Publications by authors named "Xiang Liu"

1,687 Publications

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Prevalence of violence to others among individuals with schizophrenia in China: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Front Psychiatry 2022 22;13:939329. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Health Behavior and Social Medicine, West China School of Public Health and West China Fourth Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: Violence to others (hereinafter referred to as "violence-TO") is common in individuals with schizophrenia. The reported prevalence of violence-TO among schizophrenics ranges widely in existing studies. Improved prevalence estimates and identification of moderators are needed to guide future management and research.

Methods: We searched EBSCO, EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, CNKI, VIP, WANFANG data, and CBM for relevant articles published before June 5, 2022. Meanwhile, violence-TO was summarized into four categories: (a) violence-TO on the reviews of official criminal or psychiatric records (type I); (b) less serious forms of violence-TO (type II); (c) physical acts causing demonstrable harm to victims (type III); (d) homicide (type IV). We did meta-analysis for the above types of violence-TO, respectively, and applied subgroup analyses and meta-regression analyses to investigate the source of heterogeneity.

Results: A total of 56 studies were eligible in this study and 34 of them were high-quality. The prevalence of type I to type IV in individuals with schizophrenia in China was 23.83% (95% CI: 18.38-29.75%), 23.16% (95% CI: 8.04-42.97%), 17.19% (95%CI: 8.52-28.04%), and 0.62% (95% CI: 0.08-1.54%) respectively. The results of the subgroup analysis showed that the prevalence of type I was higher among subjects in the inland than in the coastal non-economic zone, while the prevalence of type III was the highest in the coastal economic zone, followed by the inland region and the lowest in the coastal non-economic zone. The results of multivariate meta-regression analyses showed that: patient source in type I (β = 0.15, < 0.01), patient source (β = 0.47, < 0.01), and proportion of male (β = 0.19, < 0.01) in type II, age (β = 0.25, < 0.01), and GDP per capita (β = 0.05, = 0.01) in type III were statistically significant.

Conclusion: The prevalence of different types of violence-TO and their influencing factors varied. Therefore, the authorities should take different management measures. In addition to individual factors, regional factors may also affect violence-TO, which suggests the need for a multi-sectorial approach to prevention and treatment for subjects in different regions and adopting targeted control strategies.

Systematic Review Registration: [www.ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [CRD42021269767].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.939329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354073PMC
July 2022

The identification of polyvalent protective immunogens and immune abilities from the outer membrane proteins of Aeromonas hydrophila in fish.

Fish Shellfish Immunol 2022 Aug 1;128:101-112. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Chinese-German Joint Institute for Natural Product Research, College of Biological Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Technology, Hanzhong, 723000, China; Centre of Molecular & Environmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Minho, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address:

Among aquaculture vaccines, polyvalent vaccines (for immunoprotection against multiple bacterial species) are more efficient and can better avoid bacterial resistance and antibiotic residues in fish. Here, 15 outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Aeromonas hydrophila were cloned and purified, and mouse antisera were prepared. Passive immunization to Carassius auratus showed that four OMPs sera (OmpW, OmpAII, P5, and AHA2685) and the entire OMPs serum held effective immunoprotection against A. hydrophila infection. Furthermore, the active immunization of four OMPs to C. auratus showed that OmpW, OmpAII, P5, and AHA2685 held effective immunoprotection against A. hydrophila, and OmpW held active cross-protection against Vibrio alginolyticus. The mechanisms of these four candidate vaccines in triggering immune responses were subsequently explored. They all could activate innate immune responses in active immunization, down-regulate (p < 0.05) the inflammation-related genes expression to reduce the inflammatory reaction induced by A. hydrophila, and down-regulate (p < 0.05) antioxidant-related factors to reduce the antioxidant reaction for bacterial infection. Noteablely, the four OMPs had protective abilities on kidney and spleen tissues of C. auratus after challenged with A. hydrophila and V. alginolyticus by histopathological observation. Collectively, our results identify OmpW as a polyvalent vaccine candidate, and OmpAII, P5, and AHA2685 as vaccine candidates against A. hydrophila infection in fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsi.2022.07.057DOI Listing
August 2022

Case report: Localized xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in children: A case report and literature review.

Front Pediatr 2022 18;10:952989. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

The Second Department of Pediatric Urology Surgery, Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital, Children's Hospital of Fudan University-Anhui Campus, Hefei, China.

Background: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN), which is featured by inflammatory destruction of renal parenchyma and fibrosis of kidney, occurs mainly among adults, sporadically among children and rarely among infants. Recurrent urinary tract infections, kidney stone-induced obstructive nephropathy, malnutrition, abnormal lipid metabolism, hypoimmunity, lymphatic obstruction and congenital urinary abnormalities may all cause XGPN among children. Its primary treatment is radical nephrectomy.

Case Description: In this study, we describe a rare case of XGPN in a 7-year-old boy infected with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The child presented with symptoms including recurrent fever, urine culture negative. The postoperative pathology confirmed XGPN. Besides, partial nephrectomy was performed.

