Publications by authors named "Xiao Wang"

3,778 Publications

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Succession and change of potential pathogens in the co-composting of rural sewage sludge and food waste.

Waste Manag 2022 Jun 24;149:248-258. Epub 2022 Jun 24.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

Composting is an effective way to prevent and control the spread of pathogenic microorganisms which could put potential risk to humans and environment, from rural solid waste, especially sewage sludge and food waste. In the study, we aim to analyze the changes of pathogenic bacteria during the co-composting of rural sewage sludge and food waste. The results showed that only 27 pathogenic bacteria were detected after composting, compared to 50 pathogenic bacteria in the raw mixed pile. About 74% of pathogen concentrations dropped below 1000 copies/g after composting. Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Comamonas were the core pathogenic bacteria in the compost, of which concentrations were all significantly lower than that in the raw mixed pile at the end of composting. The concentration of Lactobacillus decreased to 3.03 × 10 copies/g compared to 0 d with 1.25 × 10 copies/g by the end of the composting, while that of Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Comamonas decreased to 2.77 × 10 copies/g, 2.13 × 10 copies/g and 3.38 × 10 copies/g, respectively, with 1.26 × 10 copies/g, 4.71 × 10 copies/g, 1.69 × 10 copies/g on 0 d. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that physicochemical factors and substances could affect the changes of pathogenic bacteria during composting, while temperature was the key influencing factor. In addition, certain potential pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacteroides-Bifidobacterium, show statistically strong and significant co-occurrence during composting, which may increase the risk of multiple infections and also influence their distribution. These findings provide a theoretical reference for biosafety prevention and control in the treatment and disposal of rural solid waste.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2022.06.028DOI Listing
June 2022

Temporal Trends in Antimicrobial Prescribing During Hospitalization for Potential Infection and Sepsis.

JAMA Intern Med 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland.

Importance: Some experts have cautioned that national and health system emphasis on rapid administration of antimicrobials for sepsis may increase overall antimicrobial use even among patients without sepsis.

Objective: To assess whether temporal changes in antimicrobial timing for sepsis are associated with increasing antimicrobial use, days of therapy, or broadness of antimicrobial coverage among all hospitalized patients at risk for sepsis.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This is an observational cohort study of hospitalized patients at 152 hospitals in 2 health care systems during 2013 to 2018, admitted via the emergency department with 2 or more systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. Data analysis was performed from June 10, 2021, to March 22, 2022.

Exposures: Hospital-level temporal trends in time to first antimicrobial administration.

Outcomes: Antimicrobial outcomes included antimicrobial use, days of therapy, and broadness of antibacterial coverage. Clinical outcomes included in-hospital mortality, 30-day mortality, length of hospitalization, and new multidrug-resistant (MDR) organism culture positivity.

Results: Among 1 559 523 patients admitted to the hospital via the emergency department with 2 or more SIRS criteria (1 269 998 male patients [81.4%]; median [IQR] age, 67 [59-77] years), 273 255 (17.5%) met objective criteria for sepsis. In multivariable models adjusted for patient characteristics, the adjusted median (IQR) time to first antimicrobial administration to patients with sepsis decreased by 37 minutes, from 4.7 (4.1-5.3) hours in 2013 to 3.9 (3.6-4.4) hours in 2018, although the slope of decrease varied across hospitals. During the same period, antimicrobial use within 48 hours, days of antimicrobial therapy, and receipt of broad-spectrum coverage decreased among the broader cohort of patients with SIRS. In-hospital mortality, 30-day mortality, length of hospitalization, new MDR culture positivity, and new MDR blood culture positivity decreased over the study period among both patients with sepsis and those with SIRS. When examining hospital-specific trends, decreases in antimicrobial use, days of therapy, and broadness of antibacterial coverage for patients with SIRS did not differ by hospital antimicrobial timing trend for sepsis. Overall, there was no evidence that accelerating antimicrobial timing for sepsis was associated with increasing antimicrobial use or impaired antimicrobial stewardship.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this multihospital cohort study, the time to first antimicrobial for sepsis decreased over time, but this trend was not associated with increasing antimicrobial use, days of therapy, or broadness of antimicrobial coverage among the broader population at-risk for sepsis, which suggests that shortening the time to antibiotics for sepsis is feasible without leading to indiscriminate antimicrobial use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.2291DOI Listing
June 2022

Detection of Anal Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma on Colonoscopy.

ACG Case Rep J 2022 Jun 22;9(6):e00792. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

The purpose of this case series is to review the endoscopic detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal squamous cell carcinoma including the role of rectal retroflexion and narrow-band imaging. Four cases of anal intraepithelial neoplasia were incidentally discovered in women aged 55-71 years. Anal lesions identified included sessile polyps, nodular mucosa, and circumferential polyps. A fifth patient, who presented with abdominal pain, was found to have a 3 cm anal squamous cell carcinoma on diagnostic colonoscopy, despite a negative colonoscopy 21 months earlier. In the absence of contraindications, retroflexion should be performed on all patients. Suspicious anal mucosa warrants biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/crj.0000000000000792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9225483PMC
June 2022

Multi-input convolutional network for ultrafast simulation of field evolvement.

