Publications by authors named "Xianhui Qin"

132 Publications

Egg consumption associated with all-cause mortality in rural China: a 14-year follow-up study.

Eur J Public Health 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Background: Dietary recommendations regarding egg intake remain controversial topic for public health. We hypothesized that there was a positive association between egg consumption and all-cause mortality.

Methods: To test this hypothesis, we enrolled 9885 adults from a community-based cohort in Anhui Province, China during 2003-05. Egg consumption was assessed by food questionnaire. Stratified analyses were performed for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, smoking, drinking and laboratory tests.

Results: After an average follow-up of 14.1 years, 9444 participants were included for analysis. A total of 814 deaths were recorded. Participants' BMI and lipid profile had no significantly difference between three egg consumption groups. BMI was 21.6±2.7 of the whole population, especially BMI>24 was only 17.3%. A bivariate association of egg consumption >6/week with increased all-cause mortality was observed compared with ≤6/week (RR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.73, P = 0.018). A significant interaction was observed for BMI ≥ 21.2 kg/m2 vs. BMI<21.2 kg/m2 (P for interaction: 0.001). No other significant interactions were found.

Conclusions: In this study, consuming >6 eggs/week increased risk of all-cause mortality, even among lean participants, especially who with BMI ≥ 21.2 kg/m2. Eggs are an easily accessible and constitute an affordable food source in underdeveloped regions. Consuming <6 eggs/week may be the most suitable intake mode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckaa250DOI Listing
May 2021

Inverse association between dietary vitamin A intake and new-onset hypertension.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 18;40(5):2868-2875. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China; National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, Guangzhou, 510515, China; Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, Guangzhou, 510515, China; State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangzhou, 510515, China; Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangzhou, 510515, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou, 510515, China; Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The prospective relation of dietary vitamin A intake with hypertension remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the relationship of dietary vitamin A intake with new-onset hypertension and examine possible effect modifiers in general population.

Methods: This prospective cohort study included 12,245 participants who were free of hypertension at baseline from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Dietary intake was measured by 3 consecutive 24-h dietary recalls combined with a household food inventory. The study outcome was new-onset hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or diagnosed by physician or under antihypertensive treatment during the follow-up.

Results: During a median follow-up duration of 6.1 years, a total of 4,304 (35.1%) participants developed new-onset hypertension. Overall, there was an L-shaped relation of total dietary vitamin A intake with new-onset hypertension (P for nonlinearity <0.001). Accordingly, compared with participants with lower vitamin A intake (quartile 1, <227.3 μg RE/day), those with higher vitamin A intake (quartile 2-4, ≥227.3 μg RE/day) had a significantly lower risk of new-onset hypertension (adjusted HR, 0.73; 95%CI: 0.63, 0.78). Similar results were found for plant-derived vitamin A intake (adjusted HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.61, 0.70) or animal-derived vitamin A intake (adjusted HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.70, 0.82).

Conclusions: There was a L-shaped relation of dietary vitamin A intake with new-onset hypertension in general Chinese adults. Our results emphasized the importance of maintaining relatively higher vitamin A intake levels for the prevention of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.04.004DOI Listing
April 2021

Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine and cystatin C with new-onset diabetes: a nationwide cohort study in China.

Acta Diabetol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Aims: The association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the risk of diabetes remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the association between eGFR based on creatinine (eGFRcr), cystatin C (eGFRcys), or a combination of both (eGFRcr-cys) and new-onset diabetes, using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), a nationally representative cohort study.

Methods: A total of 4,775 participants with pertinent measurements and without diabetes at baseline from CHARLS were included in the final analysis. The eGFR was calculated by creatinine, cystatin C or a combination of both using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations. The study outcome was new-onset diabetes, defined as physician-diagnosed diabetes or use of glucose-lowering drugs during follow-up, or fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL, random glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL, or HbA1c ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) at the exit visit.

Results: The mean age of the study population was 59.6 years. The mean values for the eGFRcr, eGFRcys, and eGFRcr-cys were 92.4, 78.9 and 85.9 mL/min/1.73m, respectively. Over 4 years of follow-up, 612 (12.8%) participants experienced diabetes. Participants with lower eGFRcr-cys (< 60 mL/min/1.73m) had a significantly higher risk of new-onset diabetes (adjusted OR, 1.46; 95%CI: 1.02, 2.09), compared to those with eGFRcr-cys ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73m. However, there was no significant association between eGFRcr (< 60 vs. ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73m; adjusted OR, 1.27; 95%CI: 0.75, 2.17) or eGFRcys (adjusted OR, 1.04; 95%CI: 0.80, 1.36) and new-onset diabetes.

Conclusions: Lower eGFRcr-cys (< 60 mL/min/1.73m), but not eGFRcr or eGFRcys, was significantly associated with an increased risk of new-onset diabetes in Chinese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-021-01719-5DOI Listing
April 2021

Association of visceral adiposity index with new-onset type 2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose in hypertensive Chinese adults.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Purpose: Visceral adiposity index (VAI) is a reliable indicator for the distribution and function of adipose tissue in the body. The relation of VAI with new-onset type 2 diabetes and new-onset impaired fasting glucose (IFG) remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the prospective relation of VAI with new-onset type 2 diabetes and new-onset IFG in Chinese hypertensive adults.

Methods: A total of 14,838 hypertensive adults free of type 2 diabetes at baseline were included from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. The primary outcome was new-onset type 2 diabetes, defined as physician-diagnosed diabetes or use of glucose-lowering drugs during follow-up, or fasting glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L at the exit visit. The secondary outcome was new-onset IFG, defined as fasting glucose < 6.1 mmol/L at baseline, while fasting glucose ≥ 6.1 mmol/L and < 7.0 mmol/L at the exit visit.

Results: Over a median of 4.5 years' follow-up, 1612 (10.9%) participants developed type 2 diabetes. When VAI was categorized into quartiles, compared with participants in quartile 1-3 (< 2.80), significantly higher risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.08-1.56) and new-onset IFG (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.08-1.52) was found in those in quartile 4 (≥ 2.80). Moreover, the positive associations were consistent in participants with or without single abnormal VAI components, including general obesity, abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels; or with different numbers of abnormal VAI components (all P interactions > 0.05).

