Publications by authors named "Xiao Yang"

2,332 Publications

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Visible light-conducting polymer nanocomposites as efficient photocatalysts for the treatment of organic pollutants in wastewater.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 24;295:113362. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK 43 0AL, UK. Electronic address:

This review compiles recent advances and challenges on photocatalytic treatment of wastewater using nanoparticles, nanocomposites, and polymer nanocomposites as photocatalyst. The review provides an overview of the fundamental principles of photocatalytic treatment along the recent advances on photocatalytic treatment, especially on the modification strategies and operational conditions to enhance treatment efficiency and removal of recalcitrant organic contaminants. The different types of photocatalysts along the key factors influencing their performance are also critically discussed and recommendations for future research are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113362DOI Listing
July 2021

PSMC5 Promotes Proliferation and Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer by Activating Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Signaling and Modulating Immune Infiltrating Cells.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 16;9:657917. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

We designed the present study to access the roles and mechanisms of PSMC5 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Transcriptomic and clinical data from public datasets and our center were retrospectively analyzed. Functional assays were performed to investigate the effects of PSMC5 on CRC cells. The results showed that PSMC5 was significantly higher in cancer than normal tissues. Moreover, patients with higher expression of PSMC5 showed poorer prognosis. Silencing of PSMC5 dramatically suppressed the proliferation and invasion of CRC cells, while overexpression led to the opposite. In addition, we screened downstream targets and found that PSMC5 regulates multiple pathways including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, hypoxia, and immune response. Consistently, we found that PSMC5 was negatively correlated with levels of CD8 + T cells and B cells while promoting infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils. Collectively, these findings suggested that PSMC5 was a promising biomarker and target for immune therapy for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.657917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323717PMC
July 2021

Super-Enhancer Induced IL-20RA Promotes Proliferation/Metastasis and Immune Evasion in Colorectal Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 15;11:724655. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Unveiling key oncogenic events in malignancies is the key to improving the prognosis and therapeutic outcome of malignancies. Lines of evidence have shown that super-enhancers control the expression of genes that determine the cell fate, but the oncogenic super-enhancers in colorectal cancer (CRC) and their impact on carcinogens remain largely unexplored. Here, we identified a new oncogenic super-enhancer-regulated gene, IL-20RA, in CRC. Using the integrative analysis of H3K27ac ChIP-seq and RNA-seq in CRC tumors and normal colon tissues, we obtained a series of oncogenic super-enhancers in CRC. We found that super-enhancer inhibition by JQ-1 or iBET-151 suppressed the growth of tumor cells and inhibited the expression of IL-20RA. We found that IL-20RA was highly expressed in the tumor tissue of CRC and related to the advanced stage. Further functional studies showed that knockdown of IL-20RA inhibited the growth and metastasis of CRC. In addition, we found that IL-20RA was involved in regulating oncogenic and immune pathways and affecting the expression of genes related to cell proliferation and immune evasion in CRC. Together, our study demonstrated a novel oncogene in CRC and shed new light on oncogenic super-enhancer contributions to cell proliferation and immune escape.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.724655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319729PMC
July 2021

β-acetoxyisovaleryl alkannin (AAN-II) from Alkanna tinctoria promotes the healing of pressure-induced venous ulcers in a rabbit model through the activation of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling.

Cell Mol Biol Lett 2021 Jul 31;26(1):35. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Peripheral Vascular Disease Unit of the TCM Department, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 201203, Shanghai, China.

Alkannin-based pharmaceutical formulations for improving wound healing have been on the market for several years. However, detailed molecular mechanisms of their action have yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigated the potential roles of AAN-II in improving the healing of pressure-induced venous ulcers using a rabbit model generated by combining deep vein thrombosis with a local skin defect/local skin defect. The extent of healing was evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) or vimentin staining. Rabbit skin fibroblasts were cultured for AAN-II treatment or TGFB1-sgRNA lentivirus transfection. ELISA was used to evaluate the levels of various cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, TNF-α, VEGF, bFGF, TGF-β and PDGF. The protein levels of TGF-β sensors, including TGF-β, Smad7 and phosphor-Smad3, and total Smad3, were assayed via western blotting after TGF-β knockout or AAN-II treatment. The results show that, for this model, AAN-II facilitates ulcer healing by suppressing the development of inflammation and promoting fibroblast proliferation and secretion of proangiogenic factors. AAN-II enhances the activation of the TGF-β1-Smad3 signaling pathway during skin ulcer healing. In addition, the results demonstrate that AAN-II and TGF-β have synergistic effects on ulcer healing. Our findings indicate that AAN-II can promote healing of pressure-induced venous skin ulcers via activation of TGF-β-Smad3 signaling in fibroblast cells and provide evidence that could be used in the development of more effective treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11658-021-00278-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Strain-Tunable Microfluidic Devices with Crack and Wrinkle Microvalves for Microsphere Screening and Fluidic Logic Gates.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105, Hunan, China.

