Publications by authors named "Xiang Zhao"

566 Publications

Analysis of Endophyte Diversity of from Different Production Areas in Gansu Province of China and the Association with Secondary Metabolite.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 30;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

College of Life Sciences, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China.

Investigations of the differences in the metabolites of medicinal plants have typically focused on the effects of external environmental factors. However, little is known about the relationship between endophytes diversity and host metabolites. We used high-throughput sequencing methods to compare the endophyte diversity of from eight different production areas in Gansu Province of China and to analyze the association between those areas and five secondary metabolites (aloe-emodin, rhein, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion). The results show that the diversity and OTUs (Operational taxonomic units) abundance of endophytic fungi and bacteria of differed according to production area. Spearman analysis showed that the five secondary metabolites of were positively correlated with the diversity and abundance of endophytic fungi. Comparing both space and environmental differences to determine influences on community structure, VPA analysis revealed that geographic factors explained more difference in community composition of fungal and bacterial endophytes than climate factors. PICRUSt and FUNGuild predictive analysis indicated that metabolites were the primary components of endophytic bacteria in all samples, while the function of endophytic fungi was composed of dominant trophic modes (saprotroph and pathotroph), and relative abundances were different. Our results help elucidate the correlation of plant-microbe interactions and offer pivotal information to reveal the role of endophytes in the production of and its important secondary metabolite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9050978DOI Listing
April 2021

Integrase inhibitors versus efavirenz combination antiretroviral therapies for TB/HIV coinfection: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

AIDS Res Ther 2021 May 1;18(1):25. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Evidence-Based Medicine and Clinical Center, The First People's Hospital of Huaihua, University of South China, Huaihua, 418000, People's Republic of China.

Background: Integrase inhibitors (INIs)-based antiretroviral therapies (ART) are more recommended than efavirenz (EFV)-based ART for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Yet, the advantage of integrase inhibitors in treating TB/HIV coinfection is uncertain. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the effects and safety of INIs- versus EFV-based ART in TB/HIV coinfection, and demonstrate the feasibility of the regimens.

Methods: Four electronic databases were systematically searched through September 2020. Fixed-effects models were used to calculate pooled effect size for all outcomes. The primary outcomes were virologic suppression and bacteriology suppression for INIs- versus EFV-based ART. Secondary outcomes included CD4 cell counts change from baseline, adherence and safety.

Results: Three trials (including 672 TB/HIV patients) were eligible. ART combining INIs and EFV had similar effects for all outcomes, with none of the point estimates argued against the INIs-based ART on TB/HIV patients. Compared to EFV-based ART as the reference group, the RR was 0.94 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.05) for virologic suppression, 1.00 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.05) for bacteriology suppression, 0.98 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.01) for adherence. The mean difference in CD4 cell counts increase between the two groups was 14.23 cells/μl (95% CI 0- 6.40 to 34.86). With regard to safety (adverse events, drug-related adverse events, discontinuation for drugs, grade 3-4 adverse events, IRIS (grade 3-4), and death), INIs-based regimen was broadly similar to EFV-based regimens. The analytical results in all sub-analyses of raltegravir- (RAL) and dolutegravir (DTG) -based ART were valid.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates similar efficacy and safety of INIs-based ART compared with EFV-based ART. This finding supports INIs-based ART as a first-line treatment in TB/HIV patients. The conclusions presented here still await further validation owing to insufficient data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12981-021-00348-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8088572PMC
May 2021

Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of a major locus controlling ovule abortion and seed number per silique in Brassica napus L.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, People's Republic of China.

Key Message: A major QTL controlling ovule abortion and SN was fine-mapped to a 80.1-kb region on A8 in rapeseed, and BnaA08g07940D and BnaA08g07950D are the most likely candidate genes. The seed number per silique (SN), an important yield determining trait of rapeseed, is the final consequence of a complex developmental process including ovule initiation and the subsequent ovule/seed development. To explore the genetic mechanism regulating the natural variation of SN and its related components, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was conducted using a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from the cross between C4-146 and C4-58B, which showed significant differences in SN and aborted ovule number (AON), but no obvious differences in ovule number (ON). QTL analysis identified 19 consensus QTLs for six SN-related traits across three environments. A novel QTL on chromosome A8, un.A8, which associates with multiple traits, except for ON, was stably detected across the three environments. This QTL explained more than 50% of the SN, AON and percentage of aborted ovules (PAO) variations as well as a moderate contribution on silique length (SL) and thousand seed weight (TSW). The C4-146 allele at the locus increases SN and SL but decreases AON, PAO and TSW. Further fine mapping narrowed down this locus into an 80.1-kb interval flanked by markers BM1668 and BM1672, and six predicted genes were annotated in the delimited region. Expression analyses and DNA sequencing showed that two homologs of Arabidopsis photosystem I subunit F (BnaA08g07940D) and zinc transporter 10 precursor (BnaA08g07950D) were the most promising candidate genes underlying this locus. These results provide a solid basis for cloning un.A8 to reduce the ovule abortion and increase SN in the yield improvement of rapeseed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03839-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Rapid Detection of by Real-time Recombinase-aided Amplification.

Biomed Environ Sci 2021 Apr;34(4):309-313

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of PLA, Beijing 100071, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2021.040DOI Listing
April 2021

Identification and characterization of magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria from a salt evaporation pool, Bohai Bay, China.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Innovation Academy for Earth Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China.