Conclusion: XGPN, as a special type of chronic pyelonephritis, is a rare pyelonephritis requiring surgical treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to reducing its morbidity and mortality. Although radical nephrectomy is the primary therapeutic option for patients with XGPN, partial nephrectomy surgery should be considered for focal XGPN, aiming to preserve residual renal function in children as far as possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2022.952989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339632PMC
July 2022

Clinical features, diagnosis and management of cephalosporin-induced acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2022 Jul 31. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

Department of Pharmacy, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

What Is Known And Objective: Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a serious and rare adverse reaction of cephalosporins. We aimed to describe the clinical features of cephalosporin-induced AGEP and provide a reference for rational clinical use of cephalosporins.

Methods: We systematically searched Chinese and English databases for cephalosporin-induced TGEP-related case reports, retrospective studies, clinical studies, and review articles published before May 2022.

Results And Discussion: A total of 43 patients from 35 articles were eligible, of which 28 (65.1%) were female, with a median age of 69 years. A total of 11 cephalosporins were suspected, the most commonly involved were ceftriaxone (41.9%), cephalexin (16.3%), and cefepime (9.3%). AEGP erupted primarily within 14 days after administration, manifested as nonfollicular pustules on an erythematous base, distributed favourably to the extremities (44.2%), trunk (23.3%), face (23.3%), and could involve the oral mucosa (11.6%). During AGEP resolution, the affected area had desquamation (39.5%). The acute phase of the disease may be accompanied by fever (>38.0°C) and elevated neutrophil count (>7500/mm ). Histology of AGEP showed subcorneal pustules (56.3%), intraepidermal cavernous pustules (37.5%), with papillary dermal edema (37.5%), containing neutrophils and eosinophilic infiltration (71.9%). After drug discontinuation, the median time to resolution of AGEP symptoms was 10 days (range 2, 90).

What Is New And Conclusion: Cephalosporin-induced AGEP is rare and should be properly diagnosed. This serious cutaneous adverse reaction is self-limiting and has a favourable prognosis, usually resolves with drug interruption, and may require additional interventions, such as topical steroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.13738DOI Listing
July 2022

Plant community-mediated effects of grazing on plant diseases.

Oecologia 2022 Jul 30. Epub 2022 Jul 30.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystems & College of Ecology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, People's Republic of China.

Grazing is one of the most important management practices for grasslands. To date, most studies on how grazing affects plant diseases have focused on a single plant species, ignoring plant community characteristics and phylogeny. We used data from a 6-year yak grazing experiment (0, 1, 2, and 3 yak(s) ha treatment) in an alpine meadow ecosystem of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, from which we tested grazing effects on foliar fungal diseases at both population and community levels. By measuring plant community variables (including richness, evenness, phylogenetic diversity, and composition) and disease severity, we evaluated the relative importance of plant community-mediated effects of yak grazing on community pathogen load with a multi-model inference approach. We found significant differences in pathogen load among different grazing treatments; we recorded the highest and lowest pathogen loads in the 1 yak ha treatment and in the 3 yaks ha treatment, respectively. Pielou's evenness index and community proneness (i.e., an estimate of the capacity of plant communities to support diseases) best explained variation in pathogen load, indicating that plant community-mediated effects (through evenness and proneness) of yak grazing determined pathogen load. Our study provides empirical evidence that grazing influences foliar fungal disease prevalence through plant community evenness and composition, which demonstrates the necessity of incorporating host plant community characteristics into disease load prediction frameworks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00442-022-05223-7DOI Listing
July 2022

Analysis of the clinical characteristics of tigecycline-induced hypofibrinogenemia.

J Chemother 2022 Jul 29:1-6. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Department of Pharmacy, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Knowledge regarding the association between hypofibrinogenemia and tigecycline is based mainly on case reports. However, the clinical features of tigecycline-induced hypofibrinogenemia are unclear. We collected 20 patients (16 males and 4 females) with tigecycline-induced hypofibrinogenemia by searching the Chinese and English databases from June 2005 to May 2021, with a median age of 63.5 years (range 39∼90 years). Hypofibrinogenemia developed at a median of 9 days (range 2∼35 days). Most patients had no typical clinical manifestations, and only a few patients had bleeding and ecchymosis. Fibrinogen levels gradually decreased from 3.98 ± 2.05 g/L to 0.87 ± 0.45 g/L ( = 0.000), and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) increased from 38.26 ± 8.80 s to 83.43 ± 47.23 s ( = 0.002). Fibrinogen levels in all patients recovered to the normal range within a median of 4 days (range 1∼12 days) after tigecycline cessation. Our results suggest that fibrinogen levels should be closely monitored in patients treated with tigecycline, specifically patients who may have renal insufficiency or patients with long-term use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1120009X.2022.2105488DOI Listing
July 2022

Long non‑coding RNA CASC11 interacts with YBX1 to promote prostate cancer progression by suppressing the p53 pathway.