Conclusion: Our study suggested a positive relation of VAI with the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes and new-onset IFG in Chinese hypertensive patients, independent of its components.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, a well-designed cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-021-01187-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Prospective association between baseline plasma zinc concentration and development of proteinuria in Chinese hypertensive patients.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Apr 2;66:126755. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the association between baseline plasma zinc and the development of proteinuria as well as possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients.

Methods: This is a subset of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT) Renal Sub-Study. In the CSPPT, participants were randomized to receive a daily oral dose of 1 tablet containing 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid or 1 tablet containing 10 mg enalapril only. A total of 783 participants with plasma zinc measurements and without proteinuria at baseline were included in the current study. The study outcome was the development of proteinuria during the follow-up, defined as a urine dipstick reading of trace or ≥1+ at the exit visit.

Results: During a median follow-up duration of 4.4 years, the development of proteinuria occurred in 93 (11.9 %) participants. There was an inverse relation of baseline plasma zinc with the development of proteinuria (per SD increment; OR, 0.74, 95 % CI: 0.55-0.99), p for trend of quartiles = 0.005.

Conclusions: In Chinese hypertensive patients, there was a significant inverse association between baseline plasma zinc and the development of proteinuria, although plasma zinc remained in the reference range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2021.126755DOI Listing
April 2021

Cigarette smoking and all-cause mortality in rural Chinese male adults: 15-year follow-up of the Anqing cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 9;21(1):696. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Background: According to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, smoking is one of the leading four risk factors contributing to deaths in China. We aimed to evaluate the associations of smoking with all-cause mortality in a Chinese rural population.

Methods: Male participants over age 45 (n = 5367) from a large familial aggregation study in rural China, were included in the current analyses. A total of 528 former smokers and 3849 current smokers accounted for 10 and 71.7% of the cohort, respectively. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to evaluate the association between baseline smoking status and mortality, adjusting for pertinent covariates.

Results: There were 579 recorded deaths during the 15-year follow-up. Current smokers (odds ratio [OR],1.60; 95% CI,1.23-2.08) had higher all-cause mortality risks than nonsmokers. Relative to nonsmokers, current smokers of more than 40 pack-years ([OR],1.85; 95% CI,1.33-2.56) had a higher all-cause mortality risk. Compared to nonsmokers, current smokers who started smoking before age 20 ([OR],1.91; 95% CI,1.43-2.54) had a higher all-cause mortality risk, and former smokers in the lower pack-year group who quit after age 41 (median) ([OR],3.19; 95% CI,1.83-5.56) also had a higher risk of death after adjustment. Furthermore, former smokers who were also former drinkers had the highest significant risk of mortality than never smokers or drinkers. (P for interaction = 0.034).

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that current smokers and former smokers have a higher mortality risk than nonsmokers and would benefit from cessation at a younger age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10691-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034075PMC
April 2021

Serum and Tissue Levels of Advanced Glycation End Products and Risk of Mortality in Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis.

Am J Nephrol 2021 17;52(1):8-16. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, China,

Background: The relation of tissue and circulating advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients remains inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the association of serum AGEs (CML) and tissue AGEs estimated by skin autofluorescence (SAF) with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality, and examine the possible modifiers for the association in HD patients with by far the largest sample size in any similar studies.

Methods: A total of 1,634 HD patients were included from the China Cooperative Study on Dialysis (CCSD), a multicenter prospective cohort study. The primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and CVD mortality, respectively.

Results: The median follow-up duration was 5.2 years. Overall, there was a positive relation of baseline SAF levels with the risk of all-cause mortality (per 1 AU increment, adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.30; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12, 1.50) and CVD mortality (per 1 AU increment, adjusted HR, 1.36; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.62). Moreover, a stronger positive association between baseline SAF (per 1 AU increment) and all-cause mortality was found in participants with shorter dialysis vintage, or lower C-reactive protein levels (Both p interactions <0.05). Nevertheless, there was no significant association between serum CML and the risk of mortality.

Conclusions: In patients undergoing long-term HD, baseline SAF, but not serum CML, was significantly associated with the risk of all-cause and CVD death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512385DOI Listing
February 2021

Neutrophil counts and the risk of first stroke in general hypertensive adults.

Hypertens Res 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

We aimed to investigate the association between neutrophil counts and first stroke and examine possible effect modifiers among treated hypertensive adults. This is a post hoc analysis of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). A total of 11,878 hypertensive adults with data on neutrophil counts at baseline were included in the current study. The primary outcome was first stroke. During a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 414 (3.5%) participants experienced a first stroke, including 358 with ischemic stroke, 55 with hemorrhagic stroke and one with uncertain type of stroke. Compared with participants in quartile 1 (<2.9 × 10/L) of neutrophil counts, those in the upper quartiles (quartile 2-4 [≥2.9 × 10/L]) had a significantly higher risk of first stroke (HR, 1.35; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.78) or first ischemic stroke (HR, 1.38; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.86). Moreover, a strong positive association between neutrophil counts and first ischemic stroke was found in participants with total homocysteine (tHcy) levels <15 μmol/L (HR, 1.74; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.58; vs. ≥15 μmol/L; HR, 0.91; 95% CI: 0.57, 1.46, P interaction = 0.042) at baseline or time-averaged mean arterial pressure (MAP) ≥102 mmHg (median) (HR, 1.92; 95% CI: 1.27, 2.89; vs. <102 mmHg; HR, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.57, 1.41, P interaction = 0.015) during the treatment period. However, no such association between neutrophil counts and first hemorrhagic stroke was found. In summary, high baseline neutrophil counts were associated with an increased risk of first ischemic stroke among hypertensive patients, especially in those with low tHcy at baseline or high time-averaged MAP during the treatment period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41440-021-00625-1DOI Listing
February 2021

Relationship of several serum folate forms with the risk of mortality: A prospective cohort study.

Clin Nutr 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, 510515, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We aim to examine the relation of several folate forms (5-methyltetrahydrofolate [5-mTHF], unmetabolized folic acid [UMFA], non-methyl folate, and MeFox [pyrazino-s-triazine derivative of 4α-hydroxy-5-methyltetrahydrofolate]) with the risk of mortality.

