Publications by authors named "Xiao Hu"

1,050 Publications

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Chemical constituents from staminate flowers of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver and their anti-inflammation activity in vitro.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

China State Institute of Pharmaceutical Industry, State Key Lab. of New Drug and Pharmaceutical Process, 285 Gebaini Road, Shanghai, 201203, Shanghai, CHINA.

Three new monoterpenoids, named eucomylides A - C ( 1 - 3 ), along with six known compounds ( 4 - 9 ) were isolated from the staminate flowers of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver. The structures were elucidated by extensive analyses of spectroscopics methods, and their absolute configurations were established by time-dependent density functional theory electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT ECD) calculation. All the compounds along with previously isolated components ( 10 - 14 ) were tested for their anti-inflammatory effects. Two iridoid glycosides ( 11 and 12 ) and a flavonoid glycoside ( 14 ) showed potent suppressive effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, with IC 50 values ranging from 17.11 to 22.26 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202100331DOI Listing
June 2021

A Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Quality Control System Incorporated With Deep Learning Improved Endoscopist Performance in a Pretest and Post-Test Trial.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 Jun 15;12(6):e00366. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Introduction: Gastrointestinal endoscopic quality is operator-dependent. To ensure the endoscopy quality, we constructed an endoscopic audit and feedback system named Endo.Adm and evaluated its effect in a form of pretest and posttest trial.

Methods: Endo.Adm system was developed using Python and Deep Convolutional Neural Ne2rk models. Sixteen endoscopists were recruited from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University and were randomly assigned to undergo feedback of Endo.Adm or not (8 for the feedback group and 8 for the control group). The feedback group received weekly quality report cards which were automatically generated by Endo.Adm. We then compared the adenoma detection rate (ADR) and gastric precancerous conditions detection rate between baseline and postintervention phase for endoscopists in each group to evaluate the impact of Endo.Adm feedback. In total, 1,191 colonoscopies and 3,515 gastroscopies were included for analysis.

Results: ADR was increased after Endo.Adm feedback (10.8%-20.3%, P < 0.01,
Discussion: Endo.Adm feedback contributed to multifaceted gastrointestinal endoscopic quality improvement. This system is practical to implement and may serve as a standard model for quality improvement in routine work (http://www.chictr.org.cn/, ChiCTR1900024153).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ctg.0000000000000366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208417PMC
June 2021

Comprehensive Proteomic Profiling of Aqueous Humor Proteins in Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 May;10(6)

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Purpose: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is a serious ocular disease that can lead to retinal microvascular complications in patients with diabetes mellitus. To date, no studies have explored PDR development by analyzing the aqueous humor (AH). Therefore we carried out tandem mass tag (TMT) proteomic quantification to compare AH protein profiles between PDR and non-PDR subjects.

Methods: We enrolled six PDR and six control (senile cataract) subjects. AH samples were collected during surgery and stored at -80°C. Proteins were extracted, trypsin-digested, and labeled with TMTs for mass spectrometric analysis.

Results: We found 191 proteins to be changed with |log2 (fold change)| ≥1 (P < 0.05 and identification with at least two peptides per protein). Of them, 111 were downregulated, whereas 80 were upregulated in the PDR group. Proteomic bioinformatic analysis indicated that PDR development was related to complement and coagulation cascades, platelet activation, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, protein digestion and absorption, human papillomavirus infection, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, cholesterol metabolism, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathways, fat digestion and absorption, and vitamin digestion and absorption pathways.

Conclusions: Comprehensive proteomic profiling of the AH revealed 191 differentially expressed proteins between the two groups. Most of these proteins belong to secretory pathways, and therefore can be used as biomarkers in clinical testing and basic research.

Translational Relevance: Pathway analysis and a review of the literature enabled us to draw a novel biological map that will support further studies on the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic control of PDR development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.10.6.3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107506PMC
May 2021

Ethylene-regulated immature fruit abscission is associated with higher expression of genes in .

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Jun 2;8(6):202340. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Key Laboratory of Cultivation and Protection for Non-Wood Forest Trees of Ministry of Education and the Key Laboratory of Non-Wood Forest Products of Forestry Ministry, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, People's Republic of China.