Mechanical instabilities in soft materials have led to the formation of unique surface patterns such as wrinkles and cracks for a wide range of applications that are related to surface morphologies and their dynamic tuning. Here, we report a simple yet effective strategy to fabricate strain-tunable crack and wrinkle microvalves with dimensions responding to the applied tensile strain. The crack microvalves initially closed before stretching are opened as the tensile strain is applied, whereas the wrinkle microvalves exhibit the opposite trend. Next, the performance of crack and wrinkle microvalves is characterized. The design predictions on the bursting pressure of microvalves and others from the theory agree reasonably well with the experimental measurements. The microfluidic devices with strain-tunable crack and wrinkle microvalves have then been demonstrated for microsphere screening and programmable microfluidic logic devices. The demonstrated microfluidic devices complement the prior studies to open up opportunities in microparticle/cell manipulations, fluidic operations, and biomedicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c08745DOI Listing
July 2021

Critical roles of cytokine storm and secondary bacterial infection in acute kidney injury development in COVID-19: A multi-center retrospective cohort study.

J Med Virol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Nephrology, the First Hospital Affiliated to Jinan University, Guangzhou, 510630, China.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) may develop in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with in-hospital death.We investigated the incidence of AKI in 223 hospitalized COVID-19 patients and analyzed the influence factors of AKI. The incidence of cytokine storm syndrome and its correlation with other clinicopathologic variables were also investigated. We retrospectively enrolled adult patients with virologically-confirmed COVID-19 who were hospitalized at three hospitals in Wuhan and Guizhou, China between February 13, 2020 and April 8, 2020. We included 124 patients with moderate COVID-19 and 99 with severe COVID-19. AKI was present in 35 (15.7%) patients. The incidence of AKI was 30.3% for severe COVID-19 and 4.0% for moderate COVID-19 (P<0.001). Furthermore, cytokine storm was in 30 (13.5%) patients and only in severe group. Kidney injury at admission (OR 3.132, 95%CI 1.150-8.527; P=0.025), cytokine storm (OR 4.234, 95%CI 1.361-13.171; P=0.013) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR 7.684, 95%CI 2.622-22.523; P<0.001) were influence factors of AKI. Seventeen (48.6%) patients who received invasive mechanical ventilation developed AKI, of whom 64.7% (11/17) died. Up to 86.7% AKI patients with cytokine storm may develop secondary bacterial infection. The leukocyte counts were significantly higher in AKI patients with cytokine storm than those without (13.0×10⁹/L, IQR 11.3 vs. 8.3×10⁹/L, IQR 7.5, P=0.005). Approximately 1/6 patients with COVID-19 eventually develop AKI. Kidney injury at admission, cytokine storm and ARDS are influence factors of AKI. Cytokine storm and secondary bacterial infections may be responsible for AKI development in COVID-19 patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.27234DOI Listing
July 2021

Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality among peritoneal dialysis patients.

J Clin Lipidol 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China; Key Laboratory of Nephrology, National Health Commission and Guangdong Province, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:

Background: The association between non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and mortality in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) is unclear.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of non-HDL-C with cardiovascular (CV) and all-cause mortality in PD patients.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study. A total of 1,616 incident PD patients from a single PD center in South China were followed for a median of 47.6 months. The independent association of non-HDL-C with CV and all-cause mortality was evaluated by a Cox regression analysis.

Results: During the follow-up period, 508 (31.4%) patients died, of which 249 (49.0%) were due to CV events. Atherosclerotic CV mortality accounted for 59.8% of CV mortality. In multivariable models, for 1-SD increase in non-HDL-C level, the hazard ratios (HRs) for CV and all-cause mortality were 1.52  [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32-1.75; P < 0.001)] and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.12-1.39; P < 0.001), respectively. Furthermore, non-HDL-C was positively associated with atherosclerotic CV mortality (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.09-1.52; P = 0.004) but not associated with nonatherosclerotic CV mortality (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.59-1.05; P = 0.108). The quartile analyses showed a similar pattern to the continuous variable analyses of non-HDL-C levels for CV and all-cause mortality but did not demonstrate statistical significance for atherosclerotic or nonatherosclerotic CV mortality.

Conclusion: An elevated non-HDL-C level was independently associated with an increased risk of CV mortality, especially atherosclerotic CV mortality, and all-cause mortality in incident PD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2021.06.005DOI Listing
July 2021

The Medial Border of Laparoscopic D3 Lymphadenectomy for Right Colon Cancer: Results from an Exploratory Pilot Study.

Dis Colon Rectum 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China Department of Gastrointestinal (Tumor) Surgery, Guangdong Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China Department of oncological surgery, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, China Department of Colorectal, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China Gastric and Intestinal Department of the First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Background: Opinions vary on the medial border of D3 lymphadenectomy for right colon cancer. Most surgeons placed the medial border along the left side of superior mesenteric vein, but some considered the left side of superior mesenteric artery as the medial border.

