Publications by authors named "Xiang S Ye"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Genomic Landscape of Intrinsic and Acquired Resistance to Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/6 Inhibitors in Patients with Hormone Receptor-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Cancer Discov 2020 Aug 13;10(8):1174-1193. Epub 2020 May 13.

Center for Cancer Precision Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Mechanisms driving resistance to cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors (CDK4/6i) in hormone receptor-positive (HR) breast cancer have not been clearly defined. Whole-exome sequencing of 59 tumors with CDK4/6i exposure revealed multiple candidate resistance mechanisms including loss, activating alterations in , and , and loss of estrogen receptor expression. experiments confirmed that these alterations conferred CDK4/6i resistance. Cancer cells cultured to resistance with CDK4/6i also acquired , or alterations, which conferred sensitivity to AURKA, ERK, or CHEK1 inhibition. Three of these activating alterations-in , and -have not, to our knowledge, been previously demonstrated as mechanisms of resistance to CDK4/6i in breast cancer preclinically or in patient samples. Together, these eight mechanisms were present in 66% of resistant tumors profiled and may define therapeutic opportunities in patients. SIGNIFICANCE: We identified eight distinct mechanisms of resistance to CDK4/6i present in 66% of resistant tumors profiled. Most of these have a therapeutic strategy to overcome or prevent resistance in these tumors. Taken together, these findings have critical implications related to the potential utility of precision-based approaches to overcome resistance in many patients with HR metastatic breast cancer..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-19-1390DOI Listing
August 2020

Combined inhibition of PIM and CDK4/6 suppresses both mTOR signaling and Rb phosphorylation and potentiates PI3K inhibition in cancer cells.

Oncotarget 2020 Apr 28;11(17):1478-1492. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Aberrant activation of mitogenic signaling pathways in cancer promotes growth and proliferation of cells by activating mTOR and S6 phosphorylation, and D-cyclin kinases and Rb phosphorylation, respectively. Correspondingly, inhibition of phosphorylation of both Rb and S6 is required for robust anti-tumor efficacy of drugs that inhibit cell signaling. The best-established mechanism of mTOR activation in cancer is via PI3K/Akt signaling, but mTOR activity can also be stimulated by CDK4 and PIM kinases. In this study, we show that the CDK4/6 inhibitor abemaciclib inhibits PIM kinase and S6 phosphorylation in cancer cells and concurrent inhibition of PIM, CDK4, and CDK6 suppresses both S6 and Rb phosphorylation. or mutations obviate the requirement for PIM kinase and circumvent the inhibition of S6 phosphorylation by abemaciclib. Combination with a PI3K inhibitor restored suppression of S6 phosphorylation and synergized to curtail cell growth. By combining abemaciclib with a PI3K inhibitor, three pathways (Akt, PIM, and CDK4) to mTOR activation are neutralized, suggesting a potential combination strategy for the treatment of -mutant ER+ breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197449PMC
April 2020

Aurora A-Selective Inhibitor LY3295668 Leads to Dominant Mitotic Arrest, Apoptosis in Cancer Cells, and Shows Potent Preclinical Antitumor Efficacy.

Mol Cancer Ther 2019 12 17;18(12):2207-2219. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Although Aurora A, B, and C kinases share high sequence similarity, especially within the kinase domain, they function distinctly in cell-cycle progression. Aurora A depletion primarily leads to mitotic spindle formation defects and consequently prometaphase arrest, whereas Aurora B/C inactivation primarily induces polyploidy from cytokinesis failure. Aurora B/C inactivation phenotypes are also epistatic to those of Aurora A, such that the concomitant inactivation of Aurora A and B, or all Aurora isoforms by nonisoform-selective Aurora inhibitors, demonstrates the Aurora B/C-dominant cytokinesis failure and polyploidy phenotypes. Several Aurora inhibitors are in clinical trials for T/B-cell lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, lung, and breast cancers. Here, we describe an Aurora A-selective inhibitor, LY3295668, which potently inhibits Aurora autophosphorylation and its kinase activity and , persistently arrests cancer cells in mitosis, and induces more profound apoptosis than Aurora B or Aurora A/B dual inhibitors without Aurora B inhibition-associated cytokinesis failure and aneuploidy. LY3295668 inhibits the growth of a broad panel of cancer cell lines, including small-cell lung and breast cancer cells. It demonstrates significant efficacy in small-cell lung cancer xenograft and patient-derived tumor preclinical models as a single agent and in combination with standard-of-care agents. LY3295668, as a highly Aurora A-selective inhibitor, may represent a preferred approach to the current pan-Aurora inhibitors as a cancer therapeutic agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-18-0529DOI Listing
December 2019

Aurora A Kinase Inhibition Is Synthetic Lethal with Loss of the Tumor Suppressor Gene.