Immature fruit abscission is a key limiting factor in Abel. () yield. Ethylene is considered to be an important phytohormone in regulating fruit abscission. However, the molecular mechanism of ethylene in regulating fruit abscission in has not yet been studied. Here, we found that the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content was significantly increased in the abscission zones (AZs) of abnormal fruits (AF) which were about to abscise when compared with normal fruits (NF) in 'Huashuo'. Furthermore, exogenous ethephon treatment stimulated fruit abscission. The cumulative rates of fruit abscission in ethephon-treated fruits (ETH-F) on the 4th (35.0%), 8th (48.7%) and 16th (57.7%) days after treatment (DAT) were significantly higher than the control. The ACC content and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) activity in AZs of ETH-F were also significantly increased when compared with NF on the 4th and 8th DAT. and were isolated in for the first time. The expressions of and were considerably upregulated in AZs of AF and ETH-F. This study suggested that ethylene played an important role in immature fruit abscission of and the two were the critical genes involved in ethylene's regulatory role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.202340DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170184PMC
June 2021

Genetic dissection of natural variation in oilseed traits of camelina by whole-genome resequencing and QTL mapping.

Plant Genome 2021 Jun 9:e20110. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, 59717, USA.

Camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz] is an oilseed crop in the Brassicaceae family that is currently being developed as a source of bioenergy and healthy fatty acids. To facilitate modern breeding efforts through marker-assisted selection and biotechnology, we evaluated genetic variation among a worldwide collection of 222 camelina accessions. We performed whole-genome resequencing to obtain single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and to analyze genomic diversity. We also conducted phenotypic field evaluations in two consecutive seasons for variations in key agronomic traits related to oilseed production such as seed size, oil content (OC), fatty acid composition, and flowering time. We determined the population structure of the camelina accessions using 161,301 SNPs. Further, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes controlling the above field-evaluated traits by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) complemented with linkage mapping using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population. Characterization of the natural variation at the genome and phenotypic levels provides valuable resources to camelina genetic studies and crop improvement. The QTL and candidate genes should assist in breeding of advanced camelina varieties that can be integrated into the cropping systems for the production of high yield of oils of desired fatty acid composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tpg2.20110DOI Listing
June 2021

CDCA2 protects against oxidative stress by promoting BRCA1-NRF2 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Oncogene 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients mostly suffer from poor survival outcomes. It is necessary to identify effective therapeutic targets to improve prognosis for HCC patients. Here, we report a new factor, CDCA2, in promoting HCC development. CDCA2 amplification is an independent risk factor for the recurrence and survival of HCC patients, which is positively correlated with elevated level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), high histological grade, large tumor size, advanced TNM stage, and poor prognosis for HCC patients. In HCC cells, CDCA2 promotes cell growth and inhibits apoptosis. Mechanistically, CDCA2's transcription is activated through the binding of E2F2/E2F8 with its promoter. CDCA2 depletion contributes to the suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis due to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated stress, which can be reversed by antioxidants N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH). Interestingly, we found that CDCA2 triggers the BRCA1-NRF2 cascade, which elevates antioxidant response and attenuates ROS levels. In response to oxidative stress, CDCA2 promotes BRCA1's chromatin relocalization to NRF2, activating NRF2-driven downstream signaling (HO-1, TXNRD1, and NQO1), which then protects HCC cells against oxidative damage. In conclusion, our results reveal that CDCA2 is a prognostic biomarker for HCC patients, and present the E2F2/E2F8-CDCA2-BRCA1-NRF2-ROS signaling axis that have implications for HCC therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01855-wDOI Listing
June 2021

A human antibody of potent efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques showed strong blocking activity to B.1.351.

MAbs 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1930636

Shanghai Jemincare Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd., Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), interacts with the host cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) via its spike 1 protein during infection. After the virus sequence was published, we identified two potent antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) from antibody libraries using a phage-to-yeast (PtY) display platform in only 10 days. Our lead antibody JMB2002, now in a Phase 1 clinical trial (ChiCTR2100042150), showed broad-spectrum blocking activity against hACE2 binding to the RBD of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants, including B.1.351 that was reportedly much more resistant to neutralization by convalescent plasma, vaccine sera and some clinical-stage neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, JMB2002 has demonstrated complete prophylactic and potent therapeutic efficacy in a rhesus macaque disease model. Prophylactic and therapeutic countermeasure intervention of SARS-CoV-2 using JMB2002 would likely slow down the transmission of currently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants and result in more efficient control of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19420862.2021.1930636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8189090PMC
June 2021

Genome-Wide Screening Identifies Prognostic Long Noncoding RNAs in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Biomed Res Int 2021 20;2021:6640652. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266003, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy with a poor prognosis. Therefore, there is an urgent call for the investigation of novel biomarkers in HCC. In the present study, we identified 6 upregulated lncRNAs in HCC, including LINC01134, RHPN1-AS1, NRAV, CMB9-22P13.1, MKLN1-AS, and MAPKAPK5-AS1. Higher expression of these lncRNAs was correlated to a more advanced cancer stage and a poorer prognosis in HCC patients. Enrichment analysis revealed that these lncRNAs played a crucial role in HCC progression, possibly through a series of cancer-related biological processes, such as cell cycle, DNA replication, histone acetyltransferase complex, fatty acid oxidation, and lipid modification. Moreover, competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network analysis revealed that these lncRNAs could bind to certain miRNAs to promote HCC progression. Loss-of-function assays indicated that silencing of RHPN1-AS1 significantly suppressed HCC proliferation and migration. Though further validations are still needed, these identified lncRNAs could serve as valuable potential biomarkers for HCC prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6640652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163536PMC
May 2021

