Publications by authors named "Xiang-ming Mao"

59 Publications

LncRNA SNHG1 and RNA binding protein hnRNPL form a complex and coregulate CDH1 to boost the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer.

Cell Death Dis 2021 02 1;12(2):138. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Urology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

The interaction between LncRNA and RNA-binding protein (RBPs) plays an essential role in the regulation over the malignant progression of tumors. Previous studies on the mechanism of SNHG1, an emerging lncRNA, have primarily focused on the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) mechanism. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism between SNHG1 and RBPs in tumors remains to be explored, especially in prostate cancer (PCa). SNHG1 expression profiles in PCa were determined through the analysis of TCGA data and tissue microarray at the RNA level. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments were performed to investigate the biological role of SNHG1 in PCa initiation and progression. RNA-seq, immunoblotting, RNA pull-down and RNA immunoprecipitation analyses were utilized to clarify potential pathways with which SNHG1 might be involved. Finally, rescue experiments were carried out to further confirm this mechanism. We found that SNHG1 was dominantly expressed in the nuclei of PCa cells and significantly upregulated in PCa patients. The higher expression level of SNHG1 was dramatically correlated with tumor metastasis and patient survival. Functionally, overexpression of SNHG1 in PCa cells induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), accompanied by down-regulation of the epithelial marker, E-cadherin, and up-regulation of the mesenchymal marker, vimentin. Increased proliferation and migration, as well as accelerated xenograft tumor growth, were observed in SNHG1-overexpressing PCa cells, while opposite effects were achieved in SNHG1-silenced cells. Mechanistically, SNHG1 competitively interacted with hnRNPL to impair the translation of protein E-cadherin, thus activating the effect of SNHG1 on the EMT pathway, eventually promoting the metastasis of PCa. Our findings demonstrate that SNHG1 is a positive regulator of EMT activation through the SNHG1-hnRNPL-CDH1 axis. SNHG1 may serve as a novel potential therapeutic target for PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03413-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7862296PMC
February 2021

[Expression of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthase 2 in human testis tissue].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2020 Feb;26(2):128-133

Department of Urology, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510280, China.

Objective: To investigate the expression of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthase 2 (PRPS2) in the human testis and its clinical significance.

Methods: Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, we detected the expression of PRPS2 mRNA in the testis tissue of the men with normal spermatogenesis or mile, moderate or severe hypospermatogenesis (HS) and that of the PRPS2 protein in the testicular biopsy tissue of 67 adult males. Then, we analyzed the relationship of the PRPS2 expressions with the testicular histological types and clinical parameters of the subjects.

Results: The expression of PRPS2 mRNA in the testis tissue was significantly higher in the normal spermatogenesis group than in the moderate and severe HS groups (P < 0.01). The positive expression of the PRPS2 protein was 70.0% in the normal spermatogenesis group, 66.7% in the mild HS group, 50.0% in the moderate HS group and 23.8% in the severe HS group, significantly higher in the normal spermatogenesis and mild HS groups than in the moderate and severe HS groups (P < 0.01). No significant correlation, however, was observed between the PRPS2 expression and clinical parameters of the subjects (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: PRPS2 is lowly expressed in the testis tissue of the men with hypospermatogenesis and its expression level may help the diagnosis of male infertility and the prediction of the spermatogenic function of the testis.
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February 2020

[Video endosopic inguinal lymphadenectomy for penile cancer].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2019 Sep;25(9):848-851

Department of Urology, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510280, China.

Inguinal lymph node metastasis is one of the important factors affecting the prognosis of penile cancer. Conventional open inguinal lymphadenectomy, with a high rate of complications, seriously affects the effect of surgery and the patient's quality of life, and therefore is rarely employed nowadays as a treatment option. Video endosopic inguinal lymphadenectomy (VEIL), however, can significantly reduce the incidence rate of surgery-related complications, achieve a desirable control of the tumor, and markedly improve the prognosis. This review focuses on the application, development, indications, effectiveness and complications of VEIL in the treatment of penile cancer.
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September 2019

Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetases 2 knockdown inhibits prostate cancer progression by suppressing cell cycle and inducing cell apoptosis.

J Cancer 2020 1;11(5):1027-1037. Epub 2020 Jan 1.

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, 510515, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetases 2 (PRPS2) protein function as nucleotide synthesis enzyme that plays vital roles in cancer biology. However, the expression profile and function of PRPS2 in prostate cancer (PCa) remain to be identified. Here we investigated the expression of PRPS2 protein in human PCa and paired normal tissues by immunohistochemistry, meanwhile the regulatory effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis and growth of xenograft tumors in nude mice were evaluated in PCa cells with PRPS2 depletion. Moreover, the signaling pathways were also explored by western blot analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. We found that PRPS2 was dramatically upregulated in prostate adenocarcinoma tissues in comparison with normal tissues, and that increased PRPS2 was linked intimately to advanced clinical stage and pT status. Functional experiments showed that knockdown of PRPS2 significantly suppressed cell growth both and . In addition, depletion of PRPS2 induced G phase cell cycle arrest and elevated cell apoptosis. Silencing of PRPS2 resulted in the decreased expression of Bcl‑2 and cyclinD1 and increased levels of Bax, cleavage of caspases‑3, caspases‑9 and PARP. Furthermore, we also detected PRPS2 expression was significantly induced after DHT treatment, which implied the important role of PRPS2 in oncogenesis of PCa. Taken together, our findings elucidated that PRPS2 may be a potential novel candidate for PCa therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.37401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6959080PMC
January 2020

Phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate synthetase 2 (PRPS2) depletion regulates spermatogenic cell apoptosis and is correlated with hypospermatogenesis.

