Publications by authors named "Xiao Xuan Zhang"

91 Publications

Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle in China during 2010-2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 17;15(6):e0009502. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, PR China.

Background: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria, mainly Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), is a major threat to public health and economic development. There has been no systematic epidemiological assessment concerning bTB in dairy cattle in China.

Methodology/principal Findings: Literature related to bTB in China was retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), PubMed, ScienceDirect, VIP Chinese Journals Database, and Wan Fang Database to build the first meta-analysis for estimating the prevalence and infection moderators of bTB in dairy cattle in China. A total of 100 relevant studies published from 2010 to 2019 were included. We estimated the overall prevalence of bTB was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.1-2.8) during this decade. In the sampling year subgroup, the prevalence was lowest in 2017 or later at 0.8% (95% CI: 0.3-1.5). The lowest prevalence was 0.7% (95% CI: 0.5-1.0) in Northwestern China. The lowest prevalence was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.8-2.5) using SIT test. Heifer cows had the highest prevalence, which was 27.1% (95% CI: 9.7-49.2). The prevalence in scale farming was 3.7% (95% CI: 3.1-4.3), significantly higher than that in free-range farming (1.7%, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4). The prevalence of bTB was highest in summer at 4.0% (95% CI: 1.7-7.0). In addition, the influence of different geographical factors (altitude, longitude, latitude, precipitation, temperature, humidity) on the prevalence was analyzed.

Conclusions/significance: The results showed that bTB was widespread in China but has been gradually reduced through concerted national intervention. It is suggested that different countries should formulate corresponding prevention and control measures according to the epidemic situation in its cattle industry. Enhanced monitoring of warm and humid areas may play an important role in reducing the incidence of bTB. In addition, when large-scale breeding is promoted, attention should be paid to standardizing breeding management and improving animal welfare to reduce the prevalence of bTB in cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241035PMC
June 2021

Molecular detection of Blastocystis in black bears and sika deer in northern China.

Parasitol Res 2021 Apr 4;120(4):1481-1487. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266109, People's Republic of China.

Protists of the Blastocystis genus are distributed worldwide and can infect a range of hosts. However, data concerning Blastocystis infection are limited for sika deer and are not available for black bears. Therefore, in the present study, a total of 312 black bears (Ursus thibetanus) from Heilongjiang Province and 760 sika deer (Cervus nippon) from four different northern Chinese provinces were investigated. Blastocystis infection in these animals was detected via PCR amplification of the small subunit rRNA gene in fecal samples. The prevalence of Blastocystis infection in black bears and sika deer was 14.4% (45/312 positive samples) and 0.8% (6/760 positive samples), respectively. Young black bears (18.3%) had a significantly higher Blastocystis prevalence than adult bears (9.1%). The prevalence of Blastocystis was significantly higher in black bears raised outdoors (24.6%) than in bears raised indoors (12.2%). Blastocystis-positive sika deer were only found in Jilin Province (1.3%, 6/480). Female sika deer (0%, 0/61) had a significantly lower Blastocystis prevalence than males (0.9%, 6/699). Sanger sequencing was used to determine the small subunit rRNA gene sequences of the Blastocystis-positive PCR products. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree based on the small subunit rRNA gene sequences showed that only Blastocystis subtype (ST)1 was identified in black bears, whereas ST10 and ST14 were found in sika deer. This is the first report of Blastocystis ST1 infection in black bears. These findings also extend the distribution information of Blastocystis subtypes, which will provide a foundation for further study of Blastocystis in different hosts in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07068-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Differential expression of microRNAs and tRNA fragments mediate the adaptation of the liver fluke Fasciola gigantica to its intermediate snail and definitive mammalian hosts.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Apr 26;51(5):405-414. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi Province 030801, China; Key Laboratory of Veterinary Public Health of Yunnan Province, College of Veterinary Medicine, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, Yunnan Province 650201, China. Electronic address:

The tropical liver fluke Fasciola gigantica affects livestock and humans in many Asian countries, large parts of Africa, and parts of Europe. Despite the public health and economic impacts of F. gigantica, understanding of F. gigantica biology and how the complex lifecycle of this liver fluke is transcriptionally regulated remain unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the regulatory small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) play roles in the adaptation of F. gigantica to its intermediate and definitive hosts. We sequenced sncRNAs of eight lifecycle stages of F. gigantica. In total, 56 miRNAs from 33 conserved families and four Fasciola-specific miRNAs were identified. Expression analysis of miRNAs suggested clear stage-related patterns. By leveraging the existing transcriptomic data, we predicted a miRNA-based regulation of metabolism, transport, growth and developmental processes. Also, by comparing miRNA complement of F. gigantica with that of Fasciola hepatica, we detected a high level of conservation and identified differences in some miRNAs, which can be used to distinguish the two species. Moreover, we found that tRFs at each lifecycle stage were predominantly derived by tRNA and tRNA at 5' half sites, but relatively high expression was related to the buffalo-infecting stages. Taken together, we provided a comprehensive overview of the dynamic transcriptional changes of small RNAs that occur during the developmental stages of F. gigantica. This global analysis of F. gigantica lifecycle stages revealed new roles of miRNAs and tRFs in parasite development and will facilitate future research into understanding of fasciolosis pathobiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2020.10.009DOI Listing
April 2021

The global prevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii among foxes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Microb Pathog 2021 Jan 28;150:104699. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, 163319, PR China; College of Veterinary Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266109, PR China.