Objectives: This study investigated the clinical outcomes of laparoscopic D3 lymphadenectomy for right colon cancer with the medial border along the left side of superior mesenteric artery.

Design: This was a retrospective study.

Settings: The study was conducted in specialized colorectal cancer department of five tertiary hospitals.

Patients: Patients receiving laparoscopic D3 lymphadenectomy for right colon cancer from January 2013 to December 2018 were included.

Main Outcome Measures: After propensity score matching, 307 patients receiving laparoscopic D3 lymphadenectomy along the left side of superior mesenteric artery were assigned to the SMA group and 614 patients were assigned to the SMV group. Univariate, multivariate and Kaplan-Meier analysis were performed to assess the clinical data.

Results: The short-term outcomes were similar between the two groups; however, the SMA group had a higher rate of chylous leakage (p<0.001). More lymph nodes were harvested from the SMA group than from the SMV group (p=0.001). The number (p=0.005) of metastatic LNs and the lymph node ratio (p=0.041) in main nodes were both higher in the SMA group. The two groups had similar long-term survival, but the SMA group tended to show better disease-free survival in stage III patients (p=0.056).

Limitations: This was a retrospective, non-randomized study.

Conclusion: Laparoscopic D3 lymphadenectomy along the left side of superior mesenteric artery, except for a higher rate of chylous leakage, had comparable short-term outcomes with the SMV group. The SMA group tended to achieve better disease-free survival in stage III patients, but further study is required to better elucidate differences in these approaches as risks/benefits do exist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000002046DOI Listing
July 2021

LOC100996425 acts as a promoter in prostate cancer by mediating hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A and the AMPK/mTOR pathway.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Urology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

The involvement of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), differentially expressed genes and signals in prostate cancer (PCa) continues to be a subject of investigation. This study determined effects of LOC100996425 on human PCa by targeting hepatocyte nuclear factor 4A (HNF4A) via the AMPK/mTOR pathway. PCa and adjacent normal tissues were obtained to characterize expression pattern of LOC100996425, HNF4A and the AMPK/mTOR pathway-related genes. Then, the target gene of LOC100996425 was determined with lncRNA target prediction website and further verification was obtained through luciferase assay and ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation. After that, PCa cells were introduced with LOC100996425, HNF4A, siLOC100996425 or siHNF4A to explore the specific significance of LOC100996425 and HNF4A in PCa. The mechanism associated with AMPK/mTOR pathway was investigated using AMPK inhibitor or activator. LOC100996425 was up-regulated, while HNF4A was down-regulated in the PCa tissues. HNF4A was a target gene of LOC100996425. PCa cells transfected with either siLOC100996425 or HNF4A displayed reduced rates of PCa cell proliferation and migration while elevating cell apoptosis. HNF4A overexpression reversed the promotive effect of LOC100996425 overexpression on PCa. The activation of AMPK pathway involved in the cancer progression mediated by LOC100996425. Down-regulation of LOC100996425 retards progression of PCa through HNF4A-mediated AMPK/mTOR pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16657DOI Listing
July 2021

Editorial: deep learning for 5G IoT systems.

Int J Mach Learn Cybern 2021 Jul 19:1-3. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Computer Science, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13042-021-01382-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287284PMC
July 2021

Associations between Diabetes and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Study-level Pooled analysis of 26 Million People.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Anorectal Surgery, Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Context: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a systemic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, and the lung may be a target organ of diabetic microvascular damage. Several studies have indicated a positive association between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and diabetes with controversial findings.

Objective: Primary outcomes were to compare the prevalence of DM among individuals with IPF to non-IPF controls, and the prevalence of IPF among individuals with DM to non-DM controls.

Data Sources: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library.

Study Selection: Studies contained sufficient data to calculate the prevalence of DM among individuals with and without IPF, or the prevalence of IPF among individuals with and without DM.

Data Extraction: Two investigators independently identified eligible studies and extracted data. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% CIs was the summary effect measure.

Data Synthesis: Eighteen studies including 26,410,623 individuals met eligibility criteria, of which 16 recruited people with IPF and 2 recruited people with DM. The OR of DM in IPF subjects was 1.54 (95% CI: 1.30-1.84; P<0.001) compared to that in non-IPF controls. However, compared with that in non-DM patients, the risk of IPF in DM patients was not found to be significantly reduced (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.64-1.25; P=0.497).

Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggests that people with IPF have 1.54 times increased odds of diabetes compared to non-IPF controls, while whether patients with DM have an increased risk of IPF is still controversial. Further large, prospective cohort studies investigating the prevalence of IPF in diabetic patients are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab553DOI Listing
July 2021

Assessment of Water Resources Carrying Risk and the Coping Behaviors of the Government and the Public.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 20;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

School of Management, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

The carrying capacity of water resources is of great significance to economic and social development, eco-environmental protection, and public health. The per capita water resources in Zhejiang Province is only 2280.8 m, which is more likely to cause the risk of water resources carrying capacity in the case of water shortage. Therefore, this paper applies Analytic Hierarchy Process-Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation and Entropy-Principal Component Analysis to evaluate the vulnerability of disaster-bearers and the risk of disaster-causing factors; it comprehensively evaluates the risk of water resources carrying capacity in Zhejiang Province by constructing risk matrix and ranking scores. The specific results are as follows: According to the comprehensive evaluation of the vulnerability of disaster-bearers in Zhejiang Province from the three aspects of supporting force, regulating force, and pressure, the overall performance was good. In particular, the role of supporting force is the most obvious. In the risk of disaster factors, it was found that industrial structure, climate change, water use efficiency, and population structure have great influence, showing that southern Zhejiang is at a greater risk than northern Zhejiang, and western Zhejiang is at a greater risk than eastern Zhejiang, but the overall score gap is not large. Combining the two results, the order of water resources carrying risk in Zhejiang Province from low to high was Hangzhou, Ningbo, Shaoxing, Jiaxing, Huzhou, Jinhua, Quzhou, Wenzhou, Lishui, Taizhou, and Zhoushan. Finally, according to the development planning of different cities, the coping behaviors of the government and the public regarding water resources carrying risk are put forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306389PMC
July 2021

HDAC6-mediated Hsp90 deacetylation reduces aggregation and toxicity of the protein alpha-synuclein by regulating chaperone-mediated autophagy.

Neurochem Int 2021 Jul 21;149:105141. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been shown to control major cell response pathways to the cytotoxic ubiquitinated aggregates in some protein aggregation diseases. However, it is not well known whether HDAC6 affects the aggregation process of α-synuclein (α-syn) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Previously, we demonstrated that HDAC6 inhibition exacerbated the nigrostriatal dopamine neurodegeneration and up-regulated α-syn oligomers in a heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90)-dependent manner in PD mouse model. Here, we further showed that HDAC6 overexpression partly improved the behavior deficits of the PD model and alleviated the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) neurons injury. Furthermore, HDAC6 was found to regulate α-syn oligomers levels through activation of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). During this process, Hsp90 deacetylation mediated the crosstalk between HDAC6 and lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2A. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and mutational analysis showed that acetylation status Hsp90 at the K489 site was a strong determinant for HDAC6-induced CMA activation, α-syn oligomers levels, and cell survival in the cell model of PD. Therefore, our findings uncovered the mechanism of HDAC6 in the PD model that HDAC6 regulated α-syn oligomers levels and DA neurons survival partly through modulating CMA, and Hsp90 deacetylation at the K489 site mediated the crosstalk between HDAC6 and CMA. HDAC6 and its downstream effectors appear as key modulators of the cytotoxic α-syn aggregates, which deserve further investigations to evaluate their values as potential therapeutic targets in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2021.105141DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein (LBP) Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in Infections, Inflammatory Diseases, Metabolic Disorders and Cancers.

Front Immunol 2021 6;12:681810. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Inflammation, which is induced by the immune response, is recognized as the driving factor in many diseases, including infections and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders and cancers. Genetic variations in pivotal genes associated with the immune response, particularly single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), may account for predisposition and clinical outcome of diseases. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) functions as an enhancer of the host response to LPS, the main component of the outer membrane of gram-native bacteria. Given the crucial role of LBP in inflammation, we will review the impact of SNPs in the gene on infections and inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders and cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.681810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290185PMC
July 2021

An Improved Transformation System for Using Green Fluorescent Protein.

Front Microbiol 2021 5;12:682754. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Center for Genome Research and Biocomputing, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States.

is a destructive pathogen causing root rot and dieback diseases on hundreds of economically and ecologically important plant species. Effective transformation systems enable modifications of candidate genes to understand the pathogenesis of . A previous study reported a polyethylene glycol and calcium dichloride (PEG/CaCl)-mediated protoplast transformation method of . However, the virulence of the transformants was compromised. In this study, we selected ATCC 15400 as a suitable wild-type isolate for PEG/CaCl transformation using the green fluorescent protein after screening 11 isolates. Three transformants, namely, PcGFP-1, PcGFP-3, and PcGFP-5, consistently displayed a green fluorescence in their hyphae, chlamydospores, and sporangia. The randomly selected transformant PcGFP-1 was as virulent as the wild-type isolate in causing hypocotyl lesions on lupines. Fluorescent hyphae and haustoria were observed intracellularly and intercellularly in lupine tissues inoculated with PcGFP-1 zoospores. The potential application of this improved transformation system for functional genomics studies of is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.682754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287854PMC
July 2021

The change of gut microbiota in MDD patients under SSRIs treatment.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14918. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Peking University Sixth Hospital, Institute of Mental Health, Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Peking University, Haidian District, Huayuanbeilu 51, Beijing, 100191, China.

