Publications by authors named "Xiao Chen"

2,287 Publications

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Hierarchical ultrastructure: An overview of what is known about tendons and future perspective for tendon engineering.

Bioact Mater 2022 Feb 29;8:124-139. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Dr. Li Dak Sum & Yip Yio Chin Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Orthopedic Surgery of the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310052, China.

Abnormal tendons are rarely ever repaired to the natural structure and morphology of normal tendons. To better guide the repair and regeneration of injured tendons through a tissue engineering method, it is necessary to have insights into the internal morphology, organization, and composition of natural tendons. This review summarized recent researches on the structure and function of the extracellular matrix (ECM) components of tendons and highlight the application of multiple detection methodologies concerning the structure of ECMs. In addition, we look forward to the future of multi-dimensional biomaterial design methods and the potential of structural repair for tendon ECM components. In addition, focus is placed on the macro to micro detection methods for tendons, and current techniques for evaluating the extracellular matrix of tendons at the micro level are introduced in detail. Finally, emphasis is given to future extracellular matrix detection methods, as well as to how future efforts could concentrate on fabricating the biomimetic tendons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2021.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8424392PMC
February 2022

Recognition of asymptomatic hypercholanemia of pregnancy: Different clinical features, fetal outcomes and bile acids metabolism from intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Sep 16:166269. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Key laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnosis, Ministry of Education, School of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore the clinical features, fetal outcomes and serum bile acids (BAs) metabolism in asymptomatic hypercholanemia of pregnancy (AHP), as well as the comparison with those in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and normal pregnancies.

Methods: A study containing 676 pregnant women was performed to investigate the clinical informations, routine biochemical features and obstetric outcomes of AHP by the comparison with ICP and normal pregnancies. Within the study subjects, 203 pregnant women received prospective determination for 55 serum individual BAs based on a validated UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS method. The differences in clinical features and serum BAs metabolism among the three groups were then investigated.

Results: The risk of adverse fetal outcomes in AHP (28.3%) was significantly higher than that in normal pregnancies (8.9%, p < 0.001), but lower than that in ICP group (52.1%, p < 0.001). Multivariate statistics analysis indicated a distinctive serum BAs metabolic profiling among the three groups (PLS-DA, RY = 0.580, Q = 0.537). Levels of serum BAs especially for deoxycholic acid species were found remarkably elevated in AHP as compared to those in ICP.

Conclusions: AHP group had distinguished clinical features and serum BAs metabolism as compared to ICP group and normal pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2021.166269DOI Listing
September 2021

A Cross-Sectional Nationwide Study on Accessibility and Availability of Neonatal care Resources in Hospitals of China: Current Situation, Mortality and Regional Differences: Neonatal Care Resources and Newborn Mortality in China.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Sep 21;14:100212. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Shanxi Province Children's Hospital.

Background: To investigate the current situation of neonatal care resources (NCR), newborn mortality rates (NMR), regional differences and existing challenges in China.

Methods: By using a self-designed questionnaire form and the cross-sectional method, we conducted a survey of all hospitals equipped with neonatal facilities in China from March 2019 to March 2020 with respect to the level and nature of these hospitals, the number of newborn beds and NICU beds, the number of neonatal pediatricians, and the development of therapeutic techniques. The data about the newborn births and deaths were retrieved from the annual statistics of the health commissions of the related provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities.

Finding: Included in this nationwide survey were 3,020 hospitals from all 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities directly under the Central Government of Mainland China, with a 100% response rate. They included 1,183 (39.2%) level-3 (L3) hospitals, 1629 (53.9%) L-2 hospitals and 208 (6.9%) L-1 hospitals. Geographically, 848 (31.4%) hospitals were distributed in Central China, 983 (32.5%) hospitals in East China, and 1,089 (36.1%) in West China. The 3,020 included hospitals were altogether equipped with 75,679 newborn beds, with a median of 20 (2-350) beds, of which 2,286 hospitals (75.7%) were equipped with neonatal intensive care units (NICU), totaling 28,076 NICU beds with a median of 5 (1-160) beds. There were altogether 27,698 neonatal pediatricians in these hospitals, with an overall doctor-bed ratio of 0.366. There were 48.18 newborn beds and 17.87 NICU beds per 10,000 new births in China. In East, Central and West China, the number of neonatal beds, NICU beds, neonatal pediatricians, and attending pediatricians or pediatricians with higher professional titles per 10,000 newborns was 42.57, 48.64 and 55.67; 17.07, 18.66 and 18.17; 16.26, 16.51 and 20.81; and 10.69, 10.81 and 11.29, respectively. However, when the population and area are taken into consideration and according to the health resources density index (HRDI), the number of newborn beds, NICU beds and neonatal pediatricians in West China was significantly lower than that in Central and East China. In addition, only 10.64% of the neonatal pediatricians in West China possessed the Master or higher degrees, 31.7% in East China and 20.14% in Central China. On the contrary, the number of neonatal pediatricians with a lower than Bachelor degree in West China was significantly higher than that in Central and East China (13.28% 7.36% and 4.28%). Technically, the application rate of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in L-1 hospitals of West China was lower than that in Central and East China. According to the statistics in 2018, the newborn mortality rate (NMR) in West China was significantly higher than that in Central and East China.