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most successful intracellular protozoan parasites in the world, which can infect most warm-blooded animals including foxes in the world and cause toxoplasmosis. This is the first meta-analysis to assess the overall prevalence and potential risk factors of T. gondii among foxes in the world. Relevant studies were comprehensively collected from ScienceDirect, Springer-Link, PubMed, VIP Chinese Journal Databases (VIP), WanFang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. The random-effect model was used to calculate pooled prevalence with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and analyzed data were from 20 countries. The pooled T. gondii prevalence in foxes was estimated to be 39.6%. T. gondii has the highest prevalence in North America (51.2%), and lowest in Asia (8.3%). The prevalence in the sub-group after 2006 (44.7%) was lower than 2006 or before (48.5%). The prevalence in female foxes was 46.1%, which was higher than that in male foxes (19.7%). In species subgroup, red fox has the highest prevalence (46.8%). Wild foxes have a higher rate of infection (40.8%) than captive foxes (8.4%). Genotype Ⅱ of T. gondii is the most prevalent in foxes. We also evaluated the effects of geographical and climate variables on pooled prevalence of T. gondii in foxes. Our research indicated that toxoplasmosis widely existed in the world. The investigation of T. gondii infection in wild animals can provide an estimate of environmental pollution and T. gondii circulation in the ecosystem. It is essential for us to prevent and control T. gondii infection in foxes in order to reduce the risk of human infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104699DOI Listing
January 2021

Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in China from 2010 to 2020: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Prev Vet Med 2021 Jan 5;186:105230. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266109, PR China. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed protozoan parasite that can infect a variety of warm-blooded animals including humans and goats. This is the first meta-analysis to assess the overall seroprevalence and potential risk factors of T. gondii infection among goats in China. Databases including the VIP Chinese Journal Databases (VIP), the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, WanFang, ScienceDirect, and PubMed were searched comprehensively for relevant studies published from 2010 to date. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled seroprevalence estimates with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) and data were analyzed from 13 provinces in China. The pooled T. gondii seroprevalence in goats was estimated as 9.9 %. Goats T. gondii had the highest seroprevalence in Southwestern China (13.3 %) and the lowest in Northeastern China (7.3 %). The seroprevalence in the sub-group before 2012 (8.0 %) was lower than that in 2012-2015 (15.2 %) and 2016 or later (9.2 %). Goats aged > 12-months had a higher seroprevalence (11.7 %) than ≤ 12-months (10.7 %). The seroprevalence in female goats was 12.5 % and 12.2 % in male goats. In season subgroups, the seroprevalence was lowest in autumn (6.1 %). Naturally grazed goats had a seroprevalence of 8.1 % of infection and 7.8 % in intensively fed goats. We also evaluated the effects of geographical and climate variables on the pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii in goats in China. The results indicated that toxoplasmosis is widely distributed in goats in China. In the context of ensuring animal welfare, we suggest the continued promotion of the transition from natural grazing to intensive agriculture to strengthen disease prevention. Prevention would be better carried out in areas suitable for the survival and reproduction of T. gondii. Breeders need to regularly disinfect the feeding areas and pens or other areas of goat activity thoroughly to reduce the impact of environmental factors responses on the infection of goats to T. gondii.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105230DOI Listing
January 2021

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infection Among Five Wild Rodent Species from Five Provinces of China.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Feb 7;21(2):105-109. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang, China.

, an intracellular zoonotic parasite, can infect humans and various animals worldwide. Wild rodents plan an important role as intermediate hosts of . Some studies on from wild rodents have been published, but the investigation data of in wild rodents in China are limited. Therefore, brain tissue samples from 382 wild rodents in four provinces and one autonomous region of China were screened by PCR amplification of B1 gene. Furthermore, the wild rodents were identified as five species based on their morphological characteristics, including ( = 35 from Heilongjiang), ( = 81 from Inner Mongolia), ( = 12 from Heilongjiang), ( = 2 from Heilongjiang;  = 99 from Zhejiang;  = 54 from Shanxi), and ( = 99 from Guangxi). The overall prevalence of in these wild rodents was 5.24% (20/382) in this study. At different regions, the highest prevalence of was in Guangxi (12.12%) compared with other regions (0% in Heilongjiang; 2.47% in Inner Mongolia; 2.02% in Zhejiang; 7.41% in Shanxi). At different climates, the higher prevalence was found in temperate/mesothermal climates (7.07%) compared with continental/microthermal climates (3.26%). Also, the results showed that had the highest prevalence of infection (12.12%) among the rodent species sampled. Moreover, sampling year was significantly related to the prevalence of in investigated wild rodents ( = 0.0117). This is the first report of in wild rodents from Zhejiang, Guangxi, Shanxi, Heilongjiang provinces and Inner Mongolia autonomous region in China, providing the fundamental information for further prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2020.2658DOI Listing
February 2021

Predictive Factors of Hemorrhage After Thrombolysis in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Front Neurol 2020 3;11:551157. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Neurology Department, Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University, Chengde, China.

Ischemic stroke has a poor prognosis and brings a ponderous burden on families and society. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after intravenous thrombolysis can increase the mortality of patients with ischemic stroke. Thus, finding new HT biomarkers to be applicable in clinical practice is of great importance. The related risk factors were recruited for analysis, including smoking, drinking, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, anamnesis, and pathological indicators. Moreover, the relationship between serum levels of caveolin-1, caveolin-2, and HT after rt-PA treatment were also studied. We studied 306 patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 4.5 h of symptom onset. The results showed that Age ≥68 years, smoking, Atrial fibrillation, NIHSS score before thrombolysis ≥17, and systolic pressure 2 h after thrombolysis (mmHg) ≥149 increased the risks of HT after rt-PA administration. Remarkably, the concentration of caveolin-1 (ng/mL) ≤ 0.12 and caveolin-2 (ng/mL) ≤ 0.43 in serum increased the risks of HT after rt-PA administration. Knowledge on the risk factors associated with HT after rt-PA treatment may help develop treatment strategies and reduce the risk of HT. Caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 can be predictors of HT after rt-PA administration. These findings provide evidence for future further investigations aimed to validate these biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.551157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7671058PMC
November 2020

Comparison of clinical features and outcomes in peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis patients with and without diabetes: A multicenter retrospective cohort study.

