Publications by authors named "Xiao Ma"

810 Publications

Risk of Cardiac Adverse Events in Patients Treated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Regimens: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 27;11:645245. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Oncology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the risks of cardiac adverse events in solid tumor patients treated with monotherapy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) or combined therapy of ICIs plus chemotherapy.

Methods: Eligible studies were selected through the following databases: PubMed, Embase and clinical trials (https://clinicaltrials.gov.) and included phase III/IV randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving patients with the solid tumor treated with ICIs. The data was analyzed by using Review Manager (version5.3), Stata (version 15.1).

Results: Among 2,551 studies, 25 clinical trials including 20,244 patients were qualified for the meta-analysis. Compared with PD-1 inhibitor (nivolumab) or CTLA-4 inhibitor (ipilimumab), PD-1 inhibitor (nivolumab) plus CTLA-4 inhibitor (ipilimumab) combined therapy showed significant increase in grade 5 arrhythmology (OR 3.90, 95% CI: 1.08-14.06, p = 0.603). PD-1 inhibitor plus chemotherapy show significant increase in grades 1-5 myocardial disease (OR 5.09, 95% CI: 1.11-23.32, p = 1.000). Compared with chemotherapy, PD-1 inhibitor (nivolumab) or CTLA-4 inhibitor (ipilimumab), PD-1 inhibitor (nivolumab) plus CTLA-4 inhibitor (ipilimumab) combined therapy show significant increase in grades 1-5 arrhythmology (OR 2.49, 95% CI: 1.30-4.78, p = 0.289).

Conclusions: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that PD-1 inhibitor plus CTLA-4 inhibitor can result in a higher risk of grade 5 arrhythmology in comparison with PD-1/CTLA-4 inhibitor alone, and a higher risk of grade 5 arrhythmology in comparison with chemotherapy. PD-1 inhibitor plus chemotherapy treatment could increase the risk of all-grade myocardial disease compared with chemotherapy. However, in most cases, there was no significant increase of risks of cardiovascular toxicity in PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor monotherapy or PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor plus chemotherapy compared with chemotherapy alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.645245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8190385PMC
May 2021

Multiple Lesions Insertion: boosting diabetic retinopathy screening through Poisson editing.

Biomed Opt Express 2021 May 16;12(5):2773-2789. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Deep neural networks have made incredible progress in many computer vision tasks, owing to access to a great amount of data. However, collecting ground truth for large medical image datasets is extremely inconvenient and difficult to implement in practical applications, due to high professional requirements. Synthesizing can generate meaningful supplement samples to enlarge the insufficient medical image dataset. In this study, we propose a new data augmentation method, Multiple Lesions Insertion (MLI), to simulate new diabetic retinopathy (DR) fundus images based on the healthy fundus images that insert real lesions, such as exudates, hemorrhages, microaneurysms templates, into new healthy fundus images with Poisson editing. The synthetic fundus images can be generated according to the clinical rules, i.e., in different DR grading fundus images, the number of exudates, hemorrhages, microaneurysms are different. The generated DR fundus images by our MLI method are realistic with the real texture features and rich details, without black spots, artifacts, and discontinuities. We first demonstrate the feasibility of this method in a DR computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system, which judges whether the patient has transferred treatment or not. Our results indicate that the MLI method outperforms most of the traditional augmentation methods, i.e, oversampling, under-sampling, cropping, rotation, and adding other real sample methods in the DR screening task.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.420776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176793PMC
May 2021

Transcriptomic resources for prairie grass (Bromus catharticus): expressed transcripts, tissue-specific genes, and identification and validation of EST-SSR markers.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jun 7;21(1):264. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, China.

Background: Prairie grass (Bromus catharticus) is a typical cool-season forage crop with high biomass production and fast growth rate during winter and spring. However, its genetic research and breeding has remained stagnant due to limited available genomic resources. The aim of this study was to generate large-scale genomic data using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, and perform a preliminary validation of EST-SSR markers of B. catharticus.

Results: Eleven tissue samples including seeds, leaves, and stems were collected from a new high-yield strain of prairie grass BCS1103. A total of 257,773 unigenes were obtained, of which 193,082 (74.90%) were annotated. Comparison analysis between tissues identified 1803, 3030, and 1570 genes specifically and highly expressed in seed, leaf, and stem, respectively. A total of 37,288 EST-SSRs were identified from unigene sequences, and more than 80,000 primer pairs were designed. We synthesized 420 primer pairs and selected 52 ones with high polymorphisms to estimate genetic diversity and population structure in 24 B. catharticus accessions worldwide. Despite low diversity indicated by an average genetic distance of 0.364, the accessions from South America and Asia and wild accessions showed higher genetic diversity. Moreover, South American accessions showed a pure ancestry, while Asian accessions demonstrated mixed internal relationships, which indicated a different probability of gene flow. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the studied accessions into four clades, being consistent with phenotypic clustering results. Finally, Mantel analysis suggested the total phenotypic variation was mostly contributed by genetic component. Stem diameter, plant height, leaf width, and biomass yield were significantly correlated with genetic data (r > 0.6, P < 0.001), and might be used in the future selection and breeding.

Conclusion: A genomic resource was generated that could benefit genetic and taxonomic studies, as well as molecular breeding for B. catharticus and its relatives in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03037-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186225PMC
June 2021

Safety and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Tetanus Vaccine in Healthy Adults in China: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Dose Escalation, Placebo- and Positive-Controlled, Phase 1/2 Trial.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jun 3:e2002751. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Centre for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Centre for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003, China.