Cancer Discov 2019 02 29;9(2):248-263. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Loss-of-function mutations in the retinoblastoma gene are common in several treatment-refractory cancers such as small-cell lung cancer and triple-negative breast cancer. To identify drugs synthetic lethal with mutation (), we tested 36 cell-cycle inhibitors using a cancer cell panel profiling approach optimized to discern cytotoxic from cytostatic effects. Inhibitors of the Aurora kinases AURKA and AURKB showed the strongest association in this assay. LY3295668, an AURKA inhibitor with over 1,000-fold selectivity versus AURKB, is distinguished by minimal toxicity to bone marrow cells at concentrations active against cancer cells and leads to durable regression of tumor xenografts at exposures that are well tolerated in rodents. Genetic suppression screens identified enforcers of the spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) as essential for LY3295668 cytotoxicity in RB1-deficient cancers and suggest a model in which a primed SAC creates a unique dependency on AURKA for mitotic exit and survival. SIGNIFICANCE: The identification of a synthetic lethal interaction between and AURKA inhibition, and the discovery of a drug that can be dosed continuously to achieve uninterrupted inhibition of AURKA kinase activity without myelosuppression, suggest a new approach for the treatment of RB1-deficient malignancies, including patients progressing on CDK4/6 inhibitors...
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-18-0469DOI Listing
February 2019

Genomic Aberrations that Activate D-type Cyclins Are Associated with Enhanced Sensitivity to the CDK4 and CDK6 Inhibitor Abemaciclib.

Cancer Cell 2017 Dec;32(6):761-776.e6

Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA. Electronic address:

Most cancers preserve functional retinoblastoma (Rb) and may, therefore, respond to inhibition of D-cyclin-dependent Rb kinases, CDK4 and CDK6. To date, CDK4/6 inhibitors have shown promising clinical activity in breast cancer and lymphomas, but it is not clear which additional Rb-positive cancers might benefit from these agents. No systematic survey to compare relative sensitivities across tumor types and define molecular determinants of response has been described. We report a subset of cancers highly sensitive to CDK4/6 inhibition and characterized by various genomic aberrations known to elevate D-cyclin levels and describe a recurrent CCND1 3'UTR mutation associated with increased expression in endometrial cancer. The results suggest multiple additional classes of cancer that may benefit from CDK4/6-inhibiting drugs such as abemaciclib.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2017.11.006DOI Listing
December 2017

Genomic alterations and molecular subtypes of gastric cancers in Asians.

Chin J Cancer 2016 May 9;35:42. Epub 2016 May 9.

Lilly Research Laboratories, Lilly Corporate Center, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, 46258, USA.

Gastric cancer (GC) is a highly heterogenic disease, and it is the second leading cause of cancer death in the world. Common chemotherapies are not very effective for GC, which often presents as an advanced or metastatic disease at diagnosis. Treatment options are limited, and the prognosis for advanced GCs is poor. The landscape of genomic alterations in GCs has recently been characterized by several international cancer genome programs, including studies that focused exclusively on GCs in Asians. These studies identified major recurrent driver mutations and provided new insights into the mutational heterogeneity and genetic profiles of GCs. An analysis of gene expression data by the Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG) further uncovered four distinct molecular subtypes with well-defined clinical features and their intersections with actionable genetic alterations to which targeted therapeutic agents are either already available or under clinical development. In this article, we review the ACRG GC project. We also discuss the implications of the genetic and molecular findings from various GC genomic studies with respect to developing more precise diagnoses and treatment approaches for GCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40880-016-0106-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4862075PMC
May 2016

A Novel Eg5 Inhibitor (LY2523355) Causes Mitotic Arrest and Apoptosis in Cancer Cells and Shows Potent Antitumor Activity in Xenograft Tumor Models.

Mol Cancer Ther 2015 Nov 24;14(11):2463-72. Epub 2015 Aug 24.

Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana.