World J Diabetes 2020 Oct;11(10):435-446

Department of Nephrology, The Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, Jilin Province, China.

Background: The number of end-stage renal disease patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) who are undergoing peritoneal dialysis is increasing. Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PDAP) is a serious complication of peritoneal dialysis leading to technical failure and increased mortality in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The profile of clinical symptoms, distribution of pathogenic organisms, and response of PDAP to medical management in the subset of end-stage renal disease patients with DM have not been reported previously. Discrepant results have been found in long-term prognostic outcomes of PDAP in patients with DM. We inferred that DM is associated with bad outcomes in PDAP patients.

Aim: To compare the clinical features and outcomes of PDAP between patients with DM and those without.

Methods: In this multicenter retrospective cohort study, we enrolled patients who had at least one episode of PDAP during the study period. The patients were followed for a median of 31.1 mo. They were divided into a DM group and a non-DM group. Clinical features, therapeutic outcomes, and long-term prognostic outcomes were compared between the two groups. Risk factors associated with therapeutic outcomes of PDAP were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. A Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to examine the influence of DM on patient survival and incidence of technical failure.

Results: Overall, 373 episodes occurred in the DM group ( = 214) and 692 episodes occurred in the non-DM group ( = 395). The rates of abdominal pain and fever were similar in the two groups ( > 0.05). The DM group had more infections with coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and less infections with () as compared to the non-DM group ( < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed no association between the presence of diabetes and rates of complete cure, catheter removal, PDAP-related death, or relapse of PDAP ( > 0.05). Patients in the DM group were older and had a higher burden of cardiovascular disease, with lower level of serum albumin, but a higher estimated glomerular filtration rate ( < 0.05). Cox proportional hazards model confirmed that the presence of diabetes was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 1.531, 95% confidence interval: 1.091-2.148, < 0.05), but did not predict the occurrence of technical failure ( > 0.05).

Conclusion: PDAP patients with diabetes have similar symptomology and are predisposed to coagulase-negative Staphylococcus but not infection compared those without. Diabetes is associated with higher all-cause mortality but not therapeutic outcomes of PDAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v11.i10.435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7582114PMC
October 2020

Prevalence of Haemophilus parasuis"Glaesserella parasuis" in pigs in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Prev Vet Med 2020 Sep 1;182:105083. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266109, PR China. Electronic address:

Haemophilus parasuis, a gram-negative bacterium as an early commensal colonizer in the upper respiratory tract of weaning pigs (Sus scrofa), is one of the most important bacterial pathogens affecting pig populations. It is the causative agent of Glässer's disease, causing systemic infection and polyserositis, meningitis, and arthritis. H. parasuis infection can result in high mortality and morbidity with, the significant economic losses for pig producers. To estimate the overall disease prevalence of H. parasuis in pigs from China, we performed a meta-analysis using five bibliographical databases: PubMed, ScienceDirect, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP Chinese Journal Databases. A total of 41 articles published between 2005 and 2019, fulfilled the final inclusion criteria. The overall prevalence of H. parasuis in pigs in China was 27.8 % with the highest prevalence between 2011 and 2015 (41.0 %). In terms of pig age, the point estimate of H. parasuis prevalence was higher in suckling piglets (29.2 %) compared with that for other pig ages. The prevalence in the serum subgroup (29.8 %) was higher than that in the nasal swab subgroup (12.5 %). The results of the present meta-analysis showed that H. parasuis infection was common in pig populations in China; therefore, effective control measures are necessary to reduce this threat to pig populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105083DOI Listing
September 2020

The global seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in deer from 1978 to 2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Trop 2020 May 17;208:105529. Epub 2020 May 17.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266109, China. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals, including humans, is an intracellular protozoan parasite. The immunocompromised patients or pregnant women infected by Toxoplasma usually can cause encephalitis or abortion. Deer are also the important intermediate host of the parasite and people can be infected by ingesting the undercooked venison. Therefore, to raise the attention of the researchers and T. gondii infection on people in deer, we conducted the meta-analysis. All potential publications on the T. gondii infection in deer were retrieved by searching the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer- Link, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang, and VIP Chinese Journal Databases. Finally, a total of 48 publications were included. The pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in deer was 22.92% (95% CI 17.89-28.38) calculated by the random effect model. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in deer was the lowest in Asia (12.72%, 95% CI 6.29-20.89), and the highest in North America (32.21%, 95% CI 20.32-45.39). The highest point estimate of deer T. gondii in detection method subgroup was using MAT (31.28%, 95% CI 20.15-43.61). The estimated pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in elk (63.50%, 95% CI 50.01-76.01) was higher than other types of deer. Our meta-regression analysis found that the subgroups including region, sampling year, age, climate, and deer species may be the main heterogeneous source in our meta-analysis. It is necessary to monitor the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in deer at all times. Furthermore, people should be taken to precautions when ingesting the venison by cooking it well before serving to prevent the T. gondii infection via eating venison.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105529DOI Listing
May 2020

Seropositivity and Associated Risk Factors in Cats () in Three Provinces in Northeastern China from 2013 to 2019.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 09 4;20(9):723-727. Epub 2020 May 4.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang, P.R. China.

