Publications by authors named "Xianlong Peng"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Magnesium Fertilization Affected Rice Yields in Magnesium Sufficient Soil in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China.

Front Plant Sci 2021 11;12:645806. Epub 2021 May 11.

College of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, China.

Magnesium (Mg) plays a crucial role in rice yield. Heilongjiang Province is the main rice-producing region of China, playing an important role in guaranteeing China's and the world's grain security. However, rarely Mg fertilization is applied in this province. Soil Mg status of main rice-producing areas in Heilongjiang Province was investigated and Mg fertilizer experiments were conducted aiming to provide fertilizer recommendation in this region. A total of 358 soil samples from the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layer from the main rice-producing areas of Heilongjiang Province were collected to analyze soil exchangeable Mg (ex-Mg) and relative chemical properties. Meanwhile, field experiments of soil and foliar Mg application were performed in 2017-2019 to identify the effect of this nutrient on rice yield. The results showed that the ex-Mg concentration in the 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil layer was 282 mg kg and 243 mg kg, respectively. Moreover, ex-Mg ranged on the abundant and exceptionally abundant level accounted for 75% in 0-20 cm and 55.3% in 20-40 cm. The ex-Mg concentration in the upper soil layer was higher than in the lower soil layer and varied depending on regions, which the west part of Heilongjiang Province showed the highest concentration in both soil layers. Correlation analysis showed that there had a significant ( < 0.05) linear relationship between ex-Mg and pH, CEC, ex-K, Ca, K/Mg, and Ca/Mg. Meanwhile, the results of path coefficients demonstrated that pH, CEC, and Ca/Mg had the most direct effect on ex-Mg concentration among these above factors. Soil Mg application had little effect on rice yield, which might be related to the soil Mg concentration and availability, and root uptake activity. Foliar Mg application increased rice yield by 8.45% ( < 0.05) compared to without Mg treatment, increased 1,000-grain weight by 2.62% ( < 0.05), and spikelet number per panicle by 4.19% ( < 0.05). In general, the paddy soil ex-Mg concentration in Heilongjiang Province was abundant. Soil-applied Mg played little role in rice yield in ex-Mg abundant regions, while foliar application increased rice yields significantly via increasing 1,000-grain weight and spikelet number per panicle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.645806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144475PMC
May 2021

The Involvement of Aquaporin-4 in the Interstitial Fluid Drainage Impairment Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 26;12:611494. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Anatomy and Histology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

The mechanism of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has not yet been clarified. The glymphatic system (GS), a glia-dependent waste clearance pathway, drains away soluble waste proteins and metabolic products, even some toxic factors from the brain. Aquaporin-4 (Aqp4) is highly expressed on the astrocyte foot processes and facilitates the interstitial fluid (ISF) transportation in the GS system. In this study, the role of Aqp4 in the GS injury after SAH was explored using Aqp4 gene knockout (Aqp4) Sprague Dawley rats. The results of MRI, fluorescent imaging, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that, after SAH, the inflow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the brain and the clearance of ISF from the brain were both significantly decreased. Meanwhile, the expression level of Aqp4 around the artery was markedly higher than that around the vein following SAH. Aqp4 knockout exacerbated the GS damage after SAH. In summary, after SAH, there was an apparent GS impairment, and Aqp4 played key roles in modulating the function of GS in the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.611494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870692PMC
January 2021

Pursuing sustainable productivity with millions of smallholder farmers.

Nature 2018 03 7;555(7696):363-366. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang 050051, China.

Sustainably feeding a growing population is a grand challenge, and one that is particularly difficult in regions that are dominated by smallholder farming. Despite local successes, mobilizing vast smallholder communities with science- and evidence-based management practices to simultaneously address production and pollution problems has been infeasible. Here we report the outcome of concerted efforts in engaging millions of Chinese smallholder farmers to adopt enhanced management practices for greater yield and environmental performance. First, we conducted field trials across China's major agroecological zones to develop locally applicable recommendations using a comprehensive decision-support program. Engaging farmers to adopt those recommendations involved the collaboration of a core network of 1,152 researchers with numerous extension agents and agribusiness personnel. From 2005 to 2015, about 20.9 million farmers in 452 counties adopted enhanced management practices in fields with a total of 37.7 million cumulative hectares over the years. Average yields (maize, rice and wheat) increased by 10.8-11.5%, generating a net grain output of 33 million tonnes (Mt). At the same time, application of nitrogen decreased by 14.7-18.1%, saving 1.2 Mt of nitrogen fertilizers. The increased grain output and decreased nitrogen fertilizer use were equivalent to US$12.2 billion. Estimated reactive nitrogen losses averaged 4.5-4.7 kg nitrogen per Megagram (Mg) with the intervention compared to 6.0-6.4 kg nitrogen per Mg without. Greenhouse gas emissions were 328 kg, 812 kg and 434 kg CO equivalent per Mg of maize, rice and wheat produced, respectively, compared to 422 kg, 941 kg and 549 kg CO equivalent per Mg without the intervention. On the basis of a large-scale survey (8.6 million farmer participants) and scenario analyses, we further demonstrate the potential impacts of implementing the enhanced management practices on China's food security and sustainability outlook.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature25785DOI Listing
March 2018

Producing more grain with lower environmental costs.

Nature 2014 Oct 3;514(7523):486-9. Epub 2014 Sep 3.

College of Resources &Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Agriculture faces great challenges to ensure global food security by increasing yields while reducing environmental costs. Here we address this challenge by conducting a total of 153 site-year field experiments covering the main agro-ecological areas for rice, wheat and maize production in China. A set of integrated soil-crop system management practices based on a modern understanding of crop ecophysiology and soil biogeochemistry increases average yields for rice, wheat and maize from 7.2 million grams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)), 7.2 Mg ha(-1) and 10.5 Mg ha(-1) to 8.5 Mg ha(-1), 8.9 Mg ha(-1) and 14.2 Mg ha(-1), respectively, without any increase in nitrogen fertilizer. Model simulation and life-cycle assessment show that reactive nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions are reduced substantially by integrated soil-crop system management. If farmers in China could achieve average grain yields equivalent to 80% of this treatment by 2030, over the same planting area as in 2012, total production of rice, wheat and maize in China would be more than enough to meet the demand for direct human consumption and a substantially increased demand for animal feed, while decreasing the environmental costs of intensive agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13609DOI Listing
October 2014

[Effects of selenium on soybean chloroplast ultra-structure and microelement content of soybean leaves under continuous cropping stress].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2003 Apr;14(4):573-6

Insititute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China.

Pot and field experiments were carried out to study the effect of low Se concentration on soybean chloroplast ultra-structure and on Mg, Fe, Mn and contents in soybean leaves under continuous cropping stress. The results showed that Se could certainly increase the contents of Mg, Fe and Mn in soybean leaves when the application rate of Se was below 0.50 mg.kg-1 in pot experiment, and below 300 g.hm-2 in field experiment. In pot experiment, Se concentration positively correlated with Mg and Fe contents in soybean leaves, but the relationship between Mn and Se was hardly to be quantified. Transmission electron microscopic observation indicated that under continuous cropping stress, application of Se could hold the soybean chloroplast membrane structure in good condition. When Se was not applied, the chloroplast swelled, and its grana disappeared, and even, transformed into etioplast. These experiments indicated that application of low Se could alleviate peroxidative stress resulting from continuous cropping, and keep the soybean grow normally.
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April 2003