Intervention of cancer cell mitosis by antitubulin drugs is among the most effective cancer chemotherapies. However, antitubulin drugs have dose-limiting side effects due to important functions of microtubules in resting normal cells and are often rendered ineffective by rapid emergence of resistance. Antimitotic agents with different mechanisms of action and improved safety profiles are needed as new treatment options. Mitosis-specific kinesin Eg5 represents an attractive anticancer target for discovering such new antimitotic agents, because Eg5 is essential only in mitotic progression and has no roles in resting, nondividing cells. Here, we show that a novel selective Eg5 inhibitor, LY2523355, has broad target-mediated anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. LY2523355 arrests cancer cells at mitosis and causes rapid cell death that requires sustained spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) activation with a required threshold concentration. In vivo efficacy of LY2523355 is highly dose/schedule-dependent, achieving complete remission in a number of xenograft tumor models, including patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models. We further establish that histone-H3 phosphorylation of tumor and proliferating skin cells is a promising pharmacodynamic biomarker for in vivo anticancer activity of LY2523355.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-15-0241DOI Listing
November 2015

Molecular analysis of gastric cancer identifies subtypes associated with distinct clinical outcomes.

Nat Med 2015 May 20;21(5):449-56. Epub 2015 Apr 20.

Lilly Research Labs, Eli Lilly &Co, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Gastric cancer, a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, is a heterogeneous disease. We aim to establish clinically relevant molecular subtypes that would encompass this heterogeneity and provide useful clinical information. We use gene expression data to describe four molecular subtypes linked to distinct patterns of molecular alterations, disease progression and prognosis. The mesenchymal-like type includes diffuse-subtype tumors with the worst prognosis, the tendency to occur at an earlier age and the highest recurrence frequency (63%) of the four subtypes. Microsatellite-unstable tumors are hyper-mutated intestinal-subtype tumors occurring in the antrum; these have the best overall prognosis and the lowest frequency of recurrence (22%) of the four subtypes. The tumor protein 53 (TP53)-active and TP53-inactive types include patients with intermediate prognosis and recurrence rates (with respect to the other two subtypes), with the TP53-active group showing better prognosis. We describe key molecular alterations in each of the four subtypes using targeted sequencing and genome-wide copy number microarrays. We validate these subtypes in independent cohorts in order to provide a consistent and unified framework for further clinical and preclinical translational research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.3850DOI Listing
May 2015

Genomic landscape and genetic heterogeneity in gastric adenocarcinoma revealed by whole-genome sequencing.

Nat Commun 2014 Nov 19;5:5477. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

Lilly Research Labs, Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA.

Gastric cancer (GC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths. It is known to be a heterogeneous disease with several molecular and histological subtypes. Here we perform whole-genome sequencing of 49 GCs with diffuse (N=31) and intestinal (N=18) histological subtypes and identify three mutational signatures, impacting TpT, CpG and TpCp[A/T] nucleotides. The diffuse-type GCs show significantly lower clonality and smaller numbers of somatic and structural variants compared with intestinal subtype. We further divide the diffuse subtype into one with infrequent genetic changes/low clonality and another with relatively higher clonality and mutations impacting TpT dinucleotide. Notably, we discover frequent and exclusive mutations in Ephrins and SLIT/ROBO signalling pathway genes. Overall, this study delivers new insights into the mutational heterogeneity underlying distinct histologic subtypes of GC that could have important implications for future research in the diagnosis and treatment of GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6477DOI Listing
November 2014

A novel CDK9 inhibitor shows potent antitumor efficacy in preclinical hematologic tumor models.

Mol Cancer Ther 2014 Jun 31;13(6):1442-56. Epub 2014 Mar 31.

Authors' Affiliations: Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, Indiana; Eli Lilly and Company, Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain; and Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, United Kingdom

DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) largest subunit RPB1 C-terminal domain (CTD) kinases, including CDK9, are serine/threonine kinases known to regulate transcriptional initiation and elongation by phosphorylating Ser 2, 5, and 7 residues on CTD. Given the reported dysregulation of these kinases in some cancers, we asked whether inhibiting CDK9 may induce stress response and preferentially kill tumor cells. Herein, we describe a potent CDK9 inhibitor, LY2857785, that significantly reduces RNAP II CTD phosphorylation and dramatically decreases MCL1 protein levels to result in apoptosis in a variety of leukemia and solid tumor cell lines. This molecule inhibits the growth of a broad panel of cancer cell lines, and is particularly efficacious in leukemia cells, including orthotopic leukemia preclinical models as well as in ex vivo acute myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient tumor samples. Thus, inhibition of CDK9 may represent an interesting approach as a cancer therapeutic target, especially in hematologic malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-13-0849DOI Listing
June 2014

Characterization of LY2228820 dimesylate, a potent and selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK with antitumor activity.

