have demonstrated that MMSC promoted osteogenesis via mediation of tissue ingrowth and anti-inflammatory immunomodulation. The study provides a paradigm for the design and preparation of injectable bone cements with 3D porous structures, biodegradability and anti-inflammatory immunoregulation to efficiently promote osteogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010581PMC
October 2021

Effects of Diet Induced Weight Reduction on Cartilage Pathology and Inflammatory Mediators in the Joint Tissues.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 22;8:628843. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

School of Mechanical, Medical, and Process Engineering, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Obesogenic diets contribute to the pathology of osteoarthritis (OA) by altering systemic and local metabolic inflammation. Yet, it remains unclear how quickly and reproducibly the body responds to weight loss strategies and improve OA. In this study we tested whether switching obese diet to a normal chow diet can mitigate the detrimental effects of inflammatory pathways that contribute to OA pathology. Male C57BL/6 mice were first fed with obesogenic diet (high fat diet) and switched to normal chow diet (obese diet → normal diet) or continued obese diet or normal diet throughout the experiment. A mouse model of OA was induced by surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) model into the knee joint. Outcome measures included changes in metabolic factors such as glucose, insulin, lipid, and serum cytokines levels. Inflammation in synovial biopsies was scored and inflammation was determined using FACs sorted macrophages. Cartilage degeneration was monitored using histopathology. Our results indicate, dietary switching (obese diet → normal diet) reduced body weight and restored metabolic parameters and showed less synovial tissue inflammation. Systemic blood concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-6, IL-12p40, and IL-17 were decreased, and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 were increased in dietary switch group compared to mice that were fed with obesogenic diet continuously. Although obese diet worsens the cartilage degeneration in DMM OA model, weight loss induced by dietary switch does not promote the histopathological changes of OA during this study period. Collectively, these data demonstrate that switching obesogenic diet to normal improved metabolic syndrome symptoms and can modulate both systemic and synovium inflammation levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.628843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019705PMC
March 2021

Microfluidic-based fabrication and characterization of drug-loaded PLGA magnetic microspheres with tunable shell thickness.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):692-699

Xiangya School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, China.

To overcome the shortcoming of conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE) like high systemic release, a novel droplet-based flow-focusing microfluidic device was fabricated and the biocompatible poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) magnetic drug-eluting beads transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) microspheres with tunable size and shell thickness were prepared via this device. Paclitaxel, as a model active, was loaded through O/O/W emulsion method with high efficiency. The size and the shell thickness vary when adjusting the flow velocity and/or solution concentration, which caters for different clinical requirements to have different drug loading and release behavior. Under the designed experimental conditions, the average diameter of the microspheres is 60 ± 2 μm and the drug loading efficiency has reached 6%. The drug release behavior of the microspheres shows the combination of delayed release and smoothly sustained release profiles and the release kinetics differ within different shell thickness. The microspheres also own the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visuality because of the loaded magnetic nanoparticles. The microsphere preparation method and device we proposed are simple, feasible, and effective, which have a good application prospect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2021.1905739DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023598PMC
December 2021

Correlation between LncRNA Profiles in the Blood Clot Formed on Nano-Scaled Implant Surfaces and Osseointegration.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4059, Australia.

Implant surfaces with a nanoscaled pattern can dominate the blood coagulation process resulting in a defined clot structure and its degradation behavior, which in turn influence cellular response and the early phase of osseointegration. Long non-coding (Lnc) RNAs are known to regulate many biological processes in the skeletal system; however, the link between the LncRNA derived from the cells within the clot and osseointegration has not been investigated to date. Hence, the sequence analysis of LncRNAs expressed within the clot formed on titania nanotube arrays (TNAs) with distinct nano-scaled diameters (TNA 15 of 15 nm, TNA 60 of 60 nm, TNA 120 of 120 nm) on titanium surfaces was profiled for the first time. LncRNA LOC103346307, LOC103352121, LOC108175175, LOC103348180, LOC108176660, and LOC108176465 were identified as the pivotal players in the early formed clot on the nano-scaled surfaces. Further bioinformatic prediction results were used to generate co-expression networks of LncRNAs and mRNAs. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses revealed that distinct nano-scaled surfaces could regulate the biological functions of target mRNAs in the clot. LOC103346307, LOC108175175, and LOC108176660 upregulated mRNAs related to cell metabolism and Wnt, TGF-beta, and VEGF signaling pathways in TNA 15 compared with P-Ti, TNA 60, and TNA 120, respectively, whereas LOC103352121, LOC103348180, and LOC108176465 downregulated mRNAs related to bone resorption and inflammation through negatively regulating osteoclast differentiation, TNF, and NF-kappa signaling pathways. The results indicated that surface nano-scaled characteristics can significantly influence the clot-derived LncRNAs expression profile, which affects osseointegration through multiple signaling pathways of the targeted mRNAs, thus paving a way for better interpreting the link between the properties of a blood clot formed on the nano-surface and de novo bone formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11030674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001142PMC
March 2021

Optical information authentication using phase-only patterns with single-pixel optical detection.