Tetanus is a fatal but vaccine-preventable disease. The currently available tetanus vaccines are tetanus toxoid (TT)-based. Although these vaccines are generally effective, challenges in vaccine development and access remain. A randomized, double-blind, dose escalation, placebo- and positive-controlled, phase 1/2 trial (ChiCTR1800015865) is performed to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an alternative recombinant tetanus vaccine based on the Hc domain of tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT-Hc) in healthy adult volunteers. The primary outcome is the safety profile of the recombinant tetanus vaccine, and immunogenicity is the secondary outcome. 150 eligible participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive one of the three doses of recombinant tetanus vaccine (TeNT-Hc 10/20/30 µg), TT vaccine, or placebo. The recombinant tetanus vaccine shows a good safety profile. The frequency of any solicited and unsolicited adverse events after each vaccination does not differ across the vaccine and placebo recipients. No serious treatment-related adverse events occur. The recombinant tetanus vaccine shows strong immune responses (seroconversion rates, geometric mean titer, and antigen-specific CD4+/CD8+ T-cell responses), which are roughly comparable to those of the TT vaccine. In conclusion, the findings from this study support that recombinant tetanus vaccine is safe and immunogenic; thereby, it represents a novel vaccine candidate against tetanus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202002751DOI Listing
June 2021

A radiomics-based nomogram for preoperative T staging prediction of rectal cancer.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Purpose: To investigate the value of a radiomics-based nomogram in predicting preoperative T staging of rectal cancer.

Methods: A total of 268 eligible rectal cancer patients from August 2012 to December 2018 were enrolled and allocated into two datasets: training (n = 188) and validation datasets (n = 80). Another set of 32 patients from January 2019 to July 2019 was included in a prospective analysis. Pretreatment T2-weighted images were used to radiomics features extraction. Feature selection and radiomics score (Rad-score) construction were performed through a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analysis. The nomogram, which included Rad-scores and clinical factors, was built using multivariate logistic regression. Discrimination, calibration, and clinical utility were used to evaluate the performance of the nomogram.

Results: The Rad-score containing nine selected features was significantly related to T staging. Patients who had locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) generally had higher Rad-scores than patients with early-stage rectal cancer. The nomogram incorporated Rad-scores and carcinoembryonic antigen levels and showed good discrimination, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.882 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.835-0.930) in the training dataset and 0.846 (95% CI 0.757-0.936) in the validation dataset. The calibration curves confirmed high goodness of fit, and the decision curve analysis revealed the clinical value. A prospective analysis demonstrated that the AUC of the nomogram to predict LARC was 0.859 (95% CI 0.730-0.987).

Conclusion: A radiomics-based nomogram is a novel method for predicting LARC and can provide support in clinical decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-021-03137-1DOI Listing
June 2021

TFEB Overexpression, Not mTOR Inhibition, Ameliorates RagC Cardiomyopathy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 23;22(11). Epub 2021 May 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55901, USA.

A de novo missense variant in Rag GTPase protein C (RagC) was recently identified in a syndromic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patient. However, its pathogenicity and the related therapeutic strategy remain unclear. We generated a zebrafish Rragc (corresponding to human RagC) knock-in (KI) line via TALEN technology. The KI fish manifested cardiomyopathy-like phenotypes and poor survival. Overexpression of RagC via adenovirus infection also led to increased cell size and fetal gene reprogramming in neonatal rat ventricle cardiomyocytes (NRVCMs), indicating a conserved mechanism. Further characterization identified aberrant mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and transcription factor EB (TFEB) signaling, as well as metabolic abnormalities including dysregulated autophagy. However, mTOR inhibition failed to ameliorate cardiac phenotypes in the RagC cardiomyopathy models, concomitant with a failure to promote TFEB nuclear translocation. This observation was at least partially explained by increased and mTOR-independent physical interaction between RagC and TFEB in the cytosol. Importantly, TFEB overexpression resulted in more nuclear TFEB and rescued cardiomyopathy phenotypes. These findings suggest that S75Y is a pathogenic gain-of-function mutation in RagC that leads to cardiomyopathy. A primary pathological step of RagC cardiomyopathy is defective mTOR-TFEB signaling, which can be corrected by TFEB overexpression, but not mTOR inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22115494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197163PMC
May 2021

Comprehensive analysis of SSRs and database construction using all complete gene-coding sequences in major horticultural and representative plants.

Hortic Res 2021 Jun 1;8(1):122. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

School of Life Sciences/Library, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei, 063210, China.

Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are one of the most important genetic markers and widely exist in most species. Here, we identified 249,822 SSRs from 3,951,919 genes in 112 plants. Then, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of these SSRs and constructed a plant SSR database (PSSRD). Interestingly, more SSRs were found in lower plants than in higher plants, showing that lower plants needed to adapt to early extreme environments. Four specific enriched functional terms in the lower plant Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were detected when it was compared with seven other higher plants. In addition, Guanylate_cyc existed in more genes of lower plants than of higher plants. In our PSSRD, we constructed an interactive plotting function in the chart interface, and users can easily view the detailed information of SSRs. All SSR information, including sequences, primers, and annotations, can be downloaded from our database. Moreover, we developed Web SSR Finder and Batch SSR Finder tools, which can be easily used for identifying SSRs. Our database was developed using PHP, HTML, JavaScript, and MySQL, which are freely available at http://www.pssrd.info/ . We conducted an analysis of the Myb gene families and flowering genes as two applications of the PSSRD. Further analysis indicated that whole-genome duplication and whole-genome triplication played a major role in the expansion of the Myb gene families. These SSR markers in our database will greatly facilitate comparative genomics and functional genomics studies in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41438-021-00562-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8167114PMC
June 2021

