Publications by authors named "Xiangyan Li"

58 Publications

Ginseng in vascular dysfunction: A review of therapeutic potentials and molecular mechanisms.

Phytother Res 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Bio-Macromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Vascular dysfunction can lead to a variety of fatal diseases, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Although a large number of studies have reported the therapeutic effects of natural compounds on vascular-related diseases, ginseng is still the focus of research. Ginseng and its active substances have bioactive effects against different diseases with vascular dysfunction. In this review, we summarized the key molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of ginseng, its different active ingredients or formula in the prevention and treatment of vascular-related diseases, including cardiac-cerebral vascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes complications, and cancer. Moreover, the bidirectional roles of ginseng in promoting or inhibiting angiogenesis have been highlighted. We systematically teased out the relationship between ginseng and vascular dysfunction, which could provide a basis for the clinical application of ginseng in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7369DOI Listing
January 2022

Network Pharmacology and Experimental Assessment to Explore the Pharmacological Mechanism of Qimai Feiluoping Decoction Against Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 3;12:770197. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Institute of Metabolic Diseases, Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is one of the pathologic changes in COVID-19 patients in convalescence, and it is also a potential long-term sequela in severe COVID-19 patients. Qimai Feiluoping decoction (QM) is a traditional Chinese medicine formula recommended in the Chinese national medical program for COVID-19 convalescent patients, and PF is one of its indications. Through clinical observation, QM was found to improve the clinical symptoms and pulmonary function and reduce the degree of PF of COVID-19 convalescent patients. To further explore the pharmacological mechanisms and possible active components of QM in anti-PF effect, UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS was used to analyze the composition of the QM extract and the active components that can be absorbed into the blood, leading to the identification of 56 chemical compounds and 10 active components. Then, network pharmacology was used to predict the potential mechanisms and targets of QM; it predicted that QM exerts its anti-PF effects the regulation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, and TGF-β signaling pathway. Finally, TGF-β1-induced A549 cells were used to verify and explore the pharmacological effects of QM and found that QM could inhibit the proliferation of TGF-β1-induced A549 cells, attenuate EMT, and promote ECM degradation by inhibiting the TGF-β/Smad3 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.770197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8678473PMC
December 2021

Cryo-Electron Tomography of Highly Deformable and Adherent Solid-Electrolyte Interphase Exoskeleton in Li-Metal Batteries with Ether-based Electrolyte.

Adv Mater 2021 Dec 10:e2108252. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

XXXX This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202108252DOI Listing
December 2021

Three-dimensional visualization of lithium metal anode via low-dose cryogenic electron microscopy tomography.

iScience 2021 Dec 9;24(12):103418. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China.

The structure of lithium (Li) metal anode, including the Li metal and the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), is critical to the investigation of cycle stability or decay mechanisms. The three-dimensional (3D) visualization of Li metal and SEI, however, has not been demonstrated yet, owing to the lack of 3D characterization techniques and the susceptibility of Li metal anode toward oxygen, moisture, as well as electron beam. Herein, we introduce a successful 3D presentation of deposited Li metal and SEI established via low-dose cryogenic electron microscopy tomography. The Li metal anode is imaged in low-dose mode at different tilt angles and then aligned and reconstructed into a 3D image through an expectation-maximization algorithm. The spherical Li deposits and SEI are confirmed in the 3D tomography of Li metal anode. It is also discovered that the Li metal corrodes and SEI turns concave owing to possible self-discharge after long-time rest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.103418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8633965PMC
December 2021

Therapeutic Effects and Molecular Mechanisms of Bioactive Compounds Against Respiratory Diseases: Traditional Chinese Medicine Theory and High-Frequency Use.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:734450. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Bio-Macromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Respiratory diseases, especially the pandemic of respiratory infectious diseases and refractory chronic lung diseases, remain a key clinical issue and research hot spot due to their high prevalence rates and poor prognosis. In this review, we aimed to summarize the recent advances in the therapeutic effects and molecular mechanisms of key common bioactive compounds from Chinese herbal medicine. Based on the theories of traditional Chinese medicine related to lung diseases, we searched several electronic databases to determine the high-frequency Chinese medicines in clinical application. The active compounds and metabolites from the selected medicines were identified using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database (TCMSP) by analyzing oral bioavailability and drug similarity index. Then, the pharmacological effects and molecular mechanisms of the selected bioactive compounds in the viral and bacterial infections, inflammation, acute lung injury (ALI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary fibrosis, asthma, and lung cancer were summarized. We found that 31 bioactive compounds from the selected 10 common Chinese herbs, such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), kaempferol, isorhamnetin, quercetin, and β-sitosterol, can mainly regulate NF-κB, Nrf2/HO-1, NLRP3, TGF-β/Smad, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways to inhibit infection, inflammation, extracellular matrix deposition, and tumor growth in a series of lung-related diseases. This review provides novel perspectives on the preclinical study and clinical application of Chinese herbal medicines and their bioactive compounds against respiratory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.734450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8429615PMC
August 2021

Interventional Clinical Trials on Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: A Retrospective Analysis.

J Pain Res 2021 26;14:2651-2664. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, People's Republic of China.

