Publications by authors named "Xiang Wei"

528 Publications

Multiple strategies to improve the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic herpes simplex virus in the treatment of glioblastoma.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jul 3;22(1):510. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, P.R. China.

Oncolytic viruses have attracted widespread attention as biological anticancer agents that can selectively kill tumor cells without affecting normal cells. Although progress has been made in therapeutic strategies, the prognosis of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor and no ideal treatment approach has been developed. Recently, oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) has been considered a promising novel treatment approach for GBM. However, the therapeutic efficacy of oHSV in GBM, with its intricate pathophysiology, remains unsatisfactory due to several obstacles, such as limited replication and attenuated potency of oHSV owing to deletions or mutations in virulence genes, and ineffective delivery of the therapeutic virus. Multiple strategies have attempted to identify the optimal strategy for the successful clinical application of oHSV. Several preclinical trials have demonstrated that engineering novel oHSVs, developing combination therapies and improving methods for delivering oHSV to tumor cells seem to hold promise for improving the efficacy of this virotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114469PMC
July 2021

Untangle the Multi-Facet Functions of Auts2 as an Entry Point to Understand Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Front Psychiatry 2021 23;12:580433. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Key Laboratory of Brain Science Research & Transformation in Tropical Environment of Hainan Province, Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Neurodevelopmental disorders are psychiatric diseases that are usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood and adolescence. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by core symptoms including impaired social communication, cognitive rigidity and repetitive behavior, accompanied by a wide range of comorbidities such as intellectual disability (ID) and dysmorphisms. While the cause remains largely unknown, genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors are believed to contribute toward the onset of the disease. Autism Susceptibility Candidate 2 (Auts2) is a gene highly associated with ID and ASD. Therefore, understanding the function of Auts2 gene can provide a unique entry point to untangle the complex neuronal phenotypes of neurodevelpmental disorders. In this review, we discuss the recent discoveries regarding the molecular and cellular functions of Auts2. Auts2 was shown to be a key-regulator of transcriptional network and a mediator of epigenetic regulation in neurodevelopment, the latter potentially providing a link for the neuronal changes of ASD upon environmental risk-factor exposure. In addition, Auts2 could synchronize the balance between excitation and inhibition through regulating the number of excitatory synapses. Cytoplasmic Auts2 could join the fine-tuning of actin dynamics during neuronal migration and neuritogenesis. Furthermore, Auts2 was expressed in developing mouse and human brain regions such as the frontal cortex, dorsal thalamus, and hippocampus, which have been implicated in the impaired cognitive and social function of ASD. Taken together, a comprehensive understanding of Auts2 functions can give deep insights into the cause of the heterogenous manifestation of neurodevelopmental disorders such as ASD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.580433DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8102784PMC
April 2021

Coordination between leaf biomechanical resistance and hydraulic safety across 30 subtropical woody species.

Ann Bot 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Guangxi Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Conservation, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, China.

Background And Aims: Leaf biomechanical resistance protects leaves from biotic and abiotic damage. Previous studies have revealed that enhancing leaf biomechanical resistance is costly for plant species and leads to an increase in leaf drought tolerance. We thus predicted that there is a functional correlation between leaf hydraulic safety and biomechanical characteristics.

Methods: We measured leaf morphological and anatomical traits, pressure-volume parameters, maximum leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf-max), leaf water potential at 50% loss of hydraulic conductance (P50leaf), leaf hydraulic safety margin (SMleaf), and leaf force to tear (Ft) and punch (Fp) of 30 co-occurring woody species in a subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest. Linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationships between biomechanical resistance and other leaf hydraulic traits.

Key Results: We found that higher Ft and Fp values were significantly associated with a lower (more negative) P50leaf and a larger SMleaf, thereby confirming the correlation between leaf biomechanical resistance and hydraulic safety. However, leaf biomechanical resistance showed no correlation with Kleaf-max, although it was significantly and negatively correlated with leaf outside-xylem hydraulic conductance. In addition, we also found that there was a significant correlation between biomechanical resistance and the modulus of elasticity by excluding an outlier.

Conclusions: The findings of this study reveal leaf biomechanical-hydraulic safety correlation in subtropical woody species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcab055DOI Listing
April 2021

Designing (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquito Traps: The Evolution of the Male Sound Trap by Iterative Evaluation.

Insects 2021 Apr 27;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Smithfield, QLD 4878, Australia.

Effective surveillance of (Linnaeus, Diptera: Culicidae) is critical to monitoring the impact of vector control measures when mitigating disease transmission by this species. There are benefits to deploying male-specific traps, particularly when a high level of catch-specificity is desired. Here, the rationale behind the developmental process of an entirely new trap which uses a sound lure to capture male , the male sound trap (MAST), is presented as a target product profile with findings from developmental trials of key trap components and performance. Trial results suggest that the presence of a black base associated with the trap influenced male catches as did variations in size of this base, to a degree. Trap entrance shape didn't influence catch rates, but entrance size did. No significant differences in catch rates were found when sound lures were set to intermittent or continuous playbacks, at volumes between 63-74 dB or frequencies of 450 Hz compared to 500 Hz. Additionally, adult males aged 3 days post-eclosion, were less responsive to sound lures set to 500 Hz than those 4 or 6 days old. Lastly, almost no males were caught when the MAST directly faced continual winds of 1.5 ms, but males were captured at low rates during intermittent winds, or if the trap faced away from the wind. The developmental process to optimising this trap is applicable to the development of alternate mosquito traps beyond sound traps and provides useful information towards the improved surveillance of these disease vectors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12050388DOI Listing
April 2021

Inhibiting BDNF/TrkB.T1 receptor improves resiniferatoxin-induced postherpetic neuralgia through decreasing ASIC3 signaling in dorsal root ganglia.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Apr 19;18(1):96. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Management, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Background: Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a devastating complication after varicella-zoster virus infection. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to participate in the pathogenesis of PHN. A truncated isoform of the tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor TrkB.T1, as a high-affinity receptor of BDNF, is upregulated in multiple nervous system injuries, and such upregulation is associated with pain. Acid-sensitive ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is involved in chronic neuropathic pain, but its relation with BDNF/TrkB.T1 in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) during PHN is unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether BDNF/TrkB.T1 contributes to PHN through regulating ASIC3 signaling in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs).

