Publications by authors named "Xiangbing Mao"

171 Publications

Dietary tributyrin improves reproductive performance, antioxidant capacity, and ovary function of broiler breeders.

Poult Sci 2021 Aug 13;100(11):101429. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China. Electronic address:

The objective of this experiment was to investigate the influence of dietary tributyrin on reproduction performance and ovary function of broiler breeders with different egg laying rate. Two hundred fifty-six AA broiler breeders (48-wk-old) were allocated to 4 treatment in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the main effects of tributyrin supplementation (0 and 1,000 mg/kg tributyrin [TRI]) and 2 egg laying rate levels (average [AR, 81.01 ± 0.79%] and low [LR, 70.98 ± 0.95%]). The results shown that the LR breeders presented higher egg weight, but lower egg laying rate, qualified egg rate and feed efficiency than the AR breeders (P < 0.05). Also, the superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity in magnum was lower while malondialdehyde (MDA) was higher in ovary and magnum of LR breeders than that in the AR breeders (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with tributyrin significantly enhanced egg weight (P < 0.05), increased albumen height as well as Haugh unit (HU) in AR breeders (P < 0.05), and also had higher total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and lower MDA in ovary (P < 0.05). The cell apoptosis rate and proapoptosis related gene expression (caspase 8, 9 and Bax) in the ovary of LR breeders was higher, while anti-apoptosis related gene (Bcl-2) expression were lower in LR breeders when compared with the AR breeders (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with tributyrin decreased the cell apoptosis rate and downregulated caspase 9 expression in LR breeders (P < 0.05), up-regulated the Bcl-2 expression in both 2 breeders (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the breeders with lower egg laying rate also characterized by deteriorate ovary function indicated by lower antioxidant capacity and higher cell apoptosis rate. Dietary supplementation with tributyrin increased egg albumen quality, decreased ovarian proapoptosis related gene expression to improve reproductive tract function; and the positive effect on egg albumen quality is more pronounced in average reproductive breeders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101429DOI Listing
August 2021

L-Leucine Promotes STAT1 and ISGs Expression in TGEV-Infected IPEC-J2 Cells mTOR Activation.

Front Immunol 2021 22;12:656573. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

L-leucine (Leu), as one of the effective amino acids to activate the mTOR signaling pathway, can alleviate transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) infection. However, the underlying mechanism by which Leu alleviates the virus infection has not been fully characterized. In particular, how Leu impacts TGEV replication through mTOR signaling has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we found that TGEV proliferated efficiently in intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2 cells) as evidenced by the increase in viral contents by flow cytometry, the inhibition of cell proliferation by CCK-8 assay as well as the reduction of PCNA level by western blot. Besides, western blot analysis showed that STAT1 expression was markedly reduced in TGEV-infected cells. The results of ELISA revealed the inhibition of ISGs (ISG56, MxA, and PKR) expressions by TGEV infection. TGEV-induced mTOR and its downstream p70 S6K and 4E-BP1, STAT1 and ISGs downregulation were blocked by an mTOR activator-MHY1485 but not by an mTOR inhibitor-RAPA. Concurrently, mTOR activation by MHY1485 reduced the contents of TGEV and vice versa. Furthermore, Leu reversed the inhibition of STAT1 and ISGs by activating mTOR and its downstream p70 S6K and 4E-BP1 in TEGV-infected cells. Our findings demonstrated that Leu promoted the expressions of STAT1 and ISGs activating mTOR signaling in IPEC-J2 cells, aiming to prevent TGEV infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.656573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339710PMC
July 2021

Effects of Cold Exposure on Performance and Skeletal Muscle Fiber in Weaned Piglets.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jul 20;11(7). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Low-temperature is one of the most significant risks for the animal industry. In light of this, the present study aimed to explore the effects of low-temperature on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, myofiber types and mitochondrial function in weaned piglets. A total of sixteen 21-day-old male Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire (DLY) piglets were randomly divided into a control group (CON, 26 ± 1 °C) and a low-temperature group (LT, 15 ± 1 °C), with eight duplicate piglets in each group. The trial period lasted for 21 days. We showed that LT not only increased the ADFI ( < 0.05), as well as increasing the diarrhea incidence and diarrhea index of weaned piglets in the early stage of the experiment ( < 0.01), but it also decreased the apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM) and dry matter (DM) ( < 0.05). Meanwhile, in the LT group, the mRNA expression of ( < 0.05) in longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) and ( < 0.01) in psoas muscle (PM) were increased, while the mRNA expression of in PM was decreased ( < 0.05). In addition, LT increased the mRNA expression of mitochondrial function-related genes citrate synthase (CS) and succinate dehydrogenase-b (SDHB) in LM, as well as increased the mRNA expression of CS ( < 0.05) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1b (CPT-1b) ( < 0.01) in PM. Furthermore, LT increased the T-AOC activity in serum and LM ( < 0.01), as well as increased the T-SOD activity in PM ( < 0.05). Taken together, these findings showed that low-temperature could negatively affect the growth performance and nutrient digestibility, but resulted in a shift toward oxidative muscle fibers, which may occur through mitochondrial function regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11072148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300759PMC
July 2021

Chitosan oligosaccharide attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated intestinal apoptosis the Akt/mTOR pathway.

Food Funct 2021 Sep 20;12(18):8647-8658. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, China.

Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and apoptosis are widely considered as essential factors associated with intestinal disorders, whereas nutritional therapeutic approaches targeting ERS may control disease activity. Thus, we focus on the potential benefit of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) on repressing ERS and ERS-induced apoptosis. In this study, we used the ERS model with tunicamycin (TM)-induced IPEC-J2 cells and nutrient deprivation-induced ERS in piglets to evaluate the protective mechanism of COS against ERS and ERS-induced apoptosis. The results showed that cells were characterized by activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and increased epithelial apoptosis upon exposure to TM. However, these changes were significantly attenuated by COS and the expressions of Akt and mTORC1 were inhibited. Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of mTOR confirmed the suppression of Akt and reduced the activation of the UPR and apoptosis. , COS protected against nutrient deprivation-induced ERS in the jejunum of piglets, in which the overexpression of the UPR and apoptosis was rescued. Consistently, COS attenuated nutrient deprivation-induced disruption of intestinal barrier integrity and functional capacity. Together, we provided the first evidence that COS could protect against intestinal apoptosis through alleviating severe ERS, which may be related to the inhibition of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo01234gDOI Listing
September 2021

Comparisons of the micronization, steam explosion, and gamma irradiation treatment on chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of dietary fiber from soybean hulls.

