Publications by authors named "Xiang Yi Wong"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Development and validation of the SARICA score to predict survival after return of spontaneous circulation in out of hospital cardiac arrest using an interpretable machine learning framework.

Resuscitation 2022 01 26;170:126-133. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Pre-hospital and Emergency Research Centre, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore; Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore. Electronic address:

Background: Accurate and timely prognostication of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) who achieved the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) is crucial in clinical decision-making, resource allocation, and communications with next-of-kins. We aimed to develop the Survival After ROSC in Cardiac Arrest (SARICA), a practical clinical decision tool to predict survival in OHCA patients who attained ROSC.

Methods: We utilized real-world Singapore data from the population-based Pan-Asian Resuscitation Outcomes Study between 2010-2018. We excluded patients without ROSC. The dataset was segmented into training (60%), validation (20%) and testing (20%) cohorts. The primary endpoint was survival (to 30-days or hospital discharge). AutoScore, an interpretable machine-learning based clinical score generation algorithm, was used to develop SARICA. Candidate factors were chosen based on objective demographic and clinical factors commonly available at the time of admission. Performance of SARICA was evaluated based on receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses.

Results: 5970 patients were included, of which 855 (14.3%) survived. A three-variable model was determined to be most parsimonious. Prehospital ROSC, age, and initial heart rhythm were identified for inclusion via random forest selection. Finally, SARICA consisted of these 3 variables and ranged from 0 to 10 points, achieving an area under the ROC (AUC) of 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-0.90) within the testing cohort.

Conclusion: We developed and internally validated the SARICA score to accurately predict survival of OHCA patients with ROSC at the time of admission. SARICA is clinically practical and developed using an interpretable machine-learning framework. SARICA has unknown generalizability pending external validation studies.
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January 2022

Medical students as disaster volunteers: A strategy for improving emergency department surge response in times of crisis.

World J Crit Care Med 2021 Sep 9;10(5):163-169. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore, Singapore 169857, Singapore.

Disasters resulting in mass casualty incidents can rapidly overwhelm the Emergency Department (ED). To address critical manpower needs in the ED's disaster response, medical student involvement has been advocated. Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School is in proximity to Singapore General Hospital and represents an untapped manpower resource. With appropriate training and integration into ED disaster workflows, medical students can be leveraged upon as qualified manpower. This review provides a snapshot of the conceptualization and setting up of the Disaster Volunteer Corps - a programme where medical students were recruited to receive regular training and assessment from emergency physicians on disaster response principles to fulfil specific roles during a crisis, while working as part of a team under supervision. We discuss overall strategy and benefits to stakeholders, emphasizing the close symbiotic relationship between academia and healthcare services.
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September 2021

Characteristics of Prehospital Heat Illness Cases During the Annual Heat Wave Period in Telangana, India.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2021 Aug 9;36(4):385-392. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

Objectives: Global warming and more intense heat wave periods impact health. Heat illness during heat waves has not been studied in the prehospital setting of a low- and middle-income country (LMIC). Early intervention in the community and in the prehospital setting can improve outcomes. Hence, this paper aims to describe the characteristics of heat illness patients utilizing the ambulance service in Telangana state, India with the aim of optimizing public prevention and first aid strategies and prehospital response to this growing problem.

Methods: This retrospective observational study reviewed patients presenting to Telangana's prehospital emergency care system with heat illness symptoms during the heat wave period from March through June in 2018 and 2019. Descriptive analysis was done on the prehospital, dispatch, and environmental data looking at the patients' characteristics and prehospital intervention.

Results: There were 295 cases in 2018 and 230 cases in 2019 from March-June. The overall incidence of calls with heat illness symptoms was 1.5 cases per 100,000 people. The Scheduled Tribes (ST) had the highest incidence of 4.5 per 100,000 people. Over 96% were from the white income group (below poverty line) while two percent were from the pink income group (above poverty line). From geospatial mapping of the cases, the highest incidence of calls came from the rural, tribal areas. However, the time to response in rural areas was longer than that in an urban area. Males with an average age of 47 were more likely to be affected. The three most common symptoms recorded by the first responders were vomiting (44.4%), general weakness (28.7%), and diarrhea (15.9%). The three most common medical interventions on scene were oxygen therapy (35.1%), oral rehydration salt (ORS) solution administration (26.9%), and intravenous fluid administration (27.0%), with cold sponging infrequently mentioned.

Conclusion: This descriptive study provides a snapshot of the regions and groups of people most affected by heat illness during heat waves and the heterogeneous symptom presentation and challenges with management in the prehospital setting. These data may aid planning of prehospital resources and preparation of community first responders during heat wave periods.
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August 2021

Impact of dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation and myResponder mobile app on bystander resuscitation.

Ann Acad Med Singap 2021 03;50(3):212-221

Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore.

Introduction: Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (B-CPR) is associated with improved out-of hospital cardiac arrest survival. Community-level interventions including dispatcher-assisted CPR (DA-CPR) and myResponder were implemented to increase B-CPR. We sought to assess whether these interventions increased B-CPR.

Methods: The Singapore out-of-hospital cardiac arrest registry captured cases that occurred between 2010 and 2017. Outcomes occurring in 3 time periods (Baseline, DA-CPR, and DA-CPR plus myResponder) were compared. Segmented regression of time-series data was conducted to investigate our intervention impact on the temporal changes in B-CPR.

Results: A total of 13,829 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest cases were included from April 2010 to December 2017. Higher B-CPR rates (24.8% versus 50.8% vs 64.4%) were observed across the 3 time periods. B-CPR rates showed an increasing but plateauing trend. DA-CPR implementation was significantly associated with an increased B-CPR (level odds ratio [OR] 2.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.79-2.88; trend OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.04), while no positive change was detected with myResponder (level OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.82-1.11; trend OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-1.00).

Conclusion: B-CPR rates in Singapore have been increasing alongside the implementation of community-level interventions such as DA-CPR and myResponder. DA-CPR was associated with improved odds of receiving B-CPR over time while the impact of myResponder was less clear.
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March 2021