Sustainable aquaculture side-streams derived hybrid biocomposite for bone tissue engineering.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Jul 17;126:112104. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University Singapore, N4.1, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore; Environmental Chemistry and Materials Centre, Nanyang Environment & Water Research Institute, 1 CleanTech Loop, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141, Singapore; School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University Singapore, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore; Energy Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University Singapore, 50 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637553, Singapore. Electronic address:

Despite being a rich source of bioactive compounds, the current exploitation of aquatic biomass is insufficient. Majority of the aquaculture industry side-streams are currently used for low-value purposes such as animal feed or composting material, with low economical returns. To maximize resource reuse and minimize waste generation, valorization efforts should be augmented with the aim to produce high-value products. Herein, we present a novel aquaculture wastes-derived multi-scale osteoconductive hybrid biocomposite that is composed of chemically crosslinked American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) skin-derived type I tropocollagen nanofibrils (~22.3 nm) network and functionalized with micronized (~1.6 μm) single-phase hydroxyapatite (HA) from discarded snakehead (Channa micropeltes) fish scales. The bioengineered construct is biocompatible, highly porous (>90%), and exhibits excellent osteoconductive properties, as indicated by robust adhesion and proliferation of human fetal osteoblastic 1.19 cell line (hFOB 1.19). Furthermore, increased expression level of osteo-related ALPL and BGLAP mRNA transcripts, as well as enhanced osteocalcin immunoreactivity and increasing Alizarin red S staining coverage on the hybrid biocomposite was observed over 21 days of culture. Collectively, the devised "waste-to-resource" platform represents a sustainable waste valorization strategy that is amendable for advanced bone repair and regeneration applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.112104DOI Listing
July 2021

Biopolymer-Based Filtration Materials.

ACS Omega 2021 May 26;6(18):11804-11812. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, New Jersey 08028, United States.

Biobased materials such as cellulose, chitin, silk, soy, and keratin are attractive alternatives to conventional synthetic materials for filtration applications. They are cheap, naturally abundant, and easily fabricated with tunable surface chemistry and functionality. With the planet's increasing crisis due to pollution, the need for proper filtration of air and water is undeniably urgent. Additionally, fibers that are antibacterial and antiviral are critical for public health and in medical environments. The current COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the necessity for cheap, easily mass-produced antiviral fiber materials. Biopolymers can fill these roles very well by utilizing their intrinsic material properties, surface chemistry, and hierarchical fiber morphologies for efficient and eco-friendly filtration of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants. Further, they are biodegradable, making them attractive as sustainable, biocompatible green filters. This review presents various biopolymeric materials generated from proteins and polysaccharides, their synthesis and fabrication methods, and notable uses in filtration applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00791DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153993PMC
May 2021

Comparison of the microbial community and flavor compounds in fermented mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi): Three typical types of Chinese fermented mandarin fish products.

Food Res Int 2021 Jun 20;144:110365. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Lab of Aquatic Product Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs of the People's Republic of China, National Research and Development Center for Aquatic Product Processing, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300, China.

Fermented mandarin fish have been receiving attention from consumers due to their nutritional value and specific flavor. Microbial diversity in fermented mandarin fish has an important impact on their flavor and quality. However, little is known about the microbiome and the differences among different products. In this study, the bacterial profiles and flavor compounds in three typical fermented mandarin fish products were investigated and compared, and a correlation network was used to explore the potential relationship between microorganisms and flavor. Bacterial community analysis demonstrated clear differences in microbiota among the HF-, MF-, and OF-fermented mandarin fish products. Psychrilyobacter, Fusobacterium, and Vibrio were the most dominant in the HF-, MF-, and OF-fermented products, respectively. In addition, 14, 12, and 4 flavor substances (relative odor activity value, ROAV ≥ 1) were detected in the muscles from the central dorsal and ventral sides of the three samples, respectively. Several bacteria correlated with the production of important flavor compounds, and three genera (Arcobacter, Psychrilyobacter, and Shewanella) were the primary microorganisms contributing to more than six characteristic flavor compounds in fermented mandarin fish products. Therefore, the study's systematic method allows identificating important microbes and characteristic volatile flavor compounds in fermented mandarin fish and provides new insights into the relationship between microorganisms and flavor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110365DOI Listing
June 2021

A Bayesian inference model for metamemory.