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are phylogenetically diverse prokaryotes that can produce intracellular chain-assembled nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe O ) or greigite (Fe S ). Compared with their wide distribution in the Alpha-, Eta- and Delta-proteobacteria classes, few MTB strains have been identified in the Gammaproteobacteria class, resulting in limited knowledge of bacterial diversity and magnetosome biomineralization within this phylogenetic branch. Here, we identify two magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria strains (tentatively named FZSR-1 and FZSR-2 respectively) from a salt evaporation pool in Bohai Bay, at the Fuzhou saltern, Dalian City, eastern China. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that strain FZSR-2 is the same species as strains SHHR-1 and SS-5, which were discovered previously from brackish and hypersaline environments respectively. Strain FZSR-1 represents a novel species. Compared with strains FZSR-2, SHHR-1 and SS-5 in which magnetite particles are assembled into a single chain, FZSR-1 cells form relatively narrower magnetite nanoparticles that are often organized into double chains. We find a good relationship between magnetite morphology within strains FZSR-2, SHHR-1 and SS-5 and the salinity of the environment in which they live. This study expands the bacterial diversity of magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria and provides new insights into magnetosome biomineralization within magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15516DOI Listing
April 2021

A novel THz molecule-selective sensing strategy in aqueous environments: THz-ATR spectroscopy integrated with a smart hydrogel.

Talanta 2021 Jun 16;228:122213. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University), Chongqing, 400038, China. Electronic address:

Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, with fascinating advantages for biomedical applications, is still in its infancy in terms of the selective detection of aqueous biomolecules because the strong absorption of solvent water always obscures the THz spectroscopic features of biomolecules. Nevertheless, solvent water is not a passive spectator but a useful indicator, as this proposed strategy describes. This strategy utilizes THz attenuated total reflection (THz-ATR) spectroscopy to probe the glucose-induced hydration state changes of smart hydrogels for label-free and selective detection of aqueous glucose. A notable dramatic increase in both the THz absorption coefficient and hydration state (calculated by weighing) of the smart hydrogel was observed with increasing aqueous glucose concentration, which was further verified by a simple two-component model. For aqueous glucose sensing, this method surpasses individual THz-ATR devices and exhibits suitable sensitivity, ideal selectivity and excellent reusability. Moreover, the proposed strategy may provide an alternative option for the selective detection of various aqueous molecules by THz spectroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2021.122213DOI Listing
June 2021

Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant tandem-repeat dimeric RBD-based protein subunit vaccine (ZF2001) against COVID-19 in adults: two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and 2 trials.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Although several COVID-19 vaccines have been developed so far, they will not be sufficient to meet the global demand. Development of a wider range of vaccines, with different mechanisms of action, could help control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 globally. We developed a protein subunit vaccine against COVID-19 using a dimeric form of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as the antigen. We aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of this vaccine, ZF2001, and determine the appropriate dose and schedule for an efficacy study.

Methods: We did two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 and phase 2 trials. Phase 1 was done at two university hospitals in Chongqing and Beijing, China, and phase 2 was done at the Hunan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention in Xiangtan, China. Healthy adults aged 18-59 years, without a history of SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-2 infection, an RT-PCR-positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, a history of contact with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases, and severe allergies to any component of the vaccine were eligible for enrolment. In phase 1, participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive three doses of the vaccine (25 μg or 50 μg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart. In phase 2, participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1) to receive the vaccine (25 μg or 50 μg) or placebo intramuscularly, 30 days apart, in either a two-dose schedule or a three-dose schedule. Investigators, participants, and the laboratory team were masked to group allocation. For phase 1, the primary outcome was safety, measured by the occurrence of adverse events and serious adverse events. For phase 2, the primary outcome was safety and immunogenicity (the seroconversion rate and the magnitude, in geometric mean titres [GMTs], of SARS-CoV-2-neutralising antibodies). Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat and per-protocol basis. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04445194 and NCT04466085) and participant follow-up is ongoing.