is an important protozoan parasite that can infect a range of animals. Cats are the most important definitive hosts for . Therefore, an assessment of the level of infection in cats is of public health importance. As limited information about seroprevalence of infection in cats in northeastern China was available, 854 serum samples, including 235 cats in Jilin province, 267 cats in Liaoning province, and 352 cats in Heilongjiang province, were examined by an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) test, between September 2013 and July 2019. The overall seroprevalence of was 19.09% (163/854) at the cutoff 1:64, with 19.60% (69/352), 18.29% (43/235), and 19.10% (51/267) in Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that mode of life was highly related to infection in cats at the investigation areas. These results could provide foundation data for prevention and control of prevalence in these regions. Moreover, the results also suggested that the effective control strategies should continue to be performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2583DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparative study of intravenous thrombolysis with rt-PA and urokinase for patients with acute cerebral infarction.

J Int Med Res 2020 May;48(5):300060519895352

Neurology Department, Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University, Chengde, Hebei, China.

Objective: Cerebral infarction has a poor prognosis and causes a serious burden on families and society. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and urokinase (UK) are commonly used thrombolytic agents in the clinic. However, direct and powerful clinical trial evidence to determine the therapeutic effect of rt-PA and UK on intravenous thrombolysis is lacking.

Methods: In this study, 180 patients with acute cerebral infarction were treated with rt-PA or UK. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores, Barthel index, bleeding complications, and biomarkers were evaluated.

Results: No significant differences in NIHSS or Barthel scores were found between the groups. However, UK increased the risk of intracranial haemorrhage compared with rt-PA. rt-PA had increased activity in reducing serum levels of MMP-9 than UK.

Conclusion: Intravenous thrombolysis with rt-PA and UK in the time window of acute cerebral infarction can achieve similar therapeutic effects, but rt-PA can further reduce the risk of cerebral haemorrhage and is relatively safer than UK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060519895352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221219PMC
May 2020

Molecular detection of Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy calves and sika deer in four provinces in Northern China.

Parasitol Res 2020 Jan 26;119(1):105-114. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, 163319, People's Republic of China.

The protistan pathogens Cryptosporidium and Enterocytozoon bieneusi can cause significant intestinal diseases in animals and humans. However, limited information is available regarding prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi in ruminants in Northern China. In this study, the overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi was 19.3% (62/321) and 28.97% (93/321) in dairy calves and 1.10% (9/818) and 13.57% (111/818) in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in four provinces in Northern China, respectively. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi in different factor groups was various. Five Cryptosporidium species/genotypes were identified, of which C. parvum, C. ryanae, C. bovis, and C. andersoni were only found in dairy calves, and only Cryptosporidium deer genotype was found in sika deer. Moreover, J, I, and BEB4 ITS genotypes of E. bieneusi were found in dairy calves, and six known genotypes (JLD-III, JLD-IX, JLD-VII, EbpC, BEB6, and I) and ten novel genotypes (namely LND-I and JLD-XV to JLD-XXIII) were found in sika deer in this study. Cryptosporidium parvum and E. bieneusi genotype J were identified as the predominant species/genotypes in dairy calves, whereas the predominance of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in sika deer was Cryptosporidium deer genotype and BEB6, respectively. The present study reported the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and E. bieneusi in dairy calves and sika deer in four provinces in northern China. The present findings also suggest that investigated dairy calves and sika deer may play an important role in the transmission of E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium to humans and other animals, and also in an effort to better understand the epidemiology of these enteric pathogens in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-019-06498-1DOI Listing
January 2020

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in horses: A global systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Trop 2020 Jan 19;201:105222. Epub 2019 Oct 19.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266109, PR China. Electronic address:

Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common zoonoses worldwide, is caused by Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondii can infect almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. Horses are an intermediate host of T. gondii, representing a potential risk for humans. To determine the T. gondii seroprevalence in horses worldwide, a global meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 35 publications were obtained by searching the PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of knowledge (CNKI) and Wanfang databases. A total of 12,354 horses were assessed, of which 1580 were positive for T. gondii. The pooled overall seroprevalence of horses infected by T. gondii was 11.29%. No significant difference of T. gondii seroprevalence was observed between male and female horses. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in horses from different countries varied. Our findings suggest that toxoplasmosis is prevalent in horses worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to implement continuous monitoring of the status of T. gondii seroprevalence in horses. Moreover, powerful regulatory measures should be implemented to prevent and control the spread of toxoplasmosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105222DOI Listing
January 2020

Complex and dynamic transcriptional changes allow the helminth Fasciola gigantica to adjust to its intermediate snail and definitive mammalian hosts.

BMC Genomics 2019 Oct 12;20(1):729. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province, 730046, People's Republic of China.

Background: The tropical liver fluke, Fasciola gigantica causes fasciolosis, an important disease of humans and livestock. We characterized dynamic transcriptional changes associated with the development of the parasite in its two hosts, the snail intermediate host and the mammalian definitive host.