Interpretation: China has already possessed relatively good resources for neonatal care and treatment, which is the primary reason for the rapid decrease in the NMR in China. However, there are still substantial regional differences. The density of health resources, the level of technical development and educational background of neonatal pediatricians in West China still lag behind those in other regions of China and need to be further improved and upgraded.

Funding: This research work was funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China (81671504) and United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (CHINA-UNICEF501MCH).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358159PMC
September 2021

Supplementation of Kiwifruit Polyphenol Extract Attenuates High Fat Diet Induced Intestinal Barrier Damage and Inflammation via Reshaping Gut Microbiome.

Front Nutr 2021 30;8:702157. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

School of Public Health, The Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Monitoring and Disease Control, Ministry of Education, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China.

Impaired intestinal integrity and barrier function is associated with various diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and metabolic syndrome. In recent years, plant-derived polyphenols have attracted much attention on regulating intestinal barrier function. Kiwifruit was recorded as a traditional Chinese medicine which can treat gastrointestinal diseases, but the mechanism was still unclear. In this study we investigated the effects of kiwifruit polyphenol extracts (KPE) on high fat diet induced intestinal permeability and its possible mechanism. Dietary supplementation of KPE with 50 or 100 mg/kg bw could inhibit the increase of intestinal permeability caused by HFD and promote the expression of tight junction protein (Claudin-1, Occludin and ZO-1). From microbial diversity and RT-PCR, KPE administration reshaping gut microbiome, the relative abundance of and were increased, and the relative abundance of and were decreased. The changes in microbe may influence intestinal inflammatory status. Then the expression of TLRs and cytokines were detected. KPE supplementation showed anti-inflammatory effect, the expression of IL-10 was increased and the expression of TLR-2, TLR-4, TNF-α and IL-1β were decreased. Correlation analysis indicated that the expression of tight junction protein was negative correlation with TLR-2, TLR-4, TNF-α and IL-1β expression, but positively correlated with and IL-10 expression; the expression of and were negative correlation with TLR4, TNF-α, and IL-1β expression. KPE treatment relieve the intestinal damage caused by HFD, which was related to the regulation of , and expression and inhibit intestinal inflammation. KPE could be a functional component for preventing gut damage and its related disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.702157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8435571PMC
August 2021

Glycinebetaine: a versatile protectant to improve rice performance against aluminium stress by regulating aluminium uptake and translocation.

Plant Cell Rep 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

College of Life Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, 271018, Shandong, China.

Key Message: Glycinebetaine alleviates the detrimental effects of aluminium stress by regulating aluminium uptake and translocation, maintaining PSII activity, and activating the oxidative defence, thereby maintaining the growth and development of rice. Aluminium (Al) toxicity is one of the primary growth-limiting factors that limits plant growth and crop productivity in acidic soils. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants are susceptible to Al stress and do not naturally accumulate glycinebetaine (GB), one of the most effective protectants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous GB can ameliorate the detrimental effects of Al stress on rice plants. Our results showed that the growth, development and biomass of rice were clearly inhibited under Al stress. However, exogenous GB application increased rice shoot growth and photosynthetic pigments contents, maintained photosystem II (PSII) activity, and activated the antioxidant defence system under Al stress. More importantly, GB may mediate the expression of Al uptake- and translocation-related genes, including OsALS1, OsNrat1, OsSTAR1 and OsSTAR2, and the galacturonic acid contents in rice roots under Al stress. Therefore, our findings highlight exogenous GB application is a valid approach to effectively combat Al toxicity by regulating physiological and biochemical processes in crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00299-021-02780-8DOI Listing
September 2021

Estrogen-regulated AGR3 activates the estrogen receptor signaling pathway to promote tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, No. 324 Jingwuweiqi Road, Huaiyin District, Jinan, 250000, China.

Purpose: Anterior gradient 3 (AGR3) is associated with breast cancer progression, but its relationship with estrogen and tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer is still unclear. This study was designed to investigate the correlation of ARG3 and estrogen as well as the roles of ARG3 in tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer.

Methods: Online database including GEPIA, UALCAN, and TCGA and rVista predictive tool were applied to analyze the expression patterns of AGR3 and its relationship with estrogen receptor 1. AGR3 knockdown and overexpression cell models were constructed. Luciferase reporter assay and ChIP were performed to investigate intermolecular interactions. Western blotting and qPCR were applied to assess targets at mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Cell counting and MTT assay were applied to determine the cell proliferation.

Results: An elevation of AGR3 was observed in patients with breast cancer, especially in the patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. The TCGA dataset and in vitro data supported that AGR3 was positively correlated to ER. Further results demonstrated that ER protein bound to AGR3 promoter sites. AGR3 expression exhibited a positive correlation to cell viability. Besides, AGR3 promoted tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer.

Conclusion: AGR3 is associated with estrogen and promotes tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06385-3DOI Listing
September 2021

The association between BMI, smoking, drinking and thyroid disease: a cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Sep 13;21(1):184. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1277 JieFang Avenue, 430022, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background: There is no clear conclusion on the relationship between thyroid disease and obesity and lifestyle factors such as smoking and drinking. In this study, we analysed the association of body mass index (BMI), smoking and drinking with subclinical hypothyroidism (SHO) and thyroid nodules (TNs) with the results of a cross-sectional survey of urban residents in central China and discussed the potential mechanism linking these predictive factors and the two diseases.

Methods: This study included 1279 participants who were recruited from a Chinese community in 2011 and 2012. A questionnaire, laboratory examination and ultrasound diagnosis were conducted on these participants. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to analyse these factors.