Methods: Resiniferatoxin (RTX) was used to induce rat PHN models. Mechanical allodynia was assessed by measuring the paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs). Thermal hyperalgesia was determined by detecting the paw withdrawal latencies (PWLs). We evaluated the effects of TrkB.T1-ASIC3 signaling inhibition on the behavior, neuronal excitability, and inflammatory response during RTX-induced PHN. ASIC3 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) transfection was used to investigate the effect of exogenous BDNF on inflammatory response in cultured PC-12 cells.

Results: RTX injection induced mechanical allodynia and upregulated the protein expression of BDNF, TrkB.T1, ASIC3, TRAF6, nNOS, and c-Fos, as well as increased neuronal excitability in DRGs. Inhibition of ASIC3 reversed the abovementioned effects of RTX, except for BDNF and TrkB.T1 protein expression. In addition, inhibition of TrkB.T1 blocked RTX-induced mechanical allodynia, activation of ASIC3 signaling, and hyperexcitability of neurons. RTX-induced BDNF upregulation was found in both neurons and satellite glia cells in DRGs. Furthermore, exogenous BDNF activated ASIC3 signaling, increased NO level, and enhanced IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α levels in PC-12 cells, which was blocked by shRNA-ASIC3 transfection.

Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that inhibiting BDNF/TrkB.T1 reduced inflammation, decreased neuronal hyperexcitability, and improved mechanical allodynia through regulating the ASIC3 signaling pathway in DRGs, which may provide a novel therapeutic target for patients with PHN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-021-02148-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054387PMC
April 2021

Efficacy and safety of general anesthesia deep brain stimulation for dystonia: an individual patient data meta-analysis of 341 cases.

Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The efficacy and safety of deep brain stimulation (DBS) under general anesthesia for the treatment of dystonia have not yet been confirmed with high level of evidence. This meta-analysis with pooled individual patient data aims to assess the clinical outcomes and identify the potential prognostic factors of dystonia patients who underwent general anesthesia DBS.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase for articles describing patients with dystonia who underwent asleep DBS and had individual Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS) scores. The relative improvement in BFMDRS scores was considered the primary outcome. Pearson correlation analyses and multivariate linear regression analysis were conducted to explore the prognostic factors.

Results: A total of 34 studies involving 341 patients were included. The mean postoperative improvement in BFMDRS-M (BFMDRS movement subscale) and BFMDRS-D (BFMDRS disability subscale) scores were 58.6±36.2% and 48.5±38.7% at the last follow-up visit, respectively, with a mean follow-up time of 22.4±27.6 months. Age at surgery and disease duration showed a negative correlation with the percent improvement of BFMDRS-M (%) at the last visit (r=-0.134, P=0.013; r=-0.165, P=0.006). In the stepwise multivariate regression, only disease duration remained a relevant factor. Additionally, the adverse events were acceptable.

Conclusion: General anesthesia DBS is a safe, effective, and feasible option for dystonia patients in the long term. Shorter disease duration predicts better clinical outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-021-05214-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Osteosarcoma Cell-Derived Exosomal miR-1307 Promotes Tumorgenesis via Targeting AGAP1.

Biomed Res Int 2021 25;2021:7358153. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of the Medical College, Shihezi University, Shihezi, China.

The occurrence of osteosarcoma (OS) is associated with abnormal expression of many microRNAs (miRNAs). Exosomal miRNAs get much more attentions in intracellular communications. miR-1307 has been studied in many cancers, but its effects in OS have not been studied. We hypothesized that OS-derived exosomal miR-1307 regulates OS tumorigenesis. First, we found OS cell-derived exosomes (Exos) significantly promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OS cells. Secondly, we found miR-1307 was highly expressed in OS cell-derived exosomes (OS-Exos), human OS tissues, and OS cell lines. Then, OS-Exos were extracted after OS cells were cultured and transfected with miR-1307 inhibitor, and the level of miR-1307 in OS-Exos was significantly reduced. When the level of miR-1307 in OS-Exos was significantly reduced, the effects of OS-Exos on migration, invasion, and proliferation of OS cells were also significantly weakened. Furthermore, using TargetScan, miRDB, and mirDIP databases, we identified that AGAP1 was a target gene of miR-1307. Overexpression of miR-1307 could inhibit the expression of AGAP1 gene. We also found AGAP1 was lower expressed in human OS tissues and OS cell lines. Luciferase gene indicated that miR-1307 directly bound the 3'-UTR of AGAP1. miR-1307 was negatively correlated with AGAP1 in clinical study. miR-1307 could significantly promote the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OS cells. In addition, upregulation of AGAP1 could significantly inhibit the role of miR-1307 in OS. In conclusion, our study suggests that OS cell-derived exosomal miR-1307 promotes the proliferation, migration, and invasion of OS cells via targeting AGAP1, and miR-1307-AGAP1 axis may play an important role in the future treatment of OS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/7358153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8016573PMC
March 2021

Determining respiratory rate from photoplethysmogram and electrocardiogram signals using respiratory quality indices and neural networks.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0249843. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

eResearch Centre, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia.