Asian J Androl 2020 Sep-Oct;22(5):493-499

Department of Urology, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282, China.

Phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate synthetase 2 (PRPS2) is a rate-limiting enzyme and plays an important role in purine and pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. Recent studies report that PRPS2 is involved in male infertility. However, the role of PRPS2 in hypospermatogenesis is unknown. In this study, the relationship of PRPS2 with hypospermatogenesis and spermatogenic cell apoptosis was investigated. The results showed that PRPS2 depletion increased the number of apoptotic spermatogenic cells in vitro. PRPS2 was downregulated in a mouse model of hypospermatogenesis. When PRPS2 expression was knocked down in mouse testes, hypospermatogenesis and accelerated apoptosis of spermatogenic cells were noted. E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) was confirmed as the target gene of PRPS2 and played a key role in cell apoptosis by regulating the P53/Bcl-xl/Bcl-2/Caspase 6/Caspase 9 apoptosis pathway. Therefore, these data indicate that PRPS2 depletion contributes to the apoptosis of spermatogenic cells and is associated with hypospermatogenesis, which may be helpful for the diagnosis of male infertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aja.aja_122_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523602PMC
August 2021

GenCLiP 3: mining human genes' functions and regulatory networks from PubMed based on co-occurrences and natural language processing.

Bioinformatics 2019 Nov 4. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Cancer Research Institute, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, P.R China.

Summary: We present a web server, GenCLiP 3, which is an updated version of GenCLiP 2.0 to enhance analysis of human gene functions and regulatory networks, with the following improvements: i) accurate recognition of molecular interactions with polarity and directionality from the entire PubMed database; ii) support for Boolean search to customize multiple-term search and to quickly retrieve function related genes; iii) strengthened association between gene and keyword by a new scoring method; and iv) daily updates following literature release at PubMed FTP.

Availability: The server is freely available for academic use at: http://ci.smu.edu.cn/genclip3/.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btz807DOI Listing
November 2019

Downregulation of lncRNA PVT1 expression inhibits proliferation and migration by regulating p38 expression in prostate cancer.

Oncol Lett 2018 Oct 14;16(4):5160-5166. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, P.R. China.

Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) has been reported to be overexpressed in prostate cancer cells and associated with tumorigenesis in various types of cancer. However, the biological function of lncRNA PVT1 remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of lncRNA PVT1 expression on the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells. Stably transfected prostate cancer cells with downregulated expression of lncRNA PVT1 were constructed by an efficient siRNA fragment, followed by confirmation by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Proliferation was assessed using CCK-8, colony formation and xenograft assays, and cell migration was evaluated using a wound healing assay. The PathScan Intracellular Signaling Array kit was utilized to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of lncRNA PVT1 expression in prostate cancer cells. RT-qPCR results confirmed that the lncRNA PVT1 expression level was successfully knocked down in prostate cancer cells. When lncRNA PVT1 expression was downregulated in prostate cancer cells, proliferation and migration were significantly inhibited, compared with the control lncRNA PVT1 group. Furthermore, PVT1 knockdown decreased the phosphorylation of p38 in DU145 cells. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that lncRNA PVT1 downregulation inhibits the proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells, and is associated with p38 phosphorylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2018.9305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6144883PMC
October 2018

Pure small-cell carcinoma of the prostate presenting with increasing prostate-specific antigen levels: A case report and review of the literature.

Mol Clin Oncol 2018 Aug 4;9(2):197-200. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Department of Urology, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518036, P.R. China.

The incidence of prostatic cancer (PCa) has increased significantly, and the measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an effective screening tool for its diagnosis. PCa includes a number of specific clinicopathological types, including squamous cell, urothelial, adenoid cystic and small-cell carcinoma, among which small-cell carcinoma of the prostate (SCCP) is extremely rare, accounting for <0.5% of all PCa cases. SCCP is very aggressive and the majority of the cases have a poor prognosis, with a mean survival of ~5 months; it also exhibits specific clinicopathological characteristics and may be divided into two subtypes, namely pure and mixed SCCP. According to the previous literature on PubMed, pure SCCP is not associated with an increase in serum PSA levels. However, the rare case presented herein exhibited an increasingly abnormal serum PSA level. The patient was aged 66 years and had a PSA level of 56.78 ng/ml (normal, <4 ng/ml); he was diagnosed with pure SCCP, underwent radical prostatectomy and has remained disease-free during the follow-up. Similar cases previously published on PubMed were also reviewed, and considerations of survival status and treatment options were analyzed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2018.1644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6083420PMC
August 2018

[Yimusake Tablet: safe and efficacious for premature ejaculation].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2014 Nov;20(11):1029-34

Department of Urology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To objectively evaluate the efficacy and safety of Yimusake Tablet in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) through a multi-centered large-sample trial.