Food Chem 2022 Jan 17;366:130618. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the micronization (MT), steam explosion (SE), and gamma irradiation (GI) treatment on the chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of dietary fiber from soybean hulls. GI (1200 kGy) treatment exerted the optimum effects on improving soluble dietary fiber content, in vitro gross energy digestibility (IVGED), and reducing sugar yield (RS) in the three modification methods, increased by 342.88%, 55.24%, and 117.02%, respectively. Compared with GI treatment, MT-GI combined treatment could further enhance the degradation effect of irradiation and improve the physicochemical properties (p<0.05) in soybean fibers. From the results of correlation analysis, RS was a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with IVGED, and RS = -112.24 + 4.90 × IVGED (r = 0.82, p<0.01). In summary, MT-GI combined treatment could be considered the ideal modification method to improve the quality of soybean fiber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130618DOI Listing
January 2022

Functional Characterization of Porcine NK-Lysin: A Novel Immunomodulator That Regulates Intestinal Inflammatory Response.

Molecules 2021 Jul 13;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Porcine NK-Lysine (PNKL) is a new antimicrobial peptide (AMP) identified in the small intestine. In this study, PNKL protein was obtained through heterologous expression in and was estimated by SDS-PAGE at 33 kDa. The antibacterial activities of PNKL were determined using various bacterial strains and showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, K88-challenged IPEC-J2 cells were used to determine PNKL influences on inflammatory responses. Hemolytic assays showed that PNKL had no detrimental impact on cell viability. Interestingly, PNKL elevated the viability of IPEC-J2 cells exposure to K88. PNKL significantly decreased the cell apoptosis rate, and improved the distribution and abundance of tight junction protein ZO-1 in IPEC-J2 cells upon K88-challenge. Importantly, PNKL not only down regulated the expressions of inflammatory cytokines such as the IL-6 and TNF-α, but also down regulated the expressions of NF-κB, Caspase3, and Caspase9 in the K88-challenged cells. These results suggest a novel function of natural killer (NK)-lysin, and the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of PNKL may allow it a potential substitute for conventionally used antibiotics or drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8307250PMC
July 2021

Prebiotic inulin as a treatment of obesity related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through gut microbiota: a critical review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 22:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition, Ministry of Education, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan, People's Republic of China.

The microbial-derived products, including short chain fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide and secondary bile acids, have been shown to participate in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated that prebiotics, such as oligosaccharide and inulin, have abilities to change the concentration of microbial-derived products through modulating the microbial community structure, thus controlling body weight and alleviating hepatic fat accumulation. However, recent evidence indicates that there are individual differences in host response upon inulin treatment due to the differences in host microbial composition before dietary intervention. Probably it is because of the multiple relationships among bacterial species (e.g., competition and mutualism), which play key roles in the degradation of inulin and the regulation of microbial structure. Thereby, analyzing the composition and function of initial gut microbiota is essential for improving the efficacy of prebiotics supplementation. Furthermore, considering that different structures of polysaccharides can be used by different microorganisms, the chemical structure of processed inulin should be tested before using prebiotic inulin to treat obesity related nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1955654DOI Listing
July 2021

rich enterotype may benefit gut health in finishing pigs fed diet with a high amylose-to-amylopectin ratio.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 25;7(2):400-411. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of Ministry of Education of China, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition and Feed of Ministry of Agriculture of China, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, And Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

To investigate the influence of baseline enterotypes and dietary starch type on the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), numbers of butyrate producing bacteria and the expression of genes related to intestinal barrier and inflammatory response in the colon of finishing pigs, a 60-d in vivo trial was conducted. A 2-wk pre-trial with 102 crossbred (Duroc × [Landrace × Yorkshire]) finishing barrows (90 d old) was conducted to screen enterotypes. Then, a total of 32 pigs (87.40 ± 2.76 kg) with high (HPBR, ≥ 14) and low (LPBR, ≤ 2) -to- ratios (PBR) in equal measure were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates per group and 1 pig per replicate. The trial was designed following a 2 (PBR) × 2 (amylose-to-amylopectin ratio, AMR) factorial arrangement. Pigs with different PBR were fed diets based on corn-soybean meal with high AMR (HAMR, 1.24) or low AMR (LAMR, 0.23), respectively. Results showed that neither PBR nor AMR influenced the growth performance of pigs. HPBR pigs fed HAMR diet had a higher number of colonic cluster XIVa and higher gene expression of butyrate kinase compared to the LPBR pigs ( < 0.05). The HPBR pigs fed HAMR diets also had increased colonic concentrations of total SCFA and propionate compared to the LPBR pigs ( < 0.05). Comparing with other pigs, HPBR pigs fed HAMR diets showed a lower ( < 0.05) expression of histone deacetylases () gene and higher ( < 0.05) expression of G protein-coupled receptor 43 gene () in the colonic mucosa. The interaction ( < 0.05) of HPBR and HAMR was also found to decrease the gene expression of interleukin ()-6, , and tumor necrosis factor-α () in colonic mucosa. These findings show that HAMR diet increased the abundance and activity of butyrate-producing bacteria and the concentration and absorption of SCFA, which may be associated with the decreased gene expression of inflammatory cytokines in the colonic mucosa of pigs with -rich enterotype. All these alterations are likely to have a positive effect on the intestinal health of finishing pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.08.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245826PMC
June 2021

Effects of soybean raffinose on growth performance, digestibility, humoral immunity and intestinal morphology of growing pigs.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 6;7(2):393-399. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, 625014, Sichuan, China.