Results: Overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m) was closely related to SHO and TNs in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Smoking had a protective effect on SHO and TNs, while drinking had a protective effect on TNs in univariate logistic regression and multivariate logistic regression with some covariates, but there was no significant difference between smoking and drinking and the two kinds of thyroid diseases in multivariate logistic regression analysis with all the covariates. In subgroup analysis, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 was significantly associated with SHO in people with positive thyroid antibodies (odds ratio (OR) = 2.221, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.168-4.184, P = 0.015) and smokers (OR = 2.179, 95 % CI: 1.041-4.561, P = 0.039). BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 was significantly associated with TNs in people over 60 years old (OR = 2.069, 95 % CI: 1.149-3.724, P = 0.015) and drinkers (OR = 3.065, 95 % CI: 1.413-6.648, P = 0.005). Drinking alcohol had a protective effect on TNs in smokers (OR = 0.456, 95 % CI: 0.240-0.865, P = 0.016) and people with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m (OR = 0.467, 95 % CI: 0.236-0.925, P = 0.029). No significant association was found between smoking and the two thyroid diseases in different subgroups.

Conclusions: Obesity is a risk factor for both TNs and SHO, especially in elderly individuals and people with positive thyroid autoantibodies. Obesity and metabolic syndrome may be more associated with TNs than SHO. Smoking may have a protective effect on thyroid disease, while drinking may have a protective effect only on TNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-021-00852-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8436425PMC
September 2021

Dietary exposure assessment of paralytic shellfish toxins through shellfish consumption in Shenzhen population, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology, Shenzhen Medical Key Discipline of Health Toxicology (2020-2024), Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, No. 8 Longyuan Road, Nanshan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518055, People's Republic of China.

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by certain marine dinoflagellates accumulate in filter-feeding marine bivalves. We used LC-MS/MS to detect and quantify 13 PSTs in 188 shellfish samples of 14 species collected from Shenzhen city's Buji seafood wholesale market from March 2019 to February 2020. Twenty-six of 188 shellfish samples (13.8%) were PSTs detectable. Within 14 species, 10 out of 34 noble clam Chlamys nobilis samples contain detectable PSTs with the highest detection rate 29.4%. Seven out of 17 samples from Nan'ao island contained detectable PSTs with the highest detection rate 41.2% among 11 origins. Samples containing PSTs were concentrated in spring and winter, with the highest levels in March>December>January. Among PSTs detected, C1 was dominant. Acute dietary exposure assessment for Shenzhen residents were based on mean adult body weight, 99 percentile daily shellfish consumption of Shenzhen food consumption survey 2008 and maximum PSTs concentration for each shellfish species. The outcome for Chlamys nobilis was 2.4~3.7-fold higher than recommended ARfDs. Mean PSTs concentration, P, and mean shellfish consumption were used to assess chronic dietary exposure. The results were lower than recommended ARfDs. In conclusion, residents in Shenzhen are at risk for acute PSTs poisoning, while relatively safe from chronic PSTs exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16249-4DOI Listing
September 2021

Microgel Single-Cell Culture Arrays on a Microfluidic Chip for Selective Expansion and Recovery of Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells.

Anal Chem 2021 Sep 8;93(37):12628-12638. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are rare and lack definite biomarkers, necessitating new methods for a robust expansion. Here, we developed a microfluidic single-cell culture (SCC) approach for expanding and recovering colorectal CSCs from both cell lines and tumor tissues. By incorporating alginate hydrogels with droplet microfluidics, a high-density microgel array can be formed on a microfluidic chip that allows for single-cell encapsulation and nonadhesive culture. The SCC approach takes advantage of the self-renewal property of stem cells, as only the CSCs can survive in the SCC and form tumorspheres. Consecutive imaging confirmed the formation of single-cell-derived tumorspheres, mainly from a population of small-sized cells. Through on-chip decapsulation of the alginate microgel, ∼6000 live cells can be recovered in a single run, which is sufficient for most biological assays. The recovered cells were verified to have the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of CSCs. Furthermore, multiple CSC-specific targets were identified by comparing the transcriptomics of the CSCs with the primary cancer cells. To summarize, the microgel SCC array offers a label-free approach to obtain sufficient quantities of CSCs and thus is potentially useful for understanding cancer biology and developing personalized CSC-targeting therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c02335DOI Listing
September 2021

Patient Perception Regarding the Safety of Elective Joint Arthroplasty Surgery During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Arthroplast Today 2021 Oct 6;11:113-121. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) practices have been dramatically impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. To date, no study has assessed trends in patient perceptions regarding the safety of elective TJA.

Methods: A single-institution, prospective cohort study was conducted between May 11th and August 10th, 2020. All patients who underwent elective hip and knee arthroplasty were contacted via telephone or emailed surveys. Two-hundred and thirty-five consecutive patients were screened, and 158 agreed to participate. The average age was 65.9 ± 11.5 years, with 51.0% of patients being female. The percentage of participants who underwent total knee, total hip, and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty was 41.4%, 37.6%, and 21.0%, respectively. Survey components assessed demographic data, level of concern and specific concerns about the pandemic, and factors increasing patient comfort in proceeding with surgery.