Psychol Rev 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University.

The dual-basis theory of metamemory suggests that people evaluate their memory performance based on both processing experience during the memory process and their prior beliefs about overall memory ability. However, few studies have proposed a formal computational model to quantitatively characterize how processing experience and prior beliefs are integrated during metamemory monitoring. Here, we introduce a Bayesian inference model for metamemory (BIM) which provides a theoretical and computational framework for the metamemory monitoring process. BIM assumes that when people evaluate their memory performance, they integrate processing experience and prior beliefs via Bayesian inference. We show that BIM can be fitted to recall or recognition tasks with confidence ratings on either a continuous or discrete scale. Results from data simulation indicate that BIM can successfully recover a majority of generative parameter values, and demonstrate a systematic relationship between parameters in BIM and previous computational models of metacognition such as the stochastic detection and retrieval model (SDRM) and the meta-d' model. We also show examples of fitting BIM to empirical data sets from several experiments, which suggest that the predictions of BIM are consistent with previous studies on metamemory. In addition, when compared with SDRM, BIM could more parsimoniously account for the data of judgments of learning (JOLs) and memory performance from recall tasks. Finally, we discuss an extension of BIM which accounts for belief updating, and conclude with a discussion of how BIM may benefit metamemory research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rev0000270DOI Listing
May 2021

[Effects of tillage and fertility on soil nitrogen balance and greenhouse gas emissions of wheat-maize rotation system in Central Henan Province, China.]

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2021 May;32(5):1753-1760

College of Life Sciences, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, Henan, China.

Energy saving, emission reduction, and efficiency improvement are important directions for agricultural development in Central Henan Province, the main grain production area in the Huang-huai-hai Plain. Based on the tillage and fertilization positioning experiment in 2010, we investigated the effects of three tillage methods (deep tillage, shallow tillage, and no-tillage) and two fertilization methods (nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fertilizer+organic fertilizer) on soil nitrogen balance and greenhouse gas emissions from 2018 to 2019. The results showed that soil nitrogen accumulation increased with organic fertilizer addition. During wheat and maize maturation, soil total nitrogen accumulation in the 0-60 cm layer was the highest under the treatment of shallow tillage+organic fertilizer, being 8058.53 and 8299 kg N·hm, respectively, being 3.2%-27.4% and 4.3%-7.2% higher than other treatments. The treatment with organic fertilizer addition resulted in nitrogen surplus. The shallow tillage+organic fertilizer treatment led to the highest nitrogen surplus (13.57 kg N·hm), which was 9.52 and 0.18 kg N·hm higher than deep tillage+organic fertilizer and no tillage+organic fertilizer treatments. Nitrate leaching was the main way of nitrogen losses, accounting for 73.4%-76.9% of the total losses. The amount of nitrate leaching was the highest in deep tillage+organic fertilizer treatment (48.37 kg N·hm), being 18.9%-35.1% higher than other treatments. Results of greenhouse gases emission during 2018-2019 showed that global warming potential was the highest under the treatment of deep tillage+organic fertilizer, which was 33070 kg N·hm, being 6.6%-26.8% higher than other treatments. The treatment of organic fertilizer addition increased the emission of NO and CO and reduced the absorption of CH. The annual grain yield was highest under the treatment of deep tillage+organic fertilizer, which was 5.0%-17.1% higher than other treatments. The crop harvest index was the highest under the treatment of shallow tillage+organic fertilizer. The recommended cropping mode in Central Henan Pro-vince is shallow tillage+organic fertilizer, which could ensure crop yields, maintain soil nitrogen balance, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202105.027DOI Listing
May 2021

Mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy versus shock wave lithotripsy for the medium-sized renal stones.

Minerva Urol Nephrol 2021 Apr;73(2):187-195

Department of Urology, Institute of Urology (Laboratory of Reconstructive Urology), West China Hospital, University of Sichuan, Chengdu, China -

Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes of mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (Miniperc) and shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) for medium-sized renal stones.

Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was performed in February 2020 using the Pubmed, Web of Science and Embase. The outcome measurements between two procedures were stone-free rates (SFR), complication rates, operative time, hospitalization stay time, re-treatment rate, auxiliary procedures rate and efficiency quotient. Results were pooled by Review Manager version 5.3 software.