Methods: We conducted a multi-centered, open, fixed-dose, and self-compared clinical trial among 300 patients with diagnosed PE. The trial lasted 12 weeks, including 4 weeks without any medication and 8 weeks of treatment with Yimusake Tablet, 2 pills (1 g) per night. We observed the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) before and after treatment, evaluated the safety of medication, and performed a questionnaire investigation on the patients' satisfaction.

Results: Of the 300 PE patients, 288 accomplished the clinical trial. The patients ranged in age from 22 to 60 years, averaging at 31.6 years. The mean IELT of the patient was 62.5 seconds at baseline, 168.9 seconds after 4 weeks of treatment with Yimusake Tablet, and 222.2 seconds after 8 weeks of medication. Among the 157 patients with normal erectile function (IIEF >21), the mean IELT was 71.4 seconds before treatment, 147.4 seconds after 4 weeks of medication, and 172.5 seconds after 8 weeks of medication. The patients' satisfaction was significantly increased after treatment. Those complicated by mild to moderate erectile dysfunction achieved different degrees of improvement in the IIEF-5 score, with a mean increase of 3.8. Only a few patients experienced mild adverse events, including constipation, dry mouth, nose bleeding, abdominal pain, and lumbosacral pain, which were all relieved without drug withdrawal.

Conclusion: Yimusake Tablet is a safe and effective medicine for the treatment of PE.
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November 2014

[The highly expressed secreted phosphoprotein 1 gene in prostate cancer metastasis: a microarray-based bioinformatic analysis].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2014 Nov;20(11):984-90

Department of Urology, Mawangdui Hospital of Hunan Province, Changsha, China.

Objective: To investigate the composition, function, and regulatory mechanisms of the secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) gene in metastatic prostate cancer.

Methods: We obtained the data about the whole genomic expression profiles on prostate cancer metastasis from the GEO database, and performed data-mining and bioinformatic analysis using BRB-Array Tools and such softwares as Protparam, MotifScan, SignalP 4.0, TMHMM, NetPhos2.0, PredictProtein, GO, KEGG, and STRING.

Results: Totally, 73 co-expressed differential genes in prostate cancer metastasis were identified, 21 up-regulated and 52 down-regulated (P <0.01). Bioinformatic analysis indicated that the highly expressed SPP1 gene encoded 314 amino acids and contained 2 N-glycosylation sites, 8 casein kinase II phosphorylation sites and 3 protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, playing essential roles in extracellular matrix (ECM) binding, ossification, osteoblast differentiation, cell adhesion, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, focal adhesion, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, and ECM-receptor interaction.

Conclusion: The bioinformatic method showed a high efficiency in analyzing microarray data and revealing internal biological information. SPP1 may play an important role in prostate cancer metastasis and become a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer metastasis and a new target for its treatment.
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November 2014

[Influences of three surgical approaches to urethral stricture on the erectile function of the patients].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2014 Aug;20(8):706-8

Objective: To evaluate the impacts of three different surgical approaches to urethral stricture on the erectile function of the patients.

Methods: This study included 126 male patients with urethral stricture, 35 treated by substitution urethroplasty (group A), 52 by anastomotic urethroplasty (group B), and 39 by internal urethroplasty (group C). We evaluated the pre- and postoperative erectile function of the patients using IIEF-5 scores by telephone calls and interviews. We also monitored their nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT).

Results: The IIEF-5 scores in groups A, B and C were 13.5 +/- 4.5, 11.1 +/- 4.8 and 14.5 +/- 4.41 respectively after surgery, all significantly decreased as compared with 17.1 +/- 2.6, 17.1 +/- 3.0 and 17.6 +/- 2.2 preoperatively (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: All the three surgical approaches can reduce IIEF-5 scores in patients with urethral stricture, but anastomotic urethroplasty may induce a higher incidence of erectile dysfunction than the other two approaches.
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August 2014

[Microsurgical management of male infertility in china: 15-year development and prospects].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2014 Jul;20(7):586-94

Male infertility is a common and complex disease in urology and andrology, and for many years there has been no effective surgical treatment. With the emergence of microsurgery and assisted reproductive medicine (IVF/ICSI), rapid development has been achieved in the treatment of male infertility. The Center for Male Reproductive Medicine and Microsurgery at Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University has been playing an important leading role in developing microsurgical techniques for the management of male infertility. The development of microsurgical treatment of male infertility in China has experienced the 3 periods of emerging, making, and boosting ever since its systematic introduction from Weill Cornell Medical College 15 years ago. At present, many Chinese hospitals have adopted microsurgery in the management of male infertility, which has contributed to the initial establishment of a microsurgical treatment system for male infertility in China. However, some deficiencies do exist concerning microsurgical treatment of male infertility, as in normalized technical training programs for competent surgeons, unified criteria for evaluation of surgical outcomes, and detailed postoperative follow-up data. This article presents an overview on the 15-year development of microsurgical management of male infertility in China, points out the existing deficiencies, and offers some propositions for the promotion of its development.
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July 2014