Aims/introduction: Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is the most common complication of diabetes. At present, there is no comprehensive summary of the clinical trials related to DPN. In this article, we summarized the basic characteristics of the interventional clinical trials pertaining to DPN to determine the current status of research in this field and the existing issues.

Materials And Methods: We searched the World Health Organization International Clinical Trial Registration Platform (ICTRP), PubMed and Web of Science for clinical trials from 2005 to April 2021 and extracted 149 registered and 459 published clinical trials on DPN. We summarized the characteristics of the clinical trials, including the source registration, recruitment status, stage, age group, allocation method, intervention, end point classification, funding source, and treatment.

Results: After excluding noninterventional and nontreatment trials, 149 registered clinical trials out of 292 records from 12 registration centers and 459 published articles were included in this study. Among the registered trials, 43% had been completed, and 34.4% had been published in peer-reviewed journals. Among these trials, more than half used random allocation and blinded placebo-controlled methodologies. A total of 40.3% of the trials were multicenter studies, 63.8% of the treatments were drug therapies, and the endpoint classifications of 49% were efficacy and safety. Of the 459 published interventional clinical trials on DPN, 69.7% of the trials used drug treatments; more than half were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials; 94.1% had positive outcomes; 46.4% had a target size of 50; and 22.9% were multicenter.

Conclusion: This paper systematically summarizes the current status of interventional trials on DPN registered in the ICTRP and published clinical trials and provides a reference for the development of high-quality intervention strategies for DPN in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S320364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8405224PMC
August 2021

Comparisons of Isolation Methods, Structural Features, and Bioactivities of the Polysaccharides from Three Common Panax Species: A Review of Recent Progress.

Molecules 2021 Aug 18;26(16). Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Bio-Macromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130117, China.

spp. ( family) are widely used medicinal plants and they mainly include C.A. Meyer L. (American ginseng) and (notoginseng). Polysaccharides are the main active ingredients in these plants and have demonstrated diverse pharmacological functions, but comparisons of isolation methods, structural features, and bioactivities of these polysaccharides have not yet been reported. This review summarizes recent advances associated with 112 polysaccharides from ginseng, 25 polysaccharides from American ginseng, and 36 polysaccharides from notoginseng and it compares the differences in extraction, purification, structural features, and bioactivities. Most studies focus on ginseng polysaccharides and comparisons are typically made with the polysaccharides from American ginseng and notoginseng. For the extraction, purification, and structural analysis, the processes are similar for the polysaccharides from the three Panax species. Previous studies determined that 55 polysaccharides from ginseng, 18 polysaccharides from American ginseng, and 9 polysaccharides from notoginseng exhibited anti-tumor activity, immunoregulatory effects, anti-oxidant activity, and other pharmacological functions, which are mediated by multiple signaling pathways, including mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor kappa B, or redox balance pathways. This review can provide new insights into the similarities and differences among the polysaccharides from the three Panax species, which can facilitate and guide further studies to explore the medicinal properties of the family used in traditional Chinese medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26164997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8400370PMC
August 2021

Efficacy of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F on animal model of Diabetic Kidney Diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Dec 19;281:114536. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Endocrinology Department, First Affiliated Hospital to Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, 130021, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) has been clinically applied in the treatment of Diabetic Kidney Diseases (DKD). A large number of animal experiments focused on the TwHF treatment of DKD were conducted every year, but the evidence for these preclinical studies is unclear.

Aim Of The Study: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of TwHF on diabetic nephropathy through a stematic reviews and meta-analysis of animal models, and whether it has an effect on improving kidney pathology, renal function indicators and blood sugar levels, it also summarizes the use of TwHF for treatment the underlying mechanism of DKD.

Materials And Methods: We systematically searched studies from PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), and Wanfang database from inception to May 2020. Chinese studies from the list of Chinese Core Journals would be included. SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for animal studies was applied to assess the methodological quality of studies. A meta-analysis was performed by using RevMan 5.3.

Results: Out of 429 records identified in the initial search, 32 studies were selected. The results indicated that, compared with control group, TwHF treatment improved 24 h urine protein (24 h-UP) level (SMD - 4.21, 95% CI - 5.38 to - 3.04, P < 0.001), serum creatinine (Scr) (MD - 14.97, 95% CI - 20.42 to - 9.53, P < 0.001), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (MD - 4.07, 95% CI - 5.49 to - 2.66, P < 0.001), blood glucose (Glu) (MD - 2.40, 95% CI - 4.304 to - 0.49, P = 0.01), Triglyceride (TG) (MD - 1.57, 95% CI - 2.06 to - 1.08, P < 0.001), and Cholesterol (TC) (MD - 1.49, 95% CI - 2.23 to - 0.75 P < 0.001); and increased the level of albumin (Alb) (MD 3.40, 95% CI 1.69 to 5.11, P < 0.001) and weight (MD 30.89, 95% CI 24.35 to 37.42, P < 0.001). There were no statistical difference on Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (MD 3.00, 95% CI - 7.80 to 13.81, P = 0.59) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (MD 0.77, 95% CI -15.05 to 16.60, P = 0.92) after TwHF. Meta regression analysis showed that the DKD model induced by different methods (type I/II), the dose of Tripterygium wilfordii and the intervention time were not the reasons for the heterogeneity of 24 h-UP, Alb, Glu, Scr, and BUN (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: TwHF is an effective and safe to treat DKD, which can protect the kidneys through anti-inflammation, improving oxidative stress and podocyte damage, and inhibiting mesangial cell proliferation and extracellular matrix proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114536DOI Listing
December 2021

Neuroprotective Potentials of Panax Ginseng Against Alzheimer's Disease: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Evidences.