Results: Differential gene transcription analysis revealed 7445 unigenes transcribed by all F. gigantica lifecycle stages, while the majority (n = 50,977) exhibited stage-specific expression. Miracidia that hatch from eggs are highly transcriptionally active, expressing a myriad of genes involved in pheromone activity and metallopeptidase activity, consistent with snail host finding and invasion. Clonal expansion of rediae within the snail correlates with increased expression of genes associated with transcription, translation and repair. All intra-snail stages (miracidia, rediae and cercariae) require abundant cathepsin L peptidases for migration and feeding and, as indicated by their annotation, express genes putatively involved in the manipulation of snail innate immune responses. Cercariae emerge from the snail, settle on vegetation and become encysted metacercariae that are infectious to mammals; these remain metabolically active, transcribing genes involved in regulation of metabolism, synthesis of nucleotides, pH and endopeptidase activity to assure their longevity and survival on pasture. Dramatic growth and development following infection of the mammalian host are associated with high gene transcription of cell motility pathways, and transport and catabolism pathways. The intra-mammalian stages temporally regulate key families of genes including the cathepsin L and B proteases and their trans-activating peptidases, the legumains, during intense feeding and migration through the intestine, liver and bile ducts. While 70% of the F. gigantica transcripts share homology with genes expressed by the temperate liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, gene expression profiles of the most abundantly expressed transcripts within the comparable lifecycle stages implies significant species-specific gene regulation.

Conclusions: Transcriptional profiling of the F. gigantica lifecycle identified key metabolic, growth and developmental processes the parasite undergoes as it encounters vastly different environments within two very different hosts. Comparative analysis with F. hepatica provides insight into the similarities and differences of these parasites that diverged > 20 million years ago, crucial for the future development of novel control strategies against both species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-019-6103-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790025PMC
October 2019

Meta-analysis of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs intended for human consumption in Mainland China.

Acta Trop 2019 Oct 9;198:105081. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, 163319, PR China. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the most important foodborne zoonotic pathogens, which can infect virtually all warm-blooded animals, including pigs, and causes severe illness in congenitally infected infants and even death in patients with AIDS. Pigs (Sus scrofa) are one of the most important intermediate hosts of T. gondii, and human transmission occurs through consumption of raw or poorly cooked pork. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched Chongqing VIP, Wanfang, Chinese Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and ScienceDirect databases for published papers regarding Toxoplasma infection in pigs in China, from inception to Oct 29, 2017. Search strings included whether they reported the samples of more than 30 pigs and provided information that allowed us to establish the prevalence of Toxoplasma infection. Moreover, we excluded repeated studies, reviews, other host studies, as well as studies with inconsistent data, incomplete information, those that only provided prevalence data, and those outside of Mainland China. We extracted the numbers of pigs with Toxoplasma infection from the obtained studies, and calculated the pooled prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in the pigs using a random-effects model. The data of 44 articles (including data on 46,723 pigs) were compliant with the standards. The pooled prevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs in China was 29% (95% CI 24-34), with 25% (95% CI 18-32) in pigs sampled before 2010 and 28% (95% CI 21-36) in pigs sampled in 2010 or later. The pooled prevalence of T. gondii in pigs from Northeast China (20%, 95% CI 14-26) was significantly lower than those from other regions (North China: 40%, 95% CI 32-47; Northwest China: 32%, 95% CI 13-51; East China: 30%, 95% CI 20-41; and South China: 35%, 95% CI 26-45; Central China: 23%, 95% CI 14-31; Southwest China: 33%, 95% CI 15-52). The estimated pooled prevalence of T. gondii infection was 36% (95% CI 25-47, 8,018/21,892) in pigs tested by ELISA, 24% (95% CI 19-28, 4,304/18,608) in pigs examined by IHA, and 19% (95% CI 8-31, 1,041/6,223) in pigs detected by other methods. Moreover, 1202 of 7470 piglets were detected as T. gondii-positive, and the prevalence (17%) was lower than that in fattening pigs (25%, OR = 1.28), sows (34%, OR = 2.13), and breeding boars (35%, OR = 2.46). Our findings suggested that toxoplasmosis is common in pigs in Mainland China. It is necessary to monitor the prevalence of T. gondii in pigs, and powerful and effective regulatory measures should be undertaken to reduce human exposure to T. gondii via the consumption of pork.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105081DOI Listing
October 2019

[Analysis of treating syndrome by I-Ching navel acupuncture].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2019 Jul;39(7):757-60

Zhuhai Hospital, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of TCM, Zhuhai 519015, China.

Based on the theories of I-Ching and umbilicus-hologram, the navel acupuncture is considered as a new acupuncture therapy that only acupuncture at Shenque (CV 8). It has a good effect on the treatment of syndrome and provides a new treatment idea for syndrome. This article presents the definition, etiology and treatment of syndrome, and introduces the application of umbilical-holographic, the principle and method of positioning and needle-inserting, the adjustment of therapies and the analysis of cases, in order to introduce the idea of treating syndrome by I-Ching navel acupuncture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.2019.07.020DOI Listing
July 2019

Prevalence of Cryptosporidium in dairy cattle in China during 2008-2018: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Microb Pathog 2019 Jul 7;132:193-200. Epub 2019 May 7.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266109, PR China. Electronic address:

Cryptosporidium is the causative agent of cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium not only has a worldwide distribution, but also can infect various hosts, including dairy cattle and humans. Although numerous researches on Cryptosporidium infection in cattle have been conducted, no nationwide study on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in dairy cattle in mainland China was carried out. In this meta-analysis, five databases, including PubMed, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP, and Wanfang, were used to search for published papers regarding Cryptosporidium infection in dairy cattle in China from inception to February 25, 2019. Our study obtained 60 eligibility studies that reported Cryptosporidium infection in dairy cattle. We estimated the pooled Cryptosporidium prevalence to be 17.0% (3,901/33,313), with 16.9% (722/5,191) in Central China, 17.4% (959/6,162) in Eastern China, 29.8% (404/2,021) in Northeastern China, 15.7% (227/2,344) in Northern China, 15.8% (1,042/11,452) in Northwestern China, 9.5% (494/5,758) in Southern China, and 13.7% (53/385) in Southwestern China. The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium in before 2000 group (28.0%, 944/3,417) was significantly higher than in 2000-2010 group (11.1%, 384/3,643) and after 2010 group (13.7%, 2,134/22,411). Cattle with the age of ≤ 12 months (22.5%, 2,142/12,948) had a significantly higher prevalence than those of > 12 months (9.5%, 840/10,282). The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium in different seasons ranged from 8.2% (343/4,552) in Autumn to 19.5% (285/1,570) in Winter. Diarrhea cattle (38%, 133/477) had a higher Cryptosporidium prevalence than non-diarrhea cattle (13.0%, 367/2423). The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium in different provinces was various, with the highest (35.6%, 355/1,667) in Heilongjiang province, and the lowest (4.3%, 15/440) in Tianjin province. The univariate meta-regression analyses indicated that the collection year (P = 0.002) and age of cattle (P = 0.001) might be sources of heterogeneity. This systematic review suggests that China is a country where cryptosporidiosis frequently occurs in cattle. Due to the particular relationship between dairy cattle and feeder, further research is required to investigate the links between cattle ownership and Cryptosporidium infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.05.006DOI Listing
July 2019

Molecular Detection and Genetic Characterization of from Horses in Three Provinces of China.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2019 09 26;19(9):703-707. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, P.R. China.

Horse meat and milk are an important source of nutrition for many Chinese. Previous studies have shown a fairly high prevalence of infection in horses. However, there is no data concerning the molecular characterization of in horses in China. The present study tested 231 cervical lymph node samples of horses from northern China (97 from Jilin, 54 from Liaoning, and 80 from Xinjiang) for the presence of the B1 gene by seminested PCR. The B1-positive samples were genotyped at nine nuclear loci, that is, SAG1, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c22-8, GRA6, c29-2, PK1, and an apicoplast locus, using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. A total of 14 (6.06%) out of 231 samples were positive. The overall prevalence of in the horses was 5.15% (5/97) for Jilin Province, 5.55% (3/54) for Liaoning Province, and 7.50% (6/80) for Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Of the 14 positive samples, only 2 were successfully genotyped at all loci, 5 were successfully genotyped at 5-8 loci, and all typed samples belong to ToxoDB genotype no. 9. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of the isolates from horses in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2423DOI Listing
September 2019

Epidemiology of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus among Chinese pig populations: A meta-analysis.

Microb Pathog 2019 Apr 23;129:43-49. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang Province, 163319, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Porcine epidemic diarrhea results from infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). It is an acute and highly contagious enteric disease in swine characterized by watery diarrhea and vomiting. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to assess the prevalence of PEDV infection in pig populations from mainland China.

Methods: We conducted a literature search on the prevalence of PEDV infection in pigs between Jan 1, 1988 and Aug 20, 2018 in English and Chinese databases, including PubMed, Google scholar, Cochrane library, Clinical Trials, VIP, CNKI and WanFang database. Selections were made based on the title and the abstract of paper, and duplicated literature was excluded along with other host studies, and data incomplete literature according to the exclusion criteria we formulated. Finally, we extracted the number of swine with PEDV infection from the obtained studies and provided information that permitted us to estimate the prevalence of PEDV infection in pigs in mainland China.

Results: A total of 45 studies (including data from 15,990 pigs) met our evaluation criteria. In China, the overall estimated prevalence of PEDV infection in pigs was 44% (7113/15,990), while the estimated prevalence of PEDV infection in pigs from northern China was 37% (793/2136), lower than those in other regions of China. The prevalence of PEDV infection was associated with sampling season, category of pigs and clinical signs (diarrhea) in pigs. However, the prevalence of PEDV among pigs in China was not significantly associated with the effect of detected target genes, nor was it associated with date of study publication.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that PEDV infection is common among pigs in China. It is therefore necessary to carry out further research and monitor the prevalence of PEDV infection. Furthermore, powerful and effective regulatory measures should be taken in order to prevent the transmission and spread of PEDV among pig populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.01.017DOI Listing
April 2019

Infection in Dustmen in Northeastern China: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study.

Biomed Res Int 2018 19;2018:3207675. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Department of Parasitology, Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province 410013, China.

Background: Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular parasite , which can infect many hosts including humans.

Methods: In order to estimate whether dustmen are more susceptible to , a case-control study was conducted containing 332 dustmen from Jilin and Heilongjiang in Northeastern China, as well as 332 general populations from the same regions as control subjects. Serum samples were tested IgG and IgM antibodies to using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: The overall anti- IgG was 15.06% (50/332) in dustmen compared with 9.64% (32/332) in the controls ( = 0.0337). Also, 5 (1.51%) dustmen had anti- IgM antibodies compared with 2 (0.60%) control individuals ( = 0.2543). A significant association was only found between dustmen and level of IgG in comparison with the control subjects. Seroprevalence of IgG antibodies in male dustmen was significant higher than male control subjects ( = 0.0399). Dustmen from Jilin had the significant higher IgG rate ( = 0.0143), in comparison with the control subjects from Jilin. Moreover, dustmen raising cat at home had the significant higher IgG rate ( = 0.0097), in comparison with the control subjects. Risk factor analysis suggested that raising cat at home and not having habits of washing hand before eating were mainly related to the infection in dustmen.

Conclusions: This is the first record of seroprevalence of infection in dustmen in Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in Northeastern China. These findings also suggest that the government departments should pay close attention to the toxoplasmosis in dustmen in Northeastern China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3207675DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6313997PMC
May 2019

Correction to: Brucellosis seroprevalence in ovine and caprine flocks in China during 2000-2018: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Vet Res 2019 01 8;15(1):18. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

College of Animal Science & Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, No.5, XinFeng Rd., Saertu District, Daqing City, 163319, Heilongjiang Province, China.