There are appreciable does of raffinose in soybean, but the impacts of raffinose on pigs are poorly investigated. We used 2 experiments to investigate the influence of soybean raffinose on growth performance, digestibility, humoral immunity and intestinal morphology of growing pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 30 crossbred (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) barrows (21.93 ± 0.43 kg) were randomly divided into 3 groups, and were fed with the control diet, the control diets supplemented with 0.2% and 0.5% raffinose, respectively, for 21 d. Results showed that the addition of 0.2% or 0.5% raffinose reduced ( < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and nutrient digestibility, and dietary 0.5% raffinose increased the ratio of feed to gain ( < 0.05). For serum indexes, dietary 0.5% raffinose decreased growth hormone and increased glucagon-like peptide-2, immunoglobulin G, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 concentration ( < 0.05). In Exp. 2, a total of 24 crossbred barrows (38.41 ± 0.45 kg) were randomly divided into 3 groups, and were fed with the control diet (ad libitum), the raffinose diet (0.5% raffinose, ad libitum), and the control diet in the same amount as the raffinose group (feed-pair group) for 14 d, respectively. Compared with the control diet, dietary 0.5% raffinose decreased ADFI ( < 0.05). Intriguingly, the raffinose group had lower ADG than the feed-pair group, lower nutrient digestibility, lower amylase activity in duodenum, lower amylase, lipase and trypsin activities in jejunum and higher TNF-α concentration in serum compared with the other 2 groups, and a higher ratio of villus height to crypt depth compared with the control group ( < 0.05). These results showed that soybean raffinose could reduce feed voluntary intake and body gain while improving intestinal morphology without a significant negative influence on immunity. Taken together, dietary raffinose could decrease growth performance by reducing both feed intake and nutrient digestibility while inducing humoral immune response of growing pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.06.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245804PMC
June 2021

Gut microbiota absence and transplantation affect growth and intestinal functions: An investigation in a germ-free pig model.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 22;7(2):295-304. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, China.

This study was conducted to investigate host-microbiota interactions and explore the effects of maternal gut microbiota transplantation on the growth and intestinal functions of newborns in a germ-free (GF) pig model. Twelve hysterectomy-derived GF Bama piglets were reared in 6 sterile isolators. Among them, 6 were considered as the GF group, and the other 6 were orally inoculated with healthy sow fecal suspension as fecal microbiota transplanted (FMT) group. Another 6 piglets from natural birth were regarded as the conventional (CV) group. The GF and FMT groups were hand-fed with Co60-γ-irradiated sterile milk powder, while the CV group was reared by lactating Bama sows. All groups were fed for 21 days. Then, all piglets and then were switched to sterile feed for another 21 days. Results showed that the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and concentrations of short-chain fatty acids in the GF group decreased ( < 0.05). Meanwhile, the serum urea nitrogen concentration and digesta pH values in the GF group increased compared with those in the FMT and CV groups ( < 0.05). Compared with the CV group, the GF group demonstrated upregulation in the mRNA expression levels of intestinal barrier function-related genes in the small intestine ( < 0.05). In addition, the mRNA abundances of intestinal development and absorption-related genes in the small intestine and colon were higher in the GF group than in the CV and FMT groups ( < 0.05). The FMT group exhibited greater growth performance, lipase activity, and nutrient digestibility ( < 0.05), higher mRNA expression levels of intestinal development and barrier-related genes in the small intestine ( < 0.05), and lower mRNA abundances of pro-inflammatory factor in the colon and jejunum ( < 0.05) than the CV group. In conclusion, the absence of gut microbes impaired the growth and nutrient digestibility, and healthy sow gut microbiota transplantation increased the growth and nutrient digestibility and improved the intestinal development and barrier function of newborn piglets, indicating the importance of intestinal microbes for intestinal development and functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.11.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245803PMC
June 2021

Effects of essential oil on growth performance, digestibility, immunity, and intestinal health in broilers.

Poult Sci 2021 Aug 13;100(8):101242. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Essential oils (EO) are concentrated hydrophobic liquids containing volatile aromatic compounds obtained from plants, which have properties as withdrawn antibiotic growth promoters. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of EO on growth performance, digestibility, immunity and intestinal health in broilers. A total of 500 1-day-old Arbor Acre broilers were randomly put into five groups with 10 replicate cages containing 10 birds each. Birds in the 5 groups were fed a basal diet (CON), and basal diet with 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg EO (EO0.5, EO1, EO2 and EO4) for 42 d respectively. Birds were euthanized at 21d and 42 d, blood and tissue samples were collected. In the study, the digestibility of DM, GE and EE in groups with EO supplementation were significantly increased compared with CON group (P < 0.05). However, only EO2 and EO4 significantly increased the digestibility of CP compared with CON group (P < 0.05). In contrast to CON group, EO0.5 and EO1 in jejunum at 21 d, and EO1 in jejunum at 42 d markedly increased the activity of sucrase (P < 0.05). In addition, the level of SOD of EO2 and EO4 in serum at 21 d was significantly increased compared with CON group (P < 0.05). What's more, the concentration of intestinal mucosa SIgA in jejunum and ileum at 21 d of groups with EO supplementation was significantly increased compared with CON group (P < 0.05). Moreover, V/C in jejunum at 21 d of groups with EO supplementation, CD in jejunum at 42 d was also significantly increased to compare with CON group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression levels of critical genes associated with nutrient transportation (i.e., GLUT2, SGLT1, SLC38A, SLC79A and SLC27A4) and barrier function (TJP1) were quadratically and linearly up-regulated in jejunum and ileum with EO supplementation (P < 0.05). These results suggest that EO has a positive impact on growth, immunity and intestinal health in broilers, and 200 mg/kg of EO was recommended in broiler diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242051PMC
August 2021

Protective effect of Bombyx mori gloverin on intestinal epithelial cells exposure to enterotoxigenic E. coli.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Sep 21;52(3):1235-1245. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan Province, Chengdu, 611130, People's Republic of China.

Bombyx mori gloverin A2 (BMGlvA2) is an induced antimicrobial insect protein isolated from Bombyx mori. This study was conducted to explore the effect and potential mechanisms of BMGlvA2 on inflammatory responses and cellular functions in intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) exposure to enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). IPEC-J2 cells pretreated with or without BMGlvA2 (12.5 μg/mL) were challenged by ETEC K88 (1×10 CFU/well) or culture medium. We show that BMGlvA2 pretreatment increased the cell viability and improved the distribution and abundance of tight junction protein ZO-1 in IPEC-J2 cells exposure to ETEC (P < 0.05). Interestingly, BMGlvA2 not only decreased the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but also decreased the expression level of Caspase3 and the apoptosis rate in the ETEC-challenged cells (P < 0.05). Importantly, BMGlvA2 decreased the protein abundances of two critical inflammation-associated signaling proteins, phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (p-IκBα) and phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (p-NF-κB), in the ETEC-challenged cells. These results indicate that BMGlvA2 attenuates ETEC-induced inflammation in the IPEC-J2 cells by regulating the NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in decreased secretion of inflammatory cytokine and reduced cell apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-021-00532-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8324673PMC
September 2021

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D inhibits porcine epidemic diarrhea virus replication by regulating cell cycle resumption in IPEC-J2 porcine epithelial cells.