[Pathogeneses of erectile dysfunction after rectal cancer treatment].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2014 Jun;20(6):558-61

Rectal cancer is a common malignancy in the alimentary tract with an increasing incidence, the current treatments of which include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and integrated comprehensive options. Sexual dysfunction, especially erectile dysfunction (ED), is one of the commonest complications in men after rectal cancer treatment and is generally attributed to the damage to the pelvic autonomic nerves. However, recent studies show that ED after rectal cancer treatment is a complex pathophysiological process associated with neurogenic, vasculogenic, and psychological factors. This article reviews the pathogeneses of ED after rectal cancer treatment in order to provide some theoretical evidence for its prevention and treatment.
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June 2014

The aged testis. A good model to find proteins involved in age-related changes of testis by proteomic analysis.

J Reprod Med 2014 Jan-Feb;59(1-2):31-8

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, PR China.

Objective: To explore associated proteins involved in age-related changes of the testis and better understand the roles of these proteins in the human testis.

Study Design: We used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spec trometry analysis to identify differentially expressed proteins between the aged and the normal control groups. The L-lactate dehydrogenase C chain (LDHC) protein, a previous testis-specific protein, was found to be downregulated in the aged testis and was further tested with western blot and immunohistochemical analysis to verify the result of the LDHC protein in 2-DE.

Results: Twelve differentially expressed proteins were identified. Among those proteins, 3 were upregulated and 9 were downregulated in the aged group. The results of western blot and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the expression of LDHC downregulation in the aged testis. Some proteins identified had little well-known function in the human testis, as follows: AKR7A3, FDXR, PGAM1, SEPT2 and HMGCS2.

Conclusion: Our results imply that the aged testis can be a good model to find associated proteins involved in age-related changes of the testis. It can be useful to understand the roles of those proteins in the testis.
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April 2014

[DAZL gene polymorphisms and astheno-teratozoospermia].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2013 Apr;19(4):311-4

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital Affiliated to Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China.

Objective: To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the DZAL gene in infertile Han Chinese males with astheno-teratozoospermia.

Methods: We collected semen samples from 173 infertile Han Chinese men with astheno-teratozoospermia (case group) and 175 age-matched normal male volunteers (control group) for semen routine and morphological analyses. We obtained genomic DNA, genotyped the polymorphisms of the DAZL gene A260G and A386G via the Sequenom MassARRAY system, and compared the frequencies of the genotypes between the case and control groups.

Results: The AA nucleotide variant was found in the A260G and A386G polymorphisms of the DZAL gene in both the cases and controls, but the heterozygous AG variant in neither.

Conclusion: The A260G and A386G polymorphisms of the DAZL gene are not correlated with astheno-teratozoospermia-induced male infertility in the Han Chinese population, and therefore could not be considered as molecular markers of male infertility.
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April 2013

[Establishing a mouse model of Sertoli-cell-only syndrome by administration of busulfan].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2013 Apr;19(4):300-5

Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310006, China.

Objective: To establish a stable and reliable model of Sertoli-cell-only syndrome in mice.

Methods: We randomly divided 60 NIH mice into two groups of equal number to receive intraperitoneal injection of busulfan (30 mg/kg) and 30 or 60 minutes of testis cooling. At 2, 4 and 8 weeks after treatment, we recorded the survival rate of the mice, weight of the testis and Johnsen scores, and conducted quantitative analysis on the degrees of spermatogenetic failure.

Results: There were no significant differences in the baseline body weight and survival rate between the intervention and control groups (P > 0.05). At 4 and 8 weeks, the testis weight and Johnsen score were significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control ([0.04 +/- 0.01] g and [0.05 +/- 0.01] g vs [0.09 +/- 0.03] g and [0.11 +/- 0.02] g, P < 0.05; 3.86 +/- 0.50 and 2.70 +/- 0.67 vs 9.60 +/- 0.25 and 9.76 +/- 0.43, P < 0.01). At 2, 4 and 8 weeks, the testis weights were (0.07 +/- 0.02) g, (0.06 +/- 0.01) g and (0.09 +/- 0.01) g, respectively, in the 30-min cooling group and (0.05 +/- 0.01) g, (0.04 +/- 0.02) g and (0.04 +/- 0.02) g in the 60-min cooling group, significantly lower than in the control side at the same time points ([0.11 +/- 0.01] g, [0.11 +/- 0.01] g and [0.12 +/- 0.00] g) (P < 0.05), and the Johnsen scores were 4.70 +/- 0.67, 2.70 +/- 0.84 and 6.10 +/- 1.14 in the 30-min and 1.67 +/- 0.58, 1.20 +/- 0.45 and 1.00 +/- 0.00 in the 60-min cooling group, remarkably lower than in the control side (9.60 +/- 3.23, 9.60 +/- 0.55 and 9.70 +/- 0.45) (P < 0.01). Histopathological examination of the cooled testes revealed considerable atrophy of seminal tubules, necrosis of seminiferous epithelia and peritubular fibrosis.

