Publications by authors named "Xiao Wang"

3,173 Publications

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Biochar decreased enantioselective uptake of chiral pesticide metalaxyl by lettuce and shifted bacterial community in agricultural soil.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 12;417:126047. Epub 2021 May 12.

Marine Agriculture Research Center, Tobacco Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Qingdao 266101, China. Electronic address:

A 35-day microcosmic experiment was conducted with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and two metalaxyl (MET) enantiomers (R-MET and S-MET) to understand the roles of biochar in the enantioselective fate of chiral pesticides in soil-plant ecosystems. Wood waste-derived biochar (WBC) amendment effectively decreased the shoot concentrations of R-MET/S-MET and their metabolites R-MET/S-MET acid by 57.7-86.3% and 13.3-32.5%, respectively. The reduced uptake was mainly attributed to the decreased bioavailability of R-MET and S-MET. A lower fraction of R-MET was accumulated by the lettuce in the WBC-amended soils relative to the control, suggesting a decrease in the enantioselective uptake of the chiral pesticide MET in the presence of biochar. Regardless of the WBC amendment, no enantiomerization of MET or MET acid occurred. The application of WBC stimulated soil bacterial diversity, shifted the bacterial community, and enhanced the abundance of pesticide degrading bacteria (e.g., Luteimonas, Methylophilus, and Hydrogenophaga), which were responsible for the enantioselective degradation of MET in the soil. This work expands our understanding of the enantioselective fate of chiral pesticides in the biochar-amended soil ecosystems. These findings can be used to develop biochar-based technologies to remediate soils contaminated with these chiral pesticides to ensure food safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126047DOI Listing
May 2021

The loss of SHMT2 mediates 5-fluorouracil chemoresistance in colorectal cancer by upregulating autophagy.

Oncogene 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of General Surgery, Xiang An Hospital of Xiamen University, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC) but is hampered by chemoresistance. Despite its impact on patient survival, the mechanism underlying chemoresistance against 5-FU remains poorly understood. Here, we identified serine hydroxymethyltransferase-2 (SHMT2) as a critical regulator of 5-FU chemoresistance in CRC. SHMT2 inhibits autophagy by binding cytosolic p53 instead of metabolism. SHMT2 prevents cytosolic p53 degradation by inhibiting the binding of p53 and HDM2. Under 5-FU treatment, SHMT2 depletion promotes autophagy and inhibits apoptosis. Autophagy inhibitors decrease low SHMT2-induced 5-FU resistance in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the lethality of 5-FU treatment to CRC cells was enhanced by treatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine in patient-derived and CRC cell xenograft models. Taken together, our findings indicate that autophagy induced by low SHMT2 levels mediates 5-FU resistance in CRC. These results reveal the SHMT2-p53 interaction as a novel therapeutic target and provide a potential opportunity to reduce chemoresistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01815-4DOI Listing
May 2021

[Ecological agriculture of Chinese materia medica:update and future perspectives].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Apr;46(8):1851-1857

China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700,China.

This study steps through four key principles, four open problems and future perspectives of Chinese materia medica(CMM) ecological agriculture by presenting the historical development, existing theories and practice outcomes. Then, it focuses on refining the main principles of CMM ecological agriculture:(1)the principles of ecological niche associated with yield and comprehensive income;(2)principles of biological diversity associated with the integrated control of diseases, pests and weeds;(3)principles of adversity effects associated with the quality improvement of CMM;(4)principles of structural stability associated with the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture. On this basis, four burning issues of CMM ecological agriculture were obtained,(1)ecological planting mode and supporting technologies need to be perfect;(2)multi-integrated industrial coupling remains to strengthen;(3) quality assurance system of CMM ecological agriculture and high-quality and favorable price model remains to be formed;(4)awareness of the demonstration and extension of CMM ecological agriculture needs to be desired. Finally, suggestions for the sustainable development of CMM ecological agriculture are put forward:(1)strengthen the national planning and layout, develop CMM ecological agriculture accor-ding to local conditions;(2)pay equal attention to inheritance and innovation, and strengthen the theory and practical technology research of CMM ecological agriculture;(3)strengthen industrial coupling and realize the transformation of CMM ecological agriculture from a production-based to a multi-in-one compound model;(4)intensify standards and brands, building a quality assurance system for CMM ecological products;(5) publicize the demonstration and popularization of CMM ecological agriculture. In summary, the development of CMM ecological agriculture possessed a firmer theory and practice foundation, although there is still much room for improvement. A better field of Chinese medicine agricultural development with immense economic and social benefits will not a question of "if" but "when" by accurately grasp the way forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210226.102DOI Listing
April 2021

Physics-Based Iterative Reconstruction for Dual Source and Flying Focal Spot Computed Tomography.

Med Phys 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Radiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Purpose: For single source helical Computed Tomography (CT), both Filtered-Back Projection (FBP) and statistical iterative reconstruction have been investigated. However for dual source CT with ying focal spot (DS-FFS CT), statistical iterative reconstruction that accurately models the scanner geometry and acquisition physics remains unknown to researchers. Therefore, our purpose is to present a novel physics-based iterative reconstruction method for DS-FFS CT and assess its image quality.

Methods: Our algorithm uses precise physics models to reconstruct from the native cone-beam geometry and interleaved dual source helical trajectory of a DS-FFS CT. To do so, we construct a noise physics model to represent data acquisition noise and a prior image model to represent image noise and texture. In addition, we design forward system models to compute the locations of deflected focal spots, the dimension and sensitivity of voxels and detector units, as well as the length of intersection between X-rays and voxels. The forward system models further represent the coordinated movement between the dual sources by computing their X-ray coverage gaps and overlaps at an arbitrary helical pitch. With the above models, we reconstruct images by using an advanced Consensus Equilibrium (CE) numerical method to compute the maximum a posteriori estimate to a joint optimization problem that simultaneously fits all models.