Patterns (N Y) 2022 Jun 21;3(6):100494. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128, USA.

There is a compelling need for the regression capability of mapping the initial field and applied conditions to the evolved field, e.g., given current flow field and fluid properties predicting next-step flow field. Such a capability can provide a maximum to full substitute of a physics-based model, enabling fast simulation of various field evolvements. We propose a conceptually simple, lightweight, but powerful multi-input convolutional network (ConvNet), yNet, that merges multi-input signals by manipulating high-level encodings of field/image input. yNet can significantly reduce the model size compared with its ConvNet counterpart (e.g., to only one-tenth for main architecture of 38-layer depth) and is as much as six orders of magnitude faster than a physics-based model. yNet is applied for data-driven modeling of fluid dynamics, porosity evolution in sintering, stress field development, and grain growth. It consistently shows great extrapolative prediction beyond training datasets in terms of temporal ranges, spatial domains, and geometrical shapes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.patter.2022.100494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9214322PMC
June 2022

Clinical and Gene Features of SARS-CoV-2-Positive Recurrence in Patients Recovered From COVID-19.

Front Mol Biosci 2022 8;9:875418. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Pharmacy, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Prevention and Treatment of Severe Infection, Shenzhen People's Hospital (The Second Clinical Medical College, Jinan University; The First Affiliated Hospital, Southern University of Science and Technology), Shenzhen, China.

There are still frequent reports that a number of recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients following discharge have re-detectable positive (RP) results by RT-PCR. Understanding the clinical and molecular characteristics of RP patients may have implications for curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, 318 COVID-19 convalescent patients, including 59 RP patients and 259 non-RP (NRP) patients, were enrolled. Among RP patients, women accounted for a significantly high proportion (67.8%), and the titers of IgG and IgM antibodies in this group were also significantly high. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 692 upregulated and 383 downregulated genes, overlapped in two public GEO datasets containing RP and NRP blood cell samples. Enrichment analysis indicated that these DEGs were related to several key signaling pathways, such as viral infection, immune activation, and inflammatory responses. Importantly, 59 indicator genes constituting the core network exhibited high diagnostic values and were correlated with markers of different immune cells. Among these, 12 drug-related genes were associated with the RP results. Our work suggests that, in addition to clinically available features, blood cell transcriptome sequencing can be performed to obtain gene signatures for diagnosis of RP patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2022.875418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9217101PMC
June 2022

Development and clinical advancement of small molecules for expansion of hematopoietic stem cell.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2022 Jun 17;12(6):2808-2831. Epub 2021 Dec 17.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines and Jiang Su Key Laboratory of Drug Design and Optimization, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is the only curative therapy for many diseases. HSCs from umbilical cord blood (UCB) source have many advantages over from bone marrow. However, limited HSC dose in a single CB unit restrict its widespread use. Over the past two decades, HSC expansion with small molecules has been an effective approach for obtaining adequate HSCs. Till now, several small-molecule compounds have entered the phase I/II trials, showing safe and favorable pharmacological profiles. As HSC expansion has become a hot topic over recent years, many newly identified small molecules along with novel biological mechanisms for HSC expansion would help solve this challenging issue. Here, we will give an overview of HSC biology, discovery and medicinal chemistry development of small molecules, natural products targeting for HSC expansion, and their recent clinical progresses, as well as potential protein targets for HSC expansion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsb.2021.12.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9214065PMC
June 2022

Associations Between Sleep Duration and Sensory Impairments Among Older Adults in China.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 7;14:910231. Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Center for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Objective: Studies of sleep duration in relation to the risk of sensory impairments other than dementia are scarce. Little is known about the associations between sleep duration and sensory impairments in China. This study aims to explore the associations between sleep duration and single or dual sensory impairments (visual and/or hearing).

Methods: This cross-sectional study used the data from 17,668 respondents were drawn from the 2018 survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), an ongoing national longitudinal study of Chinese adults aged 45 years and above. The duration of sleep per night was obtained from face-to-face interviews. The presence of sensory impairments was measured by self-reported visual and hearing functions. Multivariable generalized linear models (GLM) with binomial family and log link to assess the associations between sleep duration and sensory impairments.

Results: Of the 17,668 respondents, 8,396 (47.5%) were men. The mean () age was 62.5 (10.0) years old. Respondents with short (≤ 4, 5 h per night) sleep duration had a significantly higher risk of visual, hearing and dual sensory impairments than those who slept for 7 h per night after adjusting for covariates ( < 0.05). Meanwhile, respondents who slept for 6 h per night had a higher risk of hearing impairment ( = 0.005). Further analysis suggested a U-shaped association between sleep duration and sensory impairments. When sleep duration fell below 8 h, increased sleep duration was associated with a significantly lower risk of visual (OR, 0.93; 95%CI, 0.88-0.98; = 0.006), hearing (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.93; < 0.001), and dual (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.87-0.94; < 0.001) impairments. When sleep duration exceeded 8 h, the risk of visual (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.00-1.19; = 0.048), hearing (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.97-1.11; = 0.269), and dual (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.00-1.14; = 0.044) impairments would increase facing prolonged sleep duration. Women and the elderly aged over 60 years old were more sensitive to short sleep duration and experienced a higher risk of sensory impairments.