Methods: Using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014, a total of 10,661 people with folate forms data were recruited. Death information was obtained from the National Death Index until 2015. Cox proportional hazards regression models were developed to evaluate the relationship between folate forms and mortality.

Results: During 2.99 years of follow-up, 344 (2.6%) deaths occurred. Overall, significantly higher risks of all-cause mortality were found in participants with higher level of serum 5-mTHF (≥51.3 nmol/L [quartile 4] vs. 23.9-51.3 nmol/L [quartile 2-3]; HR, 1.61; 95% CI: 1.03-2.53), UMFA (≥1.1 nmol/L [quartile 4] vs. <1.1 nmol/L [quartile 1-3]; HR, 1.55; 95% CI: 1.15-2.09), non-methyl folate (≥1.7 nmol/L [quartile 4] vs. 1.2-1.7 nmol/L [quartile 3]; HR, 1.62; 95% CI: 1.06-2.48), or MeFox (≥2.5 nmol/L [quartile 4] vs. <2.5 nmol/L [quartile 1-3]; HR, 1.54; 95% CI: 1.11-2.12). In addition, there was an increased risk of all-cause mortality for those with low level of serum 5-mTHF (<23.9 nmol/L [quartile 1] vs. 23.9-51.3 nmol/L [quartile 2-3]; HR, 1.66; 95% CI: 1.12-2.47). Most importantly, none of any folate forms significantly modified the association between other folate forms and mortality (all P for interactions >0.05).

Conclusion: Higher levels of serum folate forms (5-mTHF, UMFA, non-methyl folate, and MeFox) were associated with higher risk of mortality while 5-mTHF insufficiency also showed a negative impact on mortality. Our findings emphasized the importance of monitoring the folate forms concentrations and may help counsel future related clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.01.025DOI Listing
January 2021

Dietary Carbohydrate Intake and New-Onset Hypertension: A Nationwide Cohort Study in China.

Hypertension 2021 Feb 8:HYPERTENSIONAHA12016751. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

From the Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University; National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease; State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research; Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, China (Q.L., C.L., Y.Z., P.H., Z.Z., M.L., C.Z., Z.Y., Q.W., H.L., X.Q.).

The association between carbohydrate intake and the risk of hypertension remains uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the prospective relations of the amount and type of carbohydrate intake with new-onset hypertension. A total of 12 177 adults who were free of hypertension at baseline from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were included. Dietary intake was measured by 3 consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls combined with a household food inventory. The study outcome was new-onset hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or diagnosed by physician or under antihypertensive treatment during the follow-up. A total of 4269 subjects developed hypertension during 95 157 person-years of follow-up. Overall, there was a U-shaped association between the percentage energy consumed from total carbohydrate (mean, 56.7%; SD, 10.7) and new-onset hypertension ( for nonlinearity <0.001), with the lowest risk observed at 50% to 55% carbohydrate intake. The increased risks were mainly found in those with lower intake of high-quality carbohydrate (mean, 6.4%; SD, 5.6) or higher intake of low-quality carbohydrate (mean, 47.0%; SD, 13.0). Moreover, there was an inverse association between the plant-based low-carbohydrate scores for low-quality carbohydrate and new-onset hypertension. However, there was a U-shaped association between the animal-based low-carbohydrate scores for low-quality carbohydrate and new-onset hypertension ( for nonlinearity <0.001). In summary, both high and low percentages of carbohydrate diets were associated with increased risk of new-onset hypertension, with minimal risk at 50% to 55% carbohydrate intake. Our findings support the intake of high-quality carbohydrate, and the substitution of plant-based products for low-quality carbohydrate for prevention of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.16751DOI Listing
February 2021

Relation of BMI and waist circumference with the risk of new-onset hyperuricemia in hypertensive patients.

QJM 2021 Jan 24. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Institute of Biomedicine, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Background: We aimed to evaluate the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) with the risk of new-onset hyperuricemia, and examine possible effect modifies in general hypertensive patients.

Methods: A total of 10,611 hypertensive patients with normal uric acid (UA) concentrations (<357μmol/L) at baseline were included from the UA Sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). The primary outcome was new-onset hyperuricemia, defined as a UA concentration ≥417μmol/L in men or ≥ 357μmol/L in women at the exit visit.

Results: During a median follow-up duration of 4.4 years, 1663 (15.7%) participants developed new-onset hyperuricemia. When analyzed separately, increased BMI (≥25 kg/m2, quartile 3-4; OR, 1.46; 95% CI: 1.29-1.65), or increased WC (≥85cm for females, quartile 3-4; OR, 1.24; 95% CI: 1.08-1.42; and ≥84cm for males, quartile 3-4; OR, 1.30; 95% CI: 1.01-1.67) were each significantly associated with higher risk of new-onset hyperuricemia. When WC was forced into the model with BMI simultaneously, its significant association with new-onset hyperuricemia disappeared in females (<85 versus ≥85cm; OR, 0.96, 95% CI: 0.81-1.13) or males (≥84 versus <84cm; OR, 1.13; 95%CI: 0.84-1.52); however, BMI was still significantly related with new-onset hyperuricemia (≥25 versus <25kg/m2; OR, 1.48; 95%CI: 1.27-1.73). Moreover, the positive BMI & new-onset hyperuricemia association was more pronounced in participants with higher time-averaged on-treatment SBP (median: <138.3 versus ≥138.3 mmHg; P-interaction = 0.041).

Conclusions: Higher BMI, but not WC, is significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of new-onset hyperuricemia among hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa346DOI Listing
January 2021

Higher dietary fibre intake is associated with lower CVD mortality risk among maintenance haemodialysis patients: a multicentre prospective cohort study.