Evidence Synthesis: Seven studies on 936 patients (N.=471 for SWL and N.=465 for Miniperc) were included. Miniperc was associated with a higher SFR (OR: 0.25; P<0.00001). In addition, we performed a subgroup analyses for pediatric renal stones and lower pole stones, pooled results also favored Miniperc for higher SFR. SWL was associated with higher auxiliary procedure (OR: 3.32; P<0.00001), higher re-treatment rate (OR: 19.19; P<0.00001) and lower EQ (OR: 0.18; P=0.0003) compared with Miniperc. Besides, SWL was associated with a lower complication rate (OR: 0.36; P=0.0001), shorter operative time (WMD: -34.01; P<0.00001), fluoroscopy time (WMD: -134.48; P<0.00001) and hospital time (WMD: -49.11; P<0.00001) compared with Miniperc.

Conclusions: Miniperc offers a significantly higher SFR, lower auxiliary procedure and re-treatment rate, but SWL was associated with fewer complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-6051.21.04185-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Intraventricular dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor in the temporal horn with Broad involvement of the ependyma.

Clin Case Rep 2021 May 6;9(5):e03852. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurosurgery West China Hospital of Sichuan University Chengdu China.

Though typical dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs) are located in the cerebral cortex, an atypical DNET could occur in the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and broadly involve the ependyma. Awareness of this atypical form of DNET is of value for the wright diagnosis and management of atypical DNETs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.3852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117809PMC
May 2021

CTRP1 Aggravates Cardiac Dysfunction Post Myocardial Infarction by Modulating TLR4 in Macrophages.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:635267. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Huaian No.1 People's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Huai'an, China.

CTRP1 (C1q/TNF-α [tumour necrosis factor-α]-related protein 1), an adiponectin paralog, is associated with diabetes and adverse events in cardiovascular disease. However, its effect on cardiac function post myocardial infarction (MI) is unclear. Our study aimed to explore the role of CTRP1 in cardiac function post MI. CTRP1 global knockout mice were subjected to left anterior descending ligation to establish the MI model. C57BL6J mice were also administered recombinant CTRP1 protein (200 μg/kg) 7 days post MI. As a result, mice with CTRP1 deficiency exhibited an increased survival rate, a reduced infarct area, improved cardiac function and decreased inflammation and oxidative stress levels at 4 weeks post MI compared with those of mice receiving the CRTP1 injection, whose conditions deteriorated. However, cardiomyocytes with either CTRP1 silencing or CTRP1 treatment showed few differences in inflammation and oxidative stress levels compared with those of the control under hypoxic conditions. The activation of macrophages isolated from CTRP1-deficient mice was decreased in response to interferon-γ, while CTRP1 enhanced the activation of macrophages in response to interferon-γ. Macrophage scavengers and clodronate liposomes antagonized the effects of CTRP1 injection in mice. We also found that CTRP1 regulated macrophage activation adiponectin receptor 1, which binds to TLR4 on the macrophage membrane. TLR4 knockout also antagonized the effects of the CTRP1 protein on mice with MI. Taken together, these data indicate that CTRP1 supresses cardiac function post MI TLR4 on macrophages. Targeting CTRP1 may become a promising therapeutic approach to cardiac dysfunction post MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.635267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137831PMC
May 2021

Comparative efficacy of image-guided techniques in cardiac resynchronization therapy: a meta-analysis.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 May 24;21(1):255. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, No.300, Guangzhou Road, Nanjing, 210029, China.

Background: Several studies have illustrated the use of echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear imaging to optimize left ventricular (LV) lead placement to enhance the response of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in heart failure patients. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to determine the incremental efficacy of image-guided CRT over standard CRT.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane library, and EMBASE to identify relevant studies. The outcome measures of cardiac function and clinical outcomes were CRT response, concordance of the LV lead to the latest sites of contraction (concordance of LV), heart failure (HF) hospitalization, mortality rates, changes of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV).

Results: The study population comprised 1075 patients from eight studies. 544 patients underwent image-guided CRT implantation and 531 underwent routine implantation without imaging guidance. The image-guided group had a significantly higher CRT response and more on-target LV lead placement than the control group (RR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.21 to 1.47]; p < 0.01 and RR, 1.39 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.92]; p < 0.05, respectively). The reduction of LVESV in the image-guided group was significantly greater than that in the control group (weighted mean difference, - 12.46 [95% CI, - 18.89 to - 6.03]; p < 0.01). The improvement in LVEF was significantly higher in the image-guided group (weighted mean difference, 3.25 [95% CI, 1.80 to 4.70]; p < 0.01). Pooled data demonstrated no significant difference in HF hospitalization and mortality rates between two groups (RR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.16 to 5.08]; p = 0.90, RR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.37 to 1.29]; p = 0.24, respectively).

Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicates that image-guided CRT is correlated with improved CRT volumetric response and cardiac function in heart failure patients but not with lower hospitalization or mortality rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02061-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142495PMC
May 2021

Vegetation dynamics and its linkage with climatic and anthropogenic factors in the Dawen River Watershed of China from 1999 through 2018.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, 271018, China.