Conclusion: Administration of busulfan has no obvious influence on the survival of mice, and is a reliable method for constructing a mouse model of Sertoli-cell-only syndrome.
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April 2013

[Microanatomy of blood vessels in spermatic cords and its clinical implication].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2012 Jun;18(6):518-21

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China.

Objective: Both microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy (MSIV) and microsurgical high inguinal varicocelectomy (MHIV) are recommended for the treatment of varicocele, but they differ in technical complexity. This study aimed to determine the microanatomy of spermatic blood vessels in the two surgical approaches.

Methods: We recorded the numbers of spermatic veins, arteries and lymphatics in 80 cases of MSIV and 20 cases of MHIV. We also examined the spermatic cords from 10 adult male cadavers by histological staining.

Results: The numbers of medium spermatic veins (2 -5 mm in diameter) were 1.80 +/- 0.83 and 3.98 +/- 1. 99 in MHIV and MSIV, respectively, with significant difference between the two groups (t = -7.536, P < 0.01), and the total numbers of spermatic veins were 6.40 +/- 1.67 and 9.01 +/- 2.70, also with significant difference between the two (t = -4.071, P < 0.01). However, there were no significant differences between MHIV and MSIV in the numbers of small spermatic veins (diameter < or = 2 mm), large spermatic veins (diameter > or = 5 mm), arteries and lymphatics, nor in the numbers of spermatic veins and arteries of the cadavers.

Conclusion: The total number of spermatic veins and the number of medium spermatic veins may be larger in MSIV than in MHIV, but the medium spermatic veins do not increase surgical difficulty, and MSIV is not more complicated than MHIV.
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June 2012

[Embryo development potential after intracytoplasmic injection of sperm from azoospermia patients with different spermatogenic functions].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2012 May;18(5):432-5

Center of Reproductive Medicine, Nanfang Hospital Affiliated to Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China.

Objective: To analyze the embryo development potential after intracytoplasmic injection of sperm from azoospermia patients with different spermatogenic functions.

Methods: We performed ICSI with sperm retrieved from azoospermia patients with different spermatogenic functions using percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA) and testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). Then we recorded and analyzed the rates of normal fertilization, cleavages, excellent embryos and pregnancies.

Results: No statistically significant differences were found between the PESA and TESA groups in the rates of normal fertilization ([74.9 +/- 19.6] vs [66.3 +/- 22.7]%, P > 0.05), cleavages ([96.7 +/- 8.6] vs [92.8 +/- 19.8]%, P > 0.05), excellent embryos ([43.5 +/- 26.2] vs [35.0 +/- 29.4]%, P > 0.05) and pregnancies (44.0 vs 52.0%, P > 0.05). The normal fertilization rates in the patients with normal spermatogenesis, mild spermatogenic dysfunction (SD), moderate SD and severe SD were (77.8 +/- 18.4), (68.4 +/- 18.5), (73.5 +/- 19.8) and (51.4 +/- 27.9)%, respectively, with significant difference between the normal spermatogenesis and mild SD groups (P < 0.05) as well as between the severe SD and the other groups (P < 0.05); the cleavage rates were (96.7 +/- 9.2), (96.5 +/- 15.0), (93.9 +/- 12.1) and (93.7 +/- 11.1)%, respectively, with no significant difference among the four groups; the excellent embryo rates were (47.1 +/- 25.8), (40.3 +/- 27.6), (36.2 +/- 23.1) and (15.0 +/- 24.6)%, respectively, with significant difference between the severe SD and the other groups; the pregnancy rates were 54.8, 50.0, 13.6 and 10.0%, respectively, with significant differences among the four groups (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: ICSI by PESA or TESA is an effective approach to azoospermia. There are no significant differences between PESA and TESA in the rates of normal fertilization, cleavages, excellent embryos and pregnancies. The severity of spermatogenic dysfunction affects fertilization and initial development of embryos, which were shown in the rates of normal fertilization, excellent embryos and pregnancies but not that of cleavages.
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May 2012

[Association of PRM1-190C- > A polymorphism with teratozoospermia].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2012 Apr;18(4):314-7

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China.

Objective: To investigate the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the Protamine 1 (PRM1) gene in infertile men with teratozoospermia.

Methods: We collected semen samples from 157 infertile men with teratozoospermia (case group) and 37 age-matched male volunteers (control group), and subjected them to morphological analysis. We extracted genome DNA, genotyped the polymorphism of the PRM1-190C- > A SNP (rs2301365) using the Sequenom MassARRAY system, compared the genotype frequencies between the case and control groups, and analyzed the sperm morphological parameters of different genotypes in the infertile males with teratozoospermia.