Findings: Between June 22 and July 3, 2020, 50 participants were enrolled into the phase 1 trial and randomly assigned to receive three doses of placebo (n=10), the 25 μg vaccine (n=20), or the 50 μg vaccine (n=20). The mean age of participants was 32·6 (SD 9·4) years. Between July 12 and July 17, 2020, 900 participants were enrolled into the phase 2 trial and randomly assigned to receive two doses of placebo (n=150), 25 μg vaccine (n=150), or 50 μg vaccine (n=150), or three doses of placebo (n=150), 25 μg vaccine (n=150), or 50 μg vaccine (n=150). The mean age of participants was 43·5 (SD 9·2) years. In both phase 1 and phase 2, adverse events reported within 30 days after vaccination were mild or moderate (grade 1 or 2) in most cases (phase 1: six [60%] of ten participants in the placebo group, 14 [70%] of 20 in the 25 μg group, and 18 [90%] of 20 in the 50 μg group; phase 2: 37 [25%] of 150 in the two-dose placebo group, 43 [29%] of 150 in the two-dose 25 μg group, 50 [33%] of 150 in the two-dose 50 μg group, 47 [31%] of 150 in the three-dose placebo group, 72 [48%] of 150 in the three-dose 25 μg group, and 65 [43%] of 150 in the three-dose 50 μg group). In phase 1, two (10%) grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported in the 50 μg group. In phase 2, grade 3 or worse adverse events were reported by 18 participants (four [3%] in the two-dose 25 μg vaccine group, two [1%] in the two-dose 50 μg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, four [3%] in the three-dose 25 μg vaccine group, and six [4%] in the three-dose 50 μg vaccine group), and 11 were considered vaccine related (two [1%] in the two-dose 25 μg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 μg vaccine group, one [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, two [1%] in the three-dose 25 μg vaccine group, and five [3%] in the three-dose 50 μg vaccine group); seven participants reported serious adverse events (one [1%] in the two-dose 25 μg vaccine group, one [1%] in the two-dose 50 μg vaccine group, two [1%] in the three-dose placebo group, one [1%] in the three-dose 25 μg vaccine group, and two [1%] in the three-dose 50 μg vaccine group), but none was considered vaccine related. In phase 2, on the two-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the second dose were 76% (114 of 150 participants) in the 25 μg group and 72% (108 of 150) in the 50 μg group; on the three-dose schedule, seroconversion rates of neutralising antibodies 14 days after the third dose were 97% (143 of 148 participants) in the 25 μg group and 93% (138 of 148) in the 50 μg group. In the two-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the second dose were 17·7 (95% CI 13·6-23·1) in the 25 μg group and 14·1 (10·8-18·3) in the 50 μg group. In the three-dose groups in phase 2, the SARS-CoV-2-neutralising GMTs 14 days after the third dose were 102·5 (95% CI 81·8-128·5) in the 25 μg group and 69·1 (53·0-90·0) in the 50 μg group.

Interpretation: The protein subunit vaccine ZF2001 appears to be well tolerated and immunogenic. The safety and immunogenicity data from the phase 1 and 2 trials support the use of the 25 μg dose in a three-dose schedule in an ongoing phase 3 trial for large-scale evaluation of ZF2001's safety and efficacy.

Funding: National Program on Key Research Project of China, National Science and Technology Major Projects of Drug Discovery, Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical.

Translation: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(21)00127-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990482PMC
March 2021

Short-Chain Enoyl-CoA Hydratase Mediates Histone Crotonylation and Contributes to Cardiac Homeostasis.

Circulation 2021 Mar 8;143(10):1066-1069. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.049438DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparative analysis of genomes reveals oomycete pathogenesis in crops.

Heliyon 2021 Feb 23;7(2):e06317. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Animal & Plant Inspection and Quarantine Technology Center of Shenzhen Customs District P.R. China, Shenzhen 518045, China.

The oomycete genus includes devastating plant pathogens that are found in almost all ecosystems. We sequenced the genomes of two quarantined species- and . Comparing these species and related genera allowed reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus and revealed genomic features associated with infection and pathogenicity. We found that several hundred genes are putatively inherited from red algae, but does not have vestigial plastids originating from phototrophs. The horizontally-transferred genes are abundant transposons that "transmit" exogenous gene to species thus bring about the gene recombination possibility. Several expansion events of gene families associated with cell wall biogenesis can be used as mutational targets to elucidate gene function in pathogenic interactions with host plants. This work enhanced the understanding of evolution and will also be helpful for the design of phytopathological control strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907477PMC
February 2021

Selective Crystallization of Rare-Earth Ions into Cationic Metal-Organic Frameworks for Rare-Earth Separation.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 8;60(20):11148-11152. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California State University Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, 90840, USA.

For rare-earth separation, selective crystallization into metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) offers new opportunities. Especially important is the development of MOF platforms with high selectivity toward target ions. Here we report a MOF platform (CPM-66) with low-coordination-number environment for rare-earth ions. This platform is highly responsive to the size variation of rare-earth ions and shows exceptional ion-size selectivity during crystallization. CPM-66 family are based on M O trimers (M=6-coordinated Sc, In, Er-Lu) that are rare for lanthanides. We show that the size matching between urea-type solvents and metal ions is crucial for their successful synthesis. We further show that CPM-66 enables a dramatic multi-fold increase in separation efficiency over CPM-29 with 7-coordinated ions. This work provides some insights into methods to prepare low-coordinate MOFs from large ions and such MOFs could serve as high-efficiency platforms for lanthanide separation, as well as other applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202017042DOI Listing
May 2021

Why do we need a wildlife consumption ban in China?

Curr Biol 2021 02;31(4):R168-R172

Environmental Research Center, Duke Kunshan University, Kunshan 215316, China; Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA. Electronic address:

The COVID-19 pandemic is an alarm call to all on the risks of zoonotic diseases and the delicate relationship between nature and human health. In response, China has taken a proactive step by issuing a legal decision to ban consumption of terrestrial wildlife. However, concerns have been raised and opponents of bans argue that well-regulated trade should be promoted instead. By analyzing China's legal framework and management system regulating wildlife trade, together with state and provincial-level wildlife-trade licenses and wildlife criminal cases, we argue that current wildlife trade regulations do not function as expected. This is due to outdated protected species lists, insufficient cross-sector collaboration, and weak restrictions and law enforcement on farming and trading of species. The lack of quarantine standards for wildlife and increased wildlife farming in recent years pose great risks for food safety and public health. In addition, wildlife consumption is neither required for subsistence nor an essential part of Chinese diets. All these facts make the ban necessary to provoke improvement in wildlife management, such as updating protected species lists, revising laws and changing consumption behaviors. Nonetheless, the ban is not sufficient to address all the problems. To sustain the efficacy of the change, we propose that a long-term mechanism to reduce the demand and improve effective management is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.12.036DOI Listing
February 2021

Switchable (2 + 2) and (4 + 2) Cycloadditions on Boron Nitride Nanotubes under Oriented External Electric Fields: A Mechanistic Study.