Front Pharmacol 2021 2;12:688490. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Bio-Macromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is a major health concern in the increasingly aged population worldwide. Currently, no clinically effective drug can halt the progression of AD. C.A. Mey is a well-known medicinal plant that contains ginsenosides, gintonin, and other components and has neuroprotective effects against a series of pathological cascades in AD, including beta-amyloid formation, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this review, we summarize the effects and mechanisms of these major components and formulas containing in neuronal cells and animal models. Moreover, clinical findings regarding the prevention and treatment of AD with or its formulas are discussed. This review can provide new insights into the possible use of ginseng in the prevention and treatment of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.688490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206566PMC
June 2021

Ginsenoside extract from ginseng extends lifespan and health span in .

Food Funct 2021 Aug;12(15):6793-6808

Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Nutrition intervention has become a potential strategy to improve healthspan and prolong lifespan. Ginseng has been used for thousands of years and developed as a functional food to provide various protective effects to humans. An extract of total ginsenosides (TGS), a mixture of the main active ginsenosides from ginseng, has wide biological activities and health benefits for age-related diseases, including antioxidation and improvements in mitochondrial function. However, the molecular mechanism of TGS for prolonging lifespan and improving fitness and how exactly this is achieved under normal and stress conditions remain largely unclear. In this study, wild-type and mutant C. elegans strains are used to investigate the role and molecular mechanism of TGS-mediated longevity, health benefits, and stress resistance. The results showed that treatment with TGS at 0.2 mg mL-1 from the stage of day four to death significantly extended the lifespan of worms by 14.02% without effects on bacterial metabolism and food intake. Furthermore, TGS treatment obviously improved age-associated mobility, muscle fiber organization, lipofuscin accumulation, and enhanced resistance under oxidative stress. Importantly, these effects of TGS were achieved by activating the signaling pathways of anti-oxidant regulation and longevity, including the NRF2/SKN-1, SIRT1/SIR 2.1, and FOXO/DAF-16 signaling pathways. Finally, it was found that Rg1, Re, and Rb1 were the major effective components of anti-oxidative activity and longevity. Collectively, the protective effect of ginsenoside extract in healthy aging and stress responses provides new insights for the development and practical application of ginseng functional products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00576fDOI Listing
August 2021

Review of ginsenosides targeting mitochondrial function to treat multiple disorders: Current status and perspectives.

J Ginseng Res 2021 May 11;45(3):371-379. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis and prognosis of many common disorders, including neurodegeneration, stroke, myocardial infarction, tumor, and metabolic diseases. Ginsenosides, the major bioactive constituents of , have been reported to play beneficial roles in the molecular pathophysiology of these diseases by targeting mitochondrial dysfunction. In this review, we first introduce the types of ginsenosides and basic mitochondrial functions. Then, recent findings are summarized on different ginsenosides targeting mitochondria and their key signaling pathways for the treatment of multiple diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, heart disease, hyperglycemia, and inflammation are summarized. This review may explain the common targets of ginsenosides against multiple diseases and provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms, facilitating research on the clinical application of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2020.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134842PMC
May 2021

A SIRT1 Activator, Ginsenoside Rc, Promotes Energy Metabolism in Cardiomyocytes and Neurons.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 01 13;143(3):1416-1427. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Guangdong Hanfang Health Research Institute, Guangzhou 510550, P. R. China.

Targeting SIRT1 signaling pathway could improve glucose aerobic metabolism and mitochondrial biosynthesis to resist cardiac and neurological injuries. Ginsenoside Rc has been identified for targeting mitochondrial function, but how ginsenoside Rc interacts with SIRT1 to regulate energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes and neurons under physiological or ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injured conditions has not been clearly investigated. Here, we confirm the interaction of Rc on the residue sites of SIRT1 in promoting its activity. Ginsenoside Rc significantly promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and increases the levels of electron-transport chain complex II-IV in cardiomyocytes and neurons. Meanwhile, ginsenoside Rc pretreatment increases ATP production, glucose uptake, and the levels of hexokinase I/II and mitochondrial pyruvate carrier I/II in both cell models. In addition, ginsenoside Rc activates the PGC1α pathway to induce mitochondrial biosynthesis. More importantly, ginsenoside Rc reduces mitochondrial damage and apoptosis through SIRT1 restoration-mediated reduction of PGC1α acetylation in the I/R-induced cardiac and neuronal models. Collectively, the and data indicate that ginsenoside Rc as a SIRT1 activator promotes energy metabolism to improve cardio- and neuroprotective functions under normal and I/R injury conditions, which provides new insights into the molecular mechanism of ginsenoside Rc as a protective agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c10836DOI Listing
January 2021

Targeting Sirtuin 1 signaling pathway by ginsenosides.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Mar 1;268:113657. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, 130021, China; Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, 130021, China; Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Bio-Macromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, 130021, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ginseng is a kind of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, known as "king of herbs" and widely used in China, South Korea, and other Asian countries. Ginsenosides are one of active components of Panax ginseng Meyer, which have many pharmacological effects, such as enhancing memory, improving immunity and cardiovascular system, delaying aging, and preventing cancer.