Results: We compared our reconstruction with Siemens ADMIRE, which is the clinical standard hybrid iterative reconstruction (IR) method for DS-FFS CT, in terms of spatial resolution, noise profile and image artifacts through both phantoms and clinical scan datasets. Experiments show that our reconstruction has a higher spatial resolution, with a Task-Based Modulation Transfer Function (MTFtask) consistently higher than the clinical standard hybrid IR. In addition, our reconstruction shows a reduced magnitude of image undersampling artifacts than the clinical standard.

Conclusions: By modeling a precise geometry and avoiding data rebinning or interpolation, our physics-based reconstruction achieves a higher spatial resolution and fewer image artifacts with smaller magnitude than the clinical standard hybrid IR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.14941DOI Listing
May 2021

CBP/p300 HAT maintains the gene network critical for β cell identity and functional maturity.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 12;12(5):476. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Loss of β cell identity and functional immaturity are thought to be involved in β cell failure in type 2 diabetes. CREB-binding protein (CBP) and its paralogue p300 act as multifunctional transcriptional co-activators and histone acetyltransferases (HAT) with extensive biological functions. However, whether the regulatory role of CBP/p300 in islet β cell function depends on the HAT activity remains uncertain. In this current study, A-485, a selective inhibitor of CBP/p300 HAT activity, greatly impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from rat islets in vitro and in vivo. RNA-sequencing analysis showed a comprehensive downregulation of β cell and α cell identity genes in A-485-treated islets, without upregulation of dedifferentiation markers and derepression of disallowed genes. A-485 treatment decreased the expressions of genes involved in glucose sensing, not in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. In the islets of prediabetic db/db mice, CBP/p300 displayed a significant decrease with key genes for β cell function. The deacetylation of histone H3K27 as well as the transcription factors Hnf1α and Foxo1 was involved in CBP/p300 HAT inactivation-repressed expressions of β cell identity and functional genes. These findings highlight the dominant role of CBP/p300 HAT in the maintenance of β cell identity by governing transcription network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03761-1DOI Listing
May 2021

The association between plant-based diet and erectile dysfunction in Chinese men.

Basic Clin Androl 2021 May 13;31(1):11. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, 467 Zhongshan Road, Shahekou District, Dalian, 116023, China.

Background: Diet, one of the components of lifestyle, has been believed to have associations with erectile dysfunction (ED). However, whether there is an association between plant-based diet and ED is remains to be explored. Thus, we conducted the nested case-control study to investigate the relationship between the plant-based diet and ED in China.

Results: ED group (92 subjeczts) and ED free group (92 subjects) were similar in terms of basic features (P > 0.05), except for lifestyle (P < 0.05). The plant-diet index (PDI) and healthy plant-diet index (hPDI) in the ED group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.001). Adjusted multivariate analysis indicated that the presence of ED was negatively associated with nitric oxide levels, PDI, and hPDI (all P < 0.05), and was positively related to body mass index, metabolic syndrome, and E-selectin levels. Furthermore, both the PDI and hPDI increased significantly as the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) scores increased within the ED group (P < 0.05). Multi-model multivariate analysis indicated the robustness of results.

Conclusions: More plant-based diet intake was associated with a reduced presence of ED and less severe ED in China. Committing to plant-based diet can be encouraged for many health benefits and to lower ED burden. Further well-designed studies are warranted to validate our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12610-021-00129-5DOI Listing
May 2021

The Immune-Related Gene HCST as a Novel Biomarker for the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:630706. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of kidney tumor worldwide. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases showed that the immune-related gene (IRG) hematopoietic cell signal transducer (HCST) could provide guidance for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of ccRCC. The RNA-seq data of ccRCC tissues were extracted from two databases: TCGA (https://www.cancer.gov/about-nci/organization/ccg/research/structural-genomics/tcga) and GEO (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/). Corresponding clinical information was downloaded from TCGA. Immune-related gene data were extracted from the IMMPORT website (https://www.immport.org/). Differential analysis with R software (https://www.r-project.org/) was used to obtain a prognosis model of ccRCC IRGs. The differences were combined with the clinical data to assess the usefulness of the HCST as a prognostic biomarker. Based on data obtained from the Oncomine (https://www.oncomine.org/), Human Protein Atlas (https://www.proteinatlas.org/), and PubMed (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/) databases, the expression levels of the HCST in ccRCC, clinical-pathological indicators of relevance, and influence on prognosis were analyzed. Regulation of the HCST gene in ccRCC was assessed by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). In TCGA/GEO databases, the high HCST expression in tumor tissues was significantly correlated to the TMN stage, tumor grade, invasion depth, and lymphatic metastasis ( < 0.05). The overall survival (OS) of patients with high HCST gene expression was significantly lower than that of patients with low HCST gene expression ( < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis suggested that the HCST expression level [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.630, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.042-2.552], tumor cell grade (HR = 1.829, 95% CI = 1.115-3.001), and distant metastasis (HR = 2.634, 95%, CI = 1.562-4.442) were independent risk factors affecting the OS of ccRCC patients (all, < 0.05). The GSEA study showed that there was significant enrichment in cell adhesion, tumorigenesis, and immune and inflammatory responses in HCST high expression samples. Hematopoietic cell signal transducer expression was closely associated with the levels of infiltrating immune cells around ccRCC tissues, especially dendritic cells (DCs). In conclusion, the present study suggested that the HCST was interrelated to the clinicopathology and poor prognosis of ccRCC. High HCST expression was also closely correlated with the levels of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, especially DCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.630706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103545PMC
April 2021