J Org Chem 2021 Mar 17;86(5):3785-3791. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Institute of Molecular Science & Applied Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

The (2 + 2) and (4 + 2) cycloadditions are important approaches for the functional derivatizations of nanocarbon and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) materials. However, as two competing reactions with similar reactivity, it is difficult to control the type of reactions and the corresponding adducts in practice. Here, we introduced a mechanistic study of the oriented external electric field (OEEF)-modulated cycloadditions of pristine and substituted benzynes on the zigzag boron nitride nanotubes. Owing to the distinct charge transfer directions between the competing (2 + 2) and (4 + 2) reactions and the resultant distinct responses of the barriers to the fields along the tube axis, we found that OEEF plays opposing catalytic roles in these two types of reactions and the effect of electric field as a catalyst or inhibitor can be easily reversed by flipping the field vector to achieve selective reactions and products at will.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.joc.0c02590DOI Listing
March 2021

Enhanced immunogenicity of foot and mouth disease DNA vaccine delivered by PLGA nanoparticles combined with cytokine adjuvants.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Feb 10;136:89-96. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, China. Electronic address:

Although the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines is nonideal, they are still considered as potential alternative vaccine candidates to conventional vaccines. Various DNA delivery systems, including nanoparticles, have been extensively explored and validated to further enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. DNA vaccines are considered as alternative vaccine candidates. Various DNA delivery systems, including nanoparticles, have been extensively explored to enhance the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines. In this study, positively charged Poly (D, l-lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were generated and characterized as a delivery system for O-serotype foot-and-mouth DNA vaccine. A recombinant plasmid encoding swine interleukin (IL)-18, IL-2, or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene was introduced into the DNA vaccine to further improve its immunogenicity, which was evaluated in a guinea pig model. PLGA-pVAX-VP013/IL-18 elicited significantly (P = 0.0149) higher FMDV-specific antibody levels than naked DNA before the challenge. The level of neutralizing antibodies induced by PLGA-pVAX-VP013/IL-18, PLGA-pVAX-VP013/IL-2, and PLGA-pVAX-VP013/GM-CSF significantly increased compared with that induced by naked DNA (P < 0.0001). The lymphocyte proliferation assay showed that cellular immunity induced by PLGA-pVAX-VP013/IL-18 and PLGA-pVAX-VP013/GM-CSF was dramatically enhanced compared with that induced by the inactivated vaccine. The protection by PLGA-pVAX-VP013/IL-18 was consistent with that by the inactivated vaccine post-challenge and was followed by PLGA-pVAX-VP013/GM-CSF. Therefore, cationic PLGA nanoparticles can deliver DNA vaccines and induce humoral and cellular immune responses. The co-administration of FMD DNA vaccine with IL-18 formulated with PLGA nanoparticles was the optimal strategy to improve the immunogenicity of FMD DNA vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2021.02.010DOI Listing
February 2021

Waste respirator processing system for public health protection and climate change mitigation under COVID-19 pandemic: Novel process design and energy, environmental, and techno-economic perspectives.

Appl Energy 2021 Feb 5;283:116129. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Systems Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic leads to a surge on consumption of respirators. This study proposes a novel and effective waste respirator processing system for protecting public health and mitigating climate change. Respirator sterilization and pre-processing technologies are included in the system to resist viral infection and facilitate unit processes for respirator pyrolysis, product separation, and downstream processing for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction. We evaluate the system's environmental performance through high-fidelity process simulations and detailed life cycle assessment. Techno-economic analysis results show that the payback time of the waste respirator processing system is seven years with an internal rate of return of 21.5%. The tipping fee and discount rate are the most influential economic factors. Moreover, the unit life cycle GHG emissions from the waste respirator processing system are 12.93 kg CO-eq per thousand waste respirators treated, which reduces GHG emissions by 59.08% compared to incineration-based system so as to mitigate climate change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.116129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834346PMC
February 2021

Significant Roles of a Particularly Stable Two-Center Two-Electron Lu-Lu σ Bond in Lu@C: Electronic Structure of Lu and Radius of Lu.

Inorg Chem 2021 Feb 26;60(4):2425-2436. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Institute of Molecular Science & Applied Chemistry, School of Chemistry, MOE Key Laboratory for Nonequilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

There is still dispute over the stability of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) MC, and recently, multiform lutetium-based dimetallofullerenes have been dropped in experiments. The thermodynamic stabilities of LuC EMFs are revealed by density functional theory (DFT) in conjunction with statistical thermodynamic analyses. Inevitably, besides the experimentally reported Lu@(63751)-C, Lu@(63750)-C, and Lu@(63757)-C, other three metal carbide clusterfullerenes, LuC@(51591)-C, LuC@(51383)-C, and LuC@(id207430)-C, rather than Lu@C are first characterized as thermodynamically stable isomers of LuC. Specially, the (id207430)-C is a newly non-classical fullerene containing one heptagon, which is stabilized encaging LuC. Another interesting phenomenon is that the outer fullerene cages of thermodynamically stable LuC molecules are geometrically connected through C addition/loss and Stone-Wales (SW) transformation, suggesting a special relationship between thermodynamic stabilities and geometries of LuC EMFs. Furthermore, the electronic configurations of (Lu)@C and (LuC)@C were confirmed. A significantly stable (2c-2e) Lu-Lu σ single bond is formed in Lu@C. By comparing M-M bonds in M@(63751)-C (M = Sc, Y, La, and Lu), two significant factors, the valence atomic orbital (s) of metal atoms and radius of M, are found to determine the stability of the M-M bond in the (63751)-C. Additionally, the simulated UV-vis-NIR spectra of thermodynamically stable LuC isomers were simulated, which further disclose their electronic features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c03336DOI Listing
February 2021

Genome-wide signatures of mammalian skin covering evolution.