Overexpression of the white clover TrSAMDC1 gene enhanced salt and drought resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Aug 19;165:147-160. Epub 2021 May 19.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China. Electronic address:

S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (SAMDC) mediates the biosynthesis of polyamines (PAs) and plays a positive role in plants' response to adversity stress tolerance. In this study, we isolated a SAMDC gene from white clover, which is located in mitochondria. It was strongly induced when white clover exposed to drought (15% PEG6000), salinity (200 mM NaCl), 20 μM spermidine, 100 μM abscisic acid, and 10 mM HO, especially in leaves. The INVSc1 yeast introduced with TrSAMDC1 had tolerance to drought, salt, and oxidative stress. Overexpression of TrSAMDC1 in Arabidopsis showed higher fresh weight and dry weight under drought and salt treatment and without growth inhibition under normal conditions. Leaf senescence induced by drought and saline was further delayed in transgenic plants, regardless of cultivation in 1/2 MS medium and soil. During drought and salt stress, transgenic plants exhibited a significant increase in relative water content, maximum photosynthesis efficiency (Fv/Fm), performance index on the absorption basis (PI), activities of antioxidant protective enzymes such as SOD, POD, CAT, and APX, and a significant decrease in accumulation of MDA and HO as compared to the WT. The concentrations of total PAs, putrescine, spermidine, and spermidine in transgenic lines were higher in transgenic plants than in WT under normal and drought conditions. These results suggested that TrSAMDC1 could effectively mitigate abiotic stresses without the expense of production and be a potential candidate gene for improving the drought and salt resistance of crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.05.018DOI Listing
August 2021

Is flexible bronchoscopy necessary in the preoperative workup of patients with peripheral cT1N0 subsolid lung cancer? -a prospective multi-center cohort study.

Transl Lung Cancer Res 2021 Apr;10(4):1635-1641

Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Necessity of flexible bronchoscopy (FB) examination as a routine preoperative work-up for peripheral clinical T1N0 subsolid lung cancer was unknown.

Methods: This was a prospective, multi-center clinical trial (NCT03591445). Patients with peripheral GGO nodules (GGNs) who were candidates for surgical resection were enrolled. FB examination was performed preoperatively. Surgical plan could be changed if any aberrant histologic and anatomic findings were detected by FB examination. Primary endpoint was the rate that surgical plan was changed by positive FB findings. Secondary endpoints were rate of positive FB findings and rate of procedural complications.

Results: Six hundred and fifteen patients with peripheral subsolid nodules detected by thoracic CT were enrolled. There were 187 (30.4%) male and 428 (69.6%) female patients, mean age was 54.85±10.41 y (range, 26-78). 262 (42.6%) patients had pure GGNs and 353 (57.4%) patients had part-solid nodules. Mean size of nodules was 13.87±6.37 mm (range, 5-30). FB examinations confirmed one (0.16%) adenocarcinoma, seven (1.14%) bronchial variations, one (0.16%) segmental bronchostenosis, one (0.16%) segmental bronchial occlusion and one (0.16%) bronchial inflammation. No complications of FB examinations occurred. 568 (92.35%) thoracoscopic and 47 (7.65%) open surgeries were performed. No established surgical plan was changed by positive FB findings. Final pathologies revealed 26 (4.2%) adenocarcinoma (AIS), 240 (39%) minimal invasive adenocarcinomas (MIAs), 343 (55.8%) invasive adenocarcinomas (IADs), one (0.2%) adenosquamous cell carcinoma, one (0.2%) squamous cell carcinoma, two (0.3%) atypical adenoid hyperplasia and two (0.3%) inflammations.

Conclusions: FB examination was unnecessary in the preoperative assessment of peripheral clinical T1N0 subsolid lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/tlcr-20-1122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107749PMC
April 2021

Long Noncoding RNA CCDC26 Promotes Thyroid Cancer Malignant Progression via miR-422a/EZH2/Sirt6 Axis.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 11;14:3083-3094. Epub 2021 May 11.

Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research, Department of Head and Neck, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, 100142, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Long noncoding RNAs are crucial regulators in thyroid cancer progression. However, the role of lncRNA CCDC26 in thyroid cancer remains unclear. Here, we aimed to explore the effect of CCDC26 on thyroid cancer progression and the underlying mechanism.

Materials And Methods: A total of 50 clinical thyroid cancer samples were studied in patients' samples, cultured cells, and nude mice before and after treatment using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, CCK-8 assays, BrdU incorporation assays, Transwell assays, cell apoptosis analysis, luciferase reporter gene assay, RNA immunoprecipitation, Western blot analysis, and tumorigenicity analysis.

Results: CCDC26 expression was elevated in patients' thyroid cancer tissues and thyroid cancer cell lines. CCDC26 depletion remarkably reduced proliferation, invasion, and migration but induced apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells. Mechanically, miR-422a mimic remarkably reduced the luciferase activity of CCDC26 transfected cells but failed to affect cells transfected with CCDC26 containing the mutated miR-422a-binding site. RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays showed that CCDC26 and miR-422a preferentially interacted with Ago2, but not IgG, in the micro-ribonucleoprotein complexes (miRNPs). CCDC26 depletion enhanced miR-422a expression and MiR-422a inhibitor reversed CCDC26 knockdown-induced inhibition of thyroid cancer progression in vitro. CCDC26 upregulated EZH2 and Sirt6 expression by sponging miR-422a in thyroid cancer cells. Tumorigenicity analysis in nude mice revealed that CCDC26 contributed to thyroid tumor growth via miR-422a/EZH2/Sirt6 axis in vivo.