Mol Cancer Ther 2014 Feb 19;13(2):364-74. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

Corresponding Author: Robert M. Campbell, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, dc0424, Indianapolis, IN 46285.

p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is activated in cancer cells in response to environmental factors, oncogenic stress, radiation, and chemotherapy. p38α MAPK phosphorylates a number of substrates, including MAPKAP-K2 (MK2), and regulates the production of cytokines in the tumor microenvironment, such as TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and CXCL8 (IL-8). p38α MAPK is highly expressed in human cancers and may play a role in tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. LY2228820 dimesylate (hereafter LY2228820), a trisubstituted imidazole derivative, is a potent and selective, ATP-competitive inhibitor of the α- and β-isoforms of p38 MAPK in vitro (IC(50) = 5.3 and 3.2 nmol/L, respectively). In cell-based assays, LY2228820 potently and selectively inhibited phosphorylation of MK2 (Thr334) in anisomycin-stimulated HeLa cells (at 9.8 nmol/L by Western blot analysis) and anisomycin-induced mouse RAW264.7 macrophages (IC(50) = 35.3 nmol/L) with no changes in phosphorylation of p38α MAPK, JNK, ERK1/2, c-Jun, ATF2, or c-Myc ≤ 10 μmol/L. LY2228820 also reduced TNF-α secretion by lipopolysaccharide/IFN-γ-stimulated macrophages (IC(50) = 6.3 nmol/L). In mice transplanted with B16-F10 melanoma, tumor phospho-MK2 (p-MK2) was inhibited by LY2228820 in a dose-dependent manner [threshold effective dose (TED)(70) = 11.2 mg/kg]. Significant target inhibition (>40% reduction in p-MK2) was maintained for 4 to 8 hours following a single 10 mg/kg oral dose. LY2228820 produced significant tumor growth delay in multiple in vivo cancer models (melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, ovarian, glioma, myeloma, breast). In summary, LY2228820 is a p38 MAPK inhibitor, which has been optimized for potency, selectivity, drug-like properties (such as oral bioavailability), and efficacy in animal models of human cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-13-0513DOI Listing
February 2014

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase promotes cell survival in response to DNA damage but is not required for the G(2) DNA damage checkpoint in human cancer cells.

Mol Cell Biol 2010 Aug 1;30(15):3816-26. Epub 2010 Jun 1.

Lilly Singapore Center for Drug Discovery, Pte Ltd. (Eli Lilly & Company), Singapore, Republic of Singapore.

p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is rapidly activated by stresses and is believed to play an important role in the stress response. While Chk1 is known to mediate G(2) DNA damage checkpoint control, p38 was also reported to have an essential function in this checkpoint control. Here, we have investigated further the roles of p38 and Chk1 in the G(2) DNA damage checkpoint in cancer cells. We find that although p38 activation is strongly induced by DNA damage, its activity is not required for the G(2) DNA damage checkpoint. In contrast, Chk1 kinase is responsible for the execution of G(2) DNA damage checkpoint control in p53-deficient cells. The inhibition of p38 activity has no effect on Chk1 activation and gamma-H2AX expression. Global gene expression profiling of cancer cells in response to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) revealed that p38 plays a strong prosurvival role through the coordinated downregulation of proapoptotic genes and upregulation of prosurvival genes. We show that the inhibition of p38 activity during G(2) DNA damage checkpoint arrest triggers apoptosis in a p53-independent manner with a concurrent decrease in the level of Bcl2 family proteins. Our results suggest that although p38 MAPK is not required for the G(2) DNA damage checkpoint function, it plays an important prosurvival role during the G(2) DNA damage checkpoint response through the upregulation of the Bcl2 family proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.00949-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2916406PMC
August 2010

Cdk1 activity is required for mitotic activation of aurora A during G2/M transition of human cells.

J Biol Chem 2010 Jul 5;285(28):21849-57. Epub 2010 May 5.

Lilly Research Laboratories, Lilly Corporate Center, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA.