The alterations in the gut microbiota have been reported to be correlated with the development of depression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of intestinal microbiota in depressed patients after antidepressant treatment. We recruited 30 MDD patients (MDD group) and 30 healthy controls (control group). The MDD group received individualized treatment with escitalopram at a maximum dose of 20 mg/day. After depressive symptoms improved to a HAMD scale score > 50%, a fecal sample was collected again and used as the follow-up group. The differences of gut microbiota between patients and controls, the characteristics of gut microbiota under treatment and the potential differences in metabolic functions were thus investigated. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was significantly different within three groups, and the ratio of follow-up group was significantly lower than those of the other two groups. Alpha diversity was significantly higher in MDD group than those of the other groups, and the alpha diversity was not significantly different between control and follow-up groups. The beta diversity of some patients resembled participants in the control group. The metabolic function of gut microbiota after treatment was still different from that of the control group. This study suggests that the intestinal flora of depressed patients has a tendency to return to normal under escitalopram treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94481-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295378PMC
July 2021

Association between symbol digit modalities test and regional cortex thickness in young adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Jul 10;207:106805. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, predominating within young adults. Cognitive disorders are common in MS and have are associated with several Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) markers, especially brain atrophy. Many have found the symbol digit modalities test (SDMT) to be the most sensitive individual cognitive measure relevant to MS. However, the relationship between SDMT and regional brain cortex thickness in young adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (YA-RRMS) has been little explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the SDMT and regional cortex thickness in YA-RRMS by FreeSurfer, which is an automatic brain structure segmentation method.

Method: Twenty-eight YA-RRMS patients (18-35 years old) were enrolled in the present study. Informed consent and information including gender, age, disease duration, number of relapses, annual relapse rate was collected from all patients. Clinical cognitive evaluations (SDMT and auditory verbal learning test (AVLT)) and daily performance: activities of daily living (ADL) were assessed in the present study. MRI scans were performed at the Institute of Neurosurgery of Tiantan Hospital. Twenty-eight matched healthy controls (HC) MRI data were obtained from Tiantan Hospital database. Data on thirty-four points of bilateral cortical structure thickness using statistically defined brain regions-of-interest from FreeSurfer were obtained from all participants.

Results: Patients with RRMS exhibited extensively thinner cerebellar cortex compared with HC. SDMT scores were significantly correlated with AVLT subentries (IM, immediate memory; DRM, delayed recall memory; LTRM, long-term recognition memory) in YA-RRMS patients (P < 0.05). SDMT was strongly correlated with regional cortex thickness differences of the right temporal pole (r = 0.68) and bilateral parahippocampal areas (right r = 0.62; left r = 0.60), and moderately correlated with regional cortex thickness differences including the left superior temporal and right insula (r = 0.57 and 0.56, respectively) in YA-RRMS patients.

Conclusion: The present study has shown the SDMT is strongly correlated with selected cortex regions including the bilateral parahippocampal area and the right temporal pole which are involved in geometric structures processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2021.106805DOI Listing
July 2021

Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling Regulates Tooth Root Dentinogenesis by Cooperation With Wnt Signaling.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 29;9:687099. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing Proteome Research Center, National Center for Protein Sciences (Beijing), Beijing Institute of Lifeomics, Beijing, China.

Proper differentiation of odontoblasts is crucial for the development of tooth roots. Previous studies have reported the osteogenic/odontogenic potential of pre-odontoblasts during root odontoblast differentiation. However, the underlying molecular pathway that orchestrates these processes remains largely unclear. In this study, ablation of β () in root pre-odontoblasts resulted in abnormal formation of root osteodentin, which was associated with ectopic osteogenic differentiation of root odontoblasts. Disrupting TGF-β signaling caused upregulation of Wnt signaling characterized by increased , , , and expression. Interestingly, inhibiting Wnt signaling by deleting () in () mice or overexpressing the Wnt antagonist in mice decreased ectopic osteogenic differentiation and arrested odontoblast differentiation. Our results suggest that TGF-β signaling acts with Wnt signaling to regulate root odontogenic differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.687099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8277599PMC
June 2021

Ultrasonic characterization of localized passive elastic properties of human pennate muscle with a single-probe setup.

Ultrasonics 2021 Jul 8;116:106512. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Ultrasonography, Shenzhen Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Shenzhen 518034, China.