Results: Older age ( = .029) and female sex ( = .004) independently predicted higher concern on multivariate analysis. Race ( = .343), surgical site (knee vs hip,  = .58), and procedure type (primary vs revision,  = .26) were not significantly related to degree of concern. Most participants (71.5%) disagreed that the pandemic would negatively affect the outcome of their surgery. Patient concern mirrored statewide COVID-19 cases and deaths, rather than local municipal trends. The most cited reassuring factors were preoperative COVID-19 testing, personal protective equipment usage by hospital staff, and surgeon support.

Conclusions: Patient concern regarding the safety of elective TJA may follow broader policy-level events rather than local trends. Surgeons should note that universal preoperative COVID-19 testing, adequate personal protective equipment, and surgeon support were reassuring to patients.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV Therapeutic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artd.2021.07.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414990PMC
October 2021

Effect of endothelial progenitor cell-derived extracellular vesicles on endothelial cell ferroptosis and atherosclerotic vascular endothelial injury.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Sep 7;7(1):235. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Qingdao Hiser Medical Center, 4 Renmin Road, Shibei District, 266033, Qingdao City, Shandong Province, China.

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can overcome endothelial dysfunction and reduce AS risk. This study focused on the role of EPC-secreted extracellular vesicles (EPC-EVs) in AS. First, mouse EPCs and mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) were isolated and identified. EVs were isolated from EPCs and identified. EPC-EVs were co-cultured with MAECs and the internalization of EVs was observed. Glutathione (GSH) consumption, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, and iron accumulation and cell death in endothelial cells were detected. The binding relationship between miR-199a-3p and specificity protein 1 (SP1) was confirmed using dual-luciferase and RIP assays. The mouse model of AS was established. The relationships between miR-199a-3p expression and aortic area plaque and serum pro-inflammatory factor were analyzed. The degree of atherosclerotic lesion was detected using oil red O staining and the serum inflammatory factors were detected using ELISA. Our results elicited that EPC-EVs inhibited cell death, GSH consumption, ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and iron accumulation in endothelial cells, thereby suppressing ferroptosis of endothelial cells. EPC-EVs transferred miR-199a-3p into endothelial cells. miR-199a-3p targeted SP1. Silencing miR-199a-3p or overexpression of SP1 in endothelial cells reversed the effect of EPC-EVs on ferroptosis of endothelial cells. In vivo experiments confirmed that EPC-EVs inhibited ferroptosis of endothelial cells and then alleviated the occurrence of AS via the miR-199a-3p/SP1 axis. To conclude, EPC-EVs transferred miR-199a-3p to inhibit SP1, thus repressing ferroptosis of endothelial cells and retarding the occurrence of AS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00610-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8423825PMC
September 2021

Synergy of nanodiamond-doxorubicin conjugates and PD-L1 blockade effectively turns tumor-associated macrophages against tumor cells.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Sep 6;19(1):268. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Donghu Avenue No.185, Wuhan, 430072, China.

Background: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most abundant stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. Turning the TAMs against their host tumor cells is an intriguing therapeutic strategy particularly attractive for patients with immunologically "cold" tumors. This concept was mechanistically demonstrated on in vitro human and murine lung cancer cells and their corresponding TAM models through combinatorial use of nanodiamond-doxorubicin conjugates (Nano-DOX) and a PD-L1 blocking agent BMS-1. Nano-DOX are an agent previously proved to be able to stimulate tumor cells' immunogenicity and thereby reactivate the TAMs into the anti-tumor M1 phenotype.

Results: Nano-DOX were first shown to stimulate the tumor cells and the TAMs to release the cytokine HMGB1 which, regardless of its source, acted through the RAGE/NF-κB pathway to induce PD-L1 in the tumor cells and PD-L1/PD-1 in the TAMs. Interestingly, Nano-DOX also induced NF-κB-dependent RAGE expression in the tumor cells and thus reinforced HMGB1's action thereon. Then, BMS-1 was shown to enhance Nano-DOX-stimulated M1-type activation of TAMs both by blocking Nano-DOX-induced PD-L1 in the TAMs and by blocking tumor cell PD-L1 ligation with TAM PD-1. The TAMs with enhanced M1-type repolarization both killed the tumor cells and suppressed their growth. BMS-1 could also potentiate Nano-DOX's action to suppress tumor cell growth via blocking of Nano-DOX-induced PD-L1 therein. Finally, Nano-DOX and BMS-1 achieved synergistic therapeutic efficacy against in vivo tumor grafts in a TAM-dependent manner.

Conclusions: PD-L1/PD-1 upregulation mediated by autocrine and paracrine activation of the HMGB1/RAGE/NF-κB signaling is a key response of lung cancer cells and their TAMs to stress, which can be induced by Nano-DOX. Blockade of Nano-DOX-induced PD-L1, both in the cancer cells and the TAMs, achieves enhanced activation of TAM-mediated anti-tumor response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-01017-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8422639PMC
September 2021

Superspreading and heterogeneity in transmission of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19: A systematic review.

Comput Struct Biotechnol J 2021 1;19:5039-5046. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have caused substantial public health burdens and global health threats. Understanding the superspreading potentials of these viruses are important for characterizing transmission patterns and informing strategic decision-making in disease control. This systematic review aimed to summarize the existing evidence on superspreading features and to compare the heterogeneity in transmission within and among various epidemics of SARS, MERS and COVID-19.

Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase databases were extensively searched for original studies on the transmission heterogeneity of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 published in English between January 1, 2003, and February 10, 2021. After screening the articles, we extracted data pertaining to the estimated dispersion parameter () which has been a commonly-used measurement for superspreading potential.