Conclusion: CCDC26 promotes thyroid cancer malignant progression via miR-422a/EZH2/Sirt6 axis. This finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which CCDC26 promotes malignant thyroid cancer development, advances our understanding of lncRNAs' association with thyroid cancer, and indicates that CCDC26 and miR-422a may serve as potential targets for thyroid cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S282011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124016PMC
May 2021

Humic acid inhibits colony formation of the cyanobacterium Microcystis at high level of iron.

Chemosphere 2021 May 11;281:130742. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute for Sustainable Industries and Liveable Cities, Victoria University, PO Box 14428, Melbourne, Victoria, 8001, Australia.

Colony formation is a key process for the occurrence of Microcystis blooms. In order to inhibit colony formation of Microcystis at high level of iron using humic acid, unicellular Microcystis aeruginosa was cultivated in laboratory treated with varying concentrations of iron and humic acid. Our results showed that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) content and average colony size increased from 0.57 pg cells and 4.0 μm to 0.93 pg cells and 26.1 μm, respectively, while iron concentration increased from 0.68 mg L to 6.8 mg L, suggesting that high level of iron stimulated EPS secretion and induced unicellular Microcystis to form colonies. Transcriptome analysis showed that two genes described as glycosyltransferases (BH695-2217 and BH695-3696) were significantly up-regulated while EPS content increased with increasing iron concentration indicating that iron may regulate the expression of genes involved in polysaccharide synthesis. When treated with 10 mg C L humic acid at high level of iron, the EPS content and average colony size decreased by 35.5% and 56.3%, respectively, revealing that humic acid inhibited EPS secretion under high level of iron condition, and ultimately inhibited colony formation of Microcystis. Our results suggested that humic acid could be used as an agentia inhibiting large colony formation of Microcystis and thereby reducing the occurrence of Microcystis blooms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130742DOI Listing
May 2021

Comparing Thoracic Extensive Laminoplasty (TELP) and Laminectomy in Treating Severe Thoracic Ligamentum Flavum Ossification: A Proposed Novel Technique and Case-Control Study.

Biomed Res Int 2021 20;2021:8410317. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Orthopedics, Changzheng Hospital, Second Affiliated Hospital of Second Military Medical University, 415 Fengyang Road, Shanghai, China 200003.

Objective: (1) To propose a novel technique named thoracic extensive laminoplasty (TELP) in curing severe thoracic ligamentum flavum ossification (STOLF) and (2) to compare outcomes between TELP and laminectomy in curing STOLF.

Methods: Cases with fused or tuberous STOLF (Sato classification) treated from Jan 2015 to Jan 2017 were reviewed and divided into the TELP group (G1) and laminectomy group (G2) according to their surgical management. Data on demographics, complications, pre- and postoperative symptoms, residual spinal canal area (RSCA-1), residual spinal cord area (RSCA-2), modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score (mJOA), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL, based on the SF-36) were collected.

Results: Fifty-nine G1 and sixty-two G2 patients were enrolled. No significant differences in demographic data or preoperative data of RSCA-1, RSCA-2, mJOA, or HRQOL were observed between the two groups ( > 0.05). Patients in G1 and G2 showed similar postoperative improvements in RSCA-1 and RSCA-2 at the final follow-up ( > 0.05). However, patients in G1 showed higher postoperative improvements in mJOA (OR = 2.706, 95% CI: 1.279~5.727, = 0.008) at the final follow-up. Patients in G1 also showed higher postoperative improvements in HRQOL than patients in G2 ( < 0.05) at the final follow-up, and patients with more severe STOLF presented with better improvements in HRQOL in G1 ( < 0.05). Dural laceration and cerebrospinal fluid leakage were observed in seven G2 patients, and no complications were found in G1 patients after surgery.

Conclusion: TELP is a novel, effective, and safer surgical technique in treating STOLF and could be a substitute for traditional laminectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8410317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081600PMC
May 2021

Research Update on Stress Riser Fractures.

Indian J Orthop 2021 Jun 25;55(3):560-570. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Stress fractures are fatigue-induced fractures which are caused by repetitive force, often from overuse. They are well-established and frequently encountered in the field of orthopedics. Stress fractures occur in the bone because of low-bone strength and high chronic mechanical stress placed on the bone. Stress riser fractures are also stress fractures that occur because of the presence of cortical defects (holes), changes in stiffness, sharp corners, and cracks (fracture lines). Periprosthetic or peri-implant fractures are good examples of stress riser fractures that occur in regions where stress forces are higher than those in the surrounding material. Most stress riser fractures are related to technical errors (iatrogenic causes) and are difficult to manage. It is possible and more effective to prevent the creation of stress riser fractures through better surgical techniques. The proper terminology for stress fractures, stress riser fractures, periprosthetic fractures, peri-implant fractures, interprosthetic fractures, and interimplant fractures is discussed. This review of the current state of knowledge, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of stress riser fractures is based on clinical evidence and recent literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43465-020-00291-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081793PMC
June 2021

A chromosome-level Amaranthus cruentus genome assembly highlights gene family evolution and biosynthetic gene clusters that may underpin the nutritional value of this traditional crop.

Plant J 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Centre for Novel Agricultural Products (CNAP), Department of Biology, University of York, Wentworth Way, York, YO10 5DD, UK.