The original article [1] contained a minor error whereby Table 1 was typeset incorrectly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-018-1749-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323784PMC
January 2019

Proteomic analysis of Fasciola gigantica excretory and secretory products (FgESPs) interacting with buffalo serum of different infection periods by shotgun LC-MS/MS.

Parasitol Res 2019 Feb 18;118(2):453-460. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Institute of Comparative Medicine, Yangzhou University, and Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonosis, and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Zoonosis, Yangzhou, 225009, Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

Fasciolosis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica, is an important zoonotic disease in the world. It affects livestock, especially for sheep and cattle, causing major economic loss due to morbidity and mortality. Although the excretory and secretory products (ESPs) of F. hepatica have been relatively well studied, little is known about the interaction between the ESP and host, and the mechanism of the key proteins involved in interaction. In this study, buffaloes were infected by Fasciola gigantica, and infection serum was collected at three different periods (42dpi, 70dpi, and 98dpi). The interaction proteins were pulled down with three different period serum by Co-IP assay, respectively, and then identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. A number of proteins were identified; some of them related to the biological function of the parasite, while most of them the functions were unknown. For the annotated proteins, 13, 5, and 7 proteins were pulled down by the infected serum in 42dpi, 70dpi, and 98dpi, respectively, and 18 proteins could be detected in all three periods. Among them, 13 belong to the cathepsin family, 4 proteins related to glutathione S-transferase, and 3 proteins are calcium-binding protein; other proteins related to catalytic activity and cellular process. This study could provide new insights into the central role played by ESPs in the protection of F. gigantica from the host immune response. At the same time, our research provided material for further studies about the interaction between F. gigantica and host.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-018-6169-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Brucellosis seroprevalence in ovine and caprine flocks in China during 2000-2018: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Vet Res 2018 Dec 12;14(1):393. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

College of Animal Science & Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, No.5, XinFeng Rd., Saertu District, Daqing City, 163319, Heilongjiang Province, China.

Background: Brucellosis remains one of the most common zoonotic diseases globally, with more than half million human cases reported annually. Brucellosis is an emerging and re-emerging disease in China since the 1990s. An infectious reservoir constituted by domestic animals with brucellosis, especially ovine and caprine herds, poses a significant threat to public health. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep and goat flocks in a national context is unavailable so far. Therefore, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the overall status of brucellosis in sheep and goats in China in almost two decades.

Results: The pooled prevalence of brucellosis in ovine and caprine flocks in China increased in 2000-2009 (1.00%; 95% CI, 0.70-1.30) to 2010-2018 (3.20%; 95% CI, 2.70-3.60). The seroprevalence of brucellosis in sheep and goat flocks was higher in Eastern China, with 7.00% of positive rate, than that in any other region, especially Shandong province (18.70%). Brucellosis is highly endemic in some local regions. The high prevalence of brucellosis in agricultural regions is suggestive of a shift of geographic distribution. The pooled prevalence of brucellosis is higher in goat flocks than in sheep flocks in China.

Conclusions: The overall data in this meta-analysis demands comprehensive intervention measures and further surveillance to facilitate the control of brucellosis in livestock. Further studies aimed at evaluating the risk factors associated with spreads of brucellosis in domestic animals unaddressed so far, and sufficient epidemiological data is important to the exploration and understanding of the prevalent status of brucellosis throughout the country and to disease control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-018-1715-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6292006PMC
December 2018

Seroprevalence and Related Factors of Toxoplasma gondii in Pigeons Intended for Human Consumption in Northern China.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2019 04 11;19(4):302-305. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

1 College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, China.

Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, is carried by a range of intermediate hosts, including pigeons. Eating raw or undercooked pigeon meat, as is common in regions of China, can easily pass on a potentially fatal T. gondii infection. However, there are little data about the seroprevalence and genotypes of T. gondii infection in pigeons. In this study, a total of 963 pigeon blood samples were collected from Jilin Province, Liaoning Province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China between August 2015 and December 2016. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 10.80% (104/963), with 8.80% (41/466) in males and 12.68% (63/497) in females. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in different regions varied from 9.04% (17/188) in Jilin City to 13.16% (20/152) in Shenyang City, a relatively high prevalence. The seroprevalence of T. gondii in juvenile pigeons (6.38%, 18/282) was significantly lower than in adults (86/681, p < 0.05). These findings could provide useful data for the execution of effective control measures against T. gondii infection in pigeons and/or other hosts. More importantly, the findings also suggest that pigeons should not be eaten raw.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2018.2355DOI Listing
April 2019

Acute Infection in Cats Induced Tissue-Specific Transcriptional Response Dominated by Immune Signatures.

Front Immunol 2018 19;9:2403. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, China.

RNA-sequencing was used to detect transcriptional changes in six tissues of cats, seven days after infection. A total of 737 genes were differentially expressed (DEGs), of which 410 were up-regulated and 327 were down-regulated. The liver exhibited 151 DEGs, lung (149 DEGs), small intestine (130 DEGs), heart (123 DEGs), brain (104 DEGs), and spleen (80 DEGs)-suggesting tissue-specific transcriptional patterns. Gene ontology and KEGG analyses identified DEGs enriched in immune pathways, such as cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, NF-kappa B signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, and the cytosolic DNA sensing pathway. C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) was involved in most of the immune-related pathways. PI3K/Akt expression was down-regulated in all tissues, except the spleen. The genes for phosphatase, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, Hes Family BHLH Transcription Factor 1, and guanylate-binding protein 5, playing various roles in immune defense, were co-expressed across various feline tissues. Multivariate K-means clustering analysis produced seven gene clusters featuring similar gene expression patterns specific to individual tissues, with lung tissue cluster having the largest number of DEGs. These findings suggest the presence of a broad immune defense mechanism across various tissues in cats against acute infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202952PMC
October 2019