Continuous and non-invasive respiratory rate (RR) monitoring would significantly improve patient outcomes. Currently, RR is under-recorded in clinical environments and is often measured by manually counting breaths. In this work, we investigate the use of respiratory signal quality quantification and several neural network (NN) structures for improved RR estimation. We extract respiratory modulation signals from the electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals, and calculate a possible RR from each extracted signal. We develop a straightforward and efficient respiratory quality index (RQI) scheme that determines the quality of each moonddulation-extracted respiration signal. We then develop NNs for the estimation of RR, using estimated RRs and their corresponding quality index as input features. We determine that calculating RQIs for modulation-extracted RRs decreased the mean absolute error (MAE) of our NNs by up to 38.17%. When trained and tested using 60-sec waveform segments, the proposed scheme achieved an MAE of 0.638 breaths per minute. Based on these results, our scheme could be readily implemented into non-invasive wearable devices for continuous RR measurement in many healthcare applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249843PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8031461PMC
April 2021

Performance of noninvasive prenatal screening in twin pregnancies: a retrospective study of 5469 twin pregnancies.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Apr 1:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) for the fetal common aneuploidy screening in twin pregnancies.

Methods: The data of 5469 women with twin pregnancies were collected in this retrospective observational study between January 2017 and December 2018. Patients underwent NIPS as first-line screening or after standard serum screening for fetal aneuploidy. The performance of NIPS was examined, and a regression analysis was performed to investigate testing failure in cases of low fetal fraction.

Results: In this study, 2231 (40.8%) patients opted for NIPS as the primary prenatal screening test, and 3238 (59.2%) opted for serum screening, including 440 patients who opted for NIPS after serum screening. Among the 2671 pregnancies with available NIPS outcomes, 11 cases of aneuploidy were identified, seven of trisomy 21 and four of sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA). The sensitivity and specificity for trisomy 21 were 100% (95% CI, 56.1-100.0%) and 100% (95% CI, 99.8-100.0%), respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) for SCA was 40.0% (95% CI, 13.7-72.6%). No false negatives were found, with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (95% CI, 99.8-100.0%) in total. In 32 pregnancies who failed NIPS test without available NIPS outcomes due to low fetal fraction, the regression analysis demonstrated that increasing BMI and assisted reproductive technology treatment were significant independent predictors.

Conclusions: NIPS is a high-performing routine primary prenatal screening test in twin pregnancies, with a high PPV and low false positive rate for detecting trisomy 21. It is also useful to identify common sex chromosome aneuploidies in twin pregnancies, with similar performance to that reported in singleton pregnancy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.1903860DOI Listing
April 2021

Genome-wide identification, characterization and expression analysis of BES1 gene family in tomato.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Mar 30;21(1):161. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Key Laboratory of Plant Hormones and Development Regulation of Chongqing, School of Life Sciences, Chongqing University, Chongqing, 401331, China.

Background: As the key regulators in BR signaling, BES1 family genes regulate thousands of target genes involved in various development processes. So far, the functions of BES1 family are poorly understood in tomato, and a comprehensive genomic and expressional analysis is worth to conduct for this family.

Results: Here, nine SlBES1 family members were identified in tomato and classified into five groups based on the conserved motif, gene structure and phylogenetic analysis. Synteny among tomato, Arabidopsis, pepper and rice were further analyzed to obtain insights into evolutionary characteristics. Several cis-elements related to hormone, stress and plant development were exhibited in the promoter regions of SlBES1 family genes. Subcellular localization showed seven members localized both in the nucleus and cytoplasm, implying the presence of dephosphorylated and phosphorylated form of these seven proteins, furthermore, five of them possessed transcription activation activity whereas the left two functioned as transcriptional repressors. Another two members, however, neither localized in the nucleus nor had transactivation activity. Besides, SlBES1.8 showed flower-specific expression while other members expressed ubiquitously in all organs. Moreover, SlBES1 genes exhibited variational expression in response to nine principal plant hormones. Notably, the expression levels of SlBES1 genes presented a dominant downregulated trend in response to stresses.

Conclusions: In this study, we systematically analyzed the genomic characterization of SlBES1 family, together with the analyses of protein functional features and expression patterns, our results lay a foundation for the functional research of SlBES1 family.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-02933-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010994PMC
March 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Pramipexole Sustained Release versus Immediate Release Formulation for Nocturnal Symptoms in Chinese Patients with Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Pilot Study.

Parkinsons Dis 2021 3;2021:8834950. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To explore the efficacy and safety of pramipexole sustained release (SR) versus pramipexole immediate release (IR) in treating nocturnal symptoms in levodopa-treated Chinese patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) and sleep disturbances.

Method: SUSTAIN was an open-label, randomised, active-controlled parallel group exploratory pilot study (NCT03521635). A total of 98 patients were randomly allocated (1 : 1) to either pramipexole SR ( = 49) or pramipexole IR ( = 49) groups. The primary endpoint was a change from baseline in PD Sleep Scale 2 version (PDSS-2) total score at 18 weeks. A reduction in score represents improvement. Secondary endpoints included Nocturnal Hypokinesia Questionnaire, Scales for Outcomes in PD Sleep Scale, Early Morning Off (EMO), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, PD Questionnaire-8, and responder rates as measured by PDSS-2 total score (<18), EMO scores (≥1 point change), Clinical Global Impression Improvement scale, and Patient Global Impression-Improvement scale. Other endpoints included motor complications (MDS-UPDRS part IV) score. Adverse events were evaluated for each group.