Findings: We included a total of 60 estimates of transmission heterogeneity from 26 studies on outbreaks in 22 regions. The majority (90%) of the estimates were small, with values less than 1, indicating an over-dispersed transmission pattern. The point estimates of for SARS and MERS ranged from 0.12 to 0.20 and from 0.06 to 2.94, respectively. Among 45 estimates of individual-level transmission heterogeneity for COVID-19 from 17 articles, 91% were derived from Asian regions. The point estimates of for COVID-19 ranged between 0.1 and 5.0.

Conclusions: We detected a substantial over-dispersed transmission pattern in all three coronaviruses, while the estimates varied by differences in study design and public health capacity. Our findings suggested that even with a reduced value, the epidemic still has a high resurgence potential due to transmission heterogeneity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csbj.2021.08.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8409018PMC
September 2021

Circulating MiR-1290 as a potential diagnostic and disease monitoring biomarker of human gastrointestinal tumors.

BMC Cancer 2021 Sep 3;21(1):989. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310009, Zhejiang, Province, China.

Background: Gastrointestinal tumors are a leading cause of mortality worldwide. As shown in our previous study, miR-1290 is overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) and promotes tumor progression. We therefore aimed to explore the potential of circulating miR-1290 as a biomarker for gastrointestinal cancer.

Methods: A serum miRNA sequencing analysis was performed. Then, circulating miRNA detection technologies were established. The expression of miR-1290 was analyzed in gastrointestinal tumor cell lines and culture supernatants. Expression levels of circulating miR-1290 in clinical samples were examined. Associations between miR-1290 expression and clinicopathologic characteristics were analyzed. Xenograft models were generated to assess the fluctuation in serum miR-1290 levels during disease progression.

Results: Through miRNA sequencing, we identified that miR-1290 was overexpressed in serum samples from patients with CRC. We confirmed that human gastrointestinal tumor cells express and secrete miR-1290. The circulating miR-1290 levels was up-regulated in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) (p < 0.01), CRC (p < 0.05), and gastric cancer (GC) (p < 0.01). High miR-1290 expression levels were associated with tumor size, lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, distant metastasis, tumor differentiation and AJCC stage in patients with PC and CRC. The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.8857 in patients with PC, with 60.9% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity. The AUC was 0.7852 in patients with CRC, with 42.0% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity. In patients with GC, the AUC was 0.6576, with 26.0% sensitivity and 90.0% specificity. The in vivo model verified that the circulating miR-1290 level was significantly increased after tumor formation and decreased after drug treatment.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that circulating miR-1290 is a potential biomarker for gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis and monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08729-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8417985PMC
September 2021

Single-cell RNA-seq reveals functionally distinct biomaterial degradation-related macrophage populations.

Biomaterials 2021 Aug 30;277:121116. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery (Sports Medicine) of the Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China; Dr. Li Dak Sum & Yip Yio Chin Center for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China; Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China; Department of Sports Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China; Institute of Sports Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China; China Orthopedic Regenerative Medicine Group (CORMed), Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Macrophages play crucial roles in host tissue reaction to biomaterials upon implantation in vivo. However, the complexity of biomaterial degradation-related macrophage subpopulations that accumulate around the implanted biomaterials in situ is not fully understood. Here, using single cell RNA-seq, we analyze the transcriptome profiles of the various cell types around the scaffold to map the scaffold-induced reaction, in an unbiased approach. This enables mapping of all biomaterial degradation-associated cells at high resolution, revealing distinct subpopulations of tissue-resident macrophages as the major cellular sources of biomaterial degradation in situ. We also find that scaffold architecture can affect the mechanotransduction and catabolic activity of specific material degradation-related macrophage subpopulations in an Itgav-Mapk1-Stat3 dependent manner, eventually leading to differences in scaffold degradation rate in vivo. Our work dissects unanticipated aspects of the cellular and molecular basis of biomaterial degradation at the single-cell level, and provides a conceptual framework for developing functional tissue engineering scaffolds in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.121116DOI Listing
August 2021

A retrospective study on the preventive effect of statin after carotid artery stenting.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(35):e26201

The Third Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Abstract: This retrospective study appraised the preventive effect of statin after carotid artery stenting (CAS).Records were extracted for 100 patients with CAS surgery indicator, aged between 20 and 75 years old, and treated for statin. The cohort study included treatment group (statin and routine treatment) and control group (routine treatment), each group 50 patients. Outcomes consisted of degree of nerve defect (as measured by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale), lipid profiles (mg/dL), and CAS complications within 30 days after surgery.After treatment, there were no significant differences in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, lipid profiles, and mortality rate between 2 groups. However, significant differences in total cholesterol (mg/dL, P = .03), low-density lipoprotein (mg/dL, P = .01), transient ischemic attack (P = .03), ischemic stroke (P = .04), and cardiac complications (P = .03) were identified within 30 days after CAS between 2 groups.The results of this study showed that prior statin treatment may be effective for the prevention of CAS complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416008PMC
September 2021

Identification of sp. nov., a Novel Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209)-tolerant Strain Isolated from Coastal Sediment in Xiamen, China.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 Aug;34(8):656-661

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Vaccinology and Molecular Diagnotics, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2021.092DOI Listing
August 2021

Perovskite Quantum Dots Encapsulated in a Mesoporous Metal-Organic Framework as Synergistic Photocathode Materials.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Sep 30;143(35):14253-14260. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, P.R. China.