Quantitative evaluation of passive elastic properties of an individual skeletal muscle in vivo is among the major challenges of biomechanics, and its clinical application is severely limited. By combining shear-wave elastography (SWE) and B-mode imaging techniques, this study develops a novel non-invasive method to measure the local elastic modulus-fascicle strain curve of human pennation muscle during passive stretching using a single probe. Physiologically meaningful parameters are estimated and compared in subjects with different ages or pathological conditions. The in vivo experimental group comprised 12 healthy subjects (four children, four adults, and four seniors) and eight patients (four suffering from pseudohypertrophy, four from atrophy). Their gastrocnemius muscles were passively stretched using an ankle joint motion instrument. Local elastic moduli of the muscle were measured using SWE imaging frames and a built-in 'F-ROI' tool. The corresponding fascicle strains were simultaneously obtained using B-mode imaging frames and a gradient Radon transform. Three parameters (η, μ, G) were estimated from a normalized elastic modulus-strain curve using the Gauss-Newton method. The measured elastic modulus-strain curves all agreed with models of the estimated parameters (0.910 < R < 0.999) and presented different patterns among normal and diseased subjects. η values were lower for pseudohypertrophies (1.93 ± 0.12), but higher for atrophies (63.40 ± 98.89), compared with normal ones (6.02 ± 2.53). In addition, μ values were higher for pseudohypertrophies (22.65 ± 16.40), but lower for atrophies (0.28 ± 0.41), compared with normal ones (1.07 ± 1.22). The proposed method may provide novel insight into the biomechanics of pennate muscle and has the potential to serve for clinical musculoskeletal medical diagnosis, as the single-probe scanning setup is broadly accepted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2021.106512DOI Listing
July 2021

Associations of plasma metal concentrations with incident dyslipidemia: Prospective findings from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 9;285:131497. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Ministry of Education and State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubating), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Metal exposures are ubiquitous around the world, while it is lack of prospective studies to evaluate the associations of exposure to multiple metal/metalloids with incident dyslipidemia. A total of 2947 participants without dyslipidemia at baseline were included in the analyses. We utilized inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to measure the baseline plasma metal concentrations. Unconditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate the relations between plasma metals and risk of incident dyslipidemia, and principal component analysis was performed to extract principal components of metals. During 5.01 ± 0.31 years of follow-up, 521 subjects were diagnosed with incident dyslipidemia. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratios (ORs) of dyslipidemia comparing the highest quartiles to the lowest were 1.58 (95% CI: 1.20, 2.08; P = 0.001) for aluminum, 1.34 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.75; P = 0.03) for arsenic, 1.44 (1.09, 1.91; P = 0.03) for strontium, and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.09, 2.00; P = 0.005) for vanadium. The four metals also showed significant associations with the subtypes of dyslipidemia, including low HDL-C and high LDL-C. The first principal component, which mainly represented aluminum, arsenic, barium, lead, vanadium, and zinc, was associated with increased risk of incident dyslipidemia, and the adjusted OR was 1.40 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.84; P = 0.02) comparing extreme quartiles. The study indicated that elevated plasma aluminum, arsenic, strontium, and vanadium concentrations were associated with a higher incidence of dyslipidemia. These findings highlight the importance of controlling metal exposures for dyslipidemia prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131497DOI Listing
July 2021

New mechanistic insight into rapid adsorption of pharmaceuticals from water utilizing activated biochar.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 13;202:111693. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Korea Biochar Research Center, APRU Sustainable Waste Management Program & Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The presence of emerging pollutants especially hazardous chemicals and pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments is a matter of grave concern to human health and the environment. In this study, coffee bean waste (CBW) was utilized to synthesize pristine (CBW) and activated (CBW) biochars for the elimination of diclofenac (DF) and levofloxacin (LEV) from water. A facile two-step approach was used to synthesize CBW using chemical pretreatment and pyrolysis under N purging. BET results of CBW revealed that chemical pretreatment increased surface area by approximately 160 times compared to CBW. The calculated I/I ratio from Raman spectra confirmed that CBW had a high functionalized surface. Different operational parameters such as contact time, pH, adsorbent dose, ionic strength, and adsorbate concentration were studied and optimized. Maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity of CBW was found to be 61.17 and 110.70 mg/g for DF and LVX, respectively. Experimental results demonstrated that presence of NaCl in solution enhanced DF removal efficiency due to the salting-out effect. Electrostatic attraction, π-π bonding, and hydrophobic interaction were prominently responsible mechanisms for the adsorption of DF and LVX. Furthermore, continuous-flow mode studies confirmed that CBW can be successfully utilized in large-scale treatment applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111693DOI Listing
July 2021

Finite element modeling and parameter identification of the seated human body exposed to vertical vibration.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

School of Automotive Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 400030, China.