Results: The mean pramipexole dose for both groups was 1.5 mg/day at week 18, and the mean changes in PDSS-2 total score for pramipexole SR and IR were -13.7 (95% CI -16.0 to -11.4) and -14.4 (-16.8 to -12.0) (difference of 0.7; =0.688). Change from baseline for both groups achieved the minimal clinical important difference threshold (MCID = -3.44). No significant difference was observed in change from baseline for other measures of sleep-related disturbances or responder rates. For motor complications, a greater improvement in MDS-UPDRS part IV score was observed in pramipexole SR over IR (-3.4 vs -2.3; treatment group difference: -1.1; =0.036). Both groups had comparable safety profiles.

Conclusion: In Chinese patients with advanced PD and sleep disturbances, pramipexole SR and IR have similar benefits in the treatment of nocturnal symptoms and safety, and an improvement from baseline in nocturnal symptoms was observed regardless of pramipexole formulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8834950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946461PMC
March 2021

[Hydrochemical and Isotopic Characteristics in the Shallow Groundwater of the Fenhe River Basin and Indicative Significance].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Apr;42(4):1739-1749

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Soil and Water Engineering in Arid and Semiarid Areas, Ministry of Education, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

The Fenhe River basin is the second largest tributary of the Yellow River. Piper diagrams, Gibbs, PCA, correlation analysis and forward derivation modeling were used to analyze the distribution characteristics and the controlling factors of the groundwater chemistry and stable isotopes in the Fenhe River basin, which revealed the water cycle and water quality evolution process. The results indicated that the groundwater is a weakly alkaline, micro-hard water, the dominant anions and cations are HCO and Ca, the major groundwater types are Mg-Ca-HCO and Mg-Ca-Cl-SO, the groundwater quality is good, and more than 94% of the samples belong to classes Ⅰ-Ⅲ. The average values of D and O of the Fenhe River groundwater are -70.2‰ and -9.6‰, which are similar to the isotope values of the precipitation from July to September, indicating that the groundwater may have originated from this period and that the groundwater recharge mode (dominant flow and piston flow) has a spatial variation. Rock weathering is the dominant source of ions in the groundwater, with an average contribution of 87%, while the contributions of atmospheric input and human activity are 8% and 5%, respectively. For rock weathering, silicate, evaporate, and carbonate rock contribute equally to the groundwater solutes, accounting for 32%, 28%, and 26%, respectively. The results of this study provide the basis for promoting the sustainable development and utilization of groundwater resources in the Fenhe River basin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202008315DOI Listing
April 2021

Management of recurrent glossopharyngeal neuralgia after a failed microvascular decompression.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 Jun 17;163(6):1615-1616. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Jiefang Avenue No. 1277, Wuhan, 430022, China.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-021-04739-wDOI Listing
June 2021

A risk score based on baseline risk factors for predicting mortality in COVID-19 patients.

Curr Med Res Opin 2021 Apr 10:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Orthopedics, The First People's Hospital of Jingmen affiliated to Hubei Minzu University, Jingmen, China.

Background: To develop a sensitive and clinically applicable risk assessment tool identifying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with a high risk of mortality at hospital admission. This model would assist frontline clinicians in optimizing medical treatment with limited resources.

Methods: 6415 patients from seven hospitals in Wuhan city were assigned to the training and testing cohorts. A total of 6351 patients from another three hospitals in Wuhan, 2169 patients from outside of Wuhan, and 553 patients from Milan, Italy were assigned to three independent validation cohorts. A total of 64 candidate clinical variables at hospital admission were analyzed by random forest and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analyses.

Results: Eight factors, namely, xygen saturation, blood rea nitrogen, espiratory rate, admission before the date the national aximum number of daily new cases was reached, ge, rocalcitonin, -reactive protein (CRP), and absolute eutrophil counts, were identified as having significant associations with mortality in COVID-19 patients. A composite score based on these eight risk factors, termed the OURMAPCN-score, predicted the risk of mortality among the COVID-19 patients, with a C-statistic of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-0.93). The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality between patients with OURMAPCN-score >11 compared with those with scores ≤ 11 was 18.18 (95% CI 13.93-23.71;  < .0001). The predictive performance, specificity, and sensitivity of the score were validated in three independent cohorts.

Conclusions: The OURMAPCN score is a risk assessment tool to determine the mortality rate in COVID-19 patients based on a limited number of baseline parameters. This tool can assist physicians in optimizing the clinical management of COVID-19 patients with limited hospital resources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03007995.2021.1904862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054492PMC
April 2021

Inhibition of the shuttle effect of lithium-sulfur batteries a tannic acid-metal one-step chemical film-forming modified separator.

Nanoscale 2021 Mar;13(9):5058-5068

School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, No. 24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu, 610065, PR China.