Conclusion: In this study, short sleep duration was associated with a higher risk of visual and hearing impairments. Future studies are needed to examine the mechanisms of the associations between sleep duration and sensory impairments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.910231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9228799PMC
June 2022

Multifunctional Mesoporous Polyaniline/Graphene Nanosheets for Flexible Planar Integrated Microsystem of Zinc Ion Microbattery and Gas Sensor.

Small 2022 Jun 26:e2200678. Epub 2022 Jun 26.

State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian, 116023, China.

The prosperity of smart portable microdevices urgently requires an advanced integrated microsystem equipped with cost-effective safe microbatteries and ultra-stable sensitive sensors. However, the practical application of smart microdevices is limited by complex active materials with single function. Here, the two-dimensional (2D) mesoporous nanosheets of polyaniline decorated on graphene with large specific surface area of 141 m  g , ample active sites, comparable conductivity, and ordered mesopores of 18 nm for a new-type co-planar integrated microsystem of zinc ion microbattery and gas sensor are developed. These unique triple-function mesoporous nanosheets are well proved for dendrite-free zinc anode with long cyclability (>500 h) and small overpotential (48 mV), a high performance cathode of zinc ion microbattery with outstanding volumetric capacity of 78 mAh cm outperforming their counterparts reported, and a highly sensitive gas sensor with a resistance response (ΔR/R %) of 118% for 20 ppm NH . Moreover, the co-planar battery-sensor integrated microsystem exhibits superior mechanical stability and smart integration. Therefore, this work will open many opportunities to develop multifunctional 2D mesoporous materials for high performance smart integrated microsystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202200678DOI Listing
June 2022

Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease Concomitant with Pancreatic Cancer: A Rare Case Report.

J Dig Dis 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-2980.13106DOI Listing
June 2022

Amelioration of Coastal Salt-Affected Soils with Biochar, Acid Modified Biochar and Wood Vinegar: Enhanced Nutrient Availability and Bacterial Community Modulation.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jun 14;19(12). Epub 2022 Jun 14.

Institute of Coastal Environmental Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Frontiers Science Center for Deep Ocean Multispheres and Earth System, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China.

As an important part of the ecological environment, degraded coastal soils urgently require efficient and eco-friendly soil amendment. Biochar and wood vinegar have been proved to be effective soil amendments, and acid-modified biochar has great potential in ameliorating the degraded coastal saline-alkali soil. However, the effects of individual or combined application of biochar (BC), acid-modified biochar (ABC), and wood vinegar (WV) on coastal saline-alkali soil are unknown. Hence, biochar, wood vinegar, and acid-modified biochar were prepared by pyrolysis of poplar wood. The properties of biochar were characterized, and soil incubation experiments were conducted. The results showed that ABC decreased the soil alkalinity by acid-base neutralization and improved the soil fertility by increasing the nutrients (C, N, P). ABC provided a more suitable environment and changed the abundance and diversity of soil microorganisms. ABC increased the relative contents of specific families (e.g., and ), which had strong ecological linkages in the C, N, and P cycles and organic matter degradation. The results indicated that WV had little effect on coastal saline-alkali soil, whereas individual and combined application of biochar (especially ABC) showed an efficient remediation effect. Our preliminary study demonstrated that the ABC could be a suitable solution for ameliorating degraded coastal saline-alkali soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19127282DOI Listing
June 2022

More Prosocial, More Ephemeral? Exploring the Formation of a Social Entrepreneur's Exit Intention via Life Satisfaction.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jun 7;19(12). Epub 2022 Jun 7.

Management School, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK.

This study was designed to test if satisfaction with health and personal financial wellbeing mediates the relationship between prosocial motivations and exit intentions among social entrepreneurs. Using a sample of 317 social entrepreneurs, the partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) revealed that prosocial motivation decreased the financial satisfaction of entrepreneurs, which increased their exit intentions. However, health satisfaction did not have a mediating effect on the relationship between prosocial motivation and exit intention. Moreover, adopting the multi-group analysis (MGA) technique, we found that the negative impact of prosocial motivation on financial satisfaction was stronger for males than for females, suggesting male entrepreneurs were more likely to experience lower financial satisfaction caused by prosocial motivation than female entrepreneurs. There was no evidence that gender moderated the relationship between prosocial motivation and health satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19126966DOI Listing
June 2022

Photothermal-Driven High-Performance Selective Hydrogenation System Enabled by Delicately Designed IrCo Nanocages.

Small 2022 Jun 20:e2201271. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022, P. R. China.