Microb Pathog 2021 Sep 7;158:105017. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, NO. 46 Xinkang Road, Yucheng District, Yaan, Sichuan, 625014, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection causes heavy economic losses in the pig industry. Currently, the lack of effective treatments prompts new antiviral researches. We have shown that 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplementation alleviated PEDV infection in weaned pigs before. However, it is not clear whether vitamin D inhibits PEDV replication. In this study, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)D) inhibited PEDV induced mitochondria damage and cell apoptosis. In addition, 1,25(OH)D treatment decreased PEDV nucleocapsid gene and protein levels in IPEC-J2 cells. Transcriptomic data showed that PEDV infection altered the expression of 5316 genes (2498 up, 2818 down) in IPEC-J2 cells. The differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in cell cycle process, ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis, mitotic nuclear division, and other biological processes. Then we examined the effects of PEDV infection on cell cycle progression in IPEC-J2 cells, and the results showed that PEDV induced G0/G1 phase arrest. G0/G1-phase arrest was also conducive to PEDV replication. However, 1,25(OH)D treatment decreased G0/G1 phase percentage induced by PEDV. Cyclin D and cyclin E mRNA expression were also increased by 1,25(OH)D supplementation upon PEDV infection. Moreover, the regulation of 1,25(OH)D on cell cycle progression was abrogated by ERK1/2 inhibitor, as well as the mRNA expression of cyclin D. The inhibition of 1,25(OH)D on PEDV replication was also eliminated by ERK1/2 inhibitor. Taken together, these results demonstrated that 1,25(OH)D supplementation inhibited PEDV replication, and the anti-virus effect of 1,25(OH)D was mediated in part by regulating cell cycle progression through ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105017DOI Listing
September 2021

Fermented Diet Liquid Feeding Improves Growth Performance and Intestinal Function of Pigs.

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 19;11(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Accumulating evidences demonstrate that fermented feed and liquid feeding exerted a great beneficial influence on growth performance and health in the pig industry. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermented liquid feeding on the growth performance and intestinal function of pigs. Two hundred and eighty-eight 27-day-old weaned piglets (8.21 ± 0.27 kg) were randomly allocated to a control group (basal diet (CON)), an antibiotic group (basal diet supplemented with antibiotics (AB)) and a fermented liquid feeding group (basal diet with fermented liquid feeding (FLF)), with 6 replicates per treatment and 16 weaned piglets per replicate. The experiment lasted for 160 days. Fresh fecal samples were collected to evaluate the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients from the last 4 days of each stage. The results are shown as follows: (1) Compared with the CON group, in the whole stage, the FLF diet significantly increased the final body weight (BW) and ADG of pigs ( < 0.05), and had a tendency to increase ADFI ( = 0.086), but had no effect on F/G. (2) The ATTD of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude ash (CA), crude fiber (CF), gross energy (GE), calcium (Ca) and total phosphorus (TP) in the FLF group was significantly elevated compared with those of the CON group at 8-20 kg stage ( < 0.05). Meanwhile, the ATTD of EE in the FLF group was significantly increased compared with that of the CON group at the 50-75 kg and 100-125 kg stages ( < 0.05), and the ATTD of Ca was higher than that of CON group at the 100-125 kg stage ( < 0.05). (3) Compared with that of the CON group, the level of serum leptin in the FLF group had a tendency to decrease ( = 0.054), the level of serum ghrelin in the FLF group was significantly elevated ( < 0.05) and the level of serum peptide YY in the FLF group was significantly decreased ( < 0.05). (4) The abundance of in cecal and colonic digesta was observably enhanced in FLF group. Meanwhile, the abundance of in cecal and colonic digesta were dramatically reduced in the FLF group compared with that in the CON and AB groups ( < 0.05). (5) The levels of acetic acid in colonic digesta were significantly increased in the FLF group ( < 0.05), and an increasing trend was observed in total VFA in colonic digesta compared with CON ( < 0.1). The levels of acetic acid in colonic digesta were significantly promoted in the FLF group compared with that of the AB group ( < 0.05). In conclusion, these results indicate that fermented liquid feeding improved the growth performance of pigs, which might be associated with gastrointestinal hormone and intestinal functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11051452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158733PMC
May 2021

Dietary 25-hydroxyvitamin D improves intestinal health and microbiota of laying hens under high stocking density.

Poult Sci 2021 Jul 14;100(7):101132. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China; College of Agriculture and Forestry, Pu'er University, Pu'er City, 665000, P.R. China. Electronic address:

The high stocking density is a major stress factor that adversely affects the health and performance of poultry. Therefore, the object of this study was conducted to explore whether dietary 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) could improve gut health of laying hens reared under high stocking density. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used in this 16-week study, in which 800 45-week-old Lohmann laying hens were allocated into two levels of dietary 25-OH-D levels (0 and 69 µg/kg) and two rates of stocking densities [506 (low density, LD) and 338 (high density, HD) cm/hen]. Compared with the layers with LD, the layers with HD had lower crypt depth in duodenum (P < 0.05), lower short chain fatty acid (propionic and butyric acid) contents in cecum (P < 0.05), and lower mRNA expression of intestinal barrier associated protein (claudin-1, mucin-1 and mucin-2). Exposed layer to HD also led to lower intestinal antioxidative capacity [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content] in small intestine (P < 0.05), lower bacterial abundance of Bacteroidetes (phylum), Spirochaetes (phylum) and Bacteroides (genus; P < 0.05), higher bacterial enrichment of Lactobacillaceae (genus) and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P < 0.05) in cecum. Dietary 25-OH-D increased the villus height in duodenum and jejunum (P < 0.05), decreased Chao 1 and ACE indexes in cecum (P < 0.05), and it also up-regulated the mRNA expression of claudin-1, mucin-1 and mucin-2 (P < 0.05). Layers treated with 25-OH-D led to an enhanced antioxidative enzyme activity of CAT (P < 0.05). Additionally, the effect of 25-OH-D reversed the effect of HD on T-AOC and MDA content (P < 0.05). In HD layers, 25-OH-D administration decreased the enrichment of Bacteroidetes (phylum), increased Firmicutes (phylum), and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (P < 0.05). These results suggest that supplementing 25-OH-D in diets may elevate gut health through the improvement of intestinal barrier function, antioxidant capacity and cecal microbiota composition in laying hens with high stocking density.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8173302PMC
July 2021

Infusion of short chain fatty acids in the ileum improves the carcass traits, meat quality and lipid metabolism of growing pigs.