Aims Of The Review: This review aims to summarize the recent findings for ginsenosides targeting Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) signaling pathway for the prevention and treatment of a series of diseases.

Materials And Methods: An up-to-August 2020 search was carried out in databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and classic books of traditional Chinese medicine using the keywords: "SIRT1", and/or paired with "ginseng", and "ginsenosides".

Results: SIRT1 is a class-III histone deacetylase (HDAC), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent enzyme, which is deeply involved in a series of pathological processes. Based on specific intracellular localization, SIRT1 has various cytoplasmic and nuclear targets and plays a potential role in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, tumorigenesis, and aging. Ginsenosides are generally classified into three groups and microbially transformed to final metabolites. Among of them, most ginsenosides have been reported as SIRT1 activators, especially those ginsenosides with two glucopyranosyl groups on the C-3 position. Importantly, many ginsenosides can be used to prevent and treat oxidative stress, inflammation, aging, tumorigenesis, depression, and others by targeting SIRT1 signaling pathway.

Conclusions: This paper reviews recent evidences of ginsenosides targeting SIRT1 for the first time, which could provide new insights on the preclinical and clinical researches for ginsenosides against multiple disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113657DOI Listing
March 2021

Shen-Hong-Tong-Luo Formula Attenuates Macrophage Inflammation and Lipid Accumulation through the Activation of the PPAR-/LXR-/ABCA1 Pathway.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 1;2020:3426925. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Cardiology, The Affiliated Hospital to Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Atherosclerosis (AS) is the killer of human health and longevity, which is majorly caused by oxidized lipoproteins that attack macrophages in the endarterium. The Shen-Hong-Tong-Luo (SHTL) formula has shown great clinical efficacy and vascular protective effect for over 30 years in China, to attenuate AS progression. However, its pharmacological mechanism needs more investigation. In this study, we first investigated the chemical composition of SHTL by fingerprint analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography. In primary mouse peritoneal macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we found that SHTL pretreatment suppressed reactive oxygen species accumulation and reversed the increases of the inflammatory factors, TNF- and IL-6. Moreover, lipid accumulation induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) in macrophages was inhibited by SHTL. Additionally, network pharmacology was used to predict the potential targets of SHTL as the PPAR-/LXR-/ABCA1 signaling pathway, which was validated in macrophages and ApoE mice by histopathological staining, qPCR, and Western blot analysis. Importantly, the protective effect of SHTL in the LPS- and Ox-LDL-induced macrophages against inflammation and lipid accumulation was attenuated by GW9662, a PPAR- antagonist, which confirmed the prediction results of network pharmacology. In summary, these results indicated that SHTL pretreatment reduced inflammation and lipid accumulation of macrophages by activating the PPAR-/LXR-/ABCA1 pathway, which may provide a new insight into the mechanism of SHTL in the suppression of AS progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3426925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556105PMC
May 2021

Panax ginseng clinical trials: Current status and future perspectives.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Dec 12;132:110832. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Bio-Macromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, China. Electronic address:

Panax Ginseng has been widely used in Asian for thousand years. In order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ginseng, more and more ginseng clinical trials (GCTs) have been conducted recently. However, there is a lack of an extensive review summarizing the current status for the quality and quantity of ginseng clinical researches until now. Therefore, clinical trials for ginseng were retrieved from International Clinical Trials Registration Platform and collected through the system retrieval method of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses in PubMed, the Web of Science, the Korean Studies Information Service System, and SCOPUS database. We summarized the clinical characteristics of 152 registered ginseng clinical trials (R-GCTs) and119 published ginseng clinical trials (P-GCTs), such as source register, recruitment status, primary purpose, duration, sample size, conditions, and outcomes. Among them, ginseng has mainly been studied in clinical trials in the single-center and less than 200 subjects. In the most GCTs, healthy subjects and patients with various conditions, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are administrated with ginseng, ginsenosides or the prescriptions containing ginseng for less than 3 months to investigate the protective and therapeutic functions of ginseng. 95 (79.8 %) published articles showed that ginseng has plenty of positive effects. This review could assist the basic researchers and clinical doctors to understand current status and problem of ginseng clinical research, and perhaps could benefit for the reasonable and accurate design of future clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110832DOI Listing
December 2020

Platelet Protease Activated Receptor 1 Is Involved in the Hemostatic Effect of 20()-Protopanaxadiol by Regulating Calcium Signaling.