Traditional crops historically provided accessible and affordable nutrition to millions of rural dwellers but have been neglected, with most modern agricultural systems over reliant on a small number of internationally-traded crops. Traditional crops are typically well-adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and many are nutrient-dense. They can play a vital role in local food systems through enhanced nutrition (especially where diets are dominated by starch crops), food security and livelihoods for smallholder farmers, and a climate-resilient and biodiverse agriculture. Using short-read, long-read and phased sequencing technologies we generated a high-quality chromosome-level genome assembly for Amaranthus cruentus, an under-researched crop with micronutrient- and protein-rich leaves and gluten-free seed, but lacking improved varieties, with respect to productivity and quality traits. The 370.9 MB genome demonstrates a shared whole genome duplication with a related species, Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Comparative genome analysis indicates chromosomal loss and fusion events following genome duplication that are common to both species, as well as fission of chromosome 2 in A. cruentus alone, giving rise to a haploid chromosome number of 17 (versus 16 in A. hypochondriacus). Genomic features potentially underlying the nutritional value of this crop include two A. cruentus-specific genes with a likely role in phytic acid synthesis (an anti-nutrient), expansion of ion transporter gene families, and identification of biosynthetic gene clusters conserved within the amaranth lineage. The A. cruentus genome assembly will underpin much-needed research and global breeding efforts to develop improved varieties for economically viable cultivation and realisation of the benefits to global nutrition security and agrobiodiversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15298DOI Listing
May 2021

Sedentary behavior is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A generalized propensity score-weighted analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25336

Department of Health-Related Social and Behavioral Sciences.

Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth and third leading cause of death worldwide and in China, respectively. Sedentary behavior has been shown to increase the risk of respiratory disease, such as asthma. However, the relationship between sedentary behavior and COPD is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and COPD.Data was extracted from the 2018 a large-scale cross-sectional study of Chronic Disease and Lifestyle Population Survey in Sichuan Province of China, in which sedentary behavior and chronic diseases were self-reported according to medical records. The association between sedentary behavior on risk of COPD was estimated using multivariable regression model in non-matching cohorts and generalized propensity score-weighted (GPSW)cohorts, respectively, controlling for potential confounders.Individuals who remained sedentary for more than 7 hours per day were more likely to have COPD than the control group (<3 hours) both in conventional multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR = 2.020, 95%CI: 1.575-2.585, P < .001) and GPSW analysis (OR = 2.381, 95%CI: 1.778-3.188, P < .001). After GPSW and the sensitivity analysis using refined smoking variable further found a dose-effect between sedentary behavior and COPD, with 1.242 (95%CI: 1.006-1.532, P < .05) times risk of COPD in those sedentary behavior of more than 5 hours per day (GPSW) and 1.377 (95%CI: 1.092-1.736, P < .05) times risk in those sedentary behavior above 5 hours per day (sensitivity analysis), comparing with the control group.Sedentary behavior is independently associated with increased risk of COPD, adjusting for other confounders. The findings of this study have important implications for future research and public health guidance. Reducing sedentary time may have a significant role in COPD prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000025336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104186PMC
May 2021

Anatomy of strike-slip fault tsunami genesis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Graduate Aerospace Laboratories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125

Tsunami generation from earthquake-induced seafloor deformations has long been recognized as a major hazard to coastal areas. Strike-slip faulting has generally been considered insufficient for triggering large tsunamis, except through the generation of submarine landslides. Herein, we demonstrate that ground motions due to strike-slip earthquakes can contribute to the generation of large tsunamis (>1 m), under rather generic conditions. To this end, we developed a computational framework that integrates models for earthquake rupture dynamics with models of tsunami generation and propagation. The three-dimensional time-dependent vertical and horizontal ground motions from spontaneous dynamic rupture models are used to drive boundary motions in the tsunami model. Our results suggest that supershear ruptures propagating along strike-slip faults, traversing narrow and shallow bays, are prime candidates for tsunami generation. We show that dynamic focusing and the large horizontal displacements, characteristic of strike-slip earthquakes on long faults, are critical drivers for the tsunami hazard. These findings point to intrinsic mechanisms for sizable tsunami generation by strike-slip faulting, which do not require complex seismic sources, landslides, or complicated bathymetry. Furthermore, our model identifies three distinct phases in the tsunamic motion, an instantaneous dynamic phase, a lagging coseismic phase, and a postseismic phase, each of which may affect coastal areas differently. We conclude that near-source tsunami hazards and risk from strike-slip faulting need to be re-evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025632118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8126766PMC
May 2021

Infant rhesus macaques as a non-human primate model of Bordetella pertussis infection.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 3;21(1):407. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, Kunming, 650118, Yunnan, China.

Background: The prevalent resurgence of pertussis has recently become a critical public health problem worldwide. To understand pertussis pathogenesis and the host response to both the pathogen and vaccines, a suitable pertussis animal model, particularly a non-human primate model, is necessary. Recently, a non-human primate pertussis model was successfully established with baboons. Rhesus macaques have been shown to be ideal animal models for several infectious diseases, but a model of infectious pertussis has not been established in these organisms. Studies on rhesus macaque models of pertussis were performed in the 1920s-1930s, but limited experimental details are available. Recent monkey pertussis models have not been successful because the typical clinical symptoms and transmission have not been achieved.

Methods: In the present study, infant rhesus macaques were challenged with Bordetella pertussis (B.p) using an aerosol method to evaluate the feasibility of this system as an animal model of pertussis.