Anim Nutr 2021 Mar 22;7(1):94-100. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition and Feed of China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Ya'an, 625014, China.

Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are the main products of indigestible carbohydrates undergoing bacterial fermentation in the hindgut, which are related to some physiological functions. This study was designed to investigate the effects of SCFA infusion by ileum on the carcass traits, meat quality and lipid metabolism of growing pigs. In a 28-day study, 24 growing barrows fitted with a T-cannula in distal ileum were divided into 4 treatments: 1) Control, 2) antibiotics (AB), 3) AB + 300 mL of SCFA1 solution (ABS1), 4) AB + 300 mL of SCFA2 solution (ABS2). The concentrations of acetate, propionate and butyrate in SCFA1 solution were respectively 61.84, 18.62 and 12.55 mmol/L, and in SCFA2 were respectively 40.08, 15.41 and 9.78 mmol/L. The results showed that the SCFA infusion increased the average daily feed intake and average daily gain of pigs ( 0.05). Meanwhile, the SCFA treatments increased longissimus dorsi area ( 0.05) and carcass weight ( = 0.058), decreased the drip loss of longissimus dorsi ( = 0.059), and reduced serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and urea nitrogen ( 0.05). Besides, the SCFA administration inhibited the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase () and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in longissimus dorsi ( 0.05), the mRNA expression of in the liver ( 0.05), and the mRNA expression of hormone-sensitive lipase in abdominal fat ( 0.05). Short chain fatty acid infusion also enhanced the mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α in the liver ( 0.05), the mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma and lipoprotein lipase in abdominal fat ( 0.05), and the mRNA expressions of free fatty acid receptor 2, glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in the colon ( 0.05). These results suggested that SCFA administration in the ileum could improve the carcass traits and meat quality of growing pigs, which was possibly due to the fact that SCFA modulated lipid metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2020.05.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110845PMC
March 2021

Influences of Selenium-Enriched Yeast on Growth Performance, Immune Function, and Antioxidant Capacity in Weaned Pigs Exposure to Oxidative Stress.

Biomed Res Int 2021 27;2021:5533210. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, China.

This study elucidated the function role of dietary selenium-enriched yeast (SeY) supplementation on growth performance, immune function, and antioxidant capacity in weaned pigs exposure to oxidative stress. Thirty-two similarity weight pigs were randomly divided into four treatments: (1) nonchallenged control, (2) control+SeY, (3) control+diquat, and (4) control+SeY+diquat. The period of experiment was 21 days; on day 16, pigs were injected with diquat or sterile saline. Results revealed that oxidative stress was notably detrimental to the growth performance of piglets, but SeY supplementation ameliorated this phenomenon, which might be regarding the increasing of body antioxidant capacity and immune functions. In details, SeY supplementation improved the digestibility of crude protein (CP), ash, and gross energy (GE). Moreover, the serum concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-, IL-1, and IL-6), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase(GPT), and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were reduced via SeY supplemented, and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins A (IgA), IgG, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) ,and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were improved in the diquat-challenged pigs ( < 0.05). In addition, SeY supplementation acutely enhanced the activities of these antioxidant enzymes in the liver and thymus upon diquat challenge, which involved with the upregulation of the critical genes related antioxidant signaling such as the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) ( < 0.05). Importantly, we also found that SeY supplementation apparently reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in the liver, thymus, and serum ( < 0.05). Specifically, the expression levels of TNF-, IL-6, IL-1, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) in the liver and thymus were downregulated by SeY upon diquat challenge. These results suggested that SeY can attenuate oxidative stress-induced growth retardation, which was associated with elevating body antioxidant capacity, immune functions, and suppressed inflammatory response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5533210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019624PMC
May 2021

Sodium acetate, propionate, and butyrate reduce fat accumulation in mice via modulating appetite and relevant genes.

Nutrition 2021 Jul-Aug;87-88:111198. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition and Feed of China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Ya'an, Sichuan Province, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Acetate, propionate, and butyrate, three of the most common short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), can be produced when some non-digestible carbohydrates enter the large intestine and undergo bacterial fermentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these three SCFAs on appetite regulation and lipid metabolism and to determine the extent that appetite contributes to the beneficial influences of SCFAs.

Methods: In a 35-d study, 48 C57BL/6J male mice were randomly allocated to six groups: control; 5% sodium acetate; 5% sodium propionate; 5% sodium butyrate; pair fed 1; and pair fed 2.

Results: The study showed that dietary supplementation of sodium acetate reduced serum triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, glucose, and interleukin (IL)-6 levels (P < 0.05), increased serum glucagon-like peptide 1, and leptin levels (P < 0.05), downregulated the mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and lipoprotein lipase (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expressions of fasting-induced adipose factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1, mitochondrial transcription factor A, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9, cytochrome-C oxidase IV and free fatty acid receptor 2 (P < 0.05). Sodium propionate also reduced serum IL-1β level (P < 0.05), increased serum peptide YY level (P < 0.05), downregulated the mRNA expressions of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expression of transmembrane protein 26 (P < 0.05). Additionally, sodium butyrate decreased average daily feed intake (P < 0.05) downregulated the mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHc) Ⅱb (P < 0.05), and upregulated the mRNA expressions of lipase hormone-sensitive, MyHC Ⅱa and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1α (P < 0.05). Moreover, the metabolic benefits of SCFAs were partly attributed to the reduction of feed intake.

Conclusion: Taken together, SCFAs could reduce appetite and fat accumulation via modulating relevant genes and hormones, which might further illustrate the potential mechanisms that underlay the effects of SCFAs on lipid homeostasis and control of body weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111198DOI Listing
June 2021

Lentinan administration alleviates diarrhea of rotavirus-infected weaned pigs via regulating intestinal immunity.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Mar 9;12(1):43. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition and Feed of China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, No. 211, Gongpinghuimin Road, Wenjiang District, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: Lentinan (LNT) may regulate many important physiological functions of human and animals. This study aimed to verify whether LNT administration could relieve diarrhea via improving gut immunity in rotavirus (RV)-challenged weaned pigs.

Methods: Twenty-eight weaned pigs were randomly fed 2 diets containing 0 or 84 mg/kg LNT product for 19 d (n = 14). RV infection was executed on d 15. After extracting polysaccharides from LNT product, its major monosaccharides were analyzed. Then, LNT polysaccharide was used to administrate RV-infected IPEC-J2 cells.