Front Pharmacol 2020 18;11:549150. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of BioMacromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Jilin Ginseng Academy, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

(Burk.) F.H. Chen has long been used to stop bleeding for hundreds of years in China. At present, only dencichine, notoginsenoside Ft1, and 20()-protopanaxadiol (PPD) showed hemostatic effect. However, the molecular mechanism of PPD on the platelet aggragetion needs to be further investigated. The study aims to evaluate the hemostatic effect of PPD and reveal its interacting targets using a series of experiments. In this study, the bleeding time was measured in mouse tail amputation and liver scratch models to evaluate hemostatic effect of PPD. The routine blood and plasma coagulation parameters in NS, HC, and PPD (2, 4, and 8 mg/kg) groups were measured using a blood analyzer. Platelet aggregation rate and ATP release were analyzed by a platelet aggregometer. Subsequently, the degranulation marker CD62P and PAC-1, and the concentrations of cytosolic Ca ([Ca]), cAMP, cGMP, and PAC-1 expressions were also assessed. We found that PPD shorted the bleeding time on the mouse tail amputation and liver scratch models and mainly increased blood platelet count in the rats after subcutaneous injection for 4 h. Meanwhile, PPD decreased APTT, increased FIB content, and directly induced platelet aggregation . In the absence of Ca, PPD induced the increase of [Ca] and slightly increased the levels of CD62P and PAC-1. After the addition of 1 mM Ca, PPD treatment markedly promoted platelet activation by promoting ATP level, releasing CD62P and increasing PAC-1 binding in washed platelets. Excitingly, PPD-induced changes including platelet aggregation, decreased cAMP content, and the increases of CD62P and PAC-1 were significantly reversed by protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) antagonist, vorapaxar, which showed similar function as thrombin. In addition, molecular docking analysis and ELISA assay demonstrated that PPD had a promising docking score with -6.6 kcal/mol and increased PAR-1 expression in human platelets, which indicated that PAR-1 is involved in PPD-induced platelet aggregation by regulating calcium signaling. Collectively, our study could provide the new insights of PPD as an essential hemostatic ingredient in for the treatment of hemorrhagic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.549150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530267PMC
September 2020

Targeting SREBP-2-Regulated Mevalonate Metabolism for Cancer Therapy.

Front Oncol 2020 21;10:1510. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Bio-Macromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Jilin Ginseng Academy, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Recently, targeting metabolic reprogramming has emerged as a potential therapeutic approach for fighting cancer. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 (SREBP-2), a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor, mainly regulates genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis and homeostasis. SREBP-2 binds to the sterol regulatory elements (SREs) in the promoters of its target genes and activates the transcription of mevalonate pathway genes, such as HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), mevalonate kinase and other key enzymes. In this review, we first summarized the structure of SREBP-2 and its activation and regulation by multiple signaling pathways. We then found that SREBP-2 and its regulated enzymes, including HMGCR, FPPS, SQS, and DHCR4 from the mevalonate pathway, participate in the progression of various cancers, including prostate, breast, lung, and hepatocellular cancer, as potential targets. Importantly, preclinical and clinical research demonstrated that fatostatin, statins, and N-BPs targeting SREBP-2, HMGCR, and FPPS, respectively, alone or in combination with other drugs, have been used for the treatment of different cancers. This review summarizes new insights into the critical role of the SREBP-2-regulated mevalonate pathway for cancer and its potential for targeted cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472741PMC
August 2020

Ginseng Omics for Ginsenoside Biosynthesis.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2021 ;22(5):570-578

Key Laboratory of Beijing for Identification and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Medicine, Institution of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China.

Ginseng, also known as the king of herbs, has been regarded as an important traditional medicine for several millennia. Ginsenosides, a group of triterpenoid saponins, have been characterized as bioactive compounds of ginseng. The complexity of ginsenosides hindered ginseng research and development both in cultivation and clinical research. Therefore, deciphering the ginsenoside biosynthesis pathway has been a focus of interest for researchers worldwide. The new emergence of biological research tools consisting of omics and bioinformatic tools or computational biology tools are the research trend in the new century. Ginseng is one of the main subjects analyzed using these new quantification tools, including tools of genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics. Here, we review the current progress of ginseng omics research and provide results for the ginsenoside biosynthesis pathway. Organization and expression of the entire pathway, including the upstream MVA pathway, the cyclization of ginsenoside precursors, and the glycosylation process, are illustrated. Regulatory gene families such as transcriptional factors and transporters are also discussed in this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201021666200807113723DOI Listing
June 2021

20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 promotes myoblast differentiation and protects against myotube atrophy via regulation of the Akt/mTOR/FoxO3 pathway.

Biochem Pharmacol 2020 10 10;180:114145. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Affiliated Hospital to Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, 1478 Gongnong Street, Changchun, Jilin Province 130021, PR China; Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, PR China. Electronic address:

We previously found that 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 (S-Rg3) promotes myoblast differentiation via an unknown mechanism. Here we measured levels of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and myogenin, markers of myoblast differentiation, using Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. Notably, S-Rg3 treatment of C2C12 myoblasts led to increased muscle differentiation and protection from muscle atrophy in a dexamethasone (DEX)-treated C2C12 myotube-based muscle atrophy model. This effect was likely caused by S-Rg3 treatment-induced promotion of Akt/mTOR phosphorylation and inhibition of FoxO3 nuclear transcription. Additionally, S-Rg3 treatment also led to increased fruit fly climbing distances (Drosophila melanogaster) and prevented muscle atrophy in aged fruit flies. Our study provides a mechanistic framework for understanding how S-Rg3 enhances myoblast differentiation and inhibits myotube atrophy through activation of the Akt/mTOR/FoxO3 signaling pathway, as demonstrated in vitro in C2C12 cells and in vivo in fruit flies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114145DOI Listing
October 2020