Discovering Panel of Autoantibodies for Early Detection of Lung Cancer Based on Focused Protein Array.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:658922. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Oncology, Henan Institute of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Substantial studies indicate that autoantibodies to tumor-associated antigens (TAAbs) arise in early stage of lung cancer (LC). However, since single TAAbs as non-invasive biomarkers reveal low diagnostic performances, a panel approach is needed to provide more clues for early detection of LC. In the present research, potential TAAbs were screened in 150 serum samples by focused protein array based on 154 proteins encoded by cancer driver genes. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to verify and validate TAAbs in two independent datasets with 1,054 participants (310 in verification cohort, 744 in validation cohort). In both verification and validation cohorts, eight TAAbs were higher in serum of LC patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, diagnostic models were built and evaluated in the training set and the test set of validation cohort by six data mining methods. In contrast to the other five models, the decision tree (DT) model containing seven TAAbs (TP53, NPM1, FGFR2, PIK3CA, GNA11, HIST1H3B, and TSC1), built in the training set, yielded the highest diagnostic value with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.897, the sensitivity of 94.4% and the specificity of 84.9%. The model was further assessed in the test set and exhibited an AUC of 0.838 with the sensitivity of 89.4% and the specificity of 78.2%. Interestingly, the accuracies of this model in both early and advanced stage were close to 90%, much more effective than that of single TAAbs. Protein array based on cancer driver genes is effective in screening and discovering potential TAAbs of LC. The TAAbs panel with TP53, NPM1, FGFR2, PIK3CA, GNA11, HIST1H3B, and TSC1 is excellent in early detection of LC, and they might be new target in LC immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.658922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102818PMC
April 2021

Arg-Vasotocin Directly Activates Isotocin Receptors and Induces COX2 Expression in Ovoviviparous Guppies.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 23;12:617580. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China.

Oxytocin (OT) is a crucial regulator of reproductive behaviors, including parturition in mammals. Arg-vasopressin (AVP) is a nonapeptide homologous to Arg-vasotocin (AVT) in teleosts that has comparable affinity for the OT receptor. In the present study, ovoviviparous guppies () were used to study the effect of AVT on delivery mediated by the activation of prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis isotocin (IT) receptors (ITRs). One copy each of and and two copies of were identified in guppies. The results of the affinity assay showed that various concentrations of AVT and IT (10, 10, and 10 mol/L) significantly activated (P < 0.05). experiments revealed significant upregulation (P < 0.05) of cyclooxygenase 2 (), which is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in PG biosynthesis, and by AVT and IT. Furthermore, dual hybridization detected positive signals for and at the same site, implying that ITR1 may regulate gene expression. Measurement of prostaglandin F (PGF) concentrations showed that AVT induced PGF synthesis (P < 0.05) and that the effect of IT was not significant. Finally, intraperitoneal administration of PGF significantly induced premature parturition of guppies. This study is the first to identify and characterize AVT and ITRs in guppies. The findings suggest that AVT promotes PG biosynthesis ITR and that PGF induces delivery behavior in ovoviviparous guppies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.617580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104081PMC
April 2021

Occurrence and Distribution of Neonicotinoids and Characteristic Metabolites in Paired Urine and Indoor Dust from Young Adults: Implications for Human Exposure.

Environ Res 2021 May 5:111175. Epub 2021 May 5.

Zhuhai Precision Medical Center, Zhuhai People's Hospital (Zhuhai Hospital Affiliated with Jinan University), Jinan University, Zhuhai, 519000, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

Neonicotinoid insecticides (NEOs) are widely used for pest control worldwide. The profile of NEOs in paired urine and indoor dust has not yet been reported in China. In this study, 40 paired samples (i.e., 160 urine and 40 indoor dust) were collected from university students and dormitories from Guangzhou City of China to measure the concentrations of six NEOs and their three metabolites. Target analytes were frequently detected in paired urine (81%-98%) and indoor dust (75%-95%) samples, with median concentrations ranging from 0.02 [specific gravity (SG) adjusted: 0.02] to 2.08 (SG-adjusted: 2.38) ng/mL in urine and from 0.05 to 2.74 ng/g in indoor dust. 5-Hydroxy-imidacloprid was predominant in urine, while N-desmethyl acetamiprid was predominant in indoor dust samples, accounting for 56% and 37%, respectively. 1-Methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) urea, a dinotefuran degradate, was measured for the first time in indoor dust, with the median level of 1.02 ng/g. Significant gender-related differences (p < 0.05) in the urinary concentrations of most NEOs were found. We calculated the estimated daily intake (EDI) of target compounds from urine and indoor measurements. The EDIs of target analytes varied among all urine and indoor dust samples, with median values ranging from 0.51 (SG-adjusted: 0.56) to 51.6 (SG-adjusted: 52.8) ng/kg bw/day and from 0.04 to 2.10 pg/kg bw/day, respectively. Moreover, the median EDIs of most target analytes in females were significantly higher than (p < 0.05) those in males. The median EDIs of target compounds in dust from female dormitories were slightly higher than that in dust from male dormitories. These findings indicated that females were more exposed to NEO than males. Thus, the potential health risks of exposure to NEOs and their metabolites in female adults should be addressed in future studies. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the profiles of NEOs and their metabolites in paired urine and indoor dust samples from young adults in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111175DOI Listing
May 2021

Epigenetic regulation in antiviral innate immunity.

Eur J Immunol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Systems Biomedicine, Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Tumor Systems Biology, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing, China.

Emerging life-threatening viruses have posed great challenges to public health. It is now increasingly clear that epigenetics plays a role in shaping host-virus interactions and there is a great need for a more thorough understanding of these intricate interactions through the epigenetic lens, which may represent potential therapeutic opportunities in the clinic. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the roles of key epigenetic regulators-chromatin remodeling and histone modification-in modulating chromatin openness during host defense against virus. We also discuss how the RNA modification m6A (N6-methyladenosine) affects fundamental aspects of host-virus interactions. We conclude with future directions for uncovering more detailed functions that epigenetic regulation exerts on both host cells and viruses during infection. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.202048975DOI Listing
May 2021

Chromosome-level genome of Himalayan yew provides insights into the origin and evolution of the paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway.