Int J Oncol 2022 Sep 29;61(3). Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Department of Urology, Shanghai East Hospital, School of Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200120, P.R. China.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the principal causes of cancer‑related death worldwide. The roles and mechanisms of long non‑coding RNA (lncRNA) involved in the development of PCa remain incompletely understood. The present study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of lncRNA in PCa tumorigenesis. In the present study, lncRNA cancer susceptibility candidate 11 (CASC11) was revealed to be a crucial regulator of PCa progression. The expression profiles of CASC11 in PCa were identified through analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus datasets, and validated in human PCa specimens and cell lines. Gain‑ and loss‑of‑function assays were utilized to explore the biological role of CASC11 in PCa initiation and progression. RNA‑sequencing, RNA pull‑down and RNA immunoprecipitation analyses were used to explore potential mechanisms with which CASC11 may be associated. Rescue experiments were further conducted to confirm this association. The present results revealed that CASC11 was dominantly distributed in the nuclei of PCa cells, and was highly expressed in PCa tissues and cells. Overexpression of CASC11 was markedly associated with increased tumor proliferation and migratory ability. Functionally, decreased proliferation and migration, as well as inhibited xenograft tumor growth, were observed in CASC11‑silenced PCa cells, whereas the opposite effects were detected in CASC11‑overexpressing cells. Mechanistically, CASC11 promoted progression of the cell cycle and competitively interacted with Y‑box binding protein 1 (YBX1) to block the p53 pathway. Given this, poly (β‑amino ester) (PBAE)/small interfering RNA‑CASC11 (si‑CASC11) nanoparticles were applied to inhibit CASC11 expression and enhance the antitumor effect . The results revealed that PBAE/si‑CASC11 nanoparticles augmented the antitumor efficacy of CASC11 knockdown . In conclusion, the present study suggested that CASC11 may regulate PCa progression and elucidated a novel CASC11/YBX1/p53 signaling axis, providing a potential lncRNA‑directed therapeutic strategy particularly for the treatment of patients with PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2022.5400DOI Listing
September 2022

Association between ANXA5 haplotypes and the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss.

J Int Med Res 2022 Jul;50(7):3000605211026809

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First People's Hospital of Wenling Affiliated to Wenzhou Medical University, Wenling, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Annexin A5 (ANXA5) haplotypes can increase the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). This study aimed to investigate the effect of ANXA5 haplotypes on ANXA5 expression in patients with RPL.

Methods: Female subjects with RPL, parous controls (those who intentionally aborted without medical conditions or complications), and population controls (normal delivery) were studied. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was carried out to evaluate ANXA5 expression in the placenta and peripheral blood. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to assess ANXA5 protein expression. The luciferase assay was performed to detect the effect of M1 and M2 haplotypes on transcription efficiency of the ANXA5 promoter.

Results: We found that the percentage of the M2 carrier was highest in the RPL group. ANXA5 expression in the placenta and peripheral blood in subjects with RPL was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, ANXA5 expression in subjects carrying the M2 haplotype was remarkably suppressed compared with that in carriers of other haplotypes. Finally, the M2 haplotype decreased the transcription efficiency of the ANXA5 promoter.

Conclusion: Our findings show that ANXA5 expression is decreased in carriers of the M2 haplotype and that M1/M2 haplotypes in the ANXA5 gene are associated with an increased risk of RPL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605211026809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9340999PMC
July 2022

Long intergenic noncoding RNA LINC01287 drives the progression of cervical cancer via regulating miR-513a-5p/SERP1.

Hum Cell 2022 Jul 27. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Molecular Pharmacology Laboratory, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Xiangtan Center Hospital, Heping Street 120, Xiangtan, 411100, China.

Cervical cancer is one of the most frequent types of cancer in women, which is characterized by high invasion and metastatic tendency in its advanced stage. Emerging evidence indicated that long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. LINC01287 has been reported to play crucial regulatory roles in the pathogenesis and progression of multiple cancers. However, up until now, whether LINC01287 is associated with the initiation and development of cervical cancer remains largely unknown. In the present study, expression levels of LINC01287, miR-513a-5p and stress-associated endoplasmic reticulum protein 1 (SERP1) mRNA were quantified utilizing qRT-PCR. A series of functional experiments including CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, transwell assay, flow cytometry, and tumor xenograft growth of cervical cancer cells were performed for studying the effects of LINC01287. The luciferase reporter assay, pull-down assay, and western blot were used to confirm the downstream targets of LINC01287 and miR-513a-5p. The results demonstrate that LINC01287 was highly expressed in cervical cancer tissue samples and cell lines. High LINC01287 predicts a poor prognosis for cervical cancer patients. Additional gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that silencing LINC01287 inhibited cervical cancer cells proliferation, colony formation, migration, apoptosis in vitro and retarded tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, the dual-luciferase reporter gene system and RNA pulldown assay validated that LINC01287 positively regulated SERP1 expressions by sponging miR-513a-5p, and LINC01287 inhibited cervical cancer progression by regulating miR-513a-5p/SERP1 axis. In conclusion, the current study first identified that LINC01287/miR-513a-5p/SERP1 axis played an important role in cervical cancer progression. LINC01287 might be a prognostic biomarker and a target for new therapies in patients with cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13577-022-00755-9DOI Listing
July 2022

What Is the Mechanism of Government Green Development Behavior Considering Multi-Agent Interaction? A Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jul 6;19(14). Epub 2022 Jul 6.

College of Architecture and Urban-Rural Planning, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611830, China.