The incorporation of a transition metal into a noble metal for the formation of nanoalloys paves a potential way to modulate the electronic structures and spatial arrangement modes, thereby manipulating the target catalysis under the desired reaction pathways. Herein, a top-down synthetic route to fabricate IrCo nanoalloys with delicately designed compositions and morphologies at an extremely low calcination temperature of 200 °C is reported, which efficiently breaks through the thermodynamic limitations caused by the large atomic radii and electronegativity discrepancies between Co and Ir. A high-performance selective hydrogenation system enabled by the synthesized IrCo nanoalloys and the light irradiation is further established. Significantly, the unique properties of IrCo alloy, involving the special capability of generating local heating rather than hot electrons under light irradiation (the hot-electron effect was considered detrimental to hydrogenation reactions), as well as the highly polarized surface which aids in the hydrogen transfer from borane-ammonia complex (AB) to 4-nitrostyrene (4-NS) are discovered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202201271DOI Listing
June 2022

Apelin alleviated neuroinflammation and promoted endogenous neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation after spinal cord injury in rats.

J Neuroinflammation 2022 Jun 20;19(1):160. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Institute of Neurobiology, Binzhou Medical University, 346 Guanhai Road, Laishan, 264003, Shandong, China.

Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes devastating neurological damage, including secondary injuries dominated by neuroinflammation. The role of Apelin, an endogenous ligand that binds the G protein-coupled receptor angiotensin-like receptor 1, in SCI remains unclear. Thus, our aim was to investigate the effects of Apelin in inflammatory responses and activation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) after SCI.

Methods: Apelin expression was detected in normal and injured rats, and roles of Apelin in primary NSCs were examined. In addition, we used induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a carrier to prolong the effective duration of Apelin and evaluate its effects in a rat model of SCI.

Results: Co-immunofluorescence staining suggested that Apelin was expressed in both astrocytes, neurons and microglia. Following SCI, Apelin expression decreased from 1 to 14 d and re-upregulated at 28 d. In vitro, Apelin promoted NSCs proliferation and differentiation into neurons. In vivo, lentiviral-transfected iPSCs were used as a carrier to prolong the effective duration of Apelin. Transplantation of transfected iPSCs in situ immediately after SCI reduced polarization of M1 microglia and A1 astrocytes, facilitated recovery of motor function, and promoted the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous NSCs in rats.

Conclusion: Apelin alleviated neuroinflammation and promoted the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous NSCs after SCI, suggesting that it might be a promising target for treatment of SCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-022-02518-7DOI Listing
June 2022

Marine natural products and their synthetic analogs as promising antibiofilm agents for antibiotics discovery and development.

Eur J Med Chem 2022 Jun 4;239:114513. Epub 2022 Jun 4.

Department of Marine Pharmacy, College of Food and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315832, China. Electronic address:

Biofilm is a complex microbial consortium that are embedded in a membrane structure of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). As a major form of microorganisms in nature, biofilm has evolved complex and diverse resistance mechanisms to numerous known antibiotics, posing a major threat to human health. The biofilm formation of pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, etc. has become the most commonly reasons for clinically chronic and incurable infectious diseases, which urges the development of effective antibiofilm agents. The adaptation of marine organisms and microorganisms to their unique habitats has led to the formation of natural products with charming chemical diversity and biological activity, providing a rich reservoir for the development of antibiofilm agents. According to chemical classification, 129 marine-derived natural products and their synthetic analogs with antibiofilm activity were systematically reviewed, and the related mechanisms and efficacy were discussed as well, aiming to find and develop new and effective antibiofilm agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2022.114513DOI Listing
June 2022

Patients Hospitalized for Complications of Cirrhosis may Have Benefited From Medicaid Expansion Under the Affordable Care Act.

Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes 2022 Aug 11;6(4):291-301. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

Objective: The benefit of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for patients with cirrhosis is unclear. We determined the impact of ACA expansion on outcomes in patients hospitalized for complications of cirrhosis.

Patients And Methods: We compared hospitalizations; in-hospital outcomes; and readmissions among patients with cirrhosis identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, and International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes in states that expanded Medicaid under ACA (expanded [E] states) and those that did not (nonexpanded [NE] states). Data from the State Inpatient Databases were obtained for 3 pairs of contiguous E and NE states with both pre-ACA expansion and post-ACA expansion data. The difference-in-difference analysis was performed to compare the pre- and post-ACA data between the E and NE states. The outcomes were admission rates, hospital complications, resource utilization, length of stay, in-hospital mortality, discharge destination, cost of initial hospitalization, and readmission characteristics.

Results: There were 228,349 admissions (E states, 149,705; NE states, 78,644). After ACA implementation, the E states had lower rates of admission increase per 100,000 population (22.9 in E states vs 25.5 in NE states, =.005), sepsis (relative risk, 0.884; =.0084), and hepatic coma (relative risk, 0.763; <.001) than the NE states. The length of stay was lower by 0.21 days (=.00028), with a $587.40 lower cost per hospitalization (=.00091), in the E states than in the NE states. The readmission rates within 30, 60, and 90 days decreased in the E states after ACA implementation but increased in the NE states after ACA implementation.

Conclusion: Among patients hospitalized for cirrhosis, quality indicators, such as the rate of admission increase, complications, costs, and readmissions, were more favorable in the states that expanded Medicaid. Medicaid expansion under ACA may have benefited patients with cirrhosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocpiqo.2022.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9198455PMC
August 2022

Identification and expression analysis of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) family in grapevine ( L.).

PeerJ 2022 13;10:e13546. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Life Science, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong, China.