Developing a biomechanical model which connected with the actual anatomy of the human body is helpful to understand the human response to vibration. A finite element model of the seated human body with 175 cm in stature and 68.6 kg in weight, which consists of seven segments, six joints and soft tissue, was established to reflect apparent mass based on the Hybrid III dummy model. By comparing the body segment mass percentages with previous data, the rationality of mass distribution in this model was verified. The biomechanical parameters play a crucial role in biodynamic modeling, while the joint and soft tissue parameters are difficult to choose due to the wide range of anthropometric parameters. In this study, the root-mean-square error between the calculated and the measured apparent mass was taken as objective function, and the effect of fifteen human parameters on the objective function was analyzed through sensitivity analysis. Then seven parameters with a considerable influence on the objective function were selected as design variables, and four approximate models were established for parameter optimization. Soft tissues and joint parameters of the model were determined by parameter identification, and the finite element model that can reflect vertical in-line and fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the human body without backrest was developed. The seated human model presented in this paper can also reflect the transmissibility from seat to the first thoracic spine and the main modes of the human body below 10 Hz, which is conducive to express the human response to vibration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10237-021-01481-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Establishment of an Ultrasound Malignancy Risk Stratification Model for Thyroid Nodules Larger Than 4 cm.

Front Oncol 2021 29;11:592927. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Ultrasound, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: The incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer, including thyroid nodules > 4 cm, have been increasing in recent years. The current evaluation methods are based mostly on studies of patients with thyroid nodules < 4 cm. The aim of the current study was to establish a risk stratification model to predict risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules > 4 cm.

Methods: A total of 279 thyroid nodules > 4 cm in 267 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Nodules were randomly assigned to a training dataset (n = 140) and a validation dataset (n = 139). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to establish a nomogram. The risk stratification of thyroid nodules > 4 cm was established according to the nomogram. The diagnostic performance of the model was evaluated and compared with the American College Radiology Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (ACR TI-RADS), Kwak TI-RADS and 2015 ATA guidelines using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

Results: The analysis included 279 nodules (267 patients, 50.6 ± 13.2 years): 229 were benign and 50 were malignant. Multivariate regression revealed microcalcification, solid mass, ill-defined border and hypoechogenicity as independent risk factors. Based on the four factors, a risk stratified clinical model was developed for evaluating nodules > 4 cm, which includes three categories: high risk (risk value = 0.8-0.9, with more than 3 factors), intermediate risk (risk value = 0.3-0.7, with 2 factors or microcalcification) and low risk (risk value = 0.1-0.2, with 1 factor except microcalcification). In the validation dataset, the malignancy rate of thyroid nodules > 4 cm that were classified as high risk was 88.9%; as intermediate risk, 35.7%; and as low risk, 6.9%. The new model showed greater AUC than ACR TI-RADS (0.897 0.855, p = 0.040), but similar sensitivity (61.9% 57.1%, p = 0.480) and specificity (91.5% 93.2%, p = 0.680).

Conclusion: Microcalcification, solid mass, ill-defined border and hypoechogenicity on ultrasound may be signs of malignancy in thyroid nodules > 4 cm. A risk stratification model for nodules > 4 cm may show better diagnostic performance than ACR TI-RADS, which may lead to better preoperative decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.592927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276053PMC
June 2021

Attacks on Formation Control for Multiagent Systems.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Jul 14;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Multiagent systems (MASs) are distributed systems with two or more intelligent agents. Formation control is a significant control technique of MASs. To date, formation control on MASs is widely used in various fields, such as robots, spacecrafts, satellites, and unmanned aerial/surface/underwater vehicles. However, there is a relatively small body of literature that is concerned with security problems of formation control on MASs in past years. Our research represents the first step toward developing security attacks of formation control on MASs. Our study aims to investigate potential security problems of formation control on a multirobot system for the first time. We propose two kinds of control-level attacks and each kind of attack includes several specific attack forms. Then, we discuss specific features of formation control on a classical multirobot system and utilize theoretical analyses to illustrate how cyberattacks can influence the physical movements of robots. The experimental results of the proposed attacks show that attacks can easily interrupt formation movements of a multirobot system and several carefully designed attacks even can cause irreversible loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCYB.2021.3089375DOI Listing
July 2021

Risk factors and clinical outcomes of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis: A case-control study from China.

Perit Dial Int 2021 Jul 14:8968608211029224. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

196531Department of Nephrology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is an uncommon, but serious complication in patients with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) who have a considerable mortality rate. This study aimed to identify risk factors and outcomes of EPS in Chinese patients on PD.

Methods: Sixteen patients on PD who met the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis criteria for diagnosis of EPS in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University from 1997 to 2018 were included. Patients without EPS were matched for age, sex and the duration of PD and selected at a 1:3 ratio for the controls. A case-control study was conducted to analyse the clinical profile and risk factors associated with EPS in patients.