Results: The frequencies of the genotypes CC, CA and AA were 38.9% (61), 44.6% (70) and 16.6% (26) in the case group, as compared with 45.9% (17), 51.4% (19) and 2.7% (1) in the control, with that of AA significantly higher in the patients than in the volunteers (P<0.05). The frequencies of the alleles C and A were 57.6% and 42.4% in the former, with no significant differences from 71.6% and 28.4% in the latter (P>0.05). Nor were any statistically significant differences observed in sperm morphology parameters between the genotype CC and CA, AA and CA + AA in the male patients (P>0.05).

Conclusion: The SNP of PRM1-190C- > A might be associated with teratozoospermia-induced male infertility in the Han Chinese. Although this SNP may attribute to abnormal sperm morphology, the targeted part of sperm remains unclear.
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April 2012

[Qilin pills for oligoasthenospermia: a multi-centered clinical trial].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2011 Dec;17(12):1139-42

Department of Andrology, Nanjing General Hospital of Nanjing Military Region, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210002, China.

Objective: To observe the efficacy of Qilin Pills in the treatment of oligoasthenospermia.

Methods: We conducted a multi-centered open controlled clinical trial by including 220 oligoasthenospermia patients in a trial group and another 110 as controls. The patients in the trial group were treated with Qilin Pills at the dose of 6 g tid, and the controls given Wuziyanzong Pills at 6 g bid, both for a course of 12 weeks. Then we evaluated the clinical effects of Qilin Pills with sperm concentration, the numbers of grade a and grade a + b sperm, and sperm motility as the primary, and the pregnancy rate of the patients'spouses as the secondary therapeutic indexes.

Results: A total of 310 patients accomplished the clinical trial, 208 in the trial and 102 in the control group. Compared with the baseline, significant improvement was observed in the semen parameters after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment in both the trial and control groups except sperm density and the number of grade a sperm in the control after 4 weeks (P < 0.01), and the improvement was even more significant in all the semen parameters at the same time points in the trial than in the control group (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: Qilin Pills can evidently improve the seminal quality of oligoasthenospermia patients with no obvious adverse events.
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December 2011

[Expression of heme oxygenase enzyme in the testis tissue and azoospermia].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2011 Aug;17(8):712-6

Research Institute of Family Planning/Center of Reproductive Medicine, Tongli Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430030, China.

Objective: To investigate the location of heme oxygenase (HO) enzyme in the human testis, and explore the correlation of the expression of HO enzyme with azoospermia by analyzing its different expression levels in the testes of nonobstructive azoospermia, obstructive azoospermia and normal men.

Methods: We detected the location of the cells expressing HO enzyme in the human testis tissue using immunohistochemistry, determined the mRNA and protein expression levels of HO-1 and HO-2 in the testes of azoospermia patients and normal healthy men by RT-fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-FQ-PCR) and Western blot, and explored the correlation of HO expressions with the pathogenesis of azoospermia.

Results: HO-1 enzyme was expressed mainly in the Sertoli cells and HO-2 enzyme chiefly in the germ cells of the testis tissue. RT-FQ-PCR showed that the expression of HO-1 in the testis tissue was significantly lower in the nonobstructive azoospermia than in the normal and obstructive azoospermia groups (P < 0.05), with no significant difference between the latter two. Western blot revealed no obvious difference between the expression level of HO-1 protein and that of HO-1 mRNA. There were no differences in the expression level of HO-2 protein among the three groups.

Conclusion: The expression level of HO enzyme is significantly decreased in the testis tissue of nonobstructive azoospermia patients, and the expression of HO-1 protein is consistent with that of HO-1 mRNA. As HO-1 protects the testis tissue against various stress injuries through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects, its decreased expression level may be correlated with spermatogenic dysfunction, and therefore considered as a possible mechanism of nonobstructive azoospermia.
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August 2011

[Changes in prostatic stromal composition and benign prostatic hyperplasia].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2011 Aug;17(8):703-6

Department of Urology, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510010, China.

Objective: To investigate whether there are different stromal compositions in the prostate tissue of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and evaluate their significance in the course of the disease.

Methods: Forty-three surgical or bioptic prostatic specimens of BPH and 5 autoptic normal prostatic specimens were stained by the Masson method to display the elements of the muscle fiber and collagen. The relationship of the changes in the prostatic stromal composition was analyzed with the degree of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) , IPSS and medication results.

Results: The mean ratio of muscle fiber to collagen in the normal prostate tissue was (3.2 +/- 0.2):1, significantly higher than that of the BPH patients (1: [4.7 +/- 3.1] ) (P < 0.01); that in the BPH patients with BOO was 1: (5.4 +/- 3.7) markedly lower than in those without BOO (1: [2.5 +/- 1.1] ) (P = 0.02); that in the BPH patients with severe prostatic symptoms was 1: (9.1 +/- 2.9), remarkably lower than in those with moderate (1: [5.3 +/- 3.4]) and mild prostatic symptoms (1: [2.8 +/- 1.7]) (P < 0.01); and that in the BPH patients with satisfactory medicinal therapeutic results was 1:(2.3 +/- 1.9), significantly higher than in those with poor therapeutic results (1: [7.6 +/- 4.3]) (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: The stromal composition in the prostatic tissue of BPH patients undergoes different degrees of changes. More obvious BPH symptoms and poorer therapeutic results are associated with a bigger proportion of collagens and a smaller proportion of muscle fibers in the prostatic tissue. These changes may play an important role in the development and progression of BPH.
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August 2011

[Differentially expressed genes in asthenospermia: a bioinformatics-based study].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2011 Aug;17(8):694-8

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Guangdong 510515, China.