Profiles of COVID-19 clinical trials in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):1695-1701

Neurology Department, The Affiliated Hospital to Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, People's Republic of China.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global public health crisis. There is a pressing need for evidence-based interventions to address the devastating clinical and public health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Chinese scientists supported by private and government resources have adopted extensive efforts to identify effective drugs against the virus. To date, a large number of clinical trials addressing various aspects of COVID19 have been registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR), including more than 200 interventional studies. Under such an urgent circumstance, the scope and quality of these clinical studies vary significantly. Hence, this review aims to make a comprehensive analysis on the profiles of COVID-19 clinical trials registered in the ChiCTR, including a wide range of characteristics. Our findings will provide a useful summary on these clinical studies since most of these studies will encounter major challenges from the design to completion. It will be a long road for the outcomes of these studies to be published and international collaboration will help the ultimate goals of developing new vaccines and anti-viral drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1791736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7473047PMC
December 2020

Effect of Panax ginseng on preventing acute respiratory tract infection: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jun;99(24):e20690

Institute of Acupuncture and Tuina, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine.

Background: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) should be deeply concerned all over the world. Panax ginseng (ginseng) as traditional Chinese medicine is widely used in the treatment and health care for respiratory diseases. However, only one similar systematic review based on common cold has been published in 2011. New studies have occurred and a new systematic evaluation which could describe ARTI is needed.

Methods And Analysis: We will search for randomized control trials of ginseng on preventing acute respiratory tract infection in the following 8 databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED (via OVID) and 4 Chinese databases (Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, and Wan fang Database). The time is limited from the construction of the library to April 2020. The selection of studies, data extraction and quality of assessment will be conducted independently by 2 reviewers. The morbidity of ARTI by assessing self-report, caregiver report or clinical confirmation will be considered as the primary outcome. ARTI-related death among children or adults, other adverse events, absenteeism, laboratory-confirmed infection will be regarded as secondary outcome. All reported side effects and adverse events will be included as safety outcomes. Standard meta-analysis will be performed using Rev Man software V5.3.

Results: This study will provide a better understanding of the association between P ginseng and ARTI.

Conclusion: This systematic review may offer stronger evidences for the clinicians to prevent the patients from ARTI and update the former one based on basic diseases and the safety.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42020181317.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302639PMC
June 2020

Compound K inhibits autophagy-mediated apoptosis induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion via regulating AMPK-mTOR pathway in neurons.

Life Sci 2020 Aug 19;254:117793. Epub 2020 May 19.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, China; Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, China; Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Bio-Macromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, China. Electronic address:

Aims: Oxygen and glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) injury contributes to the pathophysiology after ischemic stroke, which needs to urgently develop treatment strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated that autophagy in reperfusion period exerted adverse effects on the cerebral ischemic injury. Ginsenoside monomer compound K (CK) is the main intestinal metabolite of ginseng that exerts the pharmacological activities and has a protective effect against cerebral OGD/R injury. However, the specific molecular mechanism of CK protects against OGD/R injury in neurons is still unclear.

Materials And Methods: In this study, cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, Ca overload, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, autophagy and apoptosis were investigated in OGD/R-induced neuronal cells injury after pretreatment with CK and in combination with BML-275 or rapamycin.

Key Findings: Our study found that pretreatment with CK protected neurons against OGD/R injury by increasing cell viability and decreasing the ROS generation, mitochondrial damage, and Ca overload. Moreover, CK cut down autophagy-mediated apoptosis via promoting the process of forming autophagosomes into phagocytic precursors. Furthermore, our study clarified the neuroprotective of CK against OGD/R-induced neural autophagy and apoptosis through the regulation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.

Significance: Taken together, our study provides credible experimental evidence and explains the potential molecular mechanism of CK as one of the main bioactive ingredients of ginseng for the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117793DOI Listing
August 2020

The Protective Effect of DiDang Tang Against AlCl-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in PC12 Cells Through the Activation of SIRT1-Mediated Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2020 15;11:466. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Encephalopathy, the Affiliated Hospital of Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Aluminum (Al) is considered a pathological factor for various neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The neurotoxicity of aluminum can cause oxidative brain damage, trigger apoptosis, and ultimately cause irreversible damage to neurons. DiDang Tang (DDT), a classic formula within traditional Chinese medicine for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis and collaterals, is widely used for the treatment of stroke and AD. In this study, models of oxidative stress and apoptosis were established using AlCl, and the effects of DDT were evaluated. We found that DDT treatment for 48 h significantly increased cell viability and reduced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in AlCl-induced PC12 cells. Moreover, DDT attenuated AlCl-induced oxidative stress damage by increasing antioxidant activities and apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. Additionally, DDT treatment significantly activated the Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) -mediated Akt/nuclear factor E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathways to limit AlCl-mediated neurotoxicity. Our data indicated that DDT potently inhibited AlCl-induced oxidative-stress damage and apoptosis in neural cells by activating the SIRT1-mediated Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, which provides further support for the beneficial effects of DDT on Al-induced neurotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7179660PMC
April 2020

Ginsenoside Rd attenuates ACTH-induced corticosterone secretion by blocking the MC2R-cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in Y1 mouse adrenocortical cells.