Results: Dietary LNT supplementation supported normal function of piglets even when infected with RV, as reflected by reduced growth performance loss and diarrhea prevalence, and maintained gut immunity (P < 0.05). The polysaccharide was isolated from LNT product, which molecular weight was 5303 Da, and major monosaccharides included glucose, arabinose and galactose. In RV-infected IPEC-J2 cells, this polysaccharide significantly increased cell viability (P < 0.05), and significantly increased anti-virus immunity via regulating pattern recognition receptors and host defense peptides (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Those results suggest that LNT administration increases the piglets' resistance to RV-induced stress, likely by supporting intestinal immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-021-00562-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7945689PMC
March 2021

Effects of dietary Bacillus coagulans and yeast hydrolysate supplementation on growth performance, immune response and intestinal barrier function in weaned piglets.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Sep 14;105(5):898-907. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of Ministry of Education, Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

The present study investigated the effects of Bacillus coagulans and yeast hydrolysate supplementation on growth performance, immune response and intestinal barrier function of weaned piglets. Twenty-four weaned piglets with an average body weight (BW) of 6.89 ± 0.15 kg were divided into four diets for 28 days. The treatments were basal diet (control), basal diet supplemented with antibiotic (20 mg/kg colistin sulphate and 40 mg/kg bacitracin zinc, AT), probiotics (400 mg/kg Bacillus coagulans ≥5 × 109 CFU/g, BC) or yeast hydrolysate (5000 mg/kg yeast hydrolysate, YH). Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were improved by AT and YH diets (p < 0.05), while BC diet only increased ADG (p < 0.05). The complement 3 (C3), lysozyme (LZM) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations in serum were increased in BC diet (p < 0.05). Feeding AT and YH caused the increase of jejunal villus height (p < 0.05), and a higher ratio of villus height/crypt depth was observed in AT, BC and YH groups (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) in jejunal mucosa was up-regulated by AT, BC and YH diets (p < 0.05). Dietary AT, BC or YH inclusion decreased the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentration and TNF-α mRNA expression (p < 0.05), and YH supplementation even down-regulated toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 expressions (p < 0.05). In summary, the dietary administration of BC or YH both improves growth performance through promoting the intestinal barrier function, indicating both of them can serve as potential alternatives to antibiotics growth promoters for the piglet production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13529DOI Listing
September 2021

The Nutritional Significance of Intestinal Fungi: Alteration of Dietary Carbohydrate Composition Triggers Colonic Fungal Community Shifts in a Pig Model.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 04 27;87(10). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of the Ministry of Education of China, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition and Feed of the Ministry of Agriculture of China, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China

Carbohydrates represent the most important energy source in the diet of humans and animals. A large number of studies have shown that dietary carbohydrates (DCHO) are related to the bacterial community in the gut, but their relationship with the composition of intestinal fungi is still unknown. Here, we report the response of the colonic fungal community to different compositions of DCHO in a pig model. Three factors, ratio (2:1, 1:1, and 1:2) of amylose to amylopectin (AM/AP), level of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; 1%, 2%, and 3%), and mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS; 400, 800, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight), were considered according to an L9 (3) orthogonal design to form nine diets with different carbohydrate compositions. Sequencing based on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform targeting the internal transcribed spacer 1 region showed that the fungal community in the colon of the pigs responded to DCHO in the order of MOS, AM/AP, and NSP. A large part of some low-abundance fungal genera correlated with the composition of DCHO, represented by , , , , , , and , were also associated with the concentration of glucose and fructose, as well as the activity of β-d-glucosidase in the colonic digesta, suggesting a role of these fungi in the degradation of DCHO in the colon of pigs. Our study provides direct evidence for the relationship between the composition of DCHO and the fungal community in the colon of pigs, which is helpful to understand the function of gut microorganisms in pigs. Although fungi are a large group of microorganisms along with bacteria and archaea in the gut of monogastric animals, the nutritional significance of fungi has been ignored for a long time. Our previous studies revealed a distinct fungal community in the gut of grazing Tibetan pigs (J. Li, D. Chen, B. Yu, J. He, et al., Microb Biotechnol 13:509-521, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/1751-7915.13507) and a close correlation between fungal species and short-chain fatty acids, the main microbial metabolites of carbohydrates in the hindgut of pigs (J. Li, Y. Luo, D. Chen, B. Yu, et al., J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 104:616-628, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1111/jpn.13300). These groundbreaking findings indicate a potential relationship between intestinal fungi and the utilization of DCHO. However, no evidence directly proves the response of intestinal fungi to changes in DCHO. Here, we show a clear alteration of the colonic fungal community in pigs triggered by different compositions of DCHO simulated by varied concentrations of starch, nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP), and oligosaccharides. Our results highlight the potential involvement of intestinal fungi in the utilization of nutrients in monogastric animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00038-21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117771PMC
April 2021

Wheat bran fermented by mixed fungal strains improves the digestibility of crude fiber and may benefit the gut health without impacting the growth performance in weaned pigs.

Food Funct 2021 Apr 10;12(7):2962-2971. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of Ministry of Education of China, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition and Feed of Ministry of Agriculture of China, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

This study was conducted to compare the effect of raw (WB) or mixed fungi-fermented wheat bran (FWB) on the growth, nutrient digestibility and intestinal health in weaned piglets. After the preparation of FWB, twenty-one cross-bred weaned piglets (7.20 ± 0.5 kg) were separated into three groups for a 40-day trial. The pigs in the control group were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet. For the other two groups, 8% of expanded corn in the basal diet was replaced by equivalent WB or FWB. Results showed that the content of main nutrients and the composition of dietary fiber in FWB improved compared to that for WB. The digestibility of fiber in pigs fed FWB improved (P < 0.05) compared to the control and/or WB without affecting their growth performance. Both WB and FWB decreased the conditional pathogen (Streptococcus) or/and E. coli virulence factor (STb) in the colon compared to control (P < 0.05), and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (VCR) in jejunum increased (P < 0.05). The number of goblet cells, the expression of MUC-1 and pBD1 in jejunal mucosa, and the proportion of blood CD4 T lymphocyte subset improved (P < 0.05) by FWB rather than WB. Furthermore, although only WB elevated (P < 0.05) the concentration of butyrate in the colon, both WB and FWB increased the number of butyrate-producing bacteria (P < 0.05) compared to the control. Thus, the main advantage of FWB over WB in weaned pigs is its improvement in fiber digestibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00273bDOI Listing
April 2021

Dietary apple pectic oligosaccharide improves reproductive performance, antioxidant capacity, and ovary function of broiler breeders.