Worsening environmental problems have created more and more challenges for green development, and the government is often seen as an important guide in turning this situation around. A government generally enacts green development through green development behavior, but previous research has not revealed the mechanism of this behavior. In addition, the multi-agent interaction between the government and green development behavior also needs to be explored. Based on an integrated theoretical model, the authors of this study adopted a meta-analysis method to analyze 18 high-quality published pieces from 6 mainstream databases and described the mechanism of government green development behavior in exploring and thinking about multi-agent interactions. In addition, the authors of this study explored differences in the roles of central and local government green development behaviors and the moderating role of regional heterogeneity. The research results showed that: (1) Enterprise economic behavior, enterprise environmental behavior, enterprise social behavior, and public participation are all significantly positively affected by government green development behavior; (2) local government green development actions have stronger effects than central government actions; (3) regional heterogeneity moderates the effect of government green development behavior. Furthermore, the authors of this study propose relevant countermeasures and suggestions from the government's point of view. This research provides a theoretical and practical reference for governments to better improve their environmental systems and environmental supervision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9319942PMC
July 2022

A Review on Electrode Materials of Fast-Charging Lithium-Ion batteries.

Chem Rec 2022 Jul 25:e202200127. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

School of Energy Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, 211816, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

In recent years, the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) has been dramatically improved. But the large-scale adoption of EVs still is hindered by long charging time. The high-energy LIBs are unable to be safely fast-charged due to their electrode materials with unsatisfactory rate performance. Thus it is necessary to summarize the properties of cathode and anode materials of fast-charging LIBs. In this review, we summarize the background, the fundamentals, electrode materials and future development of fast-charging LIBs. First, we introduce the research background and the physicochemical basics for fast-charging LIBs. Second, typical cathode materials of LIBs and the method to enhancing their fast-charging properties are discussed. Third, the anode materials of LIBs and the strategies for improving their fast-charging performance are analyzed. Finally, the future development of the cathode materials in fast-charging LIBs is prospected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tcr.202200127DOI Listing
July 2022

The Association Between Spicy Food Intake and Risk of Hyperuricemia Among Chinese Adults.

Front Public Health 2022 6;10:919347. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

School of Public Health, Research Center for Medicine and Social Development, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Hyperuricemia is associated with substantial health and economic burden all over the world. Dietary habits are an important influencing factor of hyperuricemia. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between spicy food intake and hyperuricemia based on a large population. A total of 22,125 individuals aged 30-79 were enrolled in China Multi-Ethnic Cohort (CMEC), Chongqing region. Spicy food intake information was collected by a standardized questionnaire. The association between spicy food intake and hyperuricemia was estimated by multivariable logistic regression models and multiple linear regression models. Additionally, we explored these relations in subgroups stratified by sex and age. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses were conducted to verify the stability of current findings. After controlling for potential confounders, compared with participants who never consumed spicy food and consumed less hot, participants who ate 3-5 days per week and very hot had the highest risk of hyperuricemia; the ORs (95% CIs) were 1.28 (1.09, 1.5) and 1.22 (0.92, 1.63), respectively. Additionally, the corresponding ORs (95% CIs) for each level increment in the frequency and degree of pungency in spicy food intake were 1.04 (1.01, 1.07) ( trend = 0.009) and 1.15 (1.04, 1.26) ( trend = 0.004). Further in sex-stratified and age-stratified analysis, similar positive associations were observed among men and those aged 30-59, but no significant association was found among women and those aged 60-79. In the linear regression models, 3-5 days per week and moderate pungency in spicy food intake were associated with 5.21 μmol/L (95% CI: 1.72, 8.70) and 4.69 μmol/L (95% CI: 1.93, 7.45) higher serum urate level. Results in further subgroup analysis were generally consistent with the logistic regression models. This study suggests that spicy food intake may be a risk factor for hyperuricemia, especially in men and younger people, and more studies are warranted to verify the causal associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.919347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9298505PMC
July 2022

Sulfite activation by cobaltosic oxide nanohydrangeas for tetracycline degradation: Performance, degradation pathways and mechanism.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Jul 16;439:129618. Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Engineering Research Center of Eco-Environment in Three Gorges Reservoir Region of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443002 , China; Hubei Three Gorges Laboratory, 443007 Yichang, Hubei, China. Electronic address:

Sulfite has been used as a classic reductant for the dehalogenation and reduction of organic compounds for a long time, it is recently deemed as a promising alternative (for persulfate) to generate sulfate radical for wastewater treatment due to its low price and eco-toxicity. In contrast with the enormous work developed in the field of tetracycline (TC) degradation via PMS activization, sulfite activization could play a important role in TC degradation but there is only very few available reports in this area. Herein, the novel and efficient CoNHs nanocatalyst is designed and developed, via immobilization of hydrangea-shaped CoO nanoparticles onto graphitic carbon nanosheet (GCN), for the degradation of tetracycline via sulfite activation. The detailed characterizations have confirmed that CoNHs possesses a nanohydrangea-shaped structure with high microporosity. The comparison with other supports (such as CeO and MoS), CoNHs provides the highest degradation efficiency in TC degradation, due to the synergistic effect between CoO and GCN. Free radical quenching experiments and EPR analysis confirm that SO• and O• are major reactive oxygen species in the CoNHs/sulfite system. This work could provide a simple, economical and durable cobalt-based catalyst for organic wastewater treatment via sulfite activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129618DOI Listing
July 2022

Adsorption of hydroquinone and Pb(II) from water by β-cyclodextrin/polyethyleneimine bi-functional polymer.