Appl Opt 2021 Apr;60(10):B1-B7

In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate phase-only authentication based on single-pixel optical imaging through scattering media. The propagating wave is sequentially modulated by using a series of random amplitude-only patterns embedded in a spatial light modulator (SLM), and then a series of one-dimensional (1D) intensity values is recorded by the single-pixel (bucket) detector. Subsequently, an intensity pattern just before the SLM is retrieved by using a correlation algorithm and then further propagates back to the object plane in which the object phase pattern is recovered to serve as reference. Then some single-pixel intensity values are randomly selected from the recorded data, and 1-bit compression is applied to the randomly selected data in order to generate 1D binary signals as ciphertext. A series of random amplitude-only patterns corresponding to the randomly selected single-pixel intensity values serve as principal keys. In a scattering environment, the proposed method is able to carry out phase-only authentication without visually rendering the plaintext, which has not been previously studied. It is found that phase-only authentication is sensitive to security keys, and the proposed method possesses high security. In addition, the proposed method is highly robust to noise contamination and data-loss contamination. Optical experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.414419DOI Listing
April 2021

A Plasmopara viticola RXLR effector targets a chloroplast protein PsbP to inhibit ROS production in grapevine.

Plant J 2021 Jun 24;106(6):1557-1570. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas (Northwest A&F University), Yangling, Shaanxi, P.R. China.

Pathogens secrete a large number of effectors that manipulate host processes to create an environment conducive to pathogen colonization. However, the underlying mechanisms by which Plasmopara viticola effectors manipulate host plant cells remain largely unclear. In this study, we reported that RXLR31154, a P. viticola RXLR effector, was highly expressed during the early stages of P. viticola infection. In our study, stable expression of RXLR31154 in grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and Nicotiana benthamiana promoted leaf colonization by P. viticola and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. By yeast two-hybrid screening, the 23-kDa oxygen-evolving enhancer 2 (VpOEE2 or VpPsbP), encoded by the PsbP gene, in Vitis piasezkii accession Liuba-8 was identified as a host target of RXLR31154. Overexpression of VpPsbP enhanced susceptibility to P. viticola in grapevine and P. capsici in N. benthamiana, and silencing of NbPsbPs, the homologs of PsbP in N. benthamiana, reduced P. capcisi colonization, indicating that PsbP is a susceptibility factor. RXLR31154 and VpPsbP protein were co-localized in the chloroplast. Moreover, VpPsbP reduced H O accumulation and activated the O signaling pathway in grapevine. RXLR31154 could stabilize PsbP. Together, our data revealed that RXLR31154 reduces H O accumulation and activates the O signaling pathway through stabilizing PsbP, thereby promoting disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15252DOI Listing
June 2021

l-cysteine-modified chiral gold nanoparticles promote periodontal tissue regeneration.

Bioact Mater 2021 Oct 13;6(10):3288-3299. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Nanjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with surface-anchored molecules present tremendous potential in tissue regeneration. However, little is known about chiral-modified AuNPs. In this study, we successfully prepared L/D-cysteine-anchored AuNPs (L/D-Cys-AuNPs) and studied the effects of chiral-modified AuNPs on osteogenic differentiation and autophagy of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) and periodontal tissue regeneration. , more L-Cys-AuNPs than D-Cys-AuNPs tend to internalize in hPDLCs. L-Cys-AuNPs also significantly increased the expression of alkaline phosphatase, collagen type 1, osteocalcin, runt-related transcription factor 2, and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 II and decreased the expression of sequestosome 1 in hPDLCs compared to the expression levels in the hPDLCs treated by D-Cys-AuNPs. tests in a rat periodontal-defect model showed that L-Cys-AuNPs had the greatest effect on periodontal-tissue regeneration. The activation of autophagy in L-Cys-AuNP-treated hPDLCs may be responsible for the cell differentiation and tissue regeneration. Therefore, compared to D-Cys-AuNPs, L-Cys-AuNPs show a better performance in cellular internalization, regulation of autophagy, cell osteogenic differentiation, and periodontal tissue regeneration. This demonstrates the immense potential of L-Cys-AuNPs for periodontal regeneration and provides a new insight into chirally modified bioactive nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.02.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7970259PMC
October 2021

Soft Origami Optical-Sensing Actuator for Underwater Manipulation.