Br J Nutr 2021 Jan 20:1-9. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Renal Division, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, 1838 North Guangzhou Avenue, Guangzhou 510515, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

High fibre intake is associated with reduced mortality risk in both general and chronic kidney disease populations. However, in dialysis patients, such data are limited. Therefore, the association between dietary fibre intake (DFI) and the risk of all-cause and CVD mortality was examined in this study. A total of 1044 maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) patients from eight outpatient dialysis centres in China were included in this study. Data on DFI were collected using 24-h dietary recalls for 3 d in a week and were normalised to actual dry weight. The study outcomes included all-cause and CVD mortality. Over a median of 46 months of follow-up, 354 deaths were recorded, of which 210 (59 %) were due to CVD. On assessing DFI as tertiles, the CVD mortality risk was significantly lower in patients in tertiles 2-3 (≥0·13 g/kg per d; hazard ratio (HR) 0·71; 95 % CI 0·51, 0·97) compared with those in tertile 1 (<0·13 g/kg per d). A similar but non-significant trend was found for the association between DFI (tertiles 2-3 v. tertile 1; HR 0·83; 95 % CI 0·64, 1·07) and all-cause mortality. In summary, higher DFI was associated with lower CVD mortality risk among Chinese MHD patients. This study emphasises the significance of DFI in MHD patients and provides information that is critical for the improvement of dietary guidelines for dialysis patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114521000210DOI Listing
January 2021

Total bone mineral density is inversely associated with stroke: a family osteoporosis cohort study in rural China.

QJM 2021 Jan 16. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100050, China.

Background: The relationship of osteoporosis and stroke is still not fully clarified. Apart from the well-known risk factors for stroke, bone mineral density (BMD) has gained more interest in recent years.

Aim: To further elucidate the relationship between BMD and stroke risk, a prospective cohort study in the Chinese rural population was conducted.

Design: Retrospective analysis of a family osteoporosis cohort.

Methods: Our subjects were selected from an osteoporosis cohort conducted in Anqing, China. All participants underwent a questionnaire assessment, clinical examinations, and laboratory assessments. During the follow-up period, the number of people who had a stroke was recorded. Generalized estimating equation regression analysis was performed to determine the significance of the association between BMD and stroke.

Results: A total of 17868 people were included. A two-way interaction test of sex and BMD on stroke was significant (p = 0.002). There was a significant difference in BMD and stroke morbidity in the male group (p = 0.003). When BMD was assessed as quartiles and the lowest quartile was used as reference, a significantly lower risk for stroke were observed in Q2, Q3 and Q4. Notably, no significant difference was observed in female participants with adjusted odds ratio (p > 0.05). The p-value for interaction was calculated. The BMI (p = 0.014) and waist-to-hip ratio (p = 0.027) were found to be significantly associated with BMD and stroke risk in female participants.

Conclusions: In Chinese rural areas, total BMD may negatively correlated with stroke, especially in men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa339DOI Listing
January 2021

Evaluation of Dietary Niacin and New-Onset Hypertension Among Chinese Adults.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 01 4;4(1):e2031669. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Importance: The relationship of dietary niacin intake with the risk of hypertension remains unknown.

Objective: To determine the prospective association between dietary niacin intake and new-onset hypertension, and examine factors that may modify the association among Chinese adults.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This nationwide cohort study of 12 243 Chinese adults used dietary intake data from 7 rounds of the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Dietary intake was measured by 3 consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls from participants in combination with a weighing inventory taken over the same 3 days at the household level. Statistical analysis was conducted from May 2020 to August 2020.

Exposures: Dietary intake.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The study outcome was new-onset hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure 140 mm Hg or greater and/or diastolic blood pressure 90 mm Hg or greater, diagnosis by physician, or current antihypertensive treatment during the follow-up.

Results: The mean (SD) age of the study population was 41.2 (14.2) years, and 5728 (46.8%) of participants were men. The mean (SD) dietary niacin intake level was 14.8 (4.1) mg/d. A total of 4306 participants developed new-onset hypertension during a median (interquartile range) follow-up duration of 6.1 (3.6-11.3) years. When dietary niacin was assessed in quartiles, the lowest risk of new-onset hypertension was found in participants in quartile 3 (14.3 to <16.7 mg/d; adjusted hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.90) compared with those in quartile 1 (<12.4 mg/d). Consistently in the threshold analysis, for every 1 mg/d increase in dietary niacin, there was a 2% decrease in new-onset hypertension (adjusted HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96-1.00) in those with dietary niacin intake less than 15.6 mg/d, and a 3% increase in new-onset hypertension (adjusted HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04) in participants with dietary niacin 15.6 mg/d or greater. Based on these results, there was a J-shaped association between dietary niacin intake and new-onset hypertension in the general population of Chinese adults, with an inflection point at 15.6 mg/d and a minimal risk at 14.3 to 16.7 mg/d (quartile 3) of dietary niacin intake.

Conclusions And Relevance: The results of this study provide some evidence for maintaining the optimal dietary niacin intake levels for the primary prevention of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.31669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7788463PMC
January 2021

Degree of blood pressure control and the risk of new-onset hyperuricemia in treated hypertensive patients.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Nov;8(21):1434

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The relationship between blood pressure (BP) control and the risk of new-onset hyperuricemia remains uncertain. We aimed to examine the association between degree of time-averaged on-treatment BP control and new-onset hyperuricemia in general hypertensive patients.

Methods: A total of 10,617 hypertensive patients with normal uric acid (UA) concentrations (<357 µmol/L) at baseline were included from the UA Sub-study of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). Participants were randomized to receive a double-blind daily treatment of enalapril 10 mg and folic acid 0.8 mg or enalapril 10 mg alone. BP measurements were taken every three months after randomization. The primary outcome was new-onset hyperuricemia, defined as a UA concentration ≥417 µmol/L in men or ≥357 µmol/L in women at the exit visit.

Results: Over a median of 4.4 years, 1,664 (15.7%) participants developed new-onset hyperuricemia. Overall, there was a significantly positive association between time-averaged on-treatment diastolic BP (DBP) and new-onset hyperuricemia (per 10 mmHg increment; OR 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02-1.26). Consistently, a significantly higher risk of new-onset hyperuricemia was found in participants with time-averaged on-treatment DBP ≥82.9 mmHg (median) (. <82.9 mmHg; 17.3% . 14.1%; OR 1.25; 95% CI: 1.10-1.44). Furthermore, the lowest new-onset hyperuricemia risk (12.1%) was found in those with both time-averaged on-treatment SBP (median: 138.3 mmHg) and DBP below the median (P-interaction=0.023). The results were similar for time-averaged DBP during the first 12- or 24-month treatment period, or in the analysis using propensity scores. Furthermore, a non-significant higher risk of new-onset hyperuricemia was observed in participants with time-averaged on-treatment SBP ≥120 mmHg (. <120 mmHg; OR 1.61; 95% CI: 0.88-2.97).