Carbohydr Polym 2022 Oct 7;294:119806. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang, Hunan 414006, China. Electronic address:

A novel bi-functional β-cyclodextrin polymer ([email protected]@PEI) was synthesized for the removal of hydroquinone and Pb(II) from wastewater. The structure and adsorption performance of [email protected]@PEI towards hydroquinone and Pb(II) were studied comprehensively. Both of the adsorption processes fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. The adsorption isotherms of hydroquinone and Pb(II) could be described well by Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacities of hydroquinone and Pb(II) are 364.86 and 113.52 mg g, respectively. The adsorption of hydroquinone and Pb(II) on [email protected]@PEI is an exothermic and spontaneous process. The adsorbed [email protected]@PEI could be regenerated easily, and can still maintain high adsorption performance after 5 cycles. The electrostatic interaction and coordination interaction account for the adsorption of Pb(II), and inclusion of cyclodextrin and hydrogen-bond interaction are responsible for hydroquinone adsorption. This study provides some insights to design an adsorbent that can simultaneously remove heavy metal ions and organic micropollutants from wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2022.119806DOI Listing
October 2022

Boosted ammonium production by single cobalt atom catalysts with high Faradic efficiencies.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jul 12;119(29):e2123450119. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Efficient = O bond activation is crucial for the catalytic reduction of nitrogen compounds, which is highly affected by the construction of active centers. In this study, = O bond activation was achieved by a single-atom catalyst (SAC) with phosphorus anchored on a Co active center to form intermediate -species for further hydrogenation and reduction. Unique phosphorus-doped discontinuous active sites exhibit better = O activation performance than conventional -cooperated single-atom sites, with a high Faradic efficiency of 92.0% and a maximum ammonia yield rate of 433.3 μg NH4·h·cm. This approach of constructing environmental sites through heteroatom modification significantly improves atom efficiency and will guide the design of future functional SACs with wide-ranging applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2123450119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9303948PMC
July 2022

Liver kinase B1 in exosomes inhibits immune checkpoint programmed death ligand 1 and metastatic progression of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Oncol Rep 2022 09 20;48(3). Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Third Department of General Surgery, The Central Hospital of Xiangtan, Xiangtan, Hunan 411100, P.R. China.

The increasing morbidity and high mortality of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) has led to the urgent need for new diagnostics and therapeutics. Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) exerts a tumor suppressor role in multiple malignances, while its regulatory role in exosomes secreted by ICC cells is obscure. In the present study, exosomes were extracted from cell culture supernatants of RBE and HCCC‑9810 ICC cells as well as plasma of patients with ICC by ultracentrifugation and the morphology of exosomes was identified by transmission electron microscopy. Notably, compared with that of intracellular LKB1, the protein level of exosomal LKB1 was decreased. Silencing intracellular LKB1 increased the protein levels of programmed death ligand 1 (PD‑L1), Slug and phosphorylated‑AKT in exosomes, accompanied by decreased expression levels of exosomal LKB1. Exosomes with lower protein levels of LKB1 promoted the expression of the immune checkpoint PD‑L1, malignant phenotypes of ICC cells , and cancer metastasis . Moreover, the low level of exosomal LKB1 in plasma was tightly associated with the poor prognosis of patients with ICC. Collectively, exosomal LKB1 inhibits the immune checkpoint PD‑L1 and metastasis of ICC cells. These findings may provide new methods for the diagnosis and immune therapy of ICC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2022.8367DOI Listing
September 2022

Sulfur heterogeneity: A non-negligible factor in manipulating growth and lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus obliquus at a relatively high ratio of carbon to nitrogen.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jul 9;360:127599. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Ecological Treatment Technology for Urban Water Pollution, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou 325035, China. Electronic address:

Algal biodiesel has been becoming a focus in the field of bioenergy worldwide. In this study, effects of heterogeneous sulfur (SO, SO and S) on growth and lipid accumulation of Scenedesmus obliquus cultured in wastewater with a C/N ratio of 30 were investigated, respectively. The results shown that SO, the optimal sulfur source, could trigger cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner. However, SO was superior to the others in boosting carbon uptake of cells, which was subject to NH-N concentration. Only SO could simultaneously increase lipid content and productivity of cells with a dominant component of oleic acid (C18:1n9c) occupying approximately 40% in fatty acid profile. Additionally, the genes encoding enzymes such as CDIPT, ADPRM, DPP1, pmtA and BTA1 involved in the uppermost lipid-related pathway (glycerophospholipid metabolism) were identified facing different sulfur source regardless of the concentration changes. These findings may facilitate nutrition management efforts to enhance microalgae-based biofuel production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127599DOI Listing
July 2022

Stagnation trigger changes to tap water quality in winter season: Novel insights into bacterial community activity and composition.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 8:157240. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Shaanxi Environmental Monitoring Center, Xi'an, China.