Mol Plant 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Key Laboratory of Systems Microbial Biotechnology, Tianjin Institute of Industrial Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tianjin, 300308, China; National Center of Technology Innovation for Synthetic Biology, Tianjin, 300308, China.

Taxus, commonly known as yew, is a well-known gymnosperm with great ornamental and medicinal value. Here by assembling a chromosome-level genome of the Himalayan yew (Taxus wallichiana) with 10.9 Gb in 12 chromosomes, we revealed that the driving force of gene family evolution in the genome was tandem duplication, that not only clustered the main genes of taxadiene synthase, P450s and transferases for paclitaxel biosynthesis on the same chromosome, but also provided genetic resources for the nature to sculpture the core structure of taxoids at different positions and subsequently established the complex pathway of paclitaxel by neofunctionalization. We also confirmed two isoenzymes of the known genes in paclitaxel biosynthetic pathway from the cluster. The reference genome will serve as a platform for decoding the complete biosynthetic pathway of paclitaxel and understanding the chemodiversity of taxoids in gymnosperm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2021.04.015DOI Listing
May 2021

Learning Deep Lucas-Kanade Siamese Network for Visual Tracking.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 7;30:4814-4827. Epub 2021 May 7.

In most recent years, Siamese trackers have drawn great attention because of their well-balanced accuracy and efficiency. Although these approaches have achieved great success, the discriminative power of the conventional Siamese trackers is still limited by the insufficient template-candidate representation. Most of the existing approaches take non-aligned features to learn a similarity function for template-candidate matching, while the target object's geometrical transformation is seldom explored. To address this problem, we propose a novel Siamese tracking framework, which enables to dynamically transform the template-candidate features to a more discriminative viewpoint for similarity matching. Specifically, we reformulate the template-candidate matching problem of the conventional Siamese tracker from the perspective of Lucas-Kanade (LK) image alignment approach. A Lucas-Kanade network (LKNet) is proposed and incorporated to the Siamese architecture to learn aligned feature representations in data-driven trainable manner, which is able to enhance the model adaptability in challenging scenarios. Within this framework, we propose two Siamese trackers named LK-Siam and LK-SiamRPN to validate the effectiveness. Extensive experiments conducted on the prevalent datasets show that the proposed method is more competitive over a number of state-of-the-art methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2021.3076272DOI Listing
May 2021

Trileaflet Aortic Valve Reconstruction Using Bovine Pericardium.

Heart Lung Circ 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Asia Heart Hospital, Wuhan, P.R. China; Affiliated Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Aim: For several years now, trileaflet aortic valve reconstruction has been performed in patients with various aortic valve diseases. This study aimed to explore the feasibility and durability of trileaflet aortic valve reconstruction with bovine pericardium.

Method: Trileaflet aortic valve reconstruction with bovine pericardium was performed in 519 patients with various aortic valve diseases from April 2008 to December 2019. The results for all 519 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Mean age was 48.04±19.08 years (range, 13-80 years), and 40 patients were younger than 18 years of age. Thirty-four (34) patients had aortic stenosis, 344 patients had aortic regurgitation, and 141 patients had both aortic stenosis and regurgitation. One hundred and fifty-four (154) patients had bicuspid aortic valves, and three patients had quadricuspid aortic valves. The size of the pericardial leaflets was designed to be individually proportional to the size of the aortic root.

Results: Mean length of follow-up was 41.97±22.68 years (range, 1-127 months). In total, 448 patients were reviewed, and the follow-up rate was 86.4%. All procedures were successful without conversion to prosthetic valve replacement during the procedure. Six (6) patients died after the procedure (in-hospital mortality, 1.2%). All-cause mortality occurred in 11 patients during the follow-up period. The 10-year cumulative survival rate was 94.7%±2.9%. Redo aortic valve surgery was performed in 11 patients after the procedure. The actuarial freedom from redo aortic valve surgery after the procedure was 88.2%±5.2%. At the end of the follow-up, the mean peak was 29.1±9.6 mmHg and mean gradient was 15.6±6.2 mmHg.

Conclusions: The mid- and long-term outcomes in patients with various aortic valve diseases undergoing trileaflet aortic valve reconstruction with bovine pericardium are encouraging. The engineered pericardial leaflets should be individually proportional to the size of the aortic root.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2021.03.278DOI Listing
April 2021

Rational design and structure-based engineering of alkaline pectate lyase from Paenibacillus sp. 0602 to improve thermostability.

BMC Biotechnol 2021 May 3;21(1):32. Epub 2021 May 3.

Nanfang College of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 510970, China.

Background: Ramie degumming is often carried out at high temperatures; therefore, thermostable alkaline pectate lyase (PL) is beneficial for ramie degumming for industrial applications. Thermostable PLs are usually obtained by exploring new enzymes or reconstructing existing enzyme by rational design. Here, we improved the thermostability of an alkaline pectate lyase (PelN) from Paenibacillus sp. 0602 with rational design and structure-based engineering.

Results: From 26 mutants, two mutants of G241A and G241V showed a higher thermostability compared with the wild-type PL. The mutant K93I showed increasing specific activity at 45 °C. Subsequently, we obtained combinational mutations (K93I/G241A) and found that their thermostability and specific activity improved simultaneously. The K93I/G241A mutant showed a half-life time of 15.9 min longer at 60 °C and a melting temperature of 1.6 °C higher than those of the wild PL. The optimum temperature decreased remarkably from 67.5 °C to 60 °C, accompanied by a 57% decrease in Km compared with the Km value of the wild-type strain. Finally, we found that the intramolecular interaction in PelN was the source in the improvements of molecular properties by comparing the model structures. Rational design of PelN was performed by stabilizing the α-helices with high conservation and increasing the stability of the overall structure of the protein. Two engineering strategies were applied by decreasing the mutation energy calculated by Discovery Studio and predicting the free energy in the process of protein folding by the PoPMuSiC algorithm.