Conclusions: A tight DBP control of <82.9 mmHg was associated with lower risk of new-onset hyperuricemia among hypertensive patients without hyperuricemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-3017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723605PMC
November 2020

Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Concentrations and Risk of New-Onset Proteinuria in Patients With Hypertension.

J Ren Nutr 2020 Dec 9. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the relationship of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) with the risk of new-onset proteinuria and examine the possible effect modifiers in patients with hypertension and without chronic kidney disease at baseline.

Methods: This is a post hoc analysis of the renal substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. A total of 1655 patients with hypertension, who had plasma 25(OH)D3 measurements, as well as without proteinuria and with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m at baseline, were included in the present study. The main outcome was new-onset proteinuria, defined as a urine dipstick reading of ≥1+ at the exit visit.

Results: The mean (standard deviation) 25(OH)D3 level at baseline was 18.6 (7.5) ng/mL. The median follow-up duration was 4.4 years. Overall, there was a significant inverse association between plasma 25(OH)D3 and the risk of new-onset proteinuria (per standard deviation increment; [odds ratio] OR: 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50, 0.97). Accordingly, when 25(OH)D3 was assessed as quartiles, a significantly lower risk of new-onset proteinuria was found in participants in quartiles 3-4 (≥17.8 ng/mL; OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.87), compared with those in quartile 1 (<13.1 ng/mL). Furthermore, a stronger inverse relationship of plasma 25(OH)D3 and new-onset proteinuria was observed in nondiabetic participants (per standard deviation increment; OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.83; vs. diabetics: OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.67, 3.28; P for interaction = 0.028).

Conclusion: There was a significant inverse association between plasma 25(OH)D3 and the risk of proteinuria in patients with hypertension, especially in those without diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jrn.2020.09.005DOI Listing
December 2020

Interaction of neutrophil counts and folic acid treatment on new-onset proteinuria in hypertensive patients.

Br J Nutr 2020 Dec 14:1-8. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou510515, People's Republic of China.

We aimed to examine whether baseline neutrophil counts affected the risk of new-onset proteinuria in hypertensive patients, and, if so, whether folic acid treatment is particularly effective in proteinuria prevention in such a setting. A total of 8208 eligible participants without proteinuria at baseline were analysed from the renal substudy of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. Participants were randomised to receive a double-blind daily treatment of 10 mg of enalapril and 0·8 mg of folic acid (n 4101) or 10 mg of enalapril only (n 4107). The primary outcome was new-onset proteinuria, defined as a urine dipstick reading of ≥1+ at the exit visit. The mean age of the participants was 59·5 (sd, 7·4) years, 3088 (37·6 %) of the participants were male. The median treatment duration was 4·4 years. In the enalapril-only group, a significantly higher risk of new-onset proteinuria was found among participants with higher neutrophil counts (quintile 5; ≥4·8 × 109/l, OR 1·44; 95 % CI 1·00, 2·06), compared with those in quintiles 1-4. For those with enalapril and folic acid treatment, compared with the enalapril-only group, the new-onset proteinuria risk was reduced from 5·2 to 2·8 % (OR 0·49; 95 % CI 0·29, 0·82) among participants with higher neutrophil counts (≥4·8 × 109/l), whereas there was no significant effect among those with neutrophil counts <4·8 × 109/l. In summary, among hypertensive patients, those with higher neutrophil counts had increased risk of new-onset proteinuria, and this risk was reduced by 51 % with folic acid treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000711452000505XDOI Listing
December 2020

Plasma Magnesium Concentrations and Risk of Incident Cancer in Adults with Hypertension: A Nested Case-Control Study.

Ann Nutr Metab 2020 3;76(5):304-312. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Objective: The association between plasma magnesium and risk of incident cancer remains inconclusive in previous studies. We aimed to investigate the prospective relationship of baseline plasma magnesium concentrations with the risk of incident cancer and to examine possible effect modifiers.

Methods: A nested case-control study with 228 incident cancer cases and 228 matched controls was conducted using data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, conducted from May 2008 to August 2013. Study outcomes included incident cancer and its subtypes.

Results: When plasma magnesium concentrations were assessed as quartiles, a significantly higher incident risk of total cancer was found in participants in quartile 1 (<0.76 mmol/L; odds ratio [OR] = 2.70; 95% CI: 1.33-5.49) and quartile 4 (≥0.89 mmol/L; OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.12-3.76), compared with those in quartile 3 (0.83 to <0.89 mmol/L). In cancer site-specific analyses, similar trends were found for gastrointestinal cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, and other cancers. Furthermore, none of the variables, including age, sex, current smoking status, current alcohol intake, BMI, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol levels at baseline significantly modified the association between plasma magnesium and cancer risk.

Conclusions: Both low and high plasma magnesium concentrations were significantly associated with an increased incident risk of cancer, compared with the reference concentrations of 0.83 to <0.89 mmol/L among hypertensive adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000510214DOI Listing
December 2020

Relationship of Weight Change Patterns From Young to Middle Adulthood With Incident Cardiovascular Diseases.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jan;106(2):e812-e823

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University; National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease; State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research; Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, China.

Context: The effect of weight change patterns on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remains uncertain.

Objective: We aim to examine the relation of weight change patterns and absolute weight change from young adulthood to midlife with incident CVD.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2016.

Participants: A total of 20 715 US adults aged 40 through 79 with recalled weight at young adulthood (25 years) and midlife (10 years before baseline).

Main Outcome Measure: CVD status was determined by self-report of a prior diagnosis, and age at diagnosis was used to establish time of CVD onset. CVD events was defined as the first occurrence of a congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, heart attack, or stroke.

Results: After 9.76 years of follow-up, compared with participants who remained at normal weight, those in maximum overweight, changing from nonobese to obese, changing from obese to nonobese, maintaining obesity between young and middle adulthood had a 39% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-1.62), 93% (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.64-2.28), 125% (HR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.29-3.94), and 132% (HR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.68-3.20) higher risk of CVD, respectively. In addition, compared with weight change within 2.5 kg, weight gain ≥ 10.0 kg was associated with higher risk of CVD.