The Dawen River Watershed (DRW), an important sub-basin of the Yellow River, has been experiencing substantial climatic and anthropogenic stresses. Identifying how stressors relate to shifts in vegetation growth is critical for maintaining the health and stability of its regional ecosystems. To address this, we constructed a 20-year dataset (1999-2018) reflecting changes in satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), climate variables, and land use in the DRW. We then used time series, principal component, and partial correlation analyses to detect spatial and temporal patterns in vegetation dynamics over time, as well as linkages with temperature, precipitation, and anthropogenic activities. Over 20 years, the DRW exhibited a warming-greening trend and experienced four regime shifts in its climate-vegetation system, roughly centered on 2001, 2006, 2013, and 2016. Both the average and maximum NDVI increased in all seasons, likely due to favorable changes in seasonal climatic conditions. Temperature was the dominant factor promoting vegetative growth in spring, autumn, and throughout the growing season. Precipitation had a considerable positive effect on the average NDVI during the summer. Spatial analyses indicated that 67.94% of the study area exhibited significant increase in NDVI values over time, mainly locating in the mountains and in Dongping County; Significant NDVI decrease was generally located in the urban expansion areas around cities and counties. Land cover types and annual growth cycles appeared to govern spatial patterns and the extent of variation in vegetation growth, followed by land use-related drivers and climate anomalies. These findings offer an insight on appropriate ecological management and climatic adaptation within the Dawen River Watershed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14447-8DOI Listing
May 2021

Alternative polyadenylation trans-factor FIP1 exacerbates UUO/IRI-induced kidney injury and contributes to AKI-CKD transition via ROS-NLRP3 axis.

Cell Death Dis 2021 May 19;12(6):512. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Kidney Transplantation, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

NLRP3, a decisive role in inflammation regulation, is obviously upregulated by oxidative stress in kidney injury. The NLRP3 upregulation leads to unsolved inflammation and other pathological effects, contributing to aggravation of kidney injury and even transition to chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the mechanism for NLRP3 upregulation and further aggravation of kidney injury remains largely elusive. In this study, we found NLRP3 3'UTR was shortened in response to kidney injury in vivo and oxidative stress in vitro. Functionally, such NLRP3 3'UTR shortening upregulated NLRP3 expression and amplified inflammation, fibrogenesis, ROS production and apoptosis, depending on stabilizing NLRP3 mRNA. Mechanistically, FIP1 was found to bind to pPAS of NLRP3 mRNA via its arginine-rich domain and to induce NLRP3 3'UTR shortening. In addition, FIP1 was upregulated in CKD specimens and negatively associated with renal function of CKD patients. More importantly, we found FIP1 was upregulated by oxidative stress and required for oxidative stress-induced NLRP3 upregulation, inflammation activation, cell damage and apoptosis. Finally, we proved that FIP1 silencing attenuated the inflammation activation, fibrogenesis, ROS production and apoptosis induced by UUO or IRI. Taken together, our results demonstrated that oxidative stress-upregulated FIP1 amplified inflammation, fibrogenesis, ROS production and apoptosis via inducing 3'UTR shortening of NLRP3, highlighting the importance of crosstalk between oxidative stress and alternative polyadenylation in AKI-CKD transition, as well as the therapeutic potential of FIP1 in kidney injury treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03751-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134587PMC
May 2021

Global transcriptomic response of Listeria monocytogenes exposed to Fingered Citron (Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle) essential oil.

Food Res Int 2021 May 9;143:110274. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Hunan Agriculture Product Processing Institute, International Joint Lab on Fruits & Vegetables Processing, Quality and Safety, Hunan Key Lab of Fruits & Vegetables Storage, Processing, Quality and Safety, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125, Hunan Province, China; Longping Branch, Graduate School of Hunan University, Changsha 410125, Hunan Province, China. Electronic address:

Listeria monocytogenes, which could cause severe disease of listeriosis, is one of the most concerned foodborne pathogens worldwide. Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis Swingle (Fingered Citron) is one of the citrus species cultivated in south China. Here, we investigated the efficacy of Fingered Citron essential oil (FCEO) against L. monocytogenes and explored the response of L. monocytogenes in the presence of FCEO using genome-wide transcriptome analysis. FCEO exhibited strong anti-listeria activity and obvious alterations of cell morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, GO analysis demonstrated many potential cell responses, including metabolic process, cellular process, single-organism process, cell part, membrane, catalytic activity, binding, and transporter activity. KEGG analysis suggests that L. monocytogenes respond and adapt by (1) increasing motility through the enhancement of flagella rotation; (2) promoting cell tumbles and re-orientating to escape from FCEO; (3) enhancing the uptake of carbohydrates from environment to gain more energy; (4) changing the uptake of several metallic cations, including iron, zinc, cobalt, and nickel. Our research contributes to the understanding of the adaptive responses of L. monocytogenes exposed to FCEO and provides novel insights for finding new targets of anti-listeria therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2021.110274DOI Listing
May 2021

2  kW narrow-linewidth Yb-Raman fiber amplifier.