Poult Sci 2021 Apr 7;100(4):100976. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

College of Agriculture and Forestry, Pu'er Unviersity, Pu'er City 665000, China. Electronic address:

Reproduction performance is one of the most important economic traits for the poultry industry. Intriguingly, apple pectic oligosaccharide (APO) could promote gastrointestinal function and immune function to improve performance; however, literature about APO on reproduction performance in breeders is limited. This study aimed to determine whether APO administration can improve reproduction performance and ovary function of broiler breeders with different egg laying rates. Two hundred and fifty six Arbor Acres broiler breeders (48-week-old) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 egg laying rates (average [AR] and low [LR]) and 2 dietary levels of APO (0 and 200 mg/kg APO). Results showed that the LR breeders presented higher egg weight but lower egg laying rate, qualified egg rate, and feed efficiency than the AR breeders (P < 0.05). Also, the LR breeders had decreased serum Anti-Müllerian hormone, leptin, and antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity) levels than the AR breeders (P ≤ 0.05). Dietary supplementation with APO improved egg weight, feed efficiency, as well as egg albumen quality (higher albumen height and Haugh unit) (P < 0.05), and decreased the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-8) in serum (P ≤ 0.05). The apoptosis rate and pro-apoptosis-related gene expression (caspase 9 and Bax) in the ovary of LR breeders were higher, while the anti-apoptosis-related gene expression (Bcl-2, PCNA) was lower in LR compared with the AR breeders (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with APO decreased the caspase 9 and Bax expression in LR breeders (P < 0.05), and increased the Bcl-2 and PCNA expression in the 2 breeders (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that breeders with a lower egg laying rate exhibit lower antioxidant capacity and high cell apoptosis in the ovary. Dietary supplementation with APO might improve albumen quality and antioxidant capacity, and decrease the inflammatory factors and ovary apoptosis-related genes expression to improve ovary function. Moreover, the effect of APO on decreasing ovarian pro-apoptosis-related gene expression was more pronounced in lower reproductive breeders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.12.073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900577PMC
April 2021

Effects of Chronic Exposure to Low Levels of Dietary Aflatoxin B on Growth Performance, Apparent Total Tract Digestibility and Intestinal Health in Pigs.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jan 29;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014, China.

This study aimed to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to low levels of dietary aflatoxin B (AFB) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility and intestinal health in pigs. In a 102-day experiment, fourteen barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire, initial BW = 38.21 ± 0.45 kg) were randomly divided into control (CON, basal diet) and AFB groups (the basal diet supplemented with 280 μg/kg AFB). Results revealed that the AFB exposure decreased the final BW, ADFI and ADG in pigs ( < 0.10). AFB exposure also decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of dry mater and gross energy at 50 to 75 kg and 105 to 135 kg stages, and decreased the apparent total tract digestibility of ether extract at 75 to 105 kg stage ( < 0.05). Meanwhile, AFB exposure increased serum diamine oxidase activity and reduced the mRNA abundance of sodium-glucose cotransporter 1, solute carrier family 7 member 1 and zonula occluden-1 in the jejunal mucosa ( < 0.05). Furthermore, AFB exposure decreased superoxide dismutase activity ( < 0.05) and increased 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine content ( < 0.10) in jejunal mucosa. AFB exposure also increased tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and transforming growth factor-β mRNA abundance in jejunal mucosa and upregulated population in colon ( < 0.05). The data indicated that chronic exposure to low levels of dietary AFB suppressed growth performance, reduced the apparent total tract digestibility and damaged intestinal barrier integrity in pigs, which could be associated with the decreased intestinal antioxidant capacity and the increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911249PMC
January 2021

The effect of dietary pectic oligosaccharide supplementation on intestinal health of broiler breeders with different egg-laying rates.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 6;100(3):100938. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition and Feed of China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key laboratory of Animal Disease-resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 611130, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

This study was conducted to explore whether dietary pectic oligosaccharide (POS) supplementation could improve gut health of broiler breeders with different egg-laying rates. A 2 × 2 factorial design was used in this study. Two hundred fifty-six Arbor Acres broiler breeders (48 wk of age), including 128 average egg-laying rate and 128 low egg-laying rate (LELR) birds, were randomly fed with the diets supplemented with or without 200 mg kg of POS (n = 8). The trial lasted for 8 wk. Compared with average egg-laying rate broiler breeders, LELR broiler breeders had lower laying rate and qualified egg rate (P < 0.05), higher egg weight and feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05), higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the jejunum (P < 0.05), higher IL-6 (P < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (P = 0.07) mRNA expressions in the jejunal mucosa, and lower microflora diversity in cecal digesta. Dietary POS supplementation increased egg weight of broiler breeders (P < 0.05), enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in the jejunum (P < 0.05), decreased MDA level in the jejunum (P < 0.05), upregulated zonula occluden 1 mRNA expression in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05), downregulated IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expressions in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05), and regulated relative abundance of some microbiota (including the phylum and genus, P < 0.05). In addition, in LELR broiler breeders, POS administration enhanced villus height (P = 0.08) and ZO-2 mRNA expression (P = 0.09) in the jejunal mucosa, alleviated the increasing MDA level in the jejunum (P < 0.05) and IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expressions in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05), and regulated relative abundance of some microbiota (including the phylum and genus, P < 0.05). These results suggest that supplementing POS in diets may elevate gut health via improvement of intestinal barrier function, antioxidant capacity, and microbiota composition in broiler breeders with different egg-laying rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.12.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936170PMC
March 2021

Differential analysis of gut microbiota and the effect of dietary Enterococcus faecium supplementation in broiler breeders with high or low laying performance.