Front Robot AI 2020 10;7:616128. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Soft robots are ideal for underwater manipulation in sampling and other servicing applications. Their unique features of compliance, adaptability, and being naturally waterproof enable robotic designs to be compact and lightweight, while achieving uncompromized dexterity and flexibility. However, the inherent flexibility and high nonlinearity of soft materials also results in combined complex motions, which creates both soft actuator and sensor challenges for force output, modeling, and sensory feedback, especially under highly dynamic underwater environments. To tackle these limitations, a novel Soft Origami Optical-Sensing Actuator (SOSA) with actuation and sensing integration is proposed in this paper. Inspired by origami art, the proposed sensorized actuator enables a large force output, contraction/elongation/passive bending actuation by fluid, and hybrid motion sensing with optical waveguides. The SOSA design brings two major novelties over current designs. First, it involves a new actuation-sensing mode which enables a superior large payload output and a robust and accurate sensing performance by introducing the origami design, significantly facilitating the integration of sensing and actuating technology for wider applications. Secondly, it simplifies the fabrication process for harsh environment application by investigating the boundary features between optical waveguides and ambient water, meaning the external cladding layer of traditional sensors is unnecessary. With these merits, the proposed actuator could be applied to harsh environments for complex interaction/operation tasks. To showcase the performance of the proposed SOSA actuator, a hybrid underwater 3-DOFs manipulator has been developed. The entire workflow on concept design, fabrication, modeling, experimental validation, and application are presented in detail as reference for wider effective robot-environment applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2020.616128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988097PMC
March 2021

Recent Advances of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Based on Cyclodextrin.

Macromol Rapid Commun 2021 May 22;42(9):e2100004. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Tianjin Engineering Research Center of Functional Fine Chemicals, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, P. R. China.

Molecular imprinting polymers (MIPs), generally considered as artificial mimics that are comparable to natural receptor, are polymers with tailor-made specific recognition sites complementary to the template molecules in shape and size. As a class of supramolecular compounds, cyclodextrins (CDs) are flourishing in the field of molecular imprinting with their unique structural properties. This review presents recent advances in application of MIPs based on CDs during the past five years. The discussion is grouped according to the different role of CDs in MIPs, that is, functional monomer, carrier modifier, etc. Main focus is the application of CD-based MIP on sample preparation, detection, and sensing. Additionally, drug delivery with CD-based MIP is also briefly discussed. Finally, challenges and future prospects of application of CDs in MIP are elaborated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/marc.202100004DOI Listing
May 2021

A Homogeneous Multicomponent Nucleic Acid Enzyme Assay for Universal Nucleic Acid Detection by Single-Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2021 03 9;93(11):4952-4959. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China.

Single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) has great potential for sensitive analysis of nucleic acids; however, it usually requires separation of target-induced nanoparticle reporters, and the sequence of probes on nanoparticle reporters has to be tuned for each target accordingly. Here, we developed a homogeneous multicomponent nucleic acid enzyme (MNAzyme) assay for universal nucleic acid detection. The two components of MNAzyme contain target recognition sites, substrate binding sites, and a catalytic core. Only in the presence of a specific nucleic acid target, the MNAzyme will assemble to trigger its nucleic acid enzyme activity and cleave its substrate (Linker DNA). The Linker DNA could link gold nanoparticle (AuNP) probes to form a larger assembled particle, while the cleavage of Linker DNA will disturb the linkage between probes, inducing a smaller assembled particle. The assembled particles with different sizes could be differentiated and sensitively detected in SP-ICP-MS, which also enables the tolerance of a complex matrix. By simply altering the sequences of the target recognition sites in MNAzyme, we applied the assay for two types of nucleic acids (long strand DNA and short strand RNA), malaria DNA and miRNA-10b. With increasing the target concentration, the signal intensity of each assembled particle decreases, but the frequency of assembled particle pulse increases. Both targets could be quantitatively detected from 0.1 to 25 pmol L with high specificity in serum samples. The developed MNAzyme-SP-ICP-MS assay possesses simple operation in a homogeneous reaction, easy tunability for multiple types of nucleic acid targets, and good compatibility with clinic samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c05444DOI Listing
March 2021
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