The dissolution of polysulfides in an electrolyte is a thermodynamically favorable process, which in theory means that the shuttle effect in lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) cannot be completely suppressed. So, it is very important to modify the separator to prevent the migration of polysulfides to the lithium anode. The traditional coating modification process of the separator is cumbersome and uses a solvent that is harmful to the environment, and too many inactive components affect the overall energy density of the battery. It is thus imperative to find a simple and environmentally friendly modification process of the separator. In this study, a fast chemical film-forming method is proposed to modify the separator of a lithium-sulfur battery using tannic acid (TA) and cobalt ions (Co2+). This method requires only simple steps and environmentally friendly raw materials to obtain a thin coating (only 5.83 nm) that can effectively inhibit the shuttle effect. The lithium-sulfur battery with the TA-Co separator shows superior long cycle performance. After 500 cycles at 0.5 C, the capacity decay rate of each cycle is only 0.065%. On the other hand, the TA-Co separator can inhibit the growth of lithium dendrites and help to build a stable lithium anode, which can exhibit minimal polarization (56 mV) in a lithium-lithium symmetrical battery at the current density of 2 mA cm-2. The rapid and simple modification method proposed in this study has a certain reference value for the future large-scale application of lithium sulfur batteries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1nr00034aDOI Listing
March 2021

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

University of Crete, School of Medicine, Laboratory of Clinical Microbiology and Microbial Pathogenesis, Voutes, Heraklion, Crete, Greece; Foundation for Research and Technology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (IMBB), Heraklion, Crete, Greece.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Bioinformatics analysis of the prognosis and biological significance of VCAN in gastric cancer.

Immun Inflamm Dis 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shenzhen People's Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers in the world, and the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a vital role in the occurrence and development of GC. In this study, we obtained differential expressed genes in GC tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas. After ESTIMATE and weighted correlation network analysis, we obtained differentially expressed genes (DEGs). With further screening DEGs of immune infiltration and then through Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator regression analysis and COX analysis, we found that VCAN was a gene positively correlated with high immune infiltration and poor prognosis of patients in GC. In addition, we selected a Gene Expression Omnibus dataset (GSE84433) to verify the effect of VCAN on the patient's prognosis, and analyzed the value of VCAN in immunotherapy through TIMER database and TISIDB. In conclusion, we hold the view that VCAN may affect the development of GC by regulating the TME, which may act as a potential therapeutic target for GC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iid3.414DOI Listing
February 2021

Outcomes from international field trials with Male Aedes Sound Traps: Frequency-dependent effectiveness in capturing target species in relation to bycatch abundance.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Feb 25;15(2):e0009061. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Verily Life Sciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus vector dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. With both species expanding their global distributions at alarming rates, developing effective surveillance equipment is a continuing priority for public health researchers. Sound traps have been shown, in limited testing, to be highly species-specific when emitting a frequency corresponding to a female mosquito wingbeat. Determining male mosquito capture rates in sound traps based on lure frequencies in endemic settings is the next step for informed deployment of these surveillance tools. We field-evaluated Male Aedes Sound Traps (MASTs) set to either 450 Hz, 500 Hz, 550 Hz or 600 Hz for sampling Aedes aegypti and/or Aedes albopictus and compared catch rates to BG-Sentinel traps within Pacific (Madang, Papua New Guinea) and Latin American (Molas, Mexico and Orange Walk Town, Belize) locations. MASTs set to 450-550 Hz consistently caught male Ae. aegypti at rates comparable to BG-Sentinel traps in all locations. A peak in male Ae. albopictus captures in MASTs set at 550 Hz was observed, with the lowest mean abundance recorded in MASTs set to 450 Hz. While significantly higher abundances of male Culex were sampled in MASTs emitting lower relative frequencies in Molas, overall male Culex were captured in significantly lower abundances in the MASTs, relative to BG-Sentinel traps within all locations. Finally, significant differences in rates at which male Aedes and Culex were positively detected in trap-types per weekly collections were broadly consistent with trends in abundance data per trap-type. MASTs at 550 Hz effectively captured both male Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus while greatly reducing bycatch, especially male Culex, in locations where dengue transmission has occurred. This high species-specificity of the MAST not only reduces staff-time required to sort samples, but can also be exploited to develop an accurate smart-trap system-both outcomes potentially reducing public health program expenses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906331PMC
February 2021

Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentially Affect Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion: A 2D-DIGE Proteomic Analysis.

Biomed Res Int 2021 11;2021:4952876. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, Sichuan 646000, China.

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) display high tumor tropism and cause indirect effects through the cytokines they secrete. However, the effects of BM-MSCs on the biological behaviors of glioblastoma multiforme remain unclear. In this study, the conditioned medium from BM-MSCs significantly inhibited the proliferation of C6 cells ( < 0.05) but promoted their migration and invasion ( < 0.05). Two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) proteomic analysis revealed 17 proteins differentially expressed in C6 cells exposed to the BM-MSC-conditioned medium including five upregulated proteins and 12 downregulated proteins. Among these, six differentially expressed proteins (Calr, Set, Oat, Npm1, Ddah1, and Tardbp) were closely related to cell proliferation and differentiation, and nine proteins (Pdia6, Sphk1, Anxa4, Vim, Tuba1c, Actr1b, Actn4, Rap2c, and Tpm2) were associated with motility and the cytoskeleton, which may modulate the invasion and migration of tumor cells. Above all, by identifying the differentially expressed proteins using proteomics and bioinformatics analysis, BM-MSCs could be genetically modified to specifically express tumor-suppressive factors when BM-MSCs are to be used as tumor-selective targeting carriers in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4952876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892224PMC
February 2021

Bioinformatic and biochemical studies of formononetin against liver injure.