Poult Sci 2021 Feb 31;100(2):1109-1119. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Research Center of Tea and Tea Culture, College of Agronomy, Jiangxi Agricultural, University, Nanchang, 330045, P.R. China. Electronic address:

The difference in microbiota was examined for breeders with different egg-laying rates, and the impact of dietary Enterococcus faecium (EF) was also determined in the present study. A total of 256 Arbor Acres broiler breeders (48-wk-old) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design, which encompassed 2 egg-laying rate levels [average (average egg laying: AP, 80.45 ± 0.91%) and low (lower egg laying: LP, 70.61 ± 1.16%)] and 2 different dietary groups [control (no additive), 6 × 10 cfu/kg EF]. The results showed that the AP breeders presented a lower egg weight, feed conversion ratio, abdominal fat rate, and serum leptin level (P ≤ 0.05) as well as a higher egg-laying rate (P < 0.01) than the LP breeders. Dietary supplementation with EF improved the egg weight (P = 0.03) and had a higher concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the serum (P = 0.04). The relative expression of Caspase 9, Bax, AMHR, BMP15, and GATA4 in the ovary of AP breeders was lower, whereas the FSHR and BMPR1B expression was higher than that measured in LP breeders (P ≤ 0.05). LP increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes (phylum), Firmicutes (phylum), Bacteroidia (class), Clostridia (class), Bacteroidales (order), Clostridiales (order), and Lachnospiraceae (family), whereas the AP promoted the enrichment of Proteobacteria (phylum) and Gammaproteobacteria (class) (P < 0.05). The genera Bacillus, Rhodanobacter, and Streptomyces were positively correlated with the egg-laying rate and BMPR1B expression (P < 0.05) but negatively correlated with the abdominal fat rate (P < 0.05) and Caspase 9 (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that the low reproductive performance breeders had lower microbiota diversity and higher Firmicutes, which triggers the energy storage that led to higher fat deposition. Besides, increases in the abdominal fat rate, leptin level, and apoptosis (Caspase 9, Bax) and reproduction-related gene (BMP15, AMHR, BMPR1B, and GATA4) expression would possibly be the potential mechanisms under which breeders have different reproductive performance. Dietary EF increased the egg weight and serum FSH level and decreased the Bacteroidetes (phylum) in low reproductive breeders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.10.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858034PMC
February 2021

Tea bioactive components prevent carcinogenesis via anti-pathogen, anti-inflammation, and cell survival pathways.

IUBMB Life 2021 02 29;73(2):328-340. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistance Nutrition of China Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistant Nutrition and Feed of China Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key Laboratory of Animal Disease-Resistant Nutrition of Sichuan Province, Chengdu, China.

Cancer seriously impairs human health and survival. Many perturbations, such as increased oxidative stress, pathogen infection, and inflammation, promote the accumulation of DNA mutations, and ultimately lead to carcinogenesis. Tea is one of the most highly consumed beverages worldwide and has been linked to improvements in human health. Tea contains many active components, including tea polyphenols, tea polysaccharides, L-theanine, tea pigments, and caffeine among other common components. Several studies have identified components in tea that can directly or indirectly reduce carcinogenesis with some being used in a clinical setting. Many previous studies, in vitro and in vivo, have focused on the mechanisms that functional components of tea utilized to protect against cancer. One particular mechanism that has been well described is an improvement in antioxidant capacity seen with tea consumption. However, other mechanisms, including anti-pathogen, anti-inflammation and alterations in cell survival pathways, are also involved. The current review focuses on these anti-cancer mechanisms. This will be beneficial for clinical utilization of tea components in preventing and treating cancer in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.2445DOI Listing
February 2021

Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiota of Broiler Breeders With Different Egg Laying Rate.

Front Vet Sci 2020 24;7:599337. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

College of Agriculture and Forestry, Pu'er University, Pu'er City, China.

The gastrointestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in maintaining animal health, immunity and reproductive performances. However, literature about the relationship between microbiota and reproductive performance is limited. The aim of the present study was to determine differences in the intestinal microbiota of broiler breeders with different egg laying rate. A total of 200 AA+ parent broiler breeders (41-week-old) were separated into two groups according to their different egg laying rate [average egg laying rate group (AR: 78.57 ± 0.20%) and high egg laying rate group (HR: 90.79 ± 0.43%). Feed conversion ratio (FCR), ovary cell apoptosis rate (ApoCR) and relative abdominal fat weight were lower ( = 0.01), while the hatchability rate of qualified egg was higher ( = 0.04) in HR group than that in AR group. abundance were lower ( = 0.012) in ileum of HR birds. (genus) in ileum was negatively related to the feed efficiency ( = -0.58, < 0.05), (phylum) and (genus) abundances in cecum were positively related to the egg laying rate (ELR) ( = 0.35 and 0.48, < 0.05), feed efficiency ( = 0.42 and 0.43, < 0.05), while (phylum) and (genus) abundances in cecum were negatively related to the ELR ( = -0.43 and -0.70, < 0.05), feed efficiency ( = 0.54 and 0.48, < 0.05), and positively related to ApoCR ( = 0.46 and 0.47, < 0.05). Our results suggested that microbiota, such as (phylum) and (genus) have positive relationship, while (phylum) (genus) abundances exert negative relationship with broiler breeders' reproductive performances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.599337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732610PMC
November 2020

Manno-oligosaccharide attenuates inflammation and intestinal epithelium injury in weaned pigs upon enterotoxigenic K88 challenge.

Br J Nutr 2021 Oct 10;126(7):993-1002. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Animal Nutrition Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan611130, People's Republic of China.

To explore the effect of manno-oligosaccharide (MOS) on intestinal health in weaned pigs upon enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 (ETEC) challenge, thirty-two male weaned pigs were randomly assigned into four groups. Pigs fed with a basal diet or basal diet containing MOS (0·6 g/kg) were orally infused with ETEC or culture medium. Results showed that MOS significantly elevated the digestibility of crude protein and gross energy in both ETEC-challenged and non-challenged pigs (P < 0·05). MOS also elevated serum concentrations of IgA and IgM (P < 0·05), but decreased serum concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 (P < 0·05) in ETEC-challenged pigs. Interestingly, MOS increased villus height and the ratio of villus height:crypt depth in duodenum and ileum (P < 0·05). MOS also increased duodenal sucrase and ileal lactase activity in ETEC-challenged pigs (P < 0·05). MOS decreased the abundance of E. coli, but increased the abundance of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Bacillus in caecum (P < 0·05). Importantly, MOS not only elevated the expression levels of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-1 and GLUT-2 in duodenum (P < 0·05) but also elevated the expression levels of ZO-1, GLUT-2 and L-type amino acid transporter-1 in ileum (P < 0·05) upon ETEC challenge. These results suggested that MOS can alleviate inflammation and intestinal injury in weaned pigs upon ETEC challenge, which was associated with suppressed secretion of inflammatory cytokines and elevated serum Ig, as well as improved intestinal epithelium functions and microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520004948DOI Listing
October 2021
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