Conclusions: The results demonstrated that the K93I/G241A mutant was more suitable for industrial production than the wild-type enzyme. Furthermore, the two forementioned strategies could be extended to reveal engineering of other kinds of industrial enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12896-021-00693-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091735PMC
May 2021

Reliability and Validity of the Chinese Version of Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Dementia Care & Research Center, Beijing Dementia Key Lab, Peking University Institute of Mental Health (Sixth Hospital), Beijing, China.

Background: Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) has been proposed as an early manifestation of dementia. The Mild Behavioral Impairment Checklist (MBI-C) may help identify MBI in prodromal and preclinical dementia.

Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of MBI-C in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to explore the structure of the five factors of the MBI-C in Chinese culture.

Methods: Sixty dyads of MCI and mild AD (MCI, n = 33; mild AD, n = 35) were recruited. The informants completed the MBI-C and Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q) and were interviewed for clinician rating of the NPI. The Cronbach's coefficient was used to measure the structural reliability of the MBI-C. The criterion-validity was evaluated with the correlation coefficient between the MBI-C and the total scores of NPI-Q and NPI. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to investigate the structure of the MBI-C.

Results: The Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.895. The MBI-C total score was positively correlated with all five domains (r = 0.577∼0.840). The total score of MBI-C was significantly correlated with the total scores of NPI-Q (r = 0.714) and NPI (r = 0.749). Similarly, the five domain scores of MBI-C were significantly correlated with the factor and total scores of NPI-Q (r = 0.312∼0.673) and NPI (r = 0.389∼0.673). The components of each factor in Chinese version of MBI-C were slightly different from those of the a priori defined domains (χ2 = 1818.202, df = 496, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The Chinese version of MBI-C has good reliability and validity, and can be used to evaluate the psychological and behavioral changes in MCI and mild AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210098DOI Listing
April 2021

A critical review on challenges and trend of ultrapure water production process.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 24;785:147254. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Joint Research Centre for Protective Infrastructure Technology and Environmental Green Bioprocess, School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384, China; Tianjin Key Laboratory of Aquatic Science and Technology, Tianjin Chengjian University, Jinjing Road 26, Tianjin 300384, China.

The recent and vigorous developments in semiconductor technology strictly request better quality and large quantity of ultrapure water (UPW) for their production. It is crucial to secure a large amount of raw water for the future development of UPW production. Using reclaimed water as alternative raw water source to produce UPW is therefore considered the feasible trend and solution for sustainable use of water resources towards a common future practice in UPW production. The challenge of using reclaimed water is due to its higher content of organic pollutants, especially small molecule organic pollutants such as urea, which are difficult to remove through traditional UPW production process. Consequently, improving the existing UPW production process to meet the water standard desired in the semiconductor industry is essential. This paper reviewed the current traditional processes for removing organic matters in UPW production, including ion-exchange (IX) adsorption, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The potential problems in the actual UPW production process were identified when using reclaimed water as raw water source. A new strategy of applying the advanced oxidation process (AOPs) to UPW production as a supplementary unit to guarantee UPW quality was proposed. Its feasibility and research focus were then analyzed and discussed in obtaining a new solution for a future development of the UPW production process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147254DOI Listing
April 2021

Analysis of culturable airborne fungi in outdoor environments in Tianjin, China.

BMC Microbiol 2021 May 2;21(1):134. Epub 2021 May 2.

School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, 300072, Tianjin, China.

Background: Fungal spores dispersed in the atmosphere may become cause of different pathological conditions and allergies for human beings. A number of studies have been performed to analyze the diversity of airborne fungi in different environments worldwide, and in particular in many urban areas in China. We investigated, for the first time, the diversity, concentration and distribution of airborne fungi in Tianjin city. We sampled 8 outdoor environments, using open plate method, during a whole winter season. Isolated fungi were identified by morphological and molecular analysis. Environmental factors which could influence the airborne fungi concentration (temperature, humidity, wind speed, and air pressure) were monitored and analyzed. The effect of different urban site functions (busy areas with high traffic flow and commercial activities vs. green areas) on airborne fungal diversity was also analyzed.

Results: A total of 560 fungal strains, belonging to 110 species and 49 genera of Ascomycota (80 %), Basidiomycota (18 %), and Mucoromycota (2 %) were isolated in this study. The dominant fungal genus was Alternaria (22 %), followed by Cladosporium (18.4 %), Naganishia (14.1 %), Fusarium (5.9 %), Phoma (4.11 %), and Didymella (4.8 %). A fungal concentration ranging from 0 to 3224.13 CFU m was recorded during the whole study. Permutational multivariate analysis showed that the month was the most influential factor for airborne fungal community structure, probably because it can be regarded as a proxy of environmental variables, followed by wind speed. The two analyzed environments (busy vs. green) had no detectable effect on the air fungal community, which could be related to the relatively small size of parks in Tianjin and/or to the study season.