Sci China Life Sci 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210046, China.

Animal body coverings provide protection and allow for adaptation to environmental pressures such as heat, ultraviolet radiation, water loss, and mechanical forces. Here, using a comparative genomics analysis of 39 mammal species spanning three skin covering types (hairless, scaly and spiny), we found some genes (e.g., UVRAG, POLH, and XPC) involved in skin inflammation, skin innate immunity, and ultraviolet radiation damage repair were under selection in hairless ocean mammals (e.g., whales and manatees). These signatures might be associated with a high risk of skin diseases from pathogens and ultraviolet radiation. Moreover, the genomes from three spiny mammal species shared convergent genomic regions (EPHB2, EPHA4, and NIN) and unique positively selected genes (FZD6, INVS, and CDC42) involved in skin cell polarity, which might be related to the development of spines. In scaly mammals, the shared convergent genomic regions (e.g., FREM2) were associated with the integrity of the skin epithelium and epidermal adhesion. This study identifies potential convergent genomic features among distantly related mammals with the same skin covering type.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1841-5DOI Listing
January 2021

Anchored atomic tungsten on a B cage: a highly active and selective single-atom catalyst for nitrogen reduction.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jan;23(3):2469-2474

Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an 710119, China.

In comparison with the prevalent 2D material-supported single atom catalysts (SACs), the design and fabrication of SACs with single molecule substrates are still challenging. Here we introduce a new type of SAC in which a recently identified all-boron fullerene B40 is employed as the support and its catalytic performance toward the nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) process is explored in theory. Taking advantage of the novel heptagonal ring substructure on the sphere and the electron-deficient nature of boron, the atomic metals are facile to reside on B40 to form atomically dispersed η7-B40M exohedral complexes. Among a series of candidates, originating from the proper metal-adsorbate interactions, the atomic tungsten-decorated B40W is screened out as the most feasible catalyst for the NRR with a low over-potential and high selectivity to passivate the competitive hydrogen evolution process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp06178fDOI Listing
January 2021

Preparation and characterization of efficient and safe lambda-cyhalothrin nanoparticles with tunable particle size.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 5;77(4):2078-2086. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Safe and efficient nanopesticides for pest control have attracted attention because of their ability to enhance target efficiency and reduce undesirable side effects. Nanoformulations have a significant role in solving the problem of water solubility for insoluble drugs. However, there are few studies on the physicochemical properties and biological activities of pesticides of different particle sizes and remains unclear how these key physicochemical properties are affected by particle size. In this study, a series of glucose-loaded lambda-cyhalothrin nanoparticles (LCNs) with a tunable size were developed via shearing emulsification and carrier loading in order to evaluate insecticidal action.

Results: The mean particle sizes of the LCNs were 50.6, 115.2 and 221 nm. The wettability, dispersibility and stability of nanoparticles were particle size-dependent, and were mainly determined by particle size and the uniformity of distribution. Furthermore, the insecticidal activity of LCNs was inversely proportional to the particle size.

Conclusion: This study not only provides a facile technology for the preparation of nanopesticides with a tunable particle size, but also clarifies the effect of particle size on the performance of pesticides. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6236DOI Listing
April 2021

Development of leaf-adhesive pesticide nanocapsules with pH-responsive release to enhance retention time on crop leaves and improve utilization efficiency.

J Mater Chem B 2021 01;9(3):783-792

Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, P. R. China.

Pesticides play a very important role in pest control and plant protection. However, they can be limited by a tendency to cause ecological system damage due to significant losses into the environment. To increase pesticide utilization efficiency, we developed highly leaf-adhesive avermectin nanocapsules (Av-pH-cat@CS) with pH-responsive controlled release properties. The Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules displayed good thermal stability and photostability in response to UV light irradiation. The Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules could be disrupted at low pH and they exhibited excellent controlled release in response to pH, which improved the release of avermectins. In addition, the Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules were highly adhesive to crop leaves as a result of strong hydrogen bonding, which prolonged the retention time on crop leaves. The Av-pH-cat@CS nanocapsules with pH-responsive release and strong leaf adhesion improved the control efficacy and enhanced the utilization efficiency. Our findings offer a promising approach to prolonging pesticide duration on crop leaves and improving the utilization efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb02430aDOI Listing
January 2021

Multiple Stimuli-Responsive Conformational Exchanges of Biphen[3]arene Macrocycle.