The drinking water distribution system is an important for water supply and it affects the quality of the drinking water. Indoor pipeline water quality is regulated by physical, hydraulic and biological elements, such as indoor temperature and stagnation. In this study, the effects of indoor heating and overnight stagnation on the variation in bacterial community structure and the total cell count were assessed by full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing and flow cytometry, respectively. The results exhibited that the average intact cell count was 6.99 × 10 cells/mL and the low nucleic acid (LNA) bacteria was 4.48 × 10 cells/mL after stagnation. The average concentration of total and intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was 3.64 × 10 gATP/mL and 3.13 × 10 gATP/cell in stagnant water, respectively. The growth of LNA cells played a crucial role in increasing ATP. The dominant phylum observed was Proteobacteria (87.21 %), followed by Actinobacteria (8.25 %). Opportunistic pathogens increased the risk of disease in stagnant water (up to 1.2-fold for Pseudomonas sp. and 5.8-fold for Mycobacterium sp.). Structural equation model (SEM) and redundancy analysis (RDA) illustrated that temperature, residual chlorine and Fe concentration significantly affected the bacterial count and bacterial community. Taking together, these results show responses of drinking water quality to overnight stagnation and indoor heating, and provide scientific basis for drinking water security management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157240DOI Listing
July 2022

Surveillance of Non-advanced Adenomas: Small May Be Big.

Dig Dis Sci 2022 Jul 9. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, 06030, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-022-07612-7DOI Listing
July 2022

Host diversity positively affects the temporal stability of foliar fungal diseases in a Tibetan alpine meadow.

Ann Bot 2022 Jul 9. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Key Laboratory of Genetics and Germplasm Innovation of Tropical Special Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants, Ministry of Education, College of Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou, P. R. China.

Background And Aims: Plant disease can dramatically affect population dynamics, community composition, and ecosystem functions. However, most empirical studies focus on diseases at a certain timepoint and largely ignore their temporal stability, which directly affects our ability to predict when and where disease outbreaks will occur.

Methods: Using a removal experiment that manipulates plant diversity (i.e., a plant biodiversity and ecosystem function experiment), and a fertilization experiment in a Tibetan alpine meadow, we investigated how different plant biodiversity indices and nitrogen fertilization affect the temporal stability of foliar fungal diseases (measured as the mean value of community pathogen load divided by its standard deviation) over seven consecutive years.

Key Results: We found that the temporal stability of foliar fungal diseases increased with plant diversity indices in the plant biodiversity and ecosystem function experiment. Meanwhile, we observed a weakly positive relationship between host diversity and temporal stability in the fertilization experiment. However, the nitrogen treatment did not affect temporal stability, given that fertilization increased both the mean and standard deviation of pathogen load by roughly the same magnitude.

Conclusions: We conclude that host diversity regulates the temporal stability of pathogen load, but we note that this effect may be attenuated under rapid biodiversity loss in the Anthropocene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcac093DOI Listing
July 2022

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Diels (Apiaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2022 30;7(6):1058-1060. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Research Center for Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources and Ethnic Minority Medicine, Jiangxi university of Chinese Medicine, Nanchang, China.

We assembled the complete chloroplast genome of which is a traditional widely used medicinal plant in China. The whole genome is 150,025 bp in length which was divided into four subregions: a large single-copy region (93,645 bp), a pair of 19,458 bp inverted repeats regions, and a small single-copy region (17,464 bp), respectively. Additionally, the chloroplast genome of detected 128 genes, including 85 protein coding genes, 36 transfer RNAs, and eight ribosomal RNAs. The overall GC content of this chloroplast genome is 37.5% and the mean coverage value is 1752.4x. Phylogenetic analysis based on 17 chloroplast genomes dataset was conducted to clarify the relationships of the major clades in Apiaceae. The results strongly supported the monophyly of and the closer relationship of and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2022.2086073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9255025PMC
June 2022

A Risk Model Based on Sorafenib-Response Target Genes Predicts the Prognosis of Patients with HCC.

J Oncol 2022 28;2022:7257738. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Third Department of General Surgery, The Central Hospital of Xiangtan, Xiangtan, Hunan, China.

Sorafenib is used to treat digestive system tumors in patients who do not respond to or cannot tolerate surgery. However, the roles and inhibitory mechanisms of sorafenib against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are unclear. Differentially expressed genes in tissues from responders and nonresponders to sorafenib were investigated using the HCC GSE109211 data set. Biological functions and mechanisms were studied using the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. The expression levels of differential expressed target genes were identified in HCC tissues, using The Cancer Genome Atlas database, and their prognostic and diagnostic values were explored using survival and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. A nomogram and risk model of sorafenib-response target genes enabled the evaluation of the prognosis of patients with HCC. The relationship between risk scores and levels of infiltrating immune cells was visualized via correlation analysis. We identified 1620 sorafenib-response target genes involved in the PPAR signaling pathway, antigen processing and presentation, and ferroptosis. SLC41A3, SEC61A1, LRP4, PPM1G, and HSP90AA1 were independent risk factors for a poor prognosis for patients with HCC and had diagnostic value. A risk model based on SLC41A3, SEC61A1, LRP4, PPM1G, and HSP90AA1 expression showed that patients with HCC in the high-risk group had a worse prognosis. Consensus-clustering analysis (performed with K set to 2) distinguished two clusters (the cluster 1 and cluster 2 groups). Patients in cluster 1 survived significantly longer than those in cluster 2. The risk score correlated with the levels of T cells, cytotoxic lymphocytes, CD8 T cells, macrophages, memory B cells, follicular helper T cells, and other immune cells. The high risk based on the sorafenib-response targets SLC41A3, SEC61A1, LRP4, PPM1G, and HSP90AA1 represented the poor prognosis for patients with HCC and significantly correlated with the levels of immune infiltrating cells in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/7257738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9256406PMC
June 2022