Conclusions: Our study shed light on the highly diverse community of airborne fungi characterizing the outdoor environments of Tianjin, and clarified the role that different environmental factors played in shaping the analyzed fungal community. The dominant presence of fungi with potential hazardous effect on human health, such as Alternaria, Cladosporium and Naganishia, deserves further attention. Our results may represent a valuable source of information for air quality monitoring, microbial pollution control, and airborne diseases prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12866-021-02205-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088404PMC
May 2021

Comparison of image quality and lesion diagnosis in abdominopelvic unenhanced CT between reduced-dose CT using deep learning post-processing and standard-dose CT using iterative reconstruction: A prospective study.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Apr 24;139:109735. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

From the Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare image quality and lesion diagnosis between reduced-dose abdominopelvic unenhanced computed tomography (CT) using deep learning (DL) post-processing and standard-dose CT using iterative reconstruction (IR).

Method: Totally 251 patients underwent two consecutive abdominopelvic unenhanced CT scans of the same range, including standard and reduced doses, respectively. In group A, standard-dose data were reconstructed by (blend 30 %) IR. In group B, reduced-dose data were reconstructed by filtered back projection reconstruction to obtain group B1 images, and post-processed using the DL algorithm (NeuAI denosing, Neusoft medical, Shenyang, China) with 50 % and 100 % weights to obtain group B2 and B3 images, respectively. Then, CT values of the liver, the second lumbar vertebral centrum, the erector spinae and abdominal subcutaneous fat were measured. CT values, noise levels, signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs), radiation doses and subjective scores of image quality were compared. Subjective evaluations of low-density liver lesions were compared by diagnostic results from enhanced CT or Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Results: Groups B3 and B1 showed the lowest and highest noise levels, respectively (P < 0.001). The SNR and CNR in group B3 were highest (P < 0.001). The radiation dose in group B was reduced by 71.5 % on average compared to group A. Subjective scores in groups A and B2 were highest (P < 0.001). Diagnostic sensitivity and confidence for liver metastases in groups A and B2 were highest (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Reduced-dose abdominopelvic unenhanced CT combined with DL post-processing could ensure image quality and satisfy diagnostic needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2021.109735DOI Listing
April 2021

Blocking endothelial TRPV4-Nox2 interaction helps reduce ROS production and inflammation, and improves vascular function in obese mice.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 Apr 28;157:66-76. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Medicine, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, China. Electronic address:

Obesity induces inflammation and oxidative stress, and ultimately leads to vasodilatory dysfunction in which Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) and Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate Oxidase (Nox2) have been reported to be involved. However, little attention has been paid to the role of the TRPV4-Nox2 complex in these problems. The purpose of this study was to figure out the role of the TRPV4-Nox2 complex in obesity-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and vasodilatory dysfunction. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and immunoprecipitation assays, we found enhanced TRPV4 and Nox2 interactions in obese mice. Using q-PCR, fluorescent dye dihydroethidium staining, and myotonic techniques, we found that obesity caused inflammation, oxidative stress, and vasodilatory dysfunction. Using adeno-associated viruses, we found that enhancement or attenuation of TRPV4-Nox2 interaction altered the vaso-function. Based on these findings, we found a small-molecule drug, M12, that interrupted the TRPV4-Nox2 interaction, thereby reducing inflammatory factors and reactive oxygen species production and helping to restore the vasodilatory function. In summary, our results revealed a new mechanism by which obesity-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and vasodilatory dysfunction is caused by enhanced TRPV4-Nox2 interactions. Using M12 to interrupt the TRPV4-Nox2 interaction may have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects and help restore vasodilatory function and thus provide a new therapeutic approach to obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2021.04.008DOI Listing
April 2021

Separation and anti-inflammatory evaluation of phytochemical constituents from Pleurospermum candollei (Apiaceae) by high-speed counter-current chromatography with continuous sample load.

J Sep Sci 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Key Laboratory for Applied Technology of Sophisticated Analytical Instruments of Shandong Province, Shandong Analysis and Test Center, Qilu Universit of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, 250014, China.

Pleurospermum (Apiaceae) species possess a wide range of biological properties viz. analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimalarial etc. Pleurospermum candollei (DC.) Benth. Ex C. B. Clark. is reported to cure diarrhea, gastric, respiratory, stomach, abdominal, joint and back pain problems. In addition, it is also used for both male and female infertility. The present study deals with an efficient technique using high-speed counter-current chromatography for separation of chemical components from the methanol extract of P. candollei. Notably, nine main compounds namely luteolin 7-O-glucoside (1), oxypeucedanin hydrate (2), pabulenol (3), bergapten (4), heptadecanoic acid (5), (E)-isoelemicin (6), trans-asarone (7), α-linolenic acid (8), and isoimperatorin (9) were very efficiently separated and isolated in pure form. Multiple injections were applied followed by two off-line recycling high-speed counter-current chromatography. The inhibitory effect of nitric oxide production of all compounds was tested in the presence of 200 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide in RAW264.7 mice macrophage cells. The results demonstrated that compounds 7 and 8 effectively inhibited nitric oxide production, with IC values of 28.44 and 53.18 μM, respectively. This study thus validates the traditional claim of using P. candollei. Taken together, these findings will be useful in future research to find a potential candidate with anti-inflammatory properties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202100155DOI Listing
April 2021

General Synthesis of Ultrafine Monodispersed Hybrid Nanoparticles from Highly Stable Monomicelles.

Adv Mater 2021 Apr 29:e2100820. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Chemistry, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, iChEM and State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, P. R. China.