Results: Upon aerosol infection, monkeys infected with the recently clinically isolated B.p strain 2016-CY-41 developed the typical whooping cough, leukocytosis, bacteria-positive nasopharyngeal wash (NPW), and interanimal transmission of pertussis. Both systemic and mucosal humoral responses were induced by B.p.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate that a model of pertussis was successfully established in infant rhesus macaques. This model provides a valuable platform for research on pertussis pathogenesis and evaluation of vaccine candidates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06090-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091708PMC
May 2021

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) changes nutritional compositions in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaves by activating oxidative stress.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 29;285:117246. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Municipal and Environmental Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing, 100044, China. Electronic address:

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a typical persistent organic pollutant commonly detected in ecosystem. Insights into the risks of PFOA in crops, from the perspectives of food nutritional compositions, are sparse. In this study, the physiological responses to PFOA induced oxidative stress were investigated in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaves hydroponically exposed to 5 and 50 μg/L PFOA. The effects on photosynthesis and nutritional compositions were characterized. 35.1 and 316.7 ng/g dry weight PFOA were bio-accumulated in lettuce leaves under exposure to 5 and 50 μg/L PFOA, respectively. PFOA led to exposure-dependent over-generation of reactive oxidative species (ROS; HO, 8.1%-38.7%; OH, 11.3%-26.4%; O, 3.1%-22.8%) in leaves. Both non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants were activated to scavenge ROS. Nevertheless, metabolomics results indicated some nutritional compositions in lettuce leaves were elevated by environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOA. Both primary metabolites, such as carbohydrates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and amino acids, and secondary metabolites, such as bioactive (poly)phenol and alkaloid compounds, were significantly up-regulated. Leaf net photosynthetic rates were stimulated and intercellular CO concentration was decreased. A thorough scheme on the interaction between PFOA and lettuce leaves was proposed as well, to enhance the understanding of PFOA risks in crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117246DOI Listing
April 2021

Melatonin Alleviates the Suppressive Effect of Hypoxanthine on Oocyte Nuclear Maturation and Restores Meiosis via the Melatonin Receptor 1 (MT1)-Mediated Pathway.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 15;9:648148. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Animal Genetic Improvement, Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics and Breeding of the Ministry of Agriculture, National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

It is well known that hypoxanthine (HX) inhibits nuclear maturation of oocytes by elevating the intracellular cAMP level, while melatonin (MT) is a molecule that reduces cAMP production, which may physiologically antagonize this inhibition and restore the meiosis process. We conducted and studies to examine this hypothesis. The results showed that 10 M MT potentiated the inhibitory effect of HX on mouse oocyte meiosis by lowering the rate of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and the first polar body (PB1). However, 10 M and 10 M MT significantly alleviated the nuclear suppression induced by HX and restored meiosis in 3- and 6-week-old mouse oocytes, respectively. We identified that the rate-limiting melatonin synthetic enzyme AANAT and melatonin membrane receptor MT1 were both expressed in oocytes and cumulus cells at the GV and MII stages. Luzindole, a non-selective melatonin membrane receptor antagonist, blocked the activity of MT on oocyte meiotic recovery ( < 0.05). This observation indicated that the activity of melatonin was mediated by the MT1 receptor. To understand the molecular mechanism further, MT1 knockout (KO) mice were constructed. In this MT1 KO animal model, the PB1 rate was significantly reduced with the excessive expression of cAPM synthases (, , , and ) in the ovaries of these animals. The mRNA levels of and were upregulated while the genes related to progesterone synthesis (), cholesterol biosynthesis (), and feedback (, , and ) were downregulated in the granulosa cells of MT1 KO mice ( < 0.05). The altered gene expression may be attributed to the suppression of oocyte maturation. In summary, melatonin protects against nuclear inhibition caused by HX and restores oocyte meiosis via MT1 by reducing the intracellular concentration of cAMP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.648148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083900PMC
April 2021

Nanobody Conjugates for Targeted Cancer Therapy and Imaging.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15330338211010117

Clinical and Translational Research Center, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Conventional antibody-based targeted cancer therapy is one of the most promising avenues of successful cancer treatment, with the potential to reduce toxic side effects to healthy cells surrounding tumor cells. However, the full potential of antibodies is severely limited due to their large size, low stability, slow clearance, and high immunogenicity. Alternatively, recently discovered nanobodies, which are the smallest naturally occurring antigen-binding format, have shown great potential for addressing these limitations. Bioconjugation of nanobodies to functional groups such as toxins, enzymes, radionucleotides, and fluorophores can improve the efficacy and potency of nanobodies, enhance their pharmacokinetics, and expand the range of potential applications. Herein, we review the superior characteristics of nanobodies in comparison to conventional antibodies and provide insight into recent developments in nanobody conjugates for targeted cancer therapy and imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15330338211010117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111546PMC
April 2021

Characteristics of 1738 Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Apr 30:1-5. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Emergency, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, China.

Objective: Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been discovered in Wuhan and spread rapidly across China and worldwide. Characteristics of infected patients are needed to get insight into the full spectrum of the disease.

Methods: Epidemiological and clinical information of 1738 diagnosed patients during February 7-26, 2020 in Wuhan Dongxihu Fangcang Hospital were analyzed. A total of 709 patients were followed up on symptom, mental health, isolation site, and medication after discharge.

Results: There were 852 males and 886 females in the cohort. The average age of the patients was 48.8 y. A total of 79.98% of the patients were from Wuhan, Hubei Province. The most common initial symptoms were fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Among all the patients, 1463 had complications, with respiratory distress as the most common complication. The average duration of hospitalization was 15.95 ± 14.69 d. The most common postdischarge symptom is cough. After discharge, most patients were full of energy and chose hotel as their self-isolation site. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Chinese medicine No.2 prescription is the medication used most commonly by the patients after discharge.

Conclusions: The population is generally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. After receiving aggressive treatment of combined Chinese and Western medicine, most patients had a good prognosis and mental health after discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2021.129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193190PMC
April 2021

The time-dependent effects of early-onset Epstein-Barr viremia on adult acute leukemia patients following allo-HSCT with ATG-containing MAC regimen.