Life Sci 2021 May 16;272:119229. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Medical Laboratory, Wuming Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Wuming, Guangxi, PR China. Electronic address:

Formononetin is a promising bioactive phytoestrogen with evident pharmacological properties. However, the potential hepatoprotective benefit is evidenced limitedly in experiments. This study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective mechanism and benefit of formononetin against liver injury via network pharmacology combined with biochemical determination. The computational data from network pharmacology identified the crucial genes of formononetin against liver injury, listed as TNF-α, NFκB-p65, TLR3, RELA, TRAF6, IKBKG, IKBKB, TNFRSF1A. And the anti-liver injury of formononetin were mainly involved in suppression of inflammatory pathways, including TNF signaling pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. In animal investigation, formononetin-dosed mice showed reduced body weight loss and hepatomegaly, meliorated liver function, suppressed hepatotoxicity and inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, the down-regulated expressions of TNF-α, NFκB-p65, TLR3 mRNAs and proteins in the livers of formononetin-dosed mice were detected accordingly. Therefore, we concluded that computational findings based on network pharmacology reveal the pharmacological targets, biological processes, and molecular mechanisms of formononetin against liver injury before some of findings were partially certified in vivo. Overall, formononetin may be a potential active component to prevent or treat liver injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119229DOI Listing
May 2021

Simvastatin enhances the efficacy of nilotinib in chronic myeloid leukaemia by post-translational modification and drug transporter modulation.

Anticancer Drugs 2021 06;32(5):526-536

Department of Haematology, Singapore General Hospital.

The resistance of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) remains a significant clinical problem. Targeting alternative pathways, such as protein prenylation, is known to be effective in overcoming resistance. Simvastatin inhibits 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (a key enzyme in isoprenoid-regulation), thereby inhibiting prenylation. We demonstrate that simvastatin alone effectively inhibits proliferation in a panel of TKI-resistant CML cell lines, regardless of mechanism of resistance. We further show that the combination of nilotinib and simvastatin synergistically kills CML cells via an increase in apoptosis and decrease in prosurvival proteins and cellular proliferation. Mechanistically, simvastatin inhibits protein prenylation as shown by increased levels of unprenylated Ras and rescue experiments with mevalonate resulted in abrogation of synergism. The combination also leads to an increase in the intracellular uptake and retention of radio-labelled nilotinib, which further enhances the inhibition of Bcr-Abl kinase activity. In primary CML samples, this combination inhibits clonogenicity in both imatinib-naive and resistant cells. Such combinatorial effects provide the basis for utilising these Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs as a potential clinical approach in overcoming resistance and improving CML treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0000000000001028DOI Listing
June 2021

Multi-omics Comparative Analysis of Mutants Obtained by Iterative Atmosphere and Room-Temperature Plasma Mutagenesis.

Front Microbiol 2020 28;11:630309. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

College of Ocean and Earth Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Sponges, the most primitive multicellular animals, contain a large number of unique microbial communities. Sponge-associated microorganisms, particularly actinomyces, have the potential to produce diverse active natural products. However, a large number of silent secondary metabolic gene clusters have failed to be revived under laboratory culture conditions. In this study, iterative atmospheric room-temperature plasma. (ARTP) mutagenesis coupled with multi-omics conjoint analysis was adopted to activate the inactive wild strain. The desirable exposure time employed in this study was 75 s to obtain the appropriate lethality rate (94%) and mutation positive rate (40.94%). After three iterations of ARTP mutagenesis, the proportion of mutants exhibiting antibacterial activities significantly increased by 75%. Transcriptome analysis further demonstrated that the differential gene expression levels of encoding type I lasso peptide aborycin had a significant upward trend in active mutants compared with wild-type strains, which was confirmed by LC-MS results with a relative molecular mass of 1082.43 ([M + 2H] at = 2164.86). Moreover, metabolome comparative analysis of the mutant and wild-type strains showed that four spectra or mass peaks presented obvious differences in terms of the total ion count or extracting ion current profiles with each peak corresponding to a specific compound exhibiting moderate antibacterial activity against Gram-positive indicators. Taken together, our data suggest that the ARTP treatment method coupled with multi-omics profiling analysis could be used to estimate the valid active molecules of metabolites from microbial crudes without requiring a time-consuming isolation process.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.630309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876522PMC
January 2021

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Therapy for Critically Ill Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients in Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Multicenter Cohort Study.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Feb 13;41(1):1-13. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Division of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Currently, little in-depth evidence is known about the application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. This retrospective multicenter cohort study included patients with COVID-19 at 7 designated hospitals in Wuhan, China. The patients were followed up until June 30, 2020. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the risk factors associated with unsuccessful ECMO weaning. Propensity score matching was used to match patients who received veno-venous ECMO with those who received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV)-only therapy. Of 88 patients receiving ECMO therapy, 27 and 61 patients were and were not successfully weaned from ECMO, respectively. Additionally, 15, 15, and 65 patients were further weaned from IMV, discharged from hospital, or died during hospitalization, respectively. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, a lymphocyte count ≤0.5×10/L and D-dimer concentration >4× the upper limit of normal level at ICU admission, a peak PaCO >60 mmHg at 24 h before ECMO initiation, and no tracheotomy performed during the ICU stay were independently associated with lower odds of ECMO weaning. In the propensity score-matched analysis, a mixed-effect Cox model detected a lower hazard ratio for 120-day all-cause mortality after ICU admission during hospitalization in the ECMO group. The presence of lymphocytopenia, higher D-dimer concentrations at ICU admission and hypercapnia before ECMO initiation could help to identify patients with a poor prognosis. Tracheotomy could facilitate weaning from ECMO. ECMO relative to IMV-only therapy was associated with improved outcomes in critically ill COVID-19 patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-021-2311-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881911PMC
February 2021

Abnormalities of Serum Fatty Acids in Children With Henoch-Schönlein Purpura by GC-MS Analysis.