Opt Lett 2021 May;46(10):2404-2407

In this Letter, we report a high-power narrow-linewidth Yb-Raman fiber amplifier with a high second-order Raman threshold and high intensity stability. By employing two temporally stable seed lasers, over 2 kW output power at 1120 nm is achieved at a pump power of 2.6 kW with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 76.3%. The 3 dB linewidth of the 1120 nm Raman-signal laser varies slightly from 0.41 nm to 0.53 nm, and the power ratio of the second-order Raman Stokes light is only about ${-}{46.3}\;{\rm{dB}}$ at the output power of 2 kW. The results further confirm that the technique of employing temporally stable seed lasers is superior to the power scaling of narrow-linewidth Yb-Raman fiber amplifiers. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first demonstration of an over 2 kW narrow-linewidth fiber laser operating at 1120 nm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.425714DOI Listing
May 2021

100 Gbit/s co-designed optical receiver with hybrid integration.

Opt Express 2021 May;29(10):14304-14313

We demonstrate a co-designed optical receiver, which is hybrid-integrated with a silicon-photonic photodetector (PD) and silicon-germanium (SiGe) trans-impedance amplifier (TIA). Accurate equivalent circuit models of PD and electrical parasitic of chip-on-board (COB) assembly are built for co-simulation with TIA. Inductive peaking and equalizer (EQ) techniques are proposed in the design of TIA to extend the bandwidth of the optical receiver. The measured electrical 3-dB bandwidth of TIA and optical-to-electrical (O-E) 3-dB bandwidth of optical receiver are above 36.8 GHz and 36 GHz, respectively. For the optical receiver, clear eye diagrams up to a data rate of 80 Gbit/s are realized. The bit-error ratios (BER) for the NRZ signal with a different bit rate and received optical power are experimentally measured, and 100 Gbit/s NRZ operation is successfully achieved with a soft-decision forward error correction (SD-FEC) threshold.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.421980DOI Listing
May 2021

Dimeric clerodane diterpenoids and antiviral constituents of Dodonaea viscosa.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jul 15;112:104916. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China; School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

Three unprecedented dimeric clerodane diterpenoids, dodovisdimers A-C (1-3), along with six known clerodane monomers (4-9), were isolated from Dodonaea viscosa. Compounds 1-3 may be biosynthetically formed via an intermolecular Diels-Alder [4+2] cycloaddition between the coexisting monomers 4-7. The structures of these clerodanes were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, X-ray crystallographic study, and ECD calculations. Some isolates exerted antiviral effects on human influenza A virus (H3N2) in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104916DOI Listing
July 2021

DOE-SLAM: Dynamic Object Enhanced Visual SLAM.

Authors:
Xiao Hu Jochen Lang

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Faculty of Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada.

In this paper, we formulate a novel strategy to adapt monocular-vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping (vSLAM) to dynamic environments. When enough background features can be captured, our system not only tracks the camera trajectory based on static background features but also estimates the foreground object motion from object features. In cases when a moving object obstructs too many background features for successful camera tracking from the background, our system can exploit the features from the object and the prediction of the object motion to estimate the camera pose. We use various synthetic and real-world test scenarios and the well-known TUM sequences to evaluate the capabilities of our system. The experiments show that we achieve higher pose estimation accuracy and robustness over state-of-the-art monocular vSLAM systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21093091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8124583PMC
April 2021

Next-generation sequence-based preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disease resulting from maternal mosaicism.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 May 4;9(5):e1662. Epub 2021 May 4.

Reproductive and Genetic Hospital of CITIC-Xiangya, Changsha, China.

Background: Mosaicism poses challenges for genetic counseling and preimplantation genetic testing for monogenic disorders (PGT-M). NGS-based PGT-M has been extensively used to prevent the transmission of monogenic defects, but it has not been evaluated in the application of PGT-M resulting from mosaicism.

Methods: Four women suspected of mosaicism were confirmed by ultra-deep sequencing. Blastocyst trophectoderm cells and polar bodies were collected for whole genome amplification, followed by pathogenic variants detection and haplotype analysis based on NGS. The embryos free of the monogenic disorders were transplantable.