Ann Hematol 2021 Jul 22;100(7):1879-1889. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Diseases, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viremia is a common complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impacts of early-onset EBV viremia in acute leukemia (AL) patients who underwent allo-HSCT with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG)-containing myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen. Two hundred and ninety-six patients were included between January 2013 and December 2015. In 126 patients (42.6%) who developed early-onset EBV viremia, with a median time of 48 (range 18~99) days after allo-HSCT. The cumulative incidence of EBV viremia at 30 and 90 days after allo-HSCT were 4.1 and 39.9%, respectively. Prognostic analysis showed that the adjusted overall survival in early-EBV group was significantly lower than early-EBV group within the first 26.7 months after allo-HSCT [hazard ratio (HR), 1.63, P = 0.012], but significantly higher than those afterward (after 26.7 months: HR 0.11, P = 0.035); for the adjusted event-free survival, early-EBV group was significantly inferior in early-EBV group within the first 10.8 months after transplantation (HR: 1.55, P = 0.042), and this adverse effect was not detected any more after 10.8 months (HR: 0.58, P = 0.107). Compared with early-EBV group after adjusting by aGVHD and CMV viremia, HR for death from transplant-related mortality was 2.78-fold higher in patients with early-EBV viremia in piecewise constant Cox analysis (P = 0.006), and this adverse effect was not detected any more after the cut-point time (HR: 0.67, P = 0.361). No differences in terms of relapse and relapse mortality were observed between early-EBV and early-EBV group (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the impacts on transplant outcomes of early-EBV viremia were time-dependent, which may help to optimize management strategies for early-EBV viremia after allo-HSCT, especially in AL patients with ATG-containing MAC regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04528-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Correction to: PD1 inhibitor in combination with 5-azacytidine and low-dose DLI for the successful treatment of AML patients who relapsed after transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 May;56(5):1220-1221

National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Diseases, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01218-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Gut microbial alterations in neonatal jaundice pre- and post-treatment.

Biosci Rep 2021 Apr;41(4)

Department of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Neonatal jaundice is a common disease that affects up to 60% of newborns. Herein, we performed a comparative analysis of the gut microbiome in neonatal jaundice and non-neonatal jaundice infants (NJIs) and identified gut microbial alterations in neonatal jaundice pre- and post-treatment. We prospectively collected 232 fecal samples from 51 infants at five time points (0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months). Finally, 114 samples from 6 NJIs and 19 non-NJI completed MiSeq sequencing and analysis. We characterized the gut microbiome and identified microbial differences and gene functions. Meconium microbial diversity from NJI was decreased compared with that from non-NJI. The genus Gemella was decreased in NJI versus non-NJI. Eleven predicted microbial functions, including fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase III and pyruvate carboxylase subunit B, decreased, while three functions, including acetyl-CoA acyltransferase, increased in NJI. After treatments, the microbial community presented significant alteration-based β diversity. The phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were increased, while Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria were decreased. Microbial alterations were also analyzed between 6 recovered NJI and 19 non-NJI. The gut microbiota was unique in the meconium microbiome from NJI, implying that early gut microbiome intervention could be promising for the management of neonatal jaundice. Alterations of gut microbiota from NJI can be of great value to bolster evidence-based prevention against 'bacterial dysbiosis'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20210362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150162PMC
April 2021

Efficiency and Toxicity of Ruxolitinib as the Salvage Treatment in Steroid-Refractory Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease after Haplo-Identical Stem Cell Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Apr 24;27(4):332.e1-332.e8. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Diseases, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, Key Laboratory of Thrombosis and Hemostasis of Ministry of Health, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China; Institute of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, Soochow University, Suzhou, China. Electronic address:

Haplo-identical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) for hematological malignancies has ushered in a new era in which everyone has a potential donor. However, the occurrence of steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (SR-aGVHD), with no priority among second-line therapies, leads to late mortality after haplo-SCT. Ruxolitinib is the first drug recommended for SR-aGVHD. Here, we report the outcome data from 40 patients after haplo-SCT following the Beijing Protocol who had received ruxolitinib as a salvage therapy for grades II to IV SR-aGVHD in our center between November 2017 and May 2019. The overall response rate was 85% (34/40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 73.4% to 96.6%), including 25 patients with complete response. The median time to first response was 10 days. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and T cell activation declined, and the percentage of regulatory T cells increased. The rate of GVHD relapse was 26.5% (9/34; 95% CI, 10.8% to 42.1%) in responders. Cytomegalovirus reactivation and cytopenia were the major adverse events after ruxolitinib was begun (57.5% and 60%, respectively). The 6-month overall survival estimate was 56.8% (95% CI, 41.5% to 72.1%), and the event-free survival was 45% (95% CI, 29.7% to 60.3%). Liver GVHD was associated with a worse response rate and poor survival. Collectively, ruxolitinib could be an effective treatment for SR-aGVHD patients after haplo-SCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.01.019DOI Listing
April 2021

Synthesis of Polyaniline Coating on the Modified Fiber Ball and Application for Cr(VI) Removal.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Apr 8;16(1):58. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Key Laboratory of Materials Physics and Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei, 230031, People's Republic of China.