Prognostic Value of Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio (TG/HDL-C) in IgA Nephropathy Patients.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2022 20;13:877794. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Nephrology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Background: The triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio is an easy-to-use atherogenic and prognostic marker which has attracted increasing attention these days. However, whether TG/HDL-C correlate with outcomes in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients remains unknown. To clarify these issues, we conducted this study.

Methods: A total of 1146 patients from West China Hospital of Sichuan University were retrospectively analysed between 2008 and 2018.The demographic, clinical and pathological data of all patients at the time of biopsy were collected. Then, patients were divided into the high TG/HDL group (TG/HDL ≥ 1.495, N=382) and the low TG/HDL group (TG/HDL-C < 1.495, N=764) based on the optimal cut-off value of the TG/HDL-C using receive operating curve. Cox proportional hazard models and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to evaluate the renal outcomes of IgAN.

Results: The median age of the patients was 33 (26-42) years, and 44.5% were men. By correlation analysis, we found that the TG/HDL-C ratio was negatively correlated with the eGFR (r = 0.250, < 0.001) but positively correlated with proteinuria (r = 0.230, < 0.001), BMI (r=0.380, P<0.001) and serum uric (r =0.308, < 0.001). Patients with a higher TG/HDL-C ratio tended to have hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.987; 95% CI, 1.527-2.587; <0.001] and more severe pathologic lesions with tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis (OR, 1.610; 95% CI, 1.203-2.154; =0.001). During a median follow-up period of 54.1 (35.6-73.2) months, a high TG/HDL ratio was strongly associated with worse renal survival in IgAN patients (log-rank: 0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that a high TG/HDL-C ratio (HR 1.775, 95% CI 1.056-2.798; =0.029) was an independent predictive marker to ESRD.

Conclusion: In this study, we addressed the importance of TG/HDL-C ratio as a predictive marker for IgAN progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2022.877794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9251124PMC
June 2022

Automatic measurement of the patellofemoral joint parameters in the Laurin view: a deep learning-based approach.

Eur Radiol 2022 Jul 5. Epub 2022 Jul 5.

Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, No.8 Xishiku Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100034, China.

Objectives: To explore the performance of a deep learning-based algorithm for automatic patellofemoral joint (PFJ) parameter measurements from the Laurin view.

Methods: A total of 1431 consecutive Laurin views of the PFJ were retrospectively collected and divided into two parts: (1) the model development dataset (dataset 1, n = 1230) and (2) the hold-out test set (dataset 2, n = 201). Dataset 1 was used to develop the U-shaped fully convolutional network (U-Net) model to segment the landmarks of the PFJ. Based on the predicted landmarks, the PFJ parameters were calculated, including the sulcus angle (SA), congruence angle (CA), patellofemoral ratio (PFR), and lateral patellar tilt (LPT). Dataset 2 was used to assess the model performance. The mean of three radiologists who independently measured the PFJ parameters was defined as the reference standard. Model performance was assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), mean absolute difference (MAD), and root mean square (RMS) compared to the reference standard. Ninety-five percent limits of agreement (95% LoA) were calculated pairwise for each radiologist, reference standard, and model.

Results: Compared with the reference standard, U-Net showed good performance for predicting SA, CA, PFR, and LPT, with ICC = 0.85-0.97, MAD = 0.06-5.09, and RMS = 0.09-6.90 in the hold-out test set. Except for the PFR, the remaining parameters measured between the reference standard and the model were within the 95% LoA in the hold-out test dataset.

Conclusions: The U-Net-based deep learning approach had a relatively high model performance in automatically measuring SA, CA, PFR, and LPT.

Key Points: • The U-Net model could be used to segment the landmarks of the PFJ and calculate the SA, CA, PFR, and LPT, which could be used to evaluate the patellar instability. • In the hold-out test, the automatic measurement model yielded comparable performance with reference standard. • The automatic measurement model could still accurately predict SA, CA, PFR, and LPT in patients with PI and/or PFOA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-022-08967-1DOI Listing
July 2022

The complete chloroplast genome of (Koidz.) Koidz. (Berberidaceae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2022 30;7(6):1069-1071. Epub 2022 Jun 30.

Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

L. is an important genus in the family Berberidaceae. (Koidz.) Koidz. 1939 is inhabited on the west side of the Shikoku, Japan. In this study, the first complete chloroplast genome of was assembled with Illumina paired-end sequencing data, which was 157,272 bp in length with a total GC content of 38.70%. A total of 112 unique genes were annotated, comprising 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and four rRNA genes. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that was sister to . The current results provided fundamental information for further conducting molecular systematics and phylogenetic research of genus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2022.2086079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9248944PMC
June 2022

NUBE2R2-AS1 as Prognostic Marker, Promotes Cell Migration and Invasion in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Modulating Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Process.