Metal halide perovskite quantum dots, with high light-absorption coefficients and tunable electronic properties, have been widely studied as optoelectronic materials, but their applications in photocatalysis are hindered by their insufficient stability because of the oxidation and agglomeration under light, heat, and atmospheric conditions. To address this challenge, herein, we encapsulated CsPbBr nanocrystals into a stable iron-based metal-organic framework (MOF) with mesoporous cages (∼5.5 and 4.2 nm) via a sequential deposition route to obtain a perovskite-MOF composite material, [email protected](Fe), in which CsPbBr nanocrystals were stabilized from aggregation or leaching by the confinement effect of MOF cages. The monodispersed CsPbBr nanocrystals (4-5 nm) within the MOF lattice were directly observed by transmission electron microscopy and corresponding mapping analysis and further confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and N adsorption characterizations. Density functional theory calculations further suggested a significant interfacial charge transfer from CsPbBr quantum dots to PCN-333(Fe), which is ideal for photocatalysis. The [email protected](Fe) composite exhibited excellent and stable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalytic activities in aprotic systems. Furthermore, [email protected](Fe) composite worked as the synergistic photocathode in the photoassisted Li-O battery, where CsPbBr and PCN-333(Fe) acted as optical antennas and ORR/OER catalytic sites, respectively. The [email protected](Fe) photocathode showed lower overpotential and better cycling stability compared to CsPbBr nanocrystals or PCN-333(Fe), highlighting the synergy between CsPbBr and PCN-333(Fe) in the composite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c05907DOI Listing
September 2021

Curcumin Nanoparticles Attenuate Lipotoxic Injury in Cardiomyocytes Through Autophagy and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling Pathways.

Front Pharmacol 2021 11;12:571482. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Medical College, Huzhou University, Huzhou, China.

Although curcumin (CUR) has many advantages, its hydrophobicity and instability limit its application. In this study, the anti-lipotoxic injury activity of CUR-loaded nanoparticles (CUR-NPs) and the corresponding mechanism were examined in palmitate (PA)-treated cardiomyocytes. An amphiphilic copolymer was selected as the vehicle material, and CUR-NPs with suitable sizes were prepared under optimized conditions. Cellular uptake was examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and cell proliferation inhibition rate was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra bromide (MTT) assay. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used to detect cell apoptosis. The protein expression was detected by western blot. Exposure to PA reduces the proliferation of cardiomyocytes, but this effect was strongly reversed by CUR-NPs. In addition, our data showed that CUR-NPs strongly inhibited cell apoptosis in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, CUR-NPs remarkably increased the expression of LC3-II, as well as inhibited the expression of p-PERK, -eIF2α, and ATF4 in PA-treated cardiomyocytes. Salubrinal (an eIF2α inhibitor) blocked the protective effect of CUR-NPs against PA-induced cardiomyocyte injury. Our results suggested that CUR-NPs can activated the autophagy pathway and protect myocardial cells from apoptosis, and these effects may be mediated by the eIF2α-related endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.571482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8386169PMC
March 2021

Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are associated with malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms: A multicenter study.

Lipids Health Dis 2021 Aug 28;20(1):94. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Radiology, the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 155 Hanzhong road, 210029, Nanjing, China.

Background: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) can potentially undergo malignant transformation. Studies have shown that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was associated with the risk of cancer. In this study, the association between HDL-c and the incidence of malignancy in IPMNs was investigated.

Materials And Methods: 226 patients with histologically proven IPMNs who underwent surgery were included in the present study. Patients were assigned to a training group (n = 151) and validation group (n = 75). Patients' demographic information, clinical data, and histopathological evaluation findings were obtained from medical records. Malignant IPMNs were defined as lesions that showed high grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma. Logistic regression analyses were used to show the association between HDL-c and malignant IPMNs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to analyze predictive performance.

Results: The prevalence of low HDL-c levels was higher in patients with malignant IPMNs than in those with non-malignant IPMNs (P < 0.01) in both the training group and validation group. The prevalence of malignant IPMNs decreased with an increase in HDL-c levels both in patients with all types of IPMNs, as well as in those with branch-duct IPMNs (BD-IPMNs).Logistic analysis showed that low HDL-c levels were associated with malignant IPMNs (odds ratio (OR) = 20.56, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 2.58-163.64, P < 0.01) in all types of IPMNs and BD-IPMNs (OR = 17.6, 95 %CI: 1.16-268.46, P = 0.02 ).The predictive performance of mural nodules plus low HDL-c levels was higher than that of mural nodules alone or mural nodules plus cyst size for the identification of malignant BD-IPMNs.

Conclusions: HDL-c levels may serve a potential biomarker for identifying malignant IPMNs and improve the predictive ability of malignancy in BD-IPMNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-021-01523-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8399724PMC
August 2021

Chromosome organization and gene expansion in the highly fragmented genome of the ciliate Strombidium stylifer.