Front Pediatr 2020 21;8:560700. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Pediatrics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

The objectives of this work were to test the levels of serum medium- and long- chain fatty acids (MLCFAs) in children and to discover their possible relationship with Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP), also known as Immunoglobulin A vasculitis. A total of 57 children with HSP (HSP group) and 28 healthy children (CON group) were recruited for this study. Serum specimens were collected to detect the compositions and contents of MLCFAs by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The contents of all detected 37 MLCFAs in the HSP group were higher than the healthy group. Thirty-one species of MLCFAs were discovered to have a significant difference ( < 0.05) in two groups. Comparing to healthy controls, there were 31, 31, 18 fatty acids showed a statistical difference in the untreated group, regular treated group, and withdrawal group of HSP, respectively. The trend of fatty acids in the three HSP groups was similar to the healthy controls, as well as the untreated group and regular treated group changed more obviously than the withdrawal group. Almitate (C16:0) and 18 carbon atoms (C18) of fatty acids were abundant in all three HSP groups, divided according to the treatment of glucocorticoid. Some fatty acids were found having considerable differences ( < 0.05) in three groups. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), including elaidate (C18:1T), cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid ester (C20:1), and cis-15-tetracosenoate (C24:1), were distinctly higher in HSP children with renal damage. Our study revealed that the abnormalities in MLCFA may be associated with the development of HSP. Another interesting finding was that fatty acids contents were changing during the glucocorticoid treatment. Meanwhile, long-chain MUFAs may have an impact on renal damage in HSP patients. Further studies need to be carried out in order to explore the specific mechanism of fatty acids in the course of HSP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.560700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860144PMC
January 2021

Growth factors contribute to the mediation of angiogenic capacity of glioma-associated mesenchymal stem cells.

Oncol Lett 2021 Mar 19;21(3):215. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Neurosurgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430022, P.R. China.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are important components of stromal cell populations and serve a crucial role in tumor growth and progression. Previously, our laboratory successfully isolated and cultured MSCs from human glioma issues and demonstrated that glioma-associated mesenchymal stem cells (gb-MSCs) participate in and maintain tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, growth factors, such as fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial cell growth factor, were demonstrated to be associated with endothelial cell tube formation. However, the effect of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) on the angiogenic activity of gb-MSCs remains unknown. The present study aimed therefore to explore their effects in gb-MSCs angiogenesis. In the present study, gb-MSCs were isolated from patients with glioma and were characterized using flow cytometry and differentiation experiments. Furthermore, the results from tube formation assay revealed that TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB could mediate the angiogenic capacity of gb-MSCs . In addition, results from immunofluorescence demonstrated that gb-MSCs expressed TGF-β1R and PDGFR, which are the receptors for TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB, respectively. Taken together, these findings indicated that TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB may serve a crucial role in mediating gb-MSC angiogenesis, which might provide a therapeutic strategy for targeting the angiogenic capacity of gb-MSCs in patients with glioma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12476DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7836385PMC
March 2021

Development and validation of a risk score using complete blood count to predict in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients.

Med (N Y) 2021 Apr 8;2(4):435-447.e4. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Humanitas Clinical and Research Hospital IRCCS, Rozzano-Milan, Italy.

Background: To develop a sensitive risk score predicting the risk of mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) using complete blood count (CBC).

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study from a total of 13,138 inpatients with COVID-19 in Hubei, China, and Milan, Italy. Among them, 9,810 patients with 2 CBC records from Hubei were assigned to the training cohort. CBC parameters were analyzed as potential predictors for all-cause mortality and were selected by the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM).

Findings: Five risk factors were derived to construct a composite score (PAWNN score) using the Cox regression model, including platelet counts, age, white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. The PAWNN score showed good accuracy for predicting mortality in 10-fold cross-validation (AUROCs 0.92-0.93) and subsets with different quartile intervals of follow-up and preexisting diseases. The performance of the score was further validated in 2,949 patients with only 1 CBC record from the Hubei cohort (AUROC 0.97) and 227 patients from the Italian cohort (AUROC 0.80). The latent Markov model (LMM) demonstrated that the PAWNN score has good prediction power for transition probabilities between different latent conditions.

Conclusions: The PAWNN score is a simple and accurate risk assessment tool that can predict the mortality for COVID-19 patients during their entire hospitalization. This tool can assist clinicians in prioritizing medical treatment of COVID-19 patients.

Funding: This work was supported by National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFF0101504, 2016YFF0101505, 2020YFC2004702, 2020YFC0845500), the Key R&D Program of Guangdong Province (2020B1111330003), and the medical flight plan of Wuhan University (TFJH2018006).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medj.2020.12.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831644PMC
April 2021

Factors Associated With Dropout of Participants in an App-Based Child Injury Prevention Study: Secondary Data Analysis of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Med Internet Res 2021 01 29;23(1):e21636. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: Mobile health (mHealth) interventions offer great potential to reach large populations and improve public health. However, high attrition rates threaten evaluation and implementation of mHealth intervention studies.

Objective: We explored factors associated with attrition of study participants in an mHealth randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating an intervention to reduce unintentional child injury risk in China.

Methods: The cluster RCT compared two groups of an app-based intervention for caregivers of 3-6-year-old children (Bao Hu San). The intervention group received unintentional child injury and parenting education, whereas only parenting education was implemented in the control group. The trial included 2920 study participants in Changsha, China, and lasted 6 months. Data on participant engagement (using the app) were collected electronically throughout the 6-month period. Associations between participant attrition and demographic characteristics, and between attrition and intervention engagement were tested and quantified separately for the intervention and control groups using the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) based on generalized linear mixed models.