Conclusions: Both nonobese to obese, obese to nonobese, and stable obese from young to middle adulthood were associated with increased risks of CVD. The findings emphasize the importance of maintaining normal weight throughout the adulthood for preventing CVD in later life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa823DOI Listing
January 2021

Interaction of serum calcium and folic acid treatment on first stroke in hypertensive males.

Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 23;40(4):2381-2388. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Renal Division, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China; National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, Guangzhou 510515, China; State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou 510515, China; Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The role of serum calcium on the risk of stroke is still uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the effect of serum calcium on first stroke risk, and on the efficacy of folic acid treatment in prevention of first stroke among hypertensive patients.

Methods: Our analyses included a total of 19,644 eligible hypertensive adults from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). In the CSPPT, a total of 20,702 hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to a double-blind, daily treatment with either 10 mg enalapril and 0.8 mg folic acid or 10 mg enalapril alone. The primary outcome was a first stroke.

Results: Over a median of 4.5 years, among those not receiving folic acid, a significantly higher risk of first stroke was found in hypertensive males with baseline albumin-corrected serum calcium ≥2.43 mmol/L (median) (vs. <2.43 mmol/L; 6.5% vs. 2.3%; adjusted HR, 2.47; 95% CI: 1.72, 3.55). For those with enalapril and folic acid treatment, compared with the enalapril only group, the risk of first stroke was reduced from 6.5% to 3.0% (adjusted HR, 0.49; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.68) in hypertensive males with baseline albumin-corrected serum calcium ≥2.43 mmol/L, whereas there was no significant effect among hypertensive males with baseline albumin-corrected serum calcium <2.43 mmol/L. However, among hypertensive females, serum calcium did not significantly affect the first stroke risk and the efficacy of folic acid in prevention of first stroke.

Conclusions: Among Chinese hypertensive males, those with elevated serum calcium levels had increased risk of first stroke, and this risk was reduced by 51% with folic acid treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.10.033DOI Listing
April 2021

Inverse Association Between Riboflavin Intake and New-Onset Hypertension: A Nationwide Cohort Study in China.

Hypertension 2020 12 2;76(6):1709-1716. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

From the Division of Nephrology, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Guangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China (M.L., C.Z., Z.Z., P.H., Y.Z., H.L., C.L., X.Q.).

The prospective relation of dietary riboflavin intake with hypertension remains uncertain. We aimed to investigate the relationship of dietary riboflavin intake with new-onset hypertension and examine possible effect modifiers in general population. A total of 12 245 participants who were free of hypertension at baseline from China Health and Nutrition Survey were included. Dietary intake was measured by 3 consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls combined with a household food inventory. The study outcome was new-onset hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or diagnosed by physician or under antihypertensive treatment during the follow-up. A total of 4303 (35.1%) subjects developed hypertension during 95 573 person-years of follow-up. Overall, there was a nonlinear, inverse association between total, plant-based, or animal-based riboflavin intake and new-onset hypertension (all for nonlinearity, <0.001). The risk of new-onset hypertension was increased only in participants with relatively lower riboflavin intake. Accordingly, a significantly lower risk of new-onset hypertension was found in participants in quartiles 2 to 4 of total riboflavin intake (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.68-0.80]), plant-derived riboflavin intake (hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.71-0.84]), or animal-derived riboflavin intake (hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.65-0.77]), compared with those in quartile 1. In addition, the association between total riboflavin intake and new-onset hypertension was particularly evident in those with lower dietary sodium/potassium intake ratio ( interaction, <0.001). In summary, there was an inverse association between riboflavin intake and new-onset hypertension in general Chinese adults. Our results emphasized the importance of maintaining relatively higher riboflavin intake levels for the prevention of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.16211DOI Listing
December 2020

Serum alkaline phosphatase levels and the risk of new-onset diabetes in hypertensive adults.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2020 10 24;19(1):186. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Division of Nephrology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical UniversityNational Clinical Research Center for Kidney DiseaseState Key Laboratory of Organ Failure ResearchGuangdong Provincial Institute of Nephrology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Renal Failure Research, Guangzhou Regenerative Medicine and Health Guangdong Laboratory, Guangzhou, 510515, China.

Background: The association between alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and incident diabetes remains uncertain. Our study aimed to investigate the prospective relation of serum ALP with the risk of new-onset diabetes, and explore possible effect modifiers, in hypertensive adults.

Methods: A total 14,393 hypertensive patients with available ALP measurements and without diabetes and liver disease at baseline were included from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT). The primary outcome was new-onset diabetes, defined as physician-diagnosed diabetes or use of glucose-lowering drugs during follow-up, or fasting glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L at the exit visit. The secondary study outcome was new-onset impaired fasting glucose (IFG), defined as FG < 6.1 mmol/L at baseline and ≥ 6.1 but < 7.0 mmol/L at the exit visit.

Results: Over a median of 4.5 years follow-up, 1549 (10.8%) participants developed diabetes. Overall, there was a positive relation of serum ALP and the risk of new-onset diabetes (per SD increment, adjusted OR, 1.07; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.14) and new-onset IFG (per SD increment, adjusted OR, 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.14). Moreover, a stronger positive association between baseline ALP (per SD increment) with new-onset diabetes was found in participants with total homocysteine (tHcy) < 10 μmol/L (adjusted OR, 1.24; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.40 vs. ≥ 10 μmol/L: adjusted OR, 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.10; P-interaction = 0.007) or FG ≥ 5.9 mmol/L (adjusted OR, 1.16; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.27 vs. < 5.9 mmol/L: adjusted OR, 1.00; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.08; P-interaction = 0.009) CONCLUSIONS: In this non-diabetic, hypertensive population, higher serum ALP was significantly associated with the increased risk of new-onset diabetes, especially in those with lower tHcy or higher FG levels. Clinical Trial Registration-URL Trial registration: NCT00794885 (clinicaltrials.gov). Retrospectively registered November 20, 2008.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-020-01161-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585682PMC
October 2020

Relationship between Serum Uric Acid and Mortality Risk in Hemodialysis Patients: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study.