Ultrafine nanoparticles with organic-inorganic hybridization have essential roles in myriad applications. Over the past three decades, although various efforts on the formation of organic or inorganic ultrasmall nanoparticles have been made, ultrafine organic-inorganic hybrid nanoparticles have scarcely been achieved. Herein, a family of ultrasmall hybrid nanoparticles with a monodisperse, uniform size is synthesized by a facile thermo-kinetics-mediated copolymer monomicelle approach. These thermo-kinetics-mediated monomicelles with amphiphilic ABC triblock copolymers are structurally robust due to their solidified polystyrene core, endowing them with ultrahigh thermodynamic stability, which is difficult to achieve using Pluronic surfactant-based micelles (e.g., F127). This great stability combined with a core-shell-corona structure makes the monodispersed monomicelles a robust template for the precise synthesis of ultrasmall hybrid nanoparticles with a highly uniform size. As a demonstration, the obtained micelles/SiO hybrid nanoparticles display ultrafine sizes, excellent uniformity, monodispersity, and tunable structural parameters (diameters: 24-47 nm and thin shell thickness: 2.0-4.0 nm). Notably, this approach is universal for creating a variety of multifunctional ultrasmall hybrid nanostructures, involving organic/organic micelle/polymers (polydopamine) nanoparticles, organic/inorganic micelle/metal oxides (ZnO, TiO , Fe O ), micelle/hydroxides (Co(OH) ), micelle/noble metals (Ag), and micelle/TiO /SiO hybrid composites. As a proof of concept, the ultrasmall micelle/SiO hybrid nanoparticles demonstrate superior toughness as biomimetic materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202100820DOI Listing
April 2021

Rapamycin Antagonizes BCRP-Mediated Drug Resistance Through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway in mPRα-Positive Breast Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 12;11:608570. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Purpose: Overexpression of breast cancer (BCa) resistance protein (BCRP) is detected in approximately 30% of BCa cases. BCRP indicates a poor response to chemotherapy, and it has become a classic target to overcome drug-resistant tumor cells. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanism of BCRP overexpression and a strategy to reverse this overexpression in invasive BCa.

Methods: BCRP expression in BCa tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. GSE25066 was downloaded from the NCBI GEO database. Western blot was used to determine the expression of key molecules . Cell counting kit-8 assays were used to assess the drug response of BCa cells.

Results: Our results suggested that BCRP is an independent risk factor for BCa. We further established that upon 17α-PG binding, membrane progesterone receptor α (mPRα) promoted BCRP expression the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. mPRα physically interacted with p-Akt1 S473. Moreover, rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), downregulated BCRP expression and enhanced the effects of particular drugs, including doxorubicin and paclitaxel.

Conclusion: BCRP is a potential biomarker of poor prognosis in BCa. BCRP expression is regulated by 17α-PG in mPRα-positive BCa cells through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Rapamycin might enhance the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy agents in mPRα-positive MDA-MB-453/BCRP cells and might be a therapeutic option for mPRα-positive invasive BCa with BCRP overexpression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.608570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071953PMC
April 2021

Twisted light induced magnetic anisotropy changes in an interlayer exchange coupling system.

Nanoscale Horiz 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan.

All-optical switching of magnetic materials is a potential method for realizing high-efficiency and high-speed data writing in spintronics devices. The current method, which utilizes two circular helicities of light to manipulate magnetic domains, is based on femtosecond pulsed lasers. In this study, we demonstrate a new all-optical switching method using a continuous-wave Laguerre-Gaussian beam (twisted light), which allows photons to carry orbital angular momentum with discrete levels, lℏ, to modify the magnetic anisotropy of an interlayer exchange coupling system. The easy axis of the heterojunction Pt(5 nm)/Co(1.2 nm)/Ru(1.4 nm)/Co(0.4 nm)/Pt(5 nm) on a SiO2/Si substrate dramatically changed after illuminating it with a laser beam carrying a sufficient quantum number of orbital angular momentum. Based on a simple numerical calculation, we deduced that the interaction between the dynamical phase rotation of the electric field and the metal surface could generate an in-plane circular current loop that consequently induces a perpendicular stray field to change the magnetic anisotropy. This finding paves the way for developments in the field of magnetic-based spintronics using light with orbital angular momentum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nh00063bDOI Listing
April 2021

Cost-effectiveness and budget impact analyses of tisagenlecleucel in adult patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma from Singapore's private insurance payer's perspective.

J Med Econ 2021 Jan-Dec;24(1):637-653

National University Cancer Institute, Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Patients experiencing relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (r/r DLBCL) have limited treatment options and poor prognosis. Tisagenlecleucel (TIS) has shown improved clinical outcomes, but at a high upfront cost. Singapore has a multi-payer healthcare system where private insurance is one of the major payers. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of TIS against salvage chemotherapy regimen (SCR) for treating r/r DLBCL patients who have failed ≥2 lines of systemic therapy from Singapore's private insurance payer's perspective.

Methods: Over a life-time horizon, a partitioned survival model with three health-states was developed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of TIS vs. SCR with or without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Efficacy inputs for TIS and SCR were based on 43 months of observation data from pooled JULIET and UPenn trials, and CORAL extension studies respectively. Direct costs for pre-treatment, treatment, adverse events, follow-up, subsequent-HSCT, relapse, and terminal care were included. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated as the total incremental costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Additionally, the financial implication of introducing TIS in Singapore from a private payer's perspective was analyzed, comparing the current treatment pathway (without TIS) with a future scenario (with TIS) over 5 years.

Results: Compared with SCR, TIS was the dominant option, with cost savings of S$8,477 alongside an additional gain of 2.78 QALYs in privately insured patients who shifted from private to public hospitals for TIS treatment. Scenario analyses for patients starting in public hospitals show ICERs of S$99,623 (no subsidy) and S$133,261 (50% subsidy for SCR treatment, no subsidy for TIS), supporting the base case. The projected annual budget impact ranges from S$850,000 to S$3.4 million during the first 5 years.

Conclusions: TIS for treating r/r DLBCL patients who have failed ≥2 lines of systemic therapies, is likely to be cost effective with limited budget impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13696998.2021.1922066DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of Low Temperature and High Humidity Stress on Physiology of Cucumber at Different Leaf Stages.

Plant Biol (Stuttg) 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 71210, China.