In mammalian cells entry into and progression through mitosis are regulated by multiple mitotic kinases. How mitotic kinases interact with each other and coordinately regulate mitosis remains to be fully understood. Here we employed a chemical biology approach using selective small molecule kinase inhibitors to dissect the relationship between Cdk1 and Aurora A kinases during G(2)/M transition. We find that activation of Aurora A first occurs at centrosomes at late G(2) and is required for centrosome separation independently of Cdk1 activity. Upon entry into mitosis, Aurora A then becomes fully activated downstream of Cdk1 activation. Inactivation of Aurora A or Plk1 individually during a synchronized cell cycle shows no significant effect on Cdk1 activation and entry into mitosis. However, simultaneous inactivation of both Aurora A and Plk1 markedly delays Cdk1 activation and entry into mitosis, suggesting that Aurora A and Plk1 have redundant functions in the feedback activation of Cdk1. Together, our data suggest that Cdk1, Aurora A, and Plk1 mitotic kinases participate in a feedback activation loop and that activation of Cdk1 initiates the feedback loop activity, leading to rapid and timely entry into mitosis in human cells. In addition, live cell imaging reveals that the nuclear cycle of cells becomes uncoupled from cytokinesis upon inactivation of both Aurora A and Aurora B kinases and continues to oscillate in a Cdk1-dependent manner in the absence of cytokinesis, resulting in multinucleated, polyploidy cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.141010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2898447PMC
July 2010

Discovery of cercosporamide, a known antifungal natural product, as a selective Pkc1 kinase inhibitor through high-throughput screening.

Eukaryot Cell 2004 Aug;3(4):932-43

Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN 46285, USA.

The Pkc1-mediated cell wall integrity-signaling pathway is highly conserved in fungi and is essential for fungal growth. We thus explored the potential of targeting the Pkc1 protein kinase for developing broad-spectrum fungicidal antifungal drugs through a Candida albicans Pkc1-based high-throughput screening. We discovered that cercosporamide, a broad-spectrum natural antifungal compound, but previously with an unknown mode of action, is actually a selective and highly potent fungal Pkc1 kinase inhibitor. This finding provides a molecular explanation for previous observations in which Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall mutants were found to be highly sensitive to cercosporamide. Indeed, S. cerevisiae mutant cells with reduced Pkc1 kinase activity become hypersensitive to cercosporamide, and this sensitivity can be suppressed under high-osmotic growth conditions. Together, the results demonstrate that cercosporamide acts selectively on Pkc1 kinase and, thus, they provide a molecular mechanism for its antifungal activity. Furthermore, cercosporamide and a beta-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor echinocandin analog, by targeting two different key components of the cell wall biosynthesis pathway, are highly synergistic in their antifungal activities. The synergistic antifungal activity between Pkc1 kinase and beta-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitors points to a potential highly effective combination therapy to treat fungal infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/EC.3.4.932-943.2004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC500880PMC
August 2004

Induction of apoptosis by sphingoid long-chain bases in Aspergillus nidulans.

Mol Cell Biol 2003 Jan;23(1):163-77

Infectious Diseases Research, Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA.

Sphingolipid metabolism is implicated to play an important role in apoptosis. Here we show that dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and phytosphingosine (PHS), two major sphingoid bases of fungi, have potent fungicidal activity with remarkably high structural and stereochemical specificity against Aspergillus nidulans. In fact, only naturally occurring DHS and PHS are active. Further analysis revealed that DHS and PHS induce rapid DNA condensation independent of mitosis, large-scale DNA fragmentation, and exposure of phosphatidylserine, all common morphological features characteristic of apoptosis, suggesting that DHS and PHS induce apoptosis in A. nidulans. The finding that DNA fragmentation requires protein synthesis, which implies that an active process is involved, further supports this proposition. The induction of apoptosis by DHS and PHS is associated with the rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, ROS are not required for apoptosis induced by DHS and PHS, as scavenging of ROS by a free radical spin trap has no effect. We further demonstrate that apoptosis induced by DHS and PHS is independent of metacaspase function but requires mitochondrial function. Together, the results suggest that DHS and PHS induce a type of apoptosis in A. nidulans most similar to the caspase-independent apoptosis observed in mammalian systems. As A. nidulans is genetically tractable, this organism should be an ideal model system for dissecting sphingolipid signaling in apoptosis and, importantly, for further elucidating the molecular basis of caspase-independent apoptosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC140675PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mcb.23.1.163-177.2003DOI Listing
January 2003