Life Sci 2020 Mar 20;245:117337. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Affiliated Hospital to Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, China. Electronic address:

Background: Higher levels of glucocorticoids (GCs), and impaired regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may cause or exacerbate the occurrence of metabolic and psychiatric disorders. It has been reported that ginseng saponin extract (GSE) has an inhibitory effect on the hyperactivity of the HPA axis induced by stresses and increased corticosterone level induced by intraperitoneal injection of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms by which GSE and its active ginsenosides inhibit corticosterone secretion remain elusive.

Main Methods: Y1 mouse adrenocortical cells were treated with ACTH for up to 60 min to establish a cell model of corticosterone secretion. After treatment with different concentrations of GSE or ginsenoside monomers for 24 h prior to the addition of ACTH, analyses of cAMP content, PKA activity, and the levels of steroidogenesis regulators, melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), and melanocortin-2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) in ACTH-induced Y1 cells were performed.

Results: We demonstrated that GSE inhibits ACTH-stimulated corticosterone production in Y1 cells by inhibiting factors critical for steroid synthesis. Ginsenoside Rd, an active ingredient of GSE, inhibits corticosterone secretion in the cells and impedes ACTH-induced corticosterone biosynthesis through down-regulation of proteins in the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. In addition, Western blot and qPCR analyses showed that ginsenoside Rd attenuated the induction of MC2R and MRAP by ACTH.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that ginsenoside Rd inhibits ACTH-induced corticosterone production through blockading the MC2R-cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in adrenocortical cells. Overall, this mechanism may represent an important therapeutic option for the treatment of stress-related disorders, further supporting the pharmacological benefits of ginseng.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117337DOI Listing
March 2020

Triply Magic Conditions for Microwave Transition of Optically Trapped Alkali-Metal Atoms.

Phys Rev Lett 2019 Dec;123(25):253602

State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, and Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China and Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China.

We report the finding of "triply magic" conditions (the doubly magic frequency-intensity conditions of an optical dipole trap plus the magic magnetic field) for the microwave transitions of optically trapped alkali-metal atoms. The differential light shift (DLS) induced by a degenerate two-photon process is adopted to compensate a DLS associated with the one-photon process. Thus, doubly magic conditions for the intensity and frequency of the optical trap beam can be found. Moreover, the DLS decouples from the magnetic field in a linearly polarized optical dipole trap, so that the magic condition of the magnetic field can be applied independently. Therefore, the triply magic conditions can be realized simultaneously. We also experimentally demonstrate the doubly magic frequency-intensity conditions as well as the independence of the magnetic field. When the triply magic conditions are fulfilled, the inhomogeneous and homogeneous decoherences for the optically trapped atom will be dramatically suppressed, and the coherence time can be extended significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.253602DOI Listing
December 2019

Application of Machine Learning to Predict Grain Boundary Embrittlement in Metals by Combining Bonding-Breaking and Atomic Size Effects.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jan 1;13(1). Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031, China.

The strengthening energy or embrittling potency of an alloying element is a fundamental energetics of the grain boundary (GB) embrittlement that control the mechanical properties of metallic materials. A data-driven machine learning approach has recently been used to develop prediction models to uncover the physical mechanisms and design novel materials with enhanced properties. In this work, to accurately predict and uncover the key features in determining the strengthening energies, three machine learning methods were used to model and predict strengthening energies of solutes in different metallic GBs. In addition, 142 strengthening energies from previous density functional theory calculations served as our dataset to train three machine learning models: support vector machine (SVM) with linear kernel, SVM with radial basis function (RBF) kernel, and artificial neural network (ANN). Considering both the bond-breaking effect and atomic size effect, the nonlinear kernel based SVR model was found to perform the best with a correlation of ~ 0.889. The size effect feature shows a significant improvement to prediction performance with respect to using bond-breaking effect only. Moreover, the mean impact value analysis was conducted to quantitatively explore the relative significance of each input feature for improving the effective prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13010179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6981756PMC
January 2020

Corrigendum to "Cytoprotective effect of Fufang Lurong Jiangu capsule against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in bone marrow stromal cell-derived osteoblasts through the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway" [Biomed. Pharmacother. 121 (2020) 109676].

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 02 3;122:109808. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital to Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109808DOI Listing
February 2020

Cytoprotective effect of Fufang Lurong Jiangu capsule against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in bone marrow stromal cell-derived osteoblasts through the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Jan 25;121:109676. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital to Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Oxidative stress is increasingly recognized as a risk factor associated with the development and progression of osteoporosis. Fufang Lurong Jiangu Capsule (FLJC) has a known anti-osteoporotic effect, but its pharmacological effect on osteoblasts is not clearly understood. This study was designed to investigate FLJC effects/mechanisms on in vitro hydrogen peroxide (HO)-induced oxidative damage of osteoblasts and on in vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice bone loss. FLJC alleviates osteoporosis via unknown pharmacological mechanisms.