Low temperature (LT) and high humidity (HH) are important environmental factors in green house and plastic tunnel during cold season that hamper plant growth and development. Here, we studied the effect of LT (day/night: 9/5°C with 25/18°C as the control) and HH (95% with 80% as the control) on cucumber young plants at 2, 4 or 6 leaf stage. LT and HH stress resulted in decline of shoot, root and total fresh and dry weight, and decreased net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching (qP), electron transport rate (ETR) and chlorophyll pigments, and increased malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H O ), superoxide (O ), non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ) and intercellular CO rate (Ci) as compared to the control at 2 leaf stage. Super oxidase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were up-regulated under LT and HH stress as compared to the control at 6 leaf stage. Abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) were increased under LT and HH stress as compared to the control at 6 leaf stage, while indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellic acid (GA) were decreased under LT and HH stress as compared to the control at 2 leaf stage. Our results recommended that LT and HH stress affects cucumber young plants photosynthetic efficiency, PSII activity, antioxidant defense system, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and hormonal profile. The plants at 6 leaf stage showed more tolerance than 2 and 4 leaf stages under stress conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/plb.13276DOI Listing
April 2021

Dual-Functional Additive to Simultaneously Modify the Interface and Grain Boundary for Highly Efficient and Hysteresis-Free Perovskite Solar Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 26;13(17):20043-20050. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Qingdao Institute of Bioenergy and Bioprocess Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266101, P. R. China.

The efficiency loss and stability issues of perovskite devices mainly derive from nonradiative recombination, caused by detrimental defects in the perovskite bulk and at the interface between the perovskite absorber and charge transport layer. Therefore, the passivation of these defects is of great concern in achieving high-performance perovskite devices. Here, we report the incorporation of potassium phenyl trifluoroborate (KCHBF) into perovskite films to realize simultaneous passivation of the grain boundaries and the perovskite/SnO interface. Apart from the bulk passivation of K, the accumulation of CHBF at the buried interface contributes to the compact contact between the perovskite absorber and SnO layer and also the perfect columnar perovskite grains. As a result, the KCHBF-containing perovskite films exhibit low trap density. The distinct enhancements of open-circuit voltage and photoelectric conversion efficiency are obtained together with negligible hysteresis. The open-circuit voltage of the KCHBF-containing device increases from 1.09 to 1.18 V, and the corresponding efficiency increases from 19.69 to 22.33%. The finding in this work shows the superiority of the dual-functional additive for preparing highly efficient perovskite devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01852DOI Listing
May 2021

Outcomes and prognostic factors of apical periodontitis by root canal treatment and endodontic microsurgery-a retrospective cohort study.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Stomatology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the outcome and prognostic factors of root canal treatment (RCT) and endodontic microsurgery (EMS) in the treatment of apical periodontitis (AP), respectively, and to compare the outcome and prognostic factors between initial RCT and nonsurgical retreatment (re-RCT) for AP.

Methods: Patients with AP were recruited from the Stomatology Department of Peking University Third Hospital from January 2016 to December 2019. Data were collected by medical records review. Univariate analysis of treatment outcome was performed for the total RCT group, initial RCT group, re-RCT group and EMS group, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was performed for the three RCT groups, respectively, but not for the EMS group.

Results: The overall success of treatment for AP was 73.8%. The success rate of RCT in 229 cases was 70.7%, while that of EMS in 34 cases was 94.1%. The failure of RCT was significantly higher for elderly patients [odds ratio (OR) =1.025, P=0.013], teeth with incomplete fracture (OR =7.082, P=0.013), teeth with a greater crown root ratio (OR =1.198, P=0.029), teeth treated by a general dentist (OR =2.16, P=0.042) and teeth with unqualified treatment (OR =2.841, P=0.002). Of the 166 teeth treated by initial RCT, the success was 68.1%. A greater crown root ratio (OR =1.333, P=0.004) was identified as a risk factor for treatment. Of the 63 teeth treated by re-RCT, the success was 77.8%. A lower success was observed in teeth with unqualified treatment (OR =5.291, P=0.018). With regard to EMS, the univariate analysis showed that none of the variables were significantly related to the outcome.

Conclusions: For AP treated by RCT, age, incomplete tooth fracture, crown root ratio, doctor classification and unqualified treatment had a strong impact on determining outcome. For initial RCT, crown root ratio was a significant outcome predictor, while for re-RCT, unqualified treatment was a strong statistically significant factor. No significant difference was found between the success of initial RCT and reRCT for AP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-2507DOI Listing
April 2021

Validation of Digital Evaluation in Systematic Training on Tooth Preparation in Aesthetic Veneer Rehabilitation.

Chin J Dent Res 2021 Apr;24(1):55-60

Objective: To evaluate the outcome of systematic video training on tooth preparation in veneer restoration and the practicability of the application of the digital evaluation system of scan design and assessment software.

Methods: Ten residents were selected from a group enrolled on the first-year programme for the National Standard Training of Dentistry in the Department of Prosthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People's Hospital Affliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine. First, each student prepared five teeth based on their knowledge and clinical experience, and then received systematic video training on veneer preparation. Before and after the training, the evaluation of the effects of training was conducted on the prepared teeth by measuring the continuity of the finishing line and tooth reduction amount automatically using the prepCheck 2.0 (Dentsply Sirona, Charlotte, NC, USA) CAD/CAM system.

Results: The results showed a significant difference in the quality of finishing line continuity pre- and post-training. Furthermore, the data for tooth reduction after training, which met standard values, improved remarkably, increasing from 32.40 ± 7.82% to 60.50 ± 5.48%.

Conclusions: Video training could significantly enhance the quality of tooth preparation for veneers. Moreover, the digital evaluation system could serve as an ideal alternative for tooth preparation evaluation for preclinical students, offering new insights for clinical education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3290/j.cjdr.b1105879DOI Listing
April 2021