Xyloglucan endotransglucosylases/hydrolases (XTH) are key enzymes in cell wall reformulation. They have the dual functions of catalyzing xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) and xyloglucan endonuclease (XEH) activity and play a crucial role in the responses against abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, and freezing. However, a comprehensive analysis of the family and its functions in grapevine ( L.) has not yet been completed. In this study, 34 s were identified in the whole grapevine genome and then named according to their distribution on chromosomes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis including , the were classified into three groups. -element analysis indicated that these family members are related to most abiotic stresses. We further selected 14 from different groups and then examined their transcription levels under drought and salt stress. The results indicated that the transcription levels of selected in the leaves and roots presented the largest changes, suggesting that are likely to take part in the responses to drought and salt stress in grapevines. These results provide useful evidence for the further investigation of function in response to abiotic stresses in grapevine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.13546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9202548PMC
June 2022

Identification of Upper Gastrointestinal Diseases during Screening Gastroscopy through Deep Convolutional Neural Network Algorithm.

Gastrointest Endosc 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Department of Clinical Research Center, Dazhou Central Hospital, Dazhou, Sichuan, China; Center of Intelligent Medicine, Computer Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The clinical application of gastrointestinal endoscopy for the diagnosis of multiple diseases using artificial intelligence (AI) has been limited by its high false positive rates. There is an unmet need to develop a Gastrointestinal Endoscopy AI-assisted Diagnosis System (GEADS) to improve diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility.

Methods: In this retrospective, multicenter study, a convolutional neural network was trained to assess upper gastrointestinal diseases based on 26,228 endoscopic images from Dazhou Central Hospital that were randomly assigned (3:1:1) to the training dataset, validation dataset, and test dataset, respectively. To validate the model, 6 external independent datasets comprising 51,372 images of upper gastrointestinal diseases were collected. Besides, one prospective dataset comprising 27,975 images were collected. The performance of GEADS was compared with endoscopists with two professional degrees of expertise: expert, novice. 8 endoscopists in the expert group with more than 5 years of experience, 3 endoscopists in the novice group with 1 to 5 years of experience.

Results: The GEADS model achieved an accuracy of 0.918 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.914-0.922), with an F1 score of 0.884 (95% CI: 0.879-0.889), recall of 0.873 (95% CI: 0.868-0.878) and a precision of 0.890 (95% CI: 0.885-0.895) in the internal validation dataset. In the external validation datasets and one prospective validation dataset, the diagnostic accuracy of GEADS ranged from 0.841 (95% CI: 0.834-0.848) to 0.949 (95% CI: 0.935-0.963). With the help of GEADS, the diagnosing accuracies of novice and expert endoscopists were significantly improved (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: The AI system can assist endoscopists in improving the accuracy of diagnosing upper gastrointestinal diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2022.06.011DOI Listing
June 2022

Effective fluorine removal using mixed matrix membrane based on polysulfone: adsorption performance and diffusion behavior.

Water Sci Technol 2022 Jun;85(11):3196-3207

TG Hilyte Environment Technology (Beijing) Co., LTD., Beijing 100000, China.

Fluorine is one of the essential trace elements for human life activities, but excessive intake of fluoride poses a great risk to people's health. In this paper, a series of mixed matrix membrane (MMM)-based polysulfone for removing fluoride were prepared by phase inversion, and their properties, adsorption capacity, adsorption isotherms, adsorption kinetics of fluoride ions, and mechanism were all investigated. The results confirmed that the MMM contained a large number of hydroxyl and aluminum functional groups due to resin being added. The MMM exhibited the best fluorine ion adsorption capacity of 2.502 mg/g at a pH of 6 with the initial concentration of 6 mg/L. As well, adsorption kinetics of fluorine ion on MMM followed the pseudo-second-order model, while the adsorption behavior of fluorine ion on MMM was well simulated by the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption capacity of MMM remained stable after six cycles and the regeneration efficiency was still above 80%, resulting in a long-term stability adequate for fluorine ion removal. Complexation and ion exchange played a key role in the fluorine ion adsorption of MMM. These results indicated the MMM as novel type of absorbent had an excellent capacity for removing fluoride.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2022.170DOI Listing
June 2022

Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of liver reveals the enhanced entry and release abilities of human adenovirus F41, partially explaining acute hepatitis in children.

J Infect 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, Shandong, China; Department of Pathogen Biology, School of Clinical and Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, China; Medical Science and Technology Innovation Center, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2022.06.007DOI Listing
June 2022

TRIM56 Reduces Radiosensitization of Human Glioblastoma by Regulating FOXM1-Mediated DNA Repair.

Mol Neurobiol 2022 Jun 13. Epub 2022 Jun 13.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Nanshan District, No.1066, Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen City, 518055, Guangdong Province, China.