Results: In total, 2920 caregivers from 20 eligible preschools participated, with 1510 in the intervention group and 1410 in the control group. The 6-month attrition rate differed significantly between the two groups (P<.001), at 28.9% (437/1510) in the intervention group and 35.7% (503/1410) in the control group. For the intervention group, the only significant predictor of attrition risk was participants who learned fewer knowledge segments (aOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.19-6.09). For the control group, significant predictors of attrition risk were lower monthly login frequency (aOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.00-2.18), learning fewer knowledge segments (aOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.02-2.81), and shorter learning durations during app engagement (aOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.11-5.15). Demographic characteristics were unrelated to attrition.

Conclusions: Engagement in the app intervention was associated with participant attrition. Researchers and practitioners should consider how to best engage participants in app-based interventions to reduce attrition.

Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-IOR-17010438; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=17376.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): RR2-10.1186/s12889-018-5790-1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/21636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880806PMC
January 2021

Regulation of Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory response by microRNA-152-3p-mediated demethylation of MyD88 in systemic lupus erythematosus.

Inflamm Res 2021 Mar 28;70(3):285-296. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, No. 25, Taiping Street, Luzhou, 646000, Sichuan Province, People's Republic of China.

Objective: microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in embryogenesis, cell differentiation and the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are also known to exert crucial functions in the immune response activation occurring in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases like SLE. Herein, the current study aimed to explore the potential role of miR-152-3p in TLR-mediated inflammatory response in SLE.

Methods: We determined the miR-152-3p expression profiles in CD4 T cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) harvested from patients with SLE and healthy controls, and analyzed the correlation between miR-152-3p expression and clinicopathological parameters. CD70 and CD40L expression patterns in CD4 T cells were assessed by RT-qPCR and flow cytometry. ChIP was adopted to determine the enrichment of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the promoter region of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88).

Results: The obtained findings revealed that miR-152-3p was highly-expressed in CD4 T cells and PBMCs of patients with SLE, and this high expression was associated with facial erythema, joint pain, double-stranded DNA, and IgG antibody. DNMT1 could be enriched in the MyD88 promoter, and miR-152-3p inhibited the methylation of MyD88 by targeting DNMT1. We also found that silencing miR-152-3p inhibited MyD88 expression not only to repress the autoreactivity of CD4 T cells and but also to restrain their cellular inflammation, which were also validated in vivo.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that miR-152-3p promotes TLR-mediated inflammatory response in CD4 T cells by regulating the DNMT1/MyD88 signaling pathway, which highlights novel anti-inflammatory target for SLE treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00011-020-01433-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Epidemiological investigation of a COVID-19 family cluster outbreak transmitted by a 3-month-old infant.

Health Inf Sci Syst 2021 Dec 18;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Translational Medicine of Ministry of Education, Hainan Medical University, NHC Key Laboratory of Control of Tropical diseases (Hainan Medical University), Haikou, 571199 China.

Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics, epidemiological characteristics, and transmissibility of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a family cluster outbreak transmitted by a 3-month-old confirmed positive infant.

Methods: Field-based epidemiological methods were used to investigate cases and their close contacts. Real-time fluorescent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) for all collected specimens. Serum SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies were detected by Chemiluminescence and Gold immnnochromatography (GICA).

Results: The outbreak was a family cluster with an attack rate of 80% (4/5). The first case in this family was a 3-month-old infant. The transmission chain was confirmed from infant to adults (her father, mother and grandmother). Fecal tests for SARS-CoV-2 RNA remained positive for 37 days after the infant was discharged. The infant's grandmother was confirmed to be positive 2 days after the infant was discharged from hospital. Patients A (3-month-old female), B (patient A's father), C (patient A's grandmother), and D (patient A's mother) had positive serum IgG and negative IgM, but patients A's grandfather serum IgG and IgM were negative.

Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 has strong transmissibility within family settings and presence of viral RNA in stool raises concern for possible fecal-oral transmission. Hospital follow-up and close contact tracing are necessary for those diagnosed with COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13755-020-00136-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812712PMC
December 2021

Targets Atherosclerosis Plaques in Human Coronary Arteries DC-SIGN (CD209).

Front Immunol 2020 8;11:579010. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Bacterial DNAs are constantly detected in atherosclerotic plaques (APs), suggesting that a combination of chronic infection and inflammation may have roles in AP formation. A series of studies suggested that certain Gram-negative bacteria were able to interact with dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin [DC-SIGN; cluster of differentiation (CD) 209] or langerin (CD207), thereby resulting in deposition of CD209s at infection sites. We wondered if (a member of Proteobacteria family) could interact with APs through CD209/CD207. In this study, we first demonstrated that CD209/CD207 were also receptors for that mediated adherence and phagocytosis by macrophages. interacted with fresh and CD209s/CD207-expressing APs cut from human coronary arteries, rather than in healthy and smooth arteries. These interactions were inhibited by addition of a ligand-mimic oligosaccharide and the coverage of the ligand, as well as by anti-CD209 antibody. Finally, the hearts from an atherosclerotic mouse model contained higher numbers of than that of control mice during infection-challenging. We therefore concluded that the interacts with APs in human coronary arteries CD209s/CD207. It may be possible to slow down the progress of atherosclerosis by blocking the interactions between CD209s/CD207 and certain atherosclerosis-involved bacteria with ligand-mimic oligosaccharides.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.579010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820866PMC
January 2021