Results: Ultra-deep sequencing confirmed that the four women harbored somatic mosaic variants, with the proportion of variant cells at 1.12%, 9.0%, 27.60%, and 91.03%, respectively. A total of 25 blastocysts were biopsied and detected during four PGT cycles and 5 polar bodies were involved in one cycle additionally. For each couple, a wild-type embryo was successfully transplanted and confirmed by prenatal diagnosis, resulting in the birth of four healthy infants.

Conclusions: Mosaic variants could be effectively evaluated via ultra-deep sequencing, and could be prevented the transmission by PGT. Our work suggested that an NGS-based PGT approach, involving pathogenic variants detection combined with haplotype analysis, is crucial for accurate PGT-M with mosaicism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172198PMC
May 2021

vgrG is separately transcribed from hcp in T6SS orphan clusters and is under the regulation of IHF and HapR.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 28;559:15-20. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changbai Road 155, Changping District, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

V. cholerae, the causative agent of cholera epidemic, and V. fluvialis, the emerging foodborne pathogen, share highly homologous T6SS consisting of one large cluster and two small orphan or auxiliary clusters, and each of which was generally recognized as one operon. Here, we showed that the genes in each of the small clusters are organized into two transcriptional units. Specifically, the inner tube coding gene hcp/tssD is highly transcribed as one monocistron, while the tip component vgrG/tssI and its downstream effector and immunity genes are in one polycistron with very low transcriptional level. This conclusion is supported by qPCR analysis of mRNA abundance, reporter fusion analysis and transcriptional unit definition with RT-PCR analysis. Taking tssI2_a of V. fluvialis as an example, we further demonstrated that quorum sensing (QS) regulator HapR and global regulator IHF activate vgrG/tssI transcription by directly binding to its promoter region. Taken together, current studies deepen our understanding of T6SS system, highlighting its regulatory complexity during functional execution process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.04.092DOI Listing
June 2021

Chemical, Thermal, Time, and Enzymatic Stability of Silk Materials with Silk I Structure.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 16;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China.

The crystalline structure of silk fibroin Silk I is generally considered to be a metastable structure; however, there is no definite conclusion under what circumstances this crystalline structure is stable or the crystal form will change. In this study, silk fibroin solution was prepared from B. Mori silkworm cocoons, and a combined method of freeze-crystallization and freeze-drying at different temperatures was used to obtain stable Silk I crystalline material and uncrystallized silk material, respectively. Different concentrations of methanol and ethanol were used to soak the two materials with different time periods to investigate the effect of immersion treatments on the crystalline structure of silk fibroin materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman scattering spectroscopy (Raman), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to characterize the structure of silk fibroin before and after the treatments. The results showed that, after immersion treatments, uncrystallized silk fibroin material with random coil structure was transformed into Silk II crystal structure, while the silk material with dominated Silk I crystal structure showed good long-term stability without obvious transition to Silk II crystal structure. α-chymotrypsin biodegradation study showed that the crystalline structure of silk fibroin Silk I materials is enzymatically degradable with a much lower rate compared to uncrystallized silk materials. The crystalline structure of Silk I materials demonstrate a good long-term stability, endurance to alcohol sterilization without structural changes, and can be applied to many emerging fields, such as biomedical materials, sustainable materials, and biosensors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073524PMC
April 2021

Anti-stress effects of combined block of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Pharmacology, Peking University, School of Basic Medical Science, Beijing, China.

Background And Purpose: Mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs), glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus (PVN) are involved in the response to stress. The present study investigated the role of GRs and MRs in the PVN in regulating depressive and anxiety-like behaviours.

Experimental Approach: To model chronic stress, rats were exposed to corticosterone treatment via drinking water for 21 days, and GR antagonist RU486 and MR antagonist spironolactone, alone and combined, were directly injected in the PVN daily for the last 7 days of corticosterone treatment. Behavioural tests were run on days 22 and 23. Depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours were evaluated in forced swim test, sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test and social interaction test. The expression of GRs, MRs and CRF were detected by western blot.

Key Results: Rats exposed to corticosterone exhibited depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours. The expression of GRs and MRs decreased, and CRF levels increased in the PVN. The intra-PVN administration of RU486 increased the levels of GRs and CRF without influencing depressive- or anxiety-like behaviours. The spironolactone-treated group exhibited an increase in MRs without influencing GRs and CRF in the PVN and improved anxiety-like behaviours. Interestingly, the intra-PVN administration of RU486 and spironolactone combined restored expression of GRs, MRs and CRF and improved depressive- and anxiety-like behaviours.

Conclusion And Implications: In this rat model of stress, the simultaneous restoration of GRs, MRs and CRF in the PVN might play an important role in the treatment of depression and anxiety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.15511DOI Listing
April 2021