In this study, polyaniline (PANI) is prepared by means of chemical oxidization polymerization and directly loaded on the modified fiber ball (m-FB) to obtain macroscale polyaniline/modified fiber ball (PANI/m-FB) composite, and then its removal ability of Cr(VI) is investigated. The effects of different parameters such as contact time, pH value and initial concentration on Cr(VI) removal efficiency are discussed. The experimental results illustrate that the favorable pH value is 5.0 and the maximum removal capacity is measured to be 293.13 mg g. Besides, PANI/m-FB composites can be regenerated and reused after being treated with strong acid. The kinetic study indicates that the adsorption procedure is mainly controlled by chemical adsorption. More importantly, the macroscale of composites can avoid secondary pollution efficiently. Benefiting from the low cost, easy preparation in large scale, environmentally friendly, excellent recycling performance as well as high removal ability, PANI/m-FB composites exhibit a potential possibility to remove Cr(VI) from industrial waste water. The polyaniline (PANI) was coated on modified fiber ball (m-FB) to remove Cr(VI) in waste water, and this kind of PANI/m-FB composites can avoid secondary pollution efficiently due to its macrostructure. Furthermore, the removal capacity can reach to 291.13 mg/g and can be multiple reused.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03509-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8032843PMC
April 2021

LED-based compressive spectral-temporal imaging.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(7):10698-10715

A compressive spectral-temporal imaging system is reported. A multi-spectral light-emitting diode array is used for target illumination and spectral modulation, while a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) encodes the spatial and temporal frames. Several encoded video frames are captured in a snapshot of an integrating focal plane array (FPA). A high-frame-rate spectral video is reconstructed from the sequence of compressed measurements captured by the grayscale low-frame-rate camera. The imaging system is optimized through the design of the DMD patterns based on the forward model. Laboratory implementation is conducted to validate the performance of the proposed imaging system. We experimentally demonstrate the video acquisition with eight spectral bands and six temporal frames per FPA snapshot, and thus a 256 × 256 × 8 × 6 4D cube is reconstructed from a single 2D measurement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.419888DOI Listing
March 2021

[Expression and Clinical Significance of Serum MiR-370 and MiR-203 in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;29(2):445-449

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Hubei Provincial Hospital of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Wuhan 430015, Hubei Province,

Objective: To investigate the expression of microRNA-370 (miR-370) and microRNA-203 (miR-203) in the serum of patients with acute myeloid leukemia(AML), and to analyze its clinical diagnosis and prognostic significance.

Methods: 57 patients with acute myeloid leukemia were enrolled as experimental group, and 21 healthy people were enrolled as control group. The fasting venous blood of the personal in the two groups were collected. The expression of miR-370 and miR-203 of the personal in each groups were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to detected the diagnostic values of serum miR-370, miR-203, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the relationship between expression and overall survival of the patients.

Results: Compared with healthy controls, serum miR-370 expression was significantly decreased in AML patients(P<0.05), and serum miR-203 expression was also significantly decreased (P<0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that the expression of serum miR-370 and miR-203 could be used to distinguish acute myeloid leukemia and healthy people. The area under the ROC curve of miR-370 was 0.909, and the sensitivity and specificity were 91.46% and 100.00%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve of miR-203 was 0.895, and the sensitivity and specificity were 83.45% and 89.71%, respectively. Serum levels of miR-370 and miR-203 were closely related to overall survival in AML patients.

Conclusion: The expression of miR-370 and miR-203 is decreased in the serum of patients with AML and may be a new markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2021.02.022DOI Listing
April 2021

Resource islands of Salix cupularis facilitating seedling emergence of the companion herbs in the restoration process of desertified alpine meadow, the Tibetan Plateau.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jul 31;289:112434. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, PR China. Electronic address:

Salix cupularis is a common shrub for ecological restoration of the desertified alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. However, the effect of S. cupularis on spatial heterogeneity of soil resources (i.e., resource islands effect) has not been systematically evaluated, and the influence of shrub patches on the rehabilitation of understory herbs has also been unknown. In this study, we randomly selected S. cupularis individuals in the early restoration stage of desertified alpine meadow, where the three native forages (Elymus nutans, Elymus sibiricus and Festuca sinensis) were sown at different microsites around S. cupularis to explore the effects of S. cupularis on soil resources and emergence rates of the native forages. The results showed that S. cupularis significantly increased SWC (soil water content), C (carbon) and N (nitrogen) nutrients (p < 0.01) and enzyme activities (p < 0.05) under canopy compared with the bare land, and the improvement performed better in the topsoil (0-5 cm) than in the subtop-soil (5-15 cm). Moreover, the soil properties were affected significantly by microsites around S. cupularis, resulting in regular changes of SWC, nutrients and enzyme activities in different microsites (Shrub center > Middle of canopy radius > Bare land). In addition, there are significant regression relationships between emergence rates and enriching soil water, C and N nutrients, so the emergence rates of native forages under canopy may be improved significantly with the enriched soil resources, especially for E. nutans. As a result, S. cupularis is a suitable pioneer shrub for the vegetation restoration of desertified alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau, because it could not only shape the enrichment of soil resources under canopy, but also facilitate emergence of companion forages in the process of vegetation restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112434DOI Listing
July 2021

Detecting and modelling real percolation and phase transitions of information on social media.

Nat Hum Behav 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Computer Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

It is widely believed that information spread on social media is a percolation process, with parallels to phase transitions in theoretical physics. However, evidence for this hypothesis is limited, as phase transitions have not been directly observed in any social media. Here, through an analysis of 100 million Weibo and 40 million Twitter users, we identify percolation-like spread and find that it happens more readily than current theoretical models would predict. The lower percolation threshold can be explained by the existence of positive feedback in the coevolution between network structure and user activity level, such that more-active users gain more followers. Moreover, this coevolution induces an extreme imbalance in users' influence. Our findings indicate that the ability of information to spread across social networks is higher than expected, with implications for many information-spread problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41562-021-01090-zDOI Listing
April 2021