Objective: To study the differentially expressed genes in asthenospermia to gain a deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of the disease.

Methods: We analyzed the differentially expressed genes in asthenospermia using GATHER, PANTHER and ToppGene online bioinformatics tools.

Results: Our bioinformatics mining and analyses revealed that the differentially expressed genes in asthenospermia played important roles in the cellular protein and macromolecular metabolism, protein modification, cell death, cell apoptosis and apoptosis induction.

Conclusion: Asthenospermia patients experience a decline in sperm activity and the basic life activities of sperm simultaneously, and are also prone to cell apoptosis or death. Such differentially expressed genes as KIF3B, MYO15A, KIF6, KIF26B, KIF3A, DNHD2, DMN, DYNC2H1, STARD9, MYOHD1, and TPM1, which are involved in cytoskeletal structure, microtubule movement and cell movement, may be associated with asthenospermia, and therefore deserve further studies.
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August 2011

[Qianlie Beixi Capsules for unliquefiable semen: a multi-center clinical study].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2011 Apr;91(16):1100-3

Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and possible action mechanism of Qianlie Beixi Capsules in the treatment of unliquefiable semen.

Methods: A total of 190 patients with unliquefiable semen were treated with Qianlie Beixi Capsules for 1 or 2 courses (3 weeks per a course). The seminal changes were observed and recorded.

Results: Of the 190 patients in the 1-course treatment arm, 99 were cured and 91 failed to respond after the first course. And the effectiveness rate was 52.1%. Of the 122 patients in the 2-course treatment arm, 81 were cured and 41 failed to respond after the second course. And the effectiveness rate was 66.4%. The efficacy of 2-course regimen was obviously better than that of 1-course regiment. In the meantime, sperm density improved in the 2-course treatment arm. Sperm motility improved slightly in the effective subjects of 1-course treatment arm. All the above results had statistically significant differences (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Qianlie Beixi Capsules is both safe and effective for unliquefiable semen and may shorten the time of seminal liquefaction.
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April 2011

Patient outcome and prognostic factors of renal cell carcinoma in clinical stage T(1-3)N(1-2)M(0): a single-institution analysis.

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2011 May;31(5):749-54

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.E-mail:

Objective: To report our data of patients with clinical stage T(1-3)N(1-2)M(0) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and explore the biological behavior of this malignancy.

Methods: A total of 531 patients with no distant metastatic RCC underwent open radical nephrectomy at our institution between 1988 and 2008, among whom 42 patients with histological nodal metastases had successful surgical tumor resection. The clinical data and outcomes of the 42 patients were analyzed.

Results: Of those 42 patients, 19.0% had T1, 21.4% had T2, and 59.5% had T3 stage tumors; 42.9% had N1 and 57.1% had N2 stage tumors. Tumor recurred in 30 (71.4%) patients after the surgery, and death occurred in 26 (61.9%) cases at the last follow-up; among the recurrent cases, 83.3% (25/30) had multiple metastases at the initial recurrence. The median cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was 23 and 11 months in these cases, respectively. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Fuhrman grade (P=0.005), N stage (P=0.014) and T stage (P=0.037) were the independent predictors of CSS; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) (P=0.002), tumor size (P=0.007), Fuhrman grade (P=0.009) and N stage (P=0.019) were the independent predictors of DFS.

Conclusion: Patients with T(1-3)N(1-2)M(0) RCC have poor prognosis. N stage is an independent predictor of both CSS and DFS, suggesting that extended lymph node dissection should be performed when suspicious enlarged nodal disease is found during surgery.
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May 2011

[Expressions of cysteine-rich secretory protein 2 in asthenospermia].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2011 Mar;17(3):203-7

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China.

Objective: To investigate the mRNA and protein expression levels of cysteine-rich secretory protein 2 (CRISP2) in the sperm of asthenospermia patients, and explore their relationship with sperm motility and related molecular mechanism.

Methods: We collected 78 semen samples from adult male patients with asthenospermia and another 70 from healthy volunteers as controls. We extracted total RNA and total protein from the sperm following purification of the sperm by Percoll gradient centrifugation, and detected the relative expressions of CRISP2 mRNA and protein in the two groups by RT-PCR, SYBR Green real-time PCR and Western blot.

Results: The expression of CRISP2 mRNA was down-regulated by 4.3 times and that of the CRISP2 protein by 1.71 times in the asthenospermia patients, significantly lower than in the normal control group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: The down-regulation of CRISP2 mRNA and protein expressions in the sperm of asthenospermia patients may be closely related with decreased sperm motility, which suggests that CRISP2 may serve as a potential molecular target for the research of asthenospermia.
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March 2011

[Efficacy of low-dose tadalafil on ED assessed by Self-Esteem and Relationship Questionnaire].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2010 Dec;16(12):1147-9

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China.