J Genet Genomics 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Institute of Evolution & Marine Biodiversity, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China. Electronic address:

Chromosomes are well-organized carriers of genetic information in eukaryotes and are usually quite long, carrying hundreds and thousands of genes. Intriguingly, a clade of single-celled ciliates, Spirotrichea, feature nanochromosomes-also called "gene-sized chromosomes". These chromosomes predominantly carry only one gene, flanked by short telomere sequences. However, the organization and copy number variation of the chromosomes in these highly fragmented genomes remain unexplored in many groups of Spirotrichea, including the marine Strombidium. Using deep genome sequencing, we assembled the macronuclear genome of Strombidium stylifer into more than 18,000 nanochromosomes (~2.4 Kb long on average). Our results show that S. stylifer occupies an intermediate position during the evolutionary history of Strombidium lineage and experienced significant expansions in several gene families related to guanyl ribonucleotide binding. Based on the nucleotide distribution bias analysis and conserved motifs search in non-genic regions, we found that the subtelomeric regions have a conserved adenine-thymine (AT)-rich sequence motif. We also found that the copy number of nanochromosomes lacks precise regulation. This work sheds light on the unique features of chromosome structure in eukaryotes with highly fragmented genomes and reveals that a rather specialized evolutionary strategy at the genomic level has resulted in great diversity within the ciliated lineages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgg.2021.05.014DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluating the Effect of Window-to-Wall Ratios on Cooling-Energy Demand on a Typical Summer Day.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 08 9;18(16). Epub 2021 Aug 9.

College of Landscape Architecture and Art Design, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China.

The window-to-wall ratio (WWR) significantly affects the indoor thermal environment, causing changes in buildings' energy demands. This research couples the "Envi-met" model and the "TRNSYS" model to predict the impact of the window-to-wall ratio on indoor cooling energy demands in south Hunan. With the coupled model, "Envi-met + TRNSYS", fixed meteorological parameters around the exterior walls are replaced by varied data provided by Envi-met. This makes TRNSYS predictions more accurate. Six window-to-wall ratios are considered in this research, and in each scenario, the electricity demand for cooling is predicted using "Envi-met + TRNSYS". Based on the classification of thermal perception in south Hunan, the TRNSYS predictions of the electricity demand start with 30 °C as the threshold of refrigeration. The analytical results reveal that in a 6-storey residential building with 24 households, in order to maintain the air temperature below 30 °C, the electricity required for cooling buildings with 0% WWR, 20% WWR, 40% WWR, 60% WWR, 80% WWR, and 100% WWR are respectively 0 KW·h, 19.6 KW·h, 133.7 KW·h, 273.1 KW·h, 374.5 KW·h, and 461.9 KW·h. This method considers the influence of microclimate on the exterior wall and improves the accuracy of TRNSYS in predicting the energy demand for indoor cooling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168411DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393238PMC
August 2021

Ultrasound-Guided Knee Injections Are More Accurate Than Blind Injections: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil 2021 Aug 26;3(4):e1177-e1187. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Purpose: To review the current literature to determine which injection technique and needle portal placement provide the greatest accuracy for intra-articular access to the knee.

Methods: This study followed Preferred Reporting Items and Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in March 2020 and repeated in May 2020 using electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. Data on the accuracy of intra-articular knee injection (successful injections/total number of injections) were collected. Only Level I studies were included. Study design, demographic variables, needle sizes, and method of validating accuracy were recorded. The Jadad score was used to assess methodologic quality, and a risk-of-bias assessment was performed.

Results: A total of 12 Level I human studies (1431 patients, 1315 knees) were included in this review. Seven of the studies did a direct comparison between ultrasound-guided and blind knee injections. Ultrasound-guided injections were more accurate compared with blinded knee injections in every study. The most accurate anatomical approach was an isometric quadricep contraction method with the superolateral approach.

Conclusions: This study showed that ultrasound-guided knee injections were more accurate across every anatomical needle injection site compared with blind injections. Injections made by a blind/anatomically guided method had inconsistent accuracy rates that seemed highly dependent on the portal of entry.

Level Of Evidence: Level I, ystematic review of Level I studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asmr.2021.01.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8365196PMC
August 2021

The potential differential diagnosis value and clinical significance of CD35 expression in B-chronic lymphoproliferative disorders.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Jul;9(14):1166

Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University (Jiangsu Provincial People's Hospital), Nanjing, China.

Background: Flow cytometry for immunophenotyping is the main method for diagnosing chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Differential diagnosis between CLL and other B-chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (B-CLPDs) is sometimes difficult. This study aimed to investigate whether cluster of differentiation 35 (CD35) could be a useful marker for the differential diagnosis of CLL and other B-CLPDs.

Methods: The CD35 expression on lymphoma cells from 516 B-CLPD patients (347 CLL, 169 other B-CLPDs) was investigated through flow cytometry analysis. Serum C3 and C4 levels in B-CLPD patients were also evaluated.

Results: The results showed that the expression percentage and mean fluorescence intensity of CD35 were reduced in CLL cases compared with other B-CLPD patients. Furthermore, CD35 <17% produced a sensitivity of 81.8% and a specificity of 88.4% for supporting the diagnosis of CLL. Additionally, the addition of CD35 to Matutes score improved the score's discriminative power. The sensitivity of the Matutes score was improved from 81.3% to 88.5%, and the accuracy was improved from 96.6% to 97.6%. Finally, 15.0% and 16.4% of CLL patients had defective serum C3 and C4 levels at diagnosis, respectively.

Conclusions: Evaluating CD35 expression could have potential differential diagnostic value in distinguishing CLL from other B-CLPDs, especially between CLL and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-3199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350686PMC
July 2021

A single-sided magnet for deep-depth fat quantification.