Results: The prevalence of EPS in patients on PD in our centre was 0.55%. The percentage of EPS significantly increased with the duration of PD. In univariate regression analysis, a history of peritonitis (odds ratios (OR): 2.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.82-9.68; = 0.08), peritoneal glucose exposure (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03-1.22; < 0.01) and a high peritoneal transport status (OR: 14.70; 95% CI: 1.85-117.02; < 0.01) were associated with EPS in patients on PD. However in the multivariate model, only a high peritoneal transport status (adjusted odds ratios (aOR): 13.65; 95% CI: 1.69-109.96; = 0.01) was independently associated with EPS.

Conclusion: The rate of EPS significantly increases with the duration of PD. Progressive peritoneal dysfunction, especially a high peritoneal transport status, is associated with a higher risk of EPS in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/08968608211029224DOI Listing
July 2021

Author Correction: Deep learning radiomics can predict axillary lymph node status in early-stage breast cancer.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 12;12(1):4370. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24605-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275735PMC
July 2021

An Original Ferroptosis-Related Gene Signature Effectively Predicts the Prognosis and Clinical Status for Colorectal Cancer Patients.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:711776. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of General Surgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. Ferroptosis is a newly defined form of cell death, distinguished by different morphology, biochemistry, and genetics, and involved in CRC progression and treatment. This study aims to establish a predictive model to elucidate the relationship between ferroptosis and prognosis of CRC patients, to explore the potential value of ferroptosis in therapeutic options.

Methods: The ferroptosis-related genes were obtained from the GeneCards and FerrDb websites. The limma R package was used to screen the differential ferroptosis-related genes (DEGs) in CRC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and multivariate Cox regressions were to establish the 10-gene prognostic signature. The survival and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were illustrated to evaluate the predictive effect of the signature. Besides, independent prognostic factors, downstream functional enrichment, drug sensitivity, somatic mutation status, and immune feature were analyzed. Moreover, all these conclusions were verified by using multiple datasets in International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO).

Results: Ten ferroptosis-related gene signature (TFAP2C, SLC39A8, NOS2, HAMP, GDF15, FDFT1, CDKN2A, ALOX12, AKR1C1, ATP6V1G2) was established to predict the prognosis of CRC patients by Lasso cox analysis, demonstrating a good performance on Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Kaplan-Meier (K-M) analyses. The CRC patients in the high- or low-risk group showed significantly different fractions of immune cells, such as macrophage cells and CD8+ T cells. Drug sensitivity and somatic mutation status like TP53 were also closely associated with the risk scores.

Conclusions: In this study, we identified a novel ferroptosis-related 10-gene signature, which could effectively predict the prognosis and survival time of CRC patients, and provide meaningful clinical implications for targeted therapy or immunotherapy. Targeting ferroptosis is a good therapeutic option for CRC patients. Further studies are needed to reveal the underlying mechanisms of ferroptosis in CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.711776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264263PMC
June 2021

Corrigendum: Overexpression Cathepsin D Contributes to Perineural Invasion of Salivary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:693392. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fonc.2018.00492.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.693392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8262266PMC
June 2021

Dietary Supplementation of Baicalein Affects Gene Expression in Broiler Adipose Tissue During the First Week Post-hatch.

Front Physiol 2021 25;12:697384. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, United States.

Dietary supplementation of baicalein, a flavonoid, has anti-obesity effects in mammals and broiler chickens. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary baicalein supplementation on broiler growth and adipose tissue and breast muscle deposition. Fifty Hubbard × Cobb-500 day-of-hatch broiler chicks were assigned to a control starter diet or control diet supplemented with 125, 250, or 500 mg/kg baicalein and diets were fed for the first 6 days post-hatch. Body weight, average daily body weight gain, and average daily food intake were all reduced by 500 mg/kg baicalein. Breast muscle and subcutaneous and abdominal fat weights were also reduced in chicks that consumed the baicalein-supplemented diets. mRNAs for genes encoding factors involved in adipogenesis and fat storage, 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase 2, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β, perilipin-1, and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1, were more highly expressed in the adipose tissue of broilers supplemented with baicalein than the controls, independent of depot. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma mRNAs, involved in triacylglycerol synthesis and adipogenesis, respectively, were greater in subcutaneous than abdominal fat, which may contribute to differences in expansion rates of these depots. Results demonstrate effects of dietary supplementation of baicalein on growth performance in broilers during the early post-hatch stage and molecular effects in major adipose tissue depots. The mild reduction in food intake coupled to slowed rate of breast muscle and adipose tissue accumulation may serve as a strategy to modulate broiler growth and body composition to prevent metabolic and skeletal disorders later in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.697384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270003PMC
June 2021

Mesenteric Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor on 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

From the Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University; Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province; and Academician (Expert) Workstation of Sichuan Province, Luzhou, Sichuan, China.

Abstract: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm, which can be seen in any anatomic region from the central nervous system to the gastrointestinal tract. Herein, we report the 68Ga-FAPI PET/CT findings in a 49-year-old man with mesenteric inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLU.0000000000003797DOI Listing
July 2021
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