Molecules 2020 Dec 8;25(24). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Center for Supramolecular Chemistry and Catalysis and Department of Chemistry, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

Conformational exchanges of synthetic macrocyclic acceptors are rather fast, which is rarely studied in the absence of guests. Here, we report multiple stimuli-responsive conformational exchanges between two preexisting conformations of 2,2',4,4'-tetramethoxyl biphen[3]arene (MeBP3) macrocycle. Structures of these two conformations are both observed in solid state, and characterized by H NMR, C NMR and 2D NMR in solution. In particular, conformational exchanges can respond to solvents, temperatures, guest binding and acid/base addition. The current system may have a role to play in the construction of molecular switches and other stimuli-responsive systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762528PMC
December 2020

The novel E-subgroup pentatricopeptide repeat protein DEK55 is responsible for RNA editing at multiple sites and for the splicing of nad1 and nad4 in maize.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Dec 9;20(1):553. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong, 271018, PR China.

Background: Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins compose a large protein family whose members are involved in both RNA processing in organelles and plant growth. Previous reports have shown that E-subgroup PPR proteins are involved in RNA editing. However, the additional functions and roles of the E-subgroup PPR proteins are unknown.

Results: In this study, we developed and identified a new maize kernel mutant with arrested embryo and endosperm development, i.e., defective kernel (dek) 55 (dek55). Genetic and molecular evidence suggested that the defective kernels resulted from a mononucleotide alteration (C to T) at + 449 bp within the open reading frame (ORF) of Zm00001d014471 (hereafter referred to as DEK55). DEK55 encodes an E-subgroup PPR protein within the mitochondria. Molecular analyses showed that the editing percentage of 24 RNA editing sites decreased and that of seven RNA editing sites increased in dek55 kernels, the sites of which were distributed across 14 mitochondrial gene transcripts. Moreover, the splicing efficiency of nad1 introns 1 and 4 and nad4 intron 1 significantly decreased in dek55 compared with the wild type (WT). These results indicate that DEK55 plays a crucial role in RNA editing at multiple sites as well as in the splicing of nad1 and nad4 introns. Mutation in the DEK55 gene led to the dysfunction of mitochondrial complex I. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid assays showed that DEK55 interacts with two multiple organellar RNA-editing factors (MORFs), i.e., ZmMORF1 (Zm00001d049043) and ZmMORF8 (Zm00001d048291).

Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that a mutation in the DEK55 gene affects the mitochondrial function essential for maize kernel development. Our results also provide novel insight into the molecular functions of E-subgroup PPR proteins involved in plant organellar RNA processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02765-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727260PMC
December 2020

Planar nonlinear metasurface optics and their applications.

Rep Prog Phys 2020 Dec;83(12):126101

School of Mechanical Engineering & Electronic Information, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, People's republic of China. XLIM Research Institute, UMR 7252 CNRS/University of Limoges, France. Wuhan National Library for Optoelectronics, Wuhan, 430074, People's republic of China.

Metasurfaces are artificial two-dimensional (2D) planar surfaces that consist of subwavelength 'meta-atoms' (i.e. metallic or dielectric nanostructures). They are known for their capability to achieve better and more efficient light control in comparison to their traditional optical counterparts. Abrupt and sharp changes in the electromagnetic properties can be induced by the metasurfaces rather than the conventional gradual accumulation that requires greater propagation distances. Based on this feature, planar optical components like mirrors, lenses, waveplates, isolators and even holograms with ultrasmall thicknesses have been developed. Most of the current metasurface studies have focused on tailoring the linear optical effects for applications such as cloaking, lens imaging and 3D holography. Recently, the use of metasurfaces to enhance nonlinear optical effects has attracted significant attention from the research community. Benefiting from the resulting efficient nonlinear optical processes, the fabrication of integrated all-optical nano-devices with peculiar functionalities including broadband frequency conversions and ultrafast optical switching will become achievable. Plasmonic excitation is one of the most effective approaches to increase nonlinear optical responses due to its induced strong local electromagnetic field enhancement. For instance, continuous phase control on the effective nonlinear polarizability of plasmonic metasurfaces has been demonstrated through spin-rotation light coupling. The phase of the nonlinear polarization can be continuously tuned by spatially changing the meta-atoms' orientations during second and third harmonic generation processes, while the nonlinear metasurfaces also exhibit homogeneous linear properties. In addition, an ultrahigh second-order nonlinear susceptibility of up to 10 pm V has recently been reported by coupling the plasmonic modes of patterned metallic arrays with intersubband transition of multi-quantum-well layered substrate. In order to develop ultra-planar nonlinear plasmonic metasurfaces, 2D materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have been extensively studied based on their unique nonlinear optical properties. The third-order nonlinear coefficient of graphene is five times that of gold substrate, while TMDC materials also exhibit a strong second-order magnetic susceptibility. In this review, we first focus on the main principles of planar nonlinear plasmonics based on metasurfaces and 2D nonlinear materials. The advantages and challenges of incorporating 2D nonlinear materials into metasurfaces are discussed, followed by their potential applications including orbital angular momentum manipulating and quantum optics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6633/abb56eDOI Listing
December 2020

AtNSF regulates leaf serration by modulating intracellular trafficking of PIN1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

J Integr Plant Biol 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Daizong Street 61, Tai'an, 271018, China.