J Magn Reson 2021 Aug 13;331:107053. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Wuxi Marvel Stone Healthcare Co. Ltd., Wuxi 214135, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Early detection of fatty-liver disease is important before further aggravations of the disease, such as cirrhosis, can develop. In this study, we developed a low-cost, movable single-sided magnet for in vivo liver fat quantification. A gradient field of 73.5 G/cm and a field strength of 0.0725 T were obtained by structurally optimizing the concave U-shaped magnet, on which the region of interest (ROI) was a curved shape about 0.4 mm thick, 8 cm above the surface of the radiofrequency (RF) coil. We constructed a prototype nuclear magnetic-resonance (NMR) relaxometry system based on this optimized magnet. Subsequent phantom experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of the single-sided magnet in evaluating different proton density fat fraction (PDFF) phantoms. As expected, the results of the six phantoms showed good positive correlation between PDFF and the fitted fat amplitude, which suggested that single-sided NMR relaxometry could be used to quantify liver fat in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2021.107053DOI Listing
August 2021

FPGA implementation of a real-time digital pulse processing analysis for radiation detectors.

Appl Radiat Isot 2021 Oct 18;176:109900. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, 610059, China.

A new universal, flexible firmware has been implemented on field -programmable gate array (FPGA) for gamma-ray spectroscopy. The firmware of the FPGA runs on a digitizer that we developed ourselves. The present paper describes the detailed architecture of the firmware, including the trapezoidal shaper, peak detection, pulse height analyzer, and pile-up rejection. Gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements are made using a NaI(Tl) detector, CdZnTe detector, and HPGe detector.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apradiso.2021.109900DOI Listing
October 2021

FDA Approval Summary: Tivozanib for Relapsed or Refractory Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Division of Oncology Products 1, Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

On March 10, 2021, the FDA granted regular approval to tivozanib for treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory (R/R) advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) following two or more prior systemic therapies. Approval was based on the TIVO-3 study, a randomized trial of tivozanib versus sorafenib in patients with R/R advanced RCC. In TIVO-3, patients were randomized to receive either tivozanib 1.34 mg orally once daily for 21 consecutive days of every 28-day cycle or sorafenib 400 mg orally twice daily continuously. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) per RECIST v1.1. Tivozanib demonstrated efficacy compared with sorafenib with an improvement in PFS [HR: 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56-0.95; p=0.016]. The estimated median PFS was 5.6 months and 3.9 months in the tivozanib and sorafenib arms, respectively. There was no evidence of a detrimental effect on overall survival: HR 0.97 (95% CI: 0.75-1.24). The most common grade 3-4 adverse reaction on the tivozanib arm was hypertension (24%). Compared to sorafenib, tivozanib was associated with lower rates of grade 3-4 diarrhea, rash, and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia. Patients receiving tivozanib in TIVO-3 had lower rates of dose reduction, interruption, or permanent discontinuation than those receiving sorafenib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-2334DOI Listing
August 2021

Centering inclusivity in the design of online conferences-An OHBM-Open Science perspective.

Gigascience 2021 Aug;10(8)

The Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences, and Monash Biomedical Imaging, Monash University, Victoria, VIC, Clayton 3168, Australia.

As the global health crisis unfolded, many academic conferences moved online in 2020. This move has been hailed as a positive step towards inclusivity in its attenuation of economic, physical, and legal barriers and effectively enabled many individuals from groups that have traditionally been underrepresented to join and participate. A number of studies have outlined how moving online made it possible to gather a more global community and has increased opportunities for individuals with various constraints, e.g., caregiving responsibilities. Yet, the mere existence of online conferences is no guarantee that everyone can attend and participate meaningfully. In fact, many elements of an online conference are still significant barriers to truly diverse participation: the tools used can be inaccessible for some individuals; the scheduling choices can favour some geographical locations; the set-up of the conference can provide more visibility to well-established researchers and reduce opportunities for early-career researchers. While acknowledging the benefits of an online setting, especially for individuals who have traditionally been underrepresented or excluded, we recognize that fostering social justice requires inclusivity to actively be centered in every aspect of online conference design. Here, we draw from the literature and from our own experiences to identify practices that purposefully encourage a diverse community to attend, participate in, and lead online conferences. Reflecting on how to design more inclusive online events is especially important as multiple scientific organizations have announced that they will continue offering an online version of their event when in-person conferences can resume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giab051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8377301PMC
August 2021

Etiological and epidemiological features of acute respiratory infections in China.

Nat Commun 2021 08 18;12(1):5026. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Division of Infectious Disease, Key Laboratory of Surveillance and Early-warning on Infectious Disease, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Nationwide prospective surveillance of all-age patients with acute respiratory infections was conducted in China between 2009‒2019. Here we report the etiological and epidemiological features of the 231,107 eligible patients enrolled in this analysis. Children <5 years old and school-age children have the highest viral positivity rate (46.9%) and bacterial positivity rate (30.9%). Influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus are the three leading viral pathogens with proportions of 28.5%, 16.8% and 16.7%, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the three leading bacterial pathogens (29.9%, 18.6% and 15.8%). Negative interactions between viruses and positive interactions between viral and bacterial pathogens are common. A Join-Point analysis reveals the age-specific positivity rate and how this varied for individual pathogens. These data indicate that differential priorities for diagnosis, prevention and control should be highlighted in terms of acute respiratory tract infection patients' demography, geographic locations and season of illness in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25120-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373954PMC
August 2021
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