Brucellosis seroprevalence in dairy cattle in China during 2008-2018: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Trop 2019 Jan 9;189:117-123. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

College of Animal Science & Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang Province 163319, China. Electronic address:

Brucellosis remains one of the most common zoonotic diseases globally with more than a half million human cases reported annually. The Brucella reservoir associated with livestock brucellosis poses a significant threat to public health, and awareness of the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of livestock brucellosis is valuable for the prevention and control of diseases caused by Brucella, especially human brucellosis. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the seroprevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle in China. We retrieved 88 studies related to the seroprevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle in China in which samples were harvested between 2008 and 2018. The results of our systematic review and meta-analysis reveal that the overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in dairy cattle herds in China was 1.9% during the selected period, rising from 1.6% in 2008-2012 to 2.6% in 2013-2018. In Northern China, where the traditional agropastoral areas with more developed animal breeding industry are located, the brucellosis seroprevalence was >10%. In contrast, the seroprevalence of brucellosis in Southern China reached only 5.5%. At the provincial level, the highest brucellosis seroprevalence in dairy cattle was estimated at >30% in Jilin province, followed by Shanxi, Ningxia, Inner Mongolia, and Guizhou, each with a prevalence of 10-20%. Additionally, the seroprevalence of brucellosis in some local areas was >30% or even >50%, indicating that Brucella infection was highly endemic in dairy herds in China. Our data may facilitate the prevention and control of brucellosis in domestic animals in China. Further epidemiological surveillance and the administration of a comprehensive monitoring program to determine the risk factors associated with brucellosis incidence in humans and domestic animals are recommended to refine brucellosis control strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.10.002DOI Listing
January 2019

Prevalence and genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pigs in southern China.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 12 13;66:52-56. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Parasitology of Gansu Province, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730046, PR China; College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, Jilin Province 130118, PR China. Electronic address:

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is one of the most important causative agents of microsporidiosis, causing diarrhoea the symptoms of enteric disease in humans and animals. Although there is some information on the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi in China, there is still a lack of data in pigs in southern China. In the present study, a total of 396 faecal specimens were collected from pigs in Zhejiang, Guangdong and Yunnan provinces in southern China, and were examined by nested PCR amplification of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) for the prevalence and genotypes of E. bieneusi. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in pigs was 31.57% (125/396), forming 15 genotypes, including 9 known genotypes (EbpC, EbpA, D, G, H, PigEBITS5, Henan-IV, KIN-1, CHS5) and 6 novel genotypes (GD1, ZJ1, ZJ2, YN1, YN2 and YN3), which were all clustered into Group 1. Moreover, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that 6, 3, 4 and 5 types were identified in MS1, MS3, MS7 and MS4 loci, respectively, representing four multilocus genotypes (MLGs), designated as MLGs novel-1 to novel-4 in the present study. This is the first detailed study of E. bieneusi using MLST in pigs in southern China, which extended information about the distribution of E. bieneusi genotypes in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2018.09.006DOI Listing
December 2018

Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in horses in Jilin Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, northern China.

Acta Trop 2018 Nov 30;187:119-123. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319, PR China. Electronic address:

Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoon Toxoplasma gondii that can infect almost all warm-blooded hosts including horses and humans. Horse meat is one of the most important meat products for human consumption. However, data on seroprevalence of T. gondii in horses intended for human consumption in Northern China is scarce. Thus, a total of 614 serum samples were collected from Jilin Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) between 2015 and 2017, and were detected the seroprevalence for T. gondii by indirect hemagglutination assay test. In the prevalence study, the overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in horses was 17.92% (110/614) by IHA test, at the cut- off 1:64. Horses collected from Changchun (13.58%, P = 0.02) has a significantly lower seroprevalence than those from Meihekou City (21.72%) and Tongliao City (22.81%). Moreover, a significant difference of T. gondii seroprevalence was found between horses ages at less than 12 months (22.75%) and ≥12 months or higher (16.42%, P = 0.002). To our knowledge, this is the first report of seroprevalence of T. gondii in horses in Jilin and IMAR, Northern China. Logistic regression suggested that age and geographical location of horses were identified as risk factors. These findings will provide the useful data for controlling and preventing toxoplasmosis in horses and/or other hosts in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.07.030DOI Listing
November 2018

in Minks () in Northern China: A Public Health Concern.

Front Microbiol 2018 12;9:1221. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Protein Engineering in Animal Vaccines, College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, China.

is the most important causative agent of microsporidiosis and can infect almost all vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, including minks (). In the present study, a total of 298 feces samples (including 79 from Heilongjiang province, 31 from Hebei province, 67 from Jilin province, 90 from Liaoning province, and 31 from Shandong province, Northern China) were examined by nested PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. The overall prevalence of in minks was 10.1%, with 10.5% in Jilin province, 32.3% in Hebei province, 8.9% in Liaoning province, 0% in Shandong province, and 6.3% in Heilongjiang province. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that region was only risk factors associated with infection in the investigated minks. Five ITS genotypes (three known genotypes, namely D, Peru11, and EbpC; two novel genotypes, namely, NCM-1 and NCM-2) were found in the current study. Importantly, genotypes D, Peru11 and EbpC, previously identified in humans, were also found in minks, which suggested that minks are the potential sources of human microsporidiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of infection in minks worldwide. The results of the present survey have implications for the controlling infection in minks, other animals and humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6005834PMC
June 2018
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