Recurrent glioblastoma is characterized by resistance to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. In this study, we investigated the role of TRIM56 in radiosensitization and its potential underlying molecular mechanism. TRIM56 expression levels were measured in glioblastoma tissues and cell lines by immunohistochemical staining, western blot, and qRT-PCR. MTT assay, colony formation assay, and TUNEL assay were used to investigate the effect of TRIM56 on cell viability, cell proliferation, and cell apoptosis. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to clarify the interaction between TRIM56 and FOXM1. Finally, tumor xenograft experiments were performed to analyze the effect of TRIM56 on tumor growth in vivo. The expression of TRIM56 was significantly increased in glioblastoma tissues and cell lines and its expression was associated with poor prognosis of patients with glioblastoma. Moreover, TRIM56 reduced the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma cells and promoted DNA repairment. Mechanistically, TRIM56 promoted FOXM1 protein level, enhanced the stability of FOXM1 by de-ubiquitination, and promoted DNA damage repair through FOXM1 in glioblastoma cells. TRIM56 could reduce the radiosensitivity of glioblastoma in vivo. TRIM56 may suppress the radiosensitization of human glioblastoma by regulating FOXM1-mediated DNA repair. Targeting the TRIM56 may be an effective method to reverse radiotherapy-resistant in glioblastoma recurrent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-022-02898-0DOI Listing
June 2022

The combination of hydroxychloroquine and 2-deoxyglucose enhances apoptosis in breast cancer cells by blocking protective autophagy and sustaining endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Cell Death Discov 2022 Jun 11;8(1):286. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, China.

2-Deoxyglucose (2-DG) can be used in antitumour research by inhibiting glycolysis and promoting the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) pathway, but its clinical application is restricted due to dose-limiting side effects and survival chance for cancer cells by protective autophagy. Therefore, our research explored whether the combination of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), an FDA-approved autophagy inhibiting drug, and 2-DG is a promising therapeutic strategy. Here, we report that HCQ combined with 2-DG can further inhibit the viability and migration and induce apoptosis of breast tumour cells compared with other individual drugs. The combination of 2-DG and HCQ can significantly reduce transplanted tumour size and tumour cell metastasis of the lung and liver in vivo. At the cellular level, HCQ suppressed autolysosome formation and terminated the autophagy process induced by 2-DG-mediated ERS, resulting in the continuous accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, which generated sustained ERS through the PERK-eIF2α-ATF-4-CHOP axis and triggered the transformation from a survival process to cell death. Our research reinforced the research interest of metabolic disruptors in triple-negative breast cancer and emphasized the potential of the combination of 2-DG and HCQ as an anticancerous treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-022-01074-6DOI Listing
June 2022

Enzymological and structural characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana heme oxygenase-1.

FEBS Open Bio 2022 Jun 11. Epub 2022 Jun 11.

School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei, China.

Arabidopsis thaliana heme oxygenase-1 (AtHO-1), a metabolic enzyme in the heme degradation pathway, serves as a prototype for study of the bilin-related functions in plants. Past biological analyses revealed that AtHO-1 requires ferredoxin-NADP reductase (FNR) and ferredoxin for its enzymatic activity. Here, we characterized the binding and degradation of heme by AtHO-1, and found that ferredoxin is a dispensable component of the reducing system that provides electrons for heme oxidation. Furthermore, we reported the crystal structure of heme-bound AtHO-1, which demonstrates both conserved and previously undescribed features of plant heme oxygenases. Finally, the electron transfer pathway from FNR to AtHO-1 is suggested based on the known structural information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.13453DOI Listing
June 2022

Structure and Composition of Candidate Phyla Radiation in Supragingival Plaque of Caries Patients.

Chin J Dent Res 2022 Jun;25(2):107-118

Objective: To investigate the composition and abundance of candidate phyla radiation (CPR) in the oral cavity in caries patients and a healthy population.

Methods: The raw macrogenomic sequencing data for a total of 88 subjects were downloaded from the National Centre for Biotechnology Sequence Read Archive (NCBI SRA) public database according to the public data usage specifications. Trimmomatic (Department for Metabolic Networks, Potsdam, Germany) and Bowtie 2 (University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA) were used to quality control and dehost the host sequences. Species annotation was made using Kraken2 (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA) and Bracken (Johns Hopkins University) based on the reference database. According to the results of the species annotation, the species-significant differences and species correlation of caries and healthy oral microbiota in species composition and microbiota diversity were analysed to study the distribution and abundance differences of CPR in the oral environment.

Results: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria were the main components. The relative abundance of TM7 (Candidatus Saccharibacteria) and GN02 (Candidatus Gracilibacteria) of CPR is second only to the aforementioned five bacteria, indicating that CPR is an important part of the oral microbiota. TM7 and GN02 were common to both the caries patients and healthy patients and were detected in all samples, suggesting that CPR is the 'core microbiome'. There was a correlation between CPR and a variety of oral microbiota, among which the positive correlation with Capnocytophaga was the strongest, suggesting that Capnocytophaga might be the potential host bacteria of CPR.

Conclusion: CPR is an indispensable part of the oral microbiota. It is the 'core microflora' of the oral cavity and may play an important role in the stability and function of the oral microecological environment. Capnocytophaga may be the potential host bacteria of CPR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.cjdr.b3086339DOI Listing
June 2022

Polyoxometalate steric hindrance driven chirality-selective separation of subnanometer carbon nanotubes.