In eukaryotes, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) is a conserved AAA+ ATPase and a key component of the membrane trafficking machinery that promotes the fusion of secretory vesicles with target membranes. Here, we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains a single copy of NSF, AtNSF, which plays an essential role in the regulation of leaf serration. The AtNSF knock-down mutant, atnsf-1, exhibited more serrations in the leaf margin. Moreover, polar localization of the PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) auxin efflux transporter was diffuse around the margins of atnsf-1 leaves and root growth was inhibited in the atnsf-1 mutant. More PIN1-GFP accumulated in the intracellular compartments of atnsf-1 plants, suggesting that AtNSF is required for intracellular trafficking of PIN between the endosome and plasma membrane. Furthermore, the serration phenotype was suppressed in the atnsf-1 pin1-8 double mutant, suggesting that AtNSF is required for PIN1-mediated polar auxin transport to regulate leaf serration. The CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 (CUC2) transcription factor gene is up-regulated in atnsf-1 plants and the cuc2-3 single mutant exhibits smooth leaf margins, demonstrating that AtNSF also functions in the CUC2 pathway. Our results reveal that AtNSF regulates the PIN1-generated auxin maxima with a CUC2-mediated feedback loop to control leaf serration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jipb.13043DOI Listing
December 2020

Efficacy and safety of bempedoic acid alone or combining with other lipid-lowering therapies in hypercholesterolemic patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 2020 12 4;21(1):86. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Evidence-based Medicine and Clinical Center, The First People's Hospital of Huaihua, University of South China, Huaihua, 418000, People's Republic of China.

Background: Bempedoic acid is a new drug that reduces cholesterol synthesis via inhibiting ATP citrate lyase. It remains unclear whether the combination of bempedoic acid and other lipid-lowering drugs is better than these drugs alone. This study systematically reviewed the efficacy and safety of bempedoic acid monotherapy or combination togethers in hypercholesterolemic patients.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials were searched across Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, web of science, etc. The net change scores [least squares mean (LSM) percentage change] in LDL-C level were meta-analyzed using weighted mean difference. The reductions in other lipids including total cholesterol (TC), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (ApoB) and high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) were also assessed. Odds ratio (OR) of the incidence of adverse events (AEs) were calculated to evaluate the safety of bempedoic acid.

Results: A total of 13 trials (4858 participates) were included. Pooled data showed that the combination togethers resulted in greater reductions in LDL-C level than monotherapies (bempedoic acid + statin vs. statin: LSM difference (%), - 18.37, 95% CI, - 20.16 to - 16.57, I = 0; bempedoic acid + ezetimibe vs. ezetimibe: LSM difference (%), - 18.89, 95% CI, - 29.66 to - 8.13, I = 87%). But the difference in efficacy between bempedoic acid and ezetimibe was not obvious. Meta-regression analysis showed the treatment duration was a source of heterogeneity (adj R = 16.92, 95% CI, 0.04 to 0.72). Furthermore, the background therapy of statin before screening decreased the efficacy of bempedoic acid. In addition, bempedoic acid also resulted in a significant reduction in TC, non-HDL-C, ApoB and hsCRP level. The OR of muscle-related AEs by the combination of bempedoic acid and statin was 1.29 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.67, I = 0) when compared with statin alone.

Conclusion: This study showed the efficacy of combination togethers were similar but stronger than these drugs alone. Of note, a trend of high risk of muscle-related AEs by the combination of bempedoic acid and statin was observed, though it is not statistically significant, such risk is needed to be confirmed by more trials, because it is important for us to determine which is the better combinative administration for statin-intolerant patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40360-020-00463-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716459PMC
December 2020

Interface Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of Ultrasonic-Assisted Friction Stir Lap Welded 7075-T6 Aluminium Alloy.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Nov 25;13(23). Epub 2020 Nov 25.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819, China.

In this work, friction stir lap welding (FSLW) and ultrasonic-assisted friction stir lap welding (UAFSLW) was applied to 6-mm-thick 7075-T6 alloy sheets using three welding tools with the same process parameters. The joint formation, microstructural characteristics, and mechanical properties of the resulting lap joints were then investigated. The results showed that ultrasonic vibration significantly promoted the flow of metal at the interface, enlarged the size of the stirred zone (SZ), and reduced the angle between the hook defect and the interface. During lap shear testing, the FSLW and UAFSLW joints fractured in a similar manner. The fracture modes included tensile fracture, shear fracture, and a mixture of both. Cold lap and hook defects may have served as crack-initiation zones within the joint. Under configuration A (i.e., upper sheet on the retreating side (RS)), all joints failed in the shear-fracture mode. The effective lap width (ELW) of the joint welded using tool T2 was the greatest. This resulted in a higher shear fracture strength. The maximum shear fracture strength of the UAFSLW joint was 663.1 N/mm. Under configuration B (i.e., upper sheet on the advancing side (AS)), the shear fracture strength was greatly affected by the fracture mode. The highest shear fracture strength of the UAFSLW joint, 543.7 N/mm, was welded by tool T3. Thus, under otherwise identical conditions, UAFSLW joints can withstand a greater fracture shear strength than FSLW joints, as ultrasonic vibration helps to mix the material at the interface, thus, enlarging the SZ and diminishing the cold lap defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13235335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7728368PMC
November 2020

Cold-chain transportation in the frozen food industry may have caused a recurrence of COVID-19 cases in destination: Successful isolation of SARS-CoV-2 virus from the imported frozen cod package surface.