Methods: Chemical compositions of FLJC preparations were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprinting. After rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation induction, resulting osteoblasts received various 48 h FLJC pretreatments before HO-based (200 μM) oxidative stress exposure. FLJC effects were measured on osteoblast cell viability, morphological changes, levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), localization of mitochondria, activity of antioxidant enzymes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineralization, the secretion of Col I and expression of osteogenic markers. The percentages of apoptosis were determined by flow cytometric analysis; apoptosis-related protein levels, including nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) with or without Nrf2 inhibitor were analyzed via western blot. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and ALP staining revealed in vivo FLJC effect on mice LPS-induced bone loss.

Results: Five chemical components in FLJC were identified, and fingerprint analysis showed good reproducibility. FLJC pretreatment significantly reduced HO-induced ROS levels in osteoblasts and increased antioxidant enzyme activities to reduce oxidative damage. With regard to osteoblast differentiation, FLJC pretreatment increased ALP expression, as well as levels of mineralization and osteoblast markers. Additionally, FLJC protected against HO-induced apoptosis by inhibiting changes in expression of major Bcl-2 family effector proteins of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, FLJC protected cells from HO-induced oxidative damage by up-regulating Nrf2 and HO-1 protein levels. Finally, we confirmed that FLJC administration could reverse the bone loss in LPS-induced mice.

Conclusion: These results indicate that FLJC may significantly attenuate oxidative damage of osteoblasts induced by HO via the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, providing new insights to guide development of treatments for osteoporosis induced by oxidative injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109676DOI Listing
January 2020

Total Protein Facilitates Recovery from Dexamethasone-Induced Muscle Atrophy through the Activation of Glucose Consumption in C2C12 Myotubes.

Biomed Res Int 2019 6;2019:3719643. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital to Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin 130021, China.

Background: The clinical anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone (DEX) can cause many side effects such as muscle atrophy for long-term use. Muscle atrophy induced by DEX may be caused by decrease of glucose consumption. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer was previously considered to be an antiatrophic agent for glucocorticoid- (GC-) treated therapies. As one of the main components, it remains unclear whether ginseng total protein (GP) facilitates recovery from muscle atrophy induced by DEX.

Methods: In this study, GP was extracted and purified with Sephadex-G50. C2C12 myoblasts was induced with 2% horse serum to differentiate into C2C12 myotubes. Cell viability was analyzed by the MTT assay, and Ca concentration was analyzed by a flow cytometer. The release of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and the glucose consumption were analyzed by spectrophotometry. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and protein kinase B (Akt) and the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) were analyzed by Western blotting. The phosphorylation of AS160 was quantified by Immunofluorescence staining.

Results: We found that GP increased cell viability and increased myotube diameter in high-dose DEX-treated C2C12 myotubes for 24 h, but this activity was not found in the enzymatic hydrolyzed GP group. GP reduced muscle atrophy by decreasing the expression of key proteins such as muscle RING-finger protein-1 and muscle atrophy F-box, reducing the Ca concentration, and decreasing the release of LDH in DEX-injured C2C12 myotubes. Moreover, GP improved glucose consumption and increased the phosphorylation of AMPK, PI3K, Akt, and AS160 and the expression of GLUT4 in DEX-treated C2C12 myotubes.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that GP has effects on recovering DEX-induced muscle atrophy and cell injury, which may improve glucose consumption via the AMPK and PI3K/Akt pathways in high-dose DEX-treated C2C12 myotubes. This study provides mechanistic insights into the recovery of muscle atrophy with GP treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3719643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699344PMC
January 2020

Transdermal permeation effect of collagen hydrolysates of deer sinew on mouse skin, ex vitro, and antioxidant activity, increased type I collagen secretion of percutaneous proteins in NIH/3T3 cells.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 Feb 20;19(2):519-528. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Changchun University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Background: The collagen hydrolysates as a cosmetic material have already been wide application. At present, few studies concern with transdermal behavior of collagen hydrolysates in vitro.

Objective: Deer sinew contains rich collagen with a content of 82.12%. Thus, this article mainly studies the transdermal effect of collagen hydrolysates of deer sinew (DSCH) on mouse skin, ex vitro, and to explore skincare protection of percutaneous proteins.

Methods: Collagen hydrolysates of deer sinew were extracted by 0.2% HCl and a two-step enzymatic method of pepsin-trypsin. The content of 17 amino acids of DSCH was detected by precolumn derivatization RP-HPLC. Using Franz diffusion cell systems studied the transdermal effect of DSCH and then examined the percutaneous rate and molecular weight distribution of percutaneous proteins (PP). Further, we studied the bioactivity of PP in vitro, such as the total antioxidant capacity and collagen secretion in NIH/3T3 cells.

Results: About 8.0% DSCH could penetrate skin of mouse, the molecular weight of PP mainly distributed in 5 ~ 13 kDa, accounted for 91.55%. Compared with the antioxidant activity of DSCH, PP had obvious antioxidant activity of scavenging radical cation. Meanwhile, PP promoted cell proliferation and collagen I secretion in fibroblast cells; however, level of type III collagen has no change.

Conclusion: Collagen hydrolysates of deer sinew may be used as cosmetic material to protect the skin from oxidative stress, to prevent premature skin aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13041DOI Listing
February 2020
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