Chem Sci 2022 May 25;13(20):5920-5928. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Department of Chemistry, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Southern University of Science and Technology Shenzhen Guangdong 518055 China

Subnanometer single-chirality single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are of particular interest in multiple applications. Inspired by the interdisciplinary combination of redox active polyoxometalates and SWCNTs, here we report a cluster steric hindrance strategy by assembling polyoxometalates on the outer surface of subnanometer SWCNTs electron transfer and demonstrate the selective separation of monochiral (6,5) SWCNTs with a diameter of 0.75 nm by a commercially available conjugated polymer. The combined use of DFT calculations, TEM, and XPS unveils the mechanism that selective separation is associated with tube diameter-dependent interactions between the tube and clusters. Sonication drives the preferential detachment of polyoxometalate clusters from small-diameter (6,5) SWCNTs, attributable to weak tube-cluster interactions, which enables the polymer wrapping and separation of the released SWCNTs, while strong binding clusters with large-diameter SWCNTs provide steric hindrance and block the polymer wrapping. The polyoxometalate-assisted modulation, which can be rationally customized, provides a universal and robust pathway for the separation of SWCNTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2sc01160cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9132071PMC
May 2022

Molecular Dynamics Investigation of Spreading Performance of Physiological Saline on Surface.

Materials (Basel) 2022 May 31;15(11). Epub 2022 May 31.

College of Physical Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China.

Physiological saline is an indispensable element for maintaining the functions of life. The spreading performance of physiological saline droplets on the surface of graphene under different NaCl concentrations and electric field intensities was studied in the present work. The results show that the increase in NaCl concentration reduces the displacement vector value of molecules in droplets. In addition, NaCl is easy to aggregate on the surface of graphene. The increase in NaCl concentration makes it more difficult for droplets to penetrate the surface of graphene, and the penetration angle of droplets increases with the rise in NaCl concentration. With the increase in electric field intensity, the wetting effect of droplets is more obvious. The greater the electric field intensity is, the smaller the penetration angle is, which is mainly due to the polarity of water molecules. This study has reference significance for the study of body fluid volatilization on the human surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15113925DOI Listing
May 2022

Cardiac Adaptation to Prolonged High Altitude Migration Assessed by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 23;9:856749. Epub 2022 May 23.

Beijing Key Laboratory for Precision Medicine of Chronic Heart Failure, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of Biomedical Engineering and Translational Medicine, Translational Medicine Research Center, Medical Artificial Intelligence Research Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: Exposure to high altitudes represents physiological stress that leads to significant changes in cardiovascular properties. However, long-term cardiovascular adaptions to high altitude migration of lowlanders have not been described. Accordingly, we measured changes in cardiovascular properties following prolonged hypoxic exposure in acclimatized Han migrants and Tibetans.

Methods: Echocardiographic features of recently adapted Han migrant (3-12 months, = 64) and highly adapted Han migrant (5-10 years, = 71) residence in Tibet (4,300 m) using speckle tracking echocardiography were compared to those of age-matched native Tibetans ( = 75) and Han lowlanders living at 1,400 m ( = 60).

Results: Short-term acclimatized migrants showed increased estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) (32.6 ± 5.1 mmHg vs. 21.1 ± 4.2 mmHg, < 0.05), enlarged right ventricles (RVs), and decreased fractional area change (FAC) with decreased RV longitudinal strain (-20 ± 2.8% vs. -25.5 ± 3.9%, < 0.05). While left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was preserved, LV diameter (41.7 ± 3.1 mm vs. 49.7 ± 4.8 mm, < 0.05) and LV longitudinal strain (-18.8 ± 3.2% vs. -22.9 ± 3.3%, < 0.05) decreased. Compared with recent migrants, longer-term migrants had recovered RV structure and functions with slightly improved RV and LV longitudinal strain, though still lower than lowlander controls; LV size remained small with increased mass index (68.3 ± 12.7 vs. 59.3 ± 9.6, < 0.05). In contrast, native Tibetans had slightly increased PASP (26.1 ± 3.4 mmHg vs. 21.1 ± 4.2 mmHg, < 0.05) with minimally altered cardiac deformation compared to lowlanders.

Conclusion: Right ventricular systolic function is impaired in recent (<1 year) migrants to high altitudes but improved during the long-term dwelling. LV remodeling persists in long-term migrants (>5 years) but without impairment of LV systolic or diastolic function. In contrast, cardiac size, structure, and function of native Tibetans are more similar to those of lowland dwelling Hans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2022.856749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9167963PMC
May 2022

Crystal Structures of GDP-D-Mannose Pyrophosphorylase VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE 1.

Front Plant Sci 2022 23;13:899738. Epub 2022 May 23.

School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei, China.