Am J Nephrol 2020 16;51(10):823-832. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory of Organ Failure Research, Renal Division, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China,

Background: Several studies have reported that low serum uric acid (SUA) levels are related to increased risk of mortality in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. However, the possible detrimental effects of high SUA on the mortality risk have not been well examined. Moreover, the possible effect modifiers for the SUA-mortality association have not been fully investigated. To address the aforementioned gap, we aimed to explore the nonlinear relationship between SUA levels and all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk, and to examine any possible effect modifiers in MHD patients.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter, prospective cohort study among 1,018 MHD patients from 8 hemodialysis centers. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and the secondary outcomes were CVD mortality and non-CVD mortality.

Results: The mean value for SUA in the total population was 8.5 ± 1.9 mg/dL. The lowest and highest quintiles of SUA were <7.0 and >10.1 mg/dL, respectively. Over a median follow-up of 45.6 months, 343 deaths were recorded, of which 202 (58.9%) were due to CVD. When SUA was assessed as quintiles, a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality was found in patients in quintile 1 (<7.0 mg/dL; hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.73) or quintile 5 (≥10.1 mg/dL; HR, 1.47; 95% CI: 1.09-2.00), compared to those in quintiles 2-4 (7-10.1 mg/dL). Moreover, the U-shaped SUA-mortality association was mainly found in those with lower C-reactive protein levels (<3 compared with ≥3 mg/L; p for interaction = 0.018). Similar trends were found for CVD mortality and non-CVD mortality.

Conclusion: There was a U-shaped relationship between SUA levels and the risk of all-cause mortality, CVD mortality, and non-CVD mortality in MHD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509258DOI Listing
October 2020

Vitamin B and risk of diabetes: new insight from cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT).

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2020 10;8(1)

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China

Introduction: Previous studies in mostly Western populations have yielded conflicting findings on the association of vitamin B with diabetes risk, in part due to differences in study design and population characteristics. This study sought to examine the vitamin B-diabetes association in Chinese adults with hypertension by both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.

Research Design And Methods: This report included a total of 16 699 participants from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, with pertinent baseline and follow-up data. Diabetes mellitus was defined as either physician-diagnosed diabetes, use of glucose-lowering drugs, or fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥7.0 mmol/L. New-onset diabetes was defined as any new case of onset diabetes during the follow-up period or FBG ≥7.0 mmol/L at the exit visit.

Results: At baseline, there were 1872 (11.2%) patients with diabetes; less than 1.5% had clinical vitamin B deficiency (<148.0 pmol/L). Over a median follow-up period of 4.5 years, there were 1589 (10.7%) cases of new-onset diabetes. Cross-sectional analyses showed a positive association between baseline vitamin B levels and FBG levels (β=0.18, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.21) and diabetes (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.21). However, longitudinal analyses showed no association between baseline vitamin B and new-onset diabetes or changes in FBG levels. Among a subset of the sample (n=4366) with both baseline and exit vitamin B measurements, we found a positive association between an increase in vitamin B and an increase in FBG.

Conclusions: In this large Chinese population of patients with hypertension mostly sufficient with vitamin B, parallel cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses provided new insight into the conflicting findings of previous studies, and these results underscore the need for future studies to consider both baseline vitamin B and its longitudinal trajectory in order to better elucidate the role of vitamin B in the development of diabetes. Such findings would have important clinical and public health implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539576PMC
October 2020

Association Between Fasting Blood Glucose and All-Cause Mortality in a Rural Chinese Population: 15-Year Follow-Up Cohort Study.

Diabetes Ther 2020 Nov 25;11(11):2691-2701. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Introduction: The worldwide prevalence of diabetes has been increasing for decades; diabetes can lead to serious health problems and even death, but the effects of maintaining low fasting blood glucose (FBG) remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between FBG levels and all-cause mortality in a long-term follow-up cohort and to find a relatively safe range of FBG levels.

Methods: This study included 17,902 adults from a community-based cohort study in rural China who were prospectively followed from 2003 to 2018. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate the association between FBG and all-cause mortality, adjusting for pertinent covariates and auto-correlations among siblings.

Results: A total of 1053 (5.9%) deaths occurred during 15 years of follow-up. There was a significant U-shaped association between all-cause mortality and FBG. Compared with the reference group (FBG of 5.6 - < 6.1 mmol/l), the risk of death among individuals with FBG levels < 5.6 mmol/l significantly increased by 38% (OR 1.34; 95% CI 1.13-1.59), while the risk of death among individuals with FBG ≥ 6.1 mmol/l or participants with a self-reported history of diabetes significantly increased by 51% (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.20-1.85). Additionally, the U-shaped association remained steady in any stratification of risk factors.

Conclusion: Our study showed a significant U-shaped relationship between FBG levels and risk of all-cause mortality in this rural Chinese population. When FBG was within the range of 5.6 - < 6.1 mmol/l, the risk of all-cause mortality was the lowest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13300-020-00927-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7547918PMC
November 2020

Serum folate modified the association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and carotid intima-media thickness in Chinese hypertensive adults.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2020 11 24;30(12):2303-2311. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang of Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: While folate is known for its importance in cardiovascular health, it is unknown whether folate status can modify the association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). We aimed to investigate this question in a Chinese hypertensive population, who are at high-risk of low folate and atherosclerosis.

Methods And Results: This report included 14,970 hypertensive adults (mean age 64.5 years; 40.3% male) from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT) and analyzed the fasting serum LDL-C and folate, and CIMT data obtained at the last follow-up visit. LDL-C was calculated using the Friedewald equation. Serum folate levels were measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. CIMT was measured by ultrasound. Non-parametric smoothing plots, multivariate linear regression analysis, subgroup analyses and interaction testing were performed to examine the LDL-C-CIMI relationship and effect modification by folate. Consistent with graphic plots, multivariate linear regression showed that LDL-C levels were independently and positively associated with CIMT (β = 7.69, 95%CI: 5.76-9.62). More importantly, the relationship between LDL-C and CIMT was significantly attenuated with increasing serum folate levels (1st tertile: β = 10.06, 95%CI: 6.67-13.46; 2nd tertile: β = 6.81, 95%CI: 3.55-10.07; 3rd tertile: β = 5.96, 95%CI: 2.55-9.36; P-interaction = 0.045). Subgroup analyses showed the association between LDL-C and CIMT across serum folate tertiles was robust among various strata (all P-interaction >0.05).