Objective: To explore the effects of low-dose oral tadalafil on self-esteem, confidence and sexual relationship in ED patients.

Methods: We treated 17 ED patients with oral tadalafil at the low dose of 5 mg once daily for 12 weeks, and used the paired t test to compare their scores on The Self-Esteem and Relationship Questionnaire (SEAR) and IIEF-5 and the results of nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) obtained by nocturnal electrobioimpedance volumetric assessment (NEVA) before and after the medication.

Results: The scores on SEAR and IIEF-5 were significantly increased (P < 0.01) and NPT markedly improved (P < 0.05) after tadalafil treatment as compared with the baseline.

Conclusion: Low-dose oral tadalafil once daily can significantly improve the self-esteem, confidence, sexual relationship satisfaction and NPT of ED patients.
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December 2010

[Correlation of aging with psychological and organic ED: nocturnal electrobioimpedance volumetric assessment of 83 cases].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2010 Oct;16(10):915-8

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Guangdong 510515, China.

Objective: The ratio of psychological to organic ED changes with aging. This study aimed to analyze the results of nocturnal electrobioimpedance volumetric assessment (NEVA) for ED patients of different age groups and their significance in the diagnosis of ED.

Methods: A total of 83 ED patients were divided into 4 age groups (< or = 29 yr, 30 -39 yr, 40 -49 yr and > or = 50 yr) and detected for nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) by NEVA.

Results: Thirty-four of the cases were diagnosed as organic ED, and the other 49 as psychological ED. With the increase of age, the former was increased from 30.3% in the < or = 29 yr group to 60.0% in the > or = 50 yr group, while the latter decreased from 69.7% to 40.0%.

Conclusion: The percentage of organic ED tends to grow with the increase of age, while that of psychological ED is just the opposite.
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October 2010

[Synchronous squamous cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and squamous cell carcinoma of the ureter: report of two cases and review of literature].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2010 Dec;30(12):2765-7

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: To study the clinicopathological characteristics of synchronous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the renal pelvis and SCC of the ureter.

Methods: The clinical data of two cases of synchronous SCC of the renal pelvis and SCC of the ureter were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. In case 1, a 68-year-old man with hematuria for a month, imaging modalities revealed a right renal pelvis tumor and a right distal ureter tumor. The patient underwent nephroureterectomy and excision of the bladder cuff. Case 2, a 60-year-old man with the complaint of lower abdominal pain and left flank pain for a month, was diagnosed as left distal ureteral stone in another hospital. Ureterolithotomy was performed and a ureteral tumor was found at the lower site of the stone intraoperatively. The pathological report demonstrated SCC, and the patient was transferred to our hospital for further treatment. We found a left renal mass invading the left hemicolon during surgery, and nephroureterectomy was performed with a bladder cuff excision, left hemicolon resection, and also complete lymph node dissection. Neither of patients received adjuvant radiotherapy/chemotherapy.

Results: Moderately differentiated SCC was reported in both of renal pelvis and ureter in case 1 and the tumor invaded the subepithelial connective tissue in the renal pelvis and superficial muscle in the ureter. In case 2, moderately differentiated SCC of the left renal pelvis with colon metastasis and poorly differentiated SCC of the ureter was reported with two retroperitoneal lymph node metastases. The two patients died from tumor recurrence and metastasis 5 and 6 months after the surgery, respectively.

Conclusion: Synchronous SCC of the renal pelvis and SCC of the ureter are rare and has high likeliness of early recurrence and metastasis, often with poor prognosis.
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December 2010

[Single- and two-layer gradient centrifugation in sperm separation: comparison and appraisal].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2010 Mar;16(3):217-9

Department of Urology, Nanfang Hospital, China.

Objective: To appraise the effect of single- and two-layer Percoll density gradient centrifugation in sperm separation.

Methods: Twenty semen specimens underwent single-(50%) and two-layer (90% and 45%) density gradient centrifugation, respectively. The sperm class analyzer (SCA) was used to analyze sperm density, motility and dynamic parameters and round cell density before and after the treatment.

Results: After separation, the sperm recovery rate of the single-layer method was (65.5 +/- 12.8)%, significantly higher than that of the two-layer method (P < 0.01). The percentages of grade a sperm of the single- and two-layer method were significantly higher than pre-treatment (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), that of the single-layer was significantly lower than that of the two-layer method (P < 0.05), but the percentage of grade c sperm of the former was significantly higher than that of the latter (P < 0.05). Compared with pre-treatment, the percentage of grade a + b sperm of the two-layer method was significantly higher (P < 0.05), while that of the single-layer method showed no significant difference (P > 0.05), and the round cell density of both the methods was significantly lower (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), with no significant differences between the two methods (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: The single-layer method yields a higher rate of sperm recovery and causes little change in the sperm motility, while the two-layer method effects a lower rate and significantly improves sperm motility. Both the methods can efficiently separate sperm from round cells, and each has its own advantages and its application value in in vitro treatment of sperm.
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March 2010
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