Plant GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMPase) catalyzes a committed step in ascorbic acid biosynthesis pathway. VTC1 is the first genetically characterized plant GMPase and has unique properties when compared with bacterial and animal homologs. Here we present the crystal structures of VTC1 in the unliganded and product-bound states at resolutions of 2.8 and 3.0 Å, respectively. VTC1 dimerizes in a same way like other known GMPases, but dodecamerizes in a previously unobserved arrangement. The interactions to GDP-D-mannose and inorganic pyrophosphate are revealed by the product-bound VTC1 structure. An GMPase activity assay confirms the regulatory role of the C-terminal left-handed β-helix domain, and structural analyses suggest the models of VTC1 hetero-complex with its interacting proteins. The structural information advances our insights into the different mechanisms involved in VTC1 regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.899738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9168903PMC
May 2022

A Case Series of Olfactory Dysfunction in Imported COVID-19 Patients: A 12-Month Follow-Up Study.

Biomed Environ Sci 2022 May;35(5):402-411

Department of Infection, Xi'an NO.8 Hospital, Xi'an 710061, Shaanxi, China.

Objective: The scientific community knows little about the long-term influence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on olfactory dysfunction (OD). With the COVID-19 pandemic ongoing worldwide, the risk of imported cases remains high. In China, it is necessary to understand OD in imported cases.

Methods: A prospective follow-up design was adopted. A total of 11 self-reported patients with COVID-19 and OD from Xi'an No. 8 Hospital were followed between August 19, 2021, and December 12, 2021. Demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiological findings, and treatment outcomes were analyzed at admission. We surveyed the patients telephone for recurrence and sequelae at the 1-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up.

Results: Eleven patients with OD were enrolled; of these, 54.5% (6/11) had hyposmia and 45.5% (5/11) had anosmia. 63.6% (7/11) reported OD before or on the day of admission as their initial symptom; of these, 42.9% (3/7) described OD as the only symptom. All patients in the study received combined treatment with traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine, and 72.7% (8/11) had partially or fully recovered at discharge. In terms of OD recovery at the 12-month follow-up, 45.5% (5/11) reported at least one sequela, 81.8% (9/11) had recovered completely, 18.2% (2/11) had recovered partially, and there were no recurrent cases.

Conclusions: Our data revealed that OD frequently presented as the initial or even the only symptom among imported cases. Most OD improvements occurred in the first 2 weeks after onset, and patients with COVID-19 and OD had favorable treatment outcomes during long-term follow-up. A better understanding of the pathogenesis and appropriate treatment of OD is needed to guide clinicians in the care of these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2022.056DOI Listing
May 2022

Affect, Behaviors of Children With Intellectual Disabilities and Parents' Coping Strategies During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Front Psychiatry 2022 20;13:822908. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Special Education, School of Education, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China.

Background: In early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic emerged. To prevent the spread of the virus, China implemented restrictions on going out and ensured that people stayed at home. This study aims to investigate the affect and behaviors of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) during the lockdown. The informal coping strategies adopted by parents and their effects were further evaluated.

Methods: In this study, a total of 457 parents of children (mean age: 14.82 years ± 1.96) with ID in 12 provincial administrative regions across China were surveyed online using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale and our own questionnaire on daily behaviors, problem behaviors and informal coping strategies.

Results: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the positive affect (PA) score was significantly higher than that of negative affect (NA) ( < 0.001). Some children experienced mostly positive changes in sleep (16.63%), communication (14.66%), and diet (5.69%). However, more than one-third (39.39%) exhibited problem behaviors such as hyperactivity. A significant correlation was found between affect and behavior. The informal coping measures adopted by parents were generally effective among affect and the relationship with problem behaviors.

Conclusions: The affect of the children with ID at home was mainly positive. The overall behaviors (diet, sleep, and communication) were good, but there were problem behaviors. Effective coping strategies are associated with higher PA, lower NA, and fewer problem behaviors. The greater the number of effective coping strategies, the lesser the problem behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.822908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9163408PMC
May 2022

Socio-economic inequalities in health service utilization among Chinese rural migrant workers with New Cooperative Medical Scheme: a multilevel regression approach.

BMC Public Health 2022 Jun 3;22(1):1110. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

International Business School Suzhou, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Xi'an, PR China.

Background: While reducing inequity in health service utilization is an important goal of China's health system, it has been widely acknowledged that a huge number of rural migrant workers cannot be effectually protected against risks with the New Rural Cooperative Medical Insurance (NCMS).

Method: Data of the 2016 China Labor-force Dynamic Survey and the Chinese Urban Statistical Yearbook were used. The multilevel regression approach was implemented with a nationally representative sample of rural migrant workers with NCMS. Our study adopted the concentration index and its decomposition method to quantify the inequality of their health service utilization.

Result: The multilevel model analysis indicated that impact variables for health service utilization were not concentrated, especially the contextual and individual characteristics. The concentration indices of the probability of two weeks outpatient and the probability of inpatient were -0.168 (95%CI:-0.236,-0.092) and -0.072 (95%CI:-1.085,-0.060), respectively. The horizontal inequality indices for the probability of two-week outpatient and the probability of inpatient were -0.012 and 0.053, respectively.

Conclusion: The health service utilization of rural migrant workers with NCMS is insufficient. Our study highlighted that substantial inequalities in their health service utilization did exist. In addition, their need of health service utilization increased the pro-poor inequality. Based on the findings, our study offered notable implications on compensation policies and benefit packages to improve the equality among rural migrant workers with NCMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-13486-1DOI Listing
June 2022
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