Conclusions: Among Chinese hypertensive adults, the serum folate levels could modify the association between LDL-C and CIMT. Our findings, if further confirmed, have important clinical implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.07.021DOI Listing
November 2020

Positive relationship of hypertensive retinopathy with carotid intima--media thickness in hypertensive patients.

J Hypertens 2020 10;38(10):2028-2035

Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing.

Objectives: We aimed to explore the relationship of hypertensive retinopathy with carotid intima--media thickness (CIMT), and to examine the possible effect modifiers in Chinese adults with hypertension.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 12 342 hypertensive patients with complete exit site visit data from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial. CIMT was measured by carotid ultrasonography. Hypertensive retinopathy was diagnosed according to the Keith--Wagener--Barker classification.

Results: The mean (SD) CIMT among study participants was 739.9 (111.4) μm. Compared with patients with grade 1 hypertensive retinopathy or without hypertensive retinopathy, a significantly higher CIMT level (β, 7.63, 95% CI: 2.54--12.73) was observed in patients with grade 2-4 hypertensive retinopathy. Moreover, the association between hypertensive retinopathy (grade 2-4 versus grade 1 or normal) and CIMT was stronger in participants of younger age (<60 years; β, 13.70, 95% CI: 5.65--21.75; versus ≥60 years; β, 1.03, 95% CI: -5.58 to 7.63; P interaction = 0.006); or with lower total homocysteine levels [<12.1 μmol/l (median); β, 12.70, 95% CI: 5.98--19.42; versus ≥12.1 μmol/l; β, 2.07, 95% CI: -5.63 to 9.78; P interaction = 0.030). None of the other variables, including sex, BMI, study centers, treatment group, SBP, triglycerides, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, folate, serum creatinine, current smoking and alcohol drinking, significantly modified the relation of hypertensive retinopathy with CIMT levels.

Conclusion: Hypertensive retinopathy (grade 2 and higher) was significantly associated with increased CIMT in hypertensive patients. The association was stronger in those of younger age or with lower total homocysteine levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002509DOI Listing
October 2020

Impact of and risk factors for pediatric acute kidney injury defined by the pROCK criteria in a Chinese PICU population.

Pediatr Res 2020 Aug 13. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Scientific Research and Education, Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital, Hefei, Anhui Province, China.

Background: The definition of pediatric AKI continues to evolve. We aimed to find a better AKI definition to predict outcomes and identify risk factors for AKI in a Chinese PICU.

Methods: This study consisted of 3338 patients hospitalized in a Chinese PICU between 2016 and 2018. AKI was defined and staged using pROCK criteria, which were compared with KDIGO criteria. AKI outcomes, including mortality, daily cost and length of stay (LOS), were assessed. Risk factors for AKI were also estimated.

Results: The incidence of AKI in the PICU was 7.7% according to pROCK criteria. The characteristics of patients with KDIGO-defined AKI who did not meet the pROCK were similar to those without AKI. pROCK outperformed KDIGO in predicting mortality with a higher c index in the Cox models (0.81 versus 0.79, P = 0.013). AKI, as well as AKI stages, were associated with higher mortality (HR: 10.5, 95%CI: 6.66-19.5), daily cost (β = 2064, P < 0.01) and LOS (β = 2.30, P < 0.01). Age, comorbidities, mechanical ventilation (MV), pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) and exposure to drugs had significant influence on AKI occurrence.

Conclusions: The mortality predictability of pROCK was slightly greater than that of KDIGO. Older age, underlying comorbidities, MV, decreased PCIS and exposure to drugs were potential risk factors for AKI.

Impact: Two AKI criteria, pROCK and KDIGO, were significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality and pROCK was slightly greater than that of KDIGO.Older age, comorbidities, mechanical ventilation, decreased PCIS and exposure to drugs were potential risk factors for AKI.This study first used the pROCK criteria to provide an epidemiologic description of pediatric AKI in Chinese PICU.This study compared the AKI outcomes across the pROCK and KDIGO AKI criteria, indicating the prior utility for AKI classification in Chinese children.This study indicated that the potential risk factors for AKI were older age, comorbidities, mechanical ventilation, decreased PCIS and exposure to drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-1059-3DOI Listing
August 2020

Urinary vanin-1 and chronic kidney disease in hypertensive patients.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2020 08 6;22(8):1466-1468. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Division of Nephrology, National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease, State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.13967DOI Listing
August 2020

Degree of Blood Pressure Control and Incident Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Adults With Hypertension.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 08 5;9(16):e017015. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

National Clinical Research Center for Kidney Disease State Key Laboratory for Organ Failure Research Division of Nephrology Nanfang HospitalSouthern Medical University Guangzhou China.

Background The association between blood pressure (BP) control and incident diabetes mellitus remains unknown. We aim to investigate the association between degree of time-averaged on-treatment systolic blood pressure (SBP) control and incident diabetes mellitus in hypertensive adults. Methods and Results A total of 14 978 adults with hypertension without diabetes mellitus at baseline were included from the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial). Participants were randomized double-masked to daily enalapril 10 mg and folic acid 0.8 mg or enalapril 10 mg alone. BP measurements were taken every 3 months after randomization. The primary outcome was incident diabetes mellitus, defined as physician-diagnosed diabetes mellitus, or use of glucose-lowering drugs during follow-up, or fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL at the exit visit. Over a median of 4.5 years, a significantly higher risk of incident diabetes mellitus was found in participants with time-averaged on-treatment SBP 130 to <140 mm Hg (10.3% versus 7.4%; odds ratio [OR], 1.37; 95% CI, 1.15‒1.64), compared with those with SBP 120 to <130 mm Hg. Moreover, the risk of incident diabetes mellitus increased by 24% (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.00‒1.53) and the incidence of regression to normal fasting glucose (<100 mg/dL) decreased by 29% (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57‒0.89) in participants with intermediate BP control (SBP/diastolic blood pressure, 130 to <140 and/or 80 to <90 mm Hg), compared with those with a tight BP control of <130/<80 mm Hg. Similar results were found when the time-averaged BP were calculated using the BP measurements during the first 6- or 24-month treatment period, or in the analysis using propensity scores. Conclusions In this non-diabetic, hypertensive population, SBP control in the range of 120 to <130 mm Hg, compared with the 130 to <140 mm Hg, was associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7660809PMC
August 2020