Biosaf Health 2020 Dec 19;2(4):199-201. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

NHC Key Laboratory of Biosafety, National Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread in 220 countries/regions to wreak havoc to human beings around the world. At present, the second wave of COVID-19 has begun in many European countries. The complete control of COVID-19 is very urgent. Although China quickly brought the virus under control, there have been eight sporadic outbreaks in China since then. Both in Xinfadi of Beijing and Dalian outbreak of COVID-19, environmental swab samples related to imported cold chain food were tested nucleic acid positive for SARS-CoV-2. In this outbreak in Qingdao, we directly isolated SARS-CoV-2 from the cod outer package's surface swab samples. This is the first time worldwide, SARS-CoV-2 were isolated from the imported frozen cod outer package's surface, which showed that imported frozen food industry could import SARS-CoV-2 virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bsheal.2020.11.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676848PMC
December 2020

Predicting smoking behavior: intention and future self-continuity among Austrians.

Psychol Health Med 2020 Nov 4:1-10. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Institute of Psychology, University of Klagenfurt, Klagenfurt am Wörthersee, Austria.

Smoking is a major public health problem in Austria, but relevant research and intervention is limited. Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the present study aimed to test the model utility in an Austrian sample. As future self-continuity is likely to impact on health behavior, we also hypothesized an extended TPB with future self-continuity could further explain the variance in smoking. Using a prospective design, 94 current smokers (74.5% women;  = 24.27 years; 61.7% daily smokers) from a university in South Austria completed the baseline and follow-up survey (one month after the baseline). Consistent with the TPB, intention and perceived behavioral control (PBC) significantly predicted smoking behavior; affective attitude and PBC were significantly associated with smoking intention. In contrast, cognitive attitude and subjective norm were unrelated to smoking intention. As hypothesized, the TPB explained 42% variance of smoking behavior and 31% variance of smoking intention. Participants' future self-continuity further explained the variance of smoking behavior. Our study demonstrates the utility of the TPB in understanding Austrian smoking behavior. The role of psychological perception of future self among smokers has been highlighted. Future smoking intervention may target PBC, affective attitude, as well as a life-span perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2020.1842898DOI Listing
November 2020

Circular RNA hsa_circ_0007364 increases cervical cancer progression through activating methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT2A) expression by restraining microRNA-101-5p.

Bioengineered 2020 12;11(1):1269-1279

Department of Anesthesia, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine , Shanghai, China.

Emerging evidence suggested that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play critical roles in cervical cancer (CC) progression. However, the roles and molecular mechanisms of hsa_circ_0007364 in the tumorigenesis of CC remain unclear. In the present study, we used bioinformatics analysis and a series of experimental analysis to characterize a novel circRNA, hsa_circ_0007364 was up-regulated and associated with advanced clinical features in CC patients. Hsa_circ_0007364 inhibition notably suppressed the proliferation and invasion abilities of CC cells in vitro and reduced tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, hsa_circ_0007364 was uncovered to sponge miR-101-5p. Additionally, methionine adenosyltransferase II alpha (MAT2A) was verified as a target gene of miR-101-5p, and its downregulation reversed the inhibitory effects of hsa_circ_0007364 knockdown on CC progression. Therefore, we suggested that hsa_circ_0007364 might serve as an oncogenic circRNA in CC progression by regulating the miR-101-5p/MAT2A axis, which provides a potential therapeutic target to the treatment. hsa_circ_0007364 was upregulated in CC hsa_circ_0007364 promoted CC cell progression hsa_circ_0007364/miR-101-5p/MAT2A axis in CC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2020.1832343DOI Listing
December 2020

Expanding magnetic organelle biogenesis in the domain Bacteria.

Microbiome 2020 10 30;8(1):152. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China.

Background: The discovery of membrane-enclosed, metabolically functional organelles in Bacteria has transformed our understanding of the subcellular complexity of prokaryotic cells. Biomineralization of magnetic nanoparticles within magnetosomes by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) is a fascinating example of prokaryotic organelles. Magnetosomes, as nano-sized magnetic sensors in MTB, facilitate cell navigation along the local geomagnetic field, a behaviour referred to as magnetotaxis or microbial magnetoreception. Recent discovery of novel MTB outside the traditionally recognized taxonomic lineages suggests that MTB diversity across the domain Bacteria are considerably underestimated, which limits understanding of the taxonomic distribution and evolutionary origin of magnetosome organelle biogenesis.

Results: Here, we perform the most comprehensive metagenomic analysis available of MTB communities and reconstruct metagenome-assembled MTB genomes from diverse ecosystems. Discovery of MTB in acidic peatland soils suggests widespread MTB occurrence in waterlogged soils in addition to subaqueous sediments and water bodies. A total of 168 MTB draft genomes have been reconstructed, which represent nearly a 3-fold increase over the number currently available and more than double the known MTB species at the genome level. Phylogenomic analysis reveals that these genomes belong to 13 Bacterial phyla, six of which were previously not known to include MTB. These findings indicate a much wider taxonomic distribution of magnetosome organelle biogenesis across the domain Bacteria than previously thought. Comparative genome analysis reveals a vast diversity of magnetosome gene clusters involved in magnetosomal biogenesis in terms of gene content and synteny residing in distinct taxonomic lineages. Phylogenetic analyses of core magnetosome proteins in this largest available and taxonomically diverse dataset support an unexpectedly early evolutionary origin of magnetosome biomineralization, likely ancestral to the origin of the domain Bacteria.

Conclusions: These findings expand the taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity of MTB across the domain Bacteria and shed new light on the origin and evolution of microbial magnetoreception. Potential biogenesis of the magnetosome organelle in the close descendants of the last bacterial common ancestor has important implications for our understanding of the evolutionary history of bacterial cellular complexity and emphasizes the biological significance of the magnetosome organelle. Video Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00931-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7602337PMC
October 2020