Ann Clin Lab Sci 2022 May;52(3):462-469

Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China

Objective: Long non-coding RNA ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2R2 antisense RNA 1 (UBE2R2-AS1) has been identified to be associated with cervical cancer and glioma. Nevertheless, the expression, prognostic value, and function role of UBE2R2-AS1 remain unclear in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Fifty-nine pairs of tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected from NSCLC patients, and UBE2R2-AS1 expression was determined using quantitative real time PCR analysis. The clinical significance of UBE2R2-AS1 was evaluated by Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier method analysis, and Cox's regression model. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and transwell assays were utilized to estimate cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in NSCLC cell lines (95D and H1299).

Results: UBE2R2-AS1 was highly expressed in NSCLC tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues, which was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. Knockdown of UBE2R2-AS1 suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion, inhibiting the EMT process (increased E-cadherin, decreased N-cadherin and vimentin) in 95D and H1299 cells. Overexpression of UBE2R2-AS1 obtained the opposite results.

Conclusions: These discoveries indicated that UBE2R2-AS1 could be a therapeutic target and a potential diagnostic for NSCLC.
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May 2022

Efficient electrocatalytic nitrate reduction via boosting oxygen vacancies of TiO nanotube array by highly dispersed trace Cu doping.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Jun 25;438:129455. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, PR China. Electronic address:

Nitrate pollution of water bodies is a serious global-scale environmental problem. The electrocatalytic nitrate reduction reaction (NORR) using Cu-based electrodes allows excellent nitrate removal; however, its long-term operation results in copper leaching, leading to health risks. This study proposes a strategy for efficient nitrate removal through the activation of oxygen vacancies on a highly dispersed Cu-doped TiO nanotube array (Cu/TNTA) cathode via electrodeposition. The mechanism underlying the activation of oxygen vacancies and enhancement in charge transfer at the cathode-pollutant interface upon trace (0.02 wt%) Cu doping is elucidated by electron paramagnetic resonance analysis, UV-visible diffuse reflection spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The Cu/TNTA-300 exhibits a nitrate removal rate of 84.3% at 12 h; the electrode activity did not decrease after 10 cycles, and no Cu was detected in the solution. Electrochemical characterization and density functional theory calculations demonstrate that Cu doping promotes efficient charge transfer between nitrate and the electrode and reduces the energy barrier of the nitrate reduction reaction. This work provides a platform for novel design of cathodes for use in efficient and safe electrocatalytic nitrate reduction in environmental water bodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.129455DOI Listing
June 2022

Dietary carotenoid intake and dental fluorosis in relation to SOD2 (rs 11968525) polymorphisms in Guizhou, China.

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2022 ;31(2):320-330

Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Zunyi Medical University, Guizhou, Zunyi, China. Email:

Background And Objectives: Genetic and dietary factors are important contributors to the development of dental fluorosis (DF). This study investigated the association between DF and dietary carotenoids, and explored whether the association was modified by polymorphisms of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 rs11968525) in Guizhou, China.

Methods And Study Design: A cross-sectional study with a total of 899 adults aged 18-75 years were enrolled in the study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted to assess dietary habits using a validated 75 item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Sociodemographic and lifestyle information, and blood and urine samples were also collected. Genotypes were evaluated using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Genotyping Assay.

Results: There were significant dose-dependent inverse associations of the prevalence of DF with intake of α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene and total carotenoids (p-trend ranged from <0.001-0.004). The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of DF comparing the highest against lowest quartile were 0.56 (0.35, 0.92) for α-carotene, 0.53 (0.35, 0.81) for β-carotene, 0.44 (0.27, 0.74) for lycopene, 0.35 (0.21, 0.58) for lutein/zeaxanthin in combination and 0.42 (0.25, 0.69) for total carotenoids (all p-trend<0.005). Intake of β-cryptoxanthin was not found to be related to DF. The inverse association of DF with dietary intake of α-carotene and β-carotene was more evident in individuals with the AG+AA genotype (p-interaction<0.05).

Conclusions: Higher dietary carotenoids were associated with a lower occurrence of DF, polymorphisms in SOD2 (rs 11968525) modified the associations between dietary intake of carotene and DF. These findings provide evidence for precision prevention of fluorosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.202206_31(2).0018DOI Listing
July 2022

Preoperative prediction of pelvic lymph nodes metastasis in prostate cancer using an ADC-based radiomics model: comparison with clinical nomograms and PI-RADS assessment.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2022 Jun 28. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Department of Radiology, Peking University First Hospital, No. 8 Xishiku Street, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100034, China.

Purpose: To develop and test radiomics models based on manually corrected or automatically gained masks on ADC maps for pelvic lymph node metastasis (PLNM) prediction in patients with prostate cancer (PCa).

Methods: A primary cohort of 474 patients with PCa who underwent prostate mpMRI were retrospectively enrolled for PLNM prediction between January 2017 and January 2020. They were then randomly split into training/validation (n = 332) and test (n = 142) groups for model development and internal testing. Four radiomics models were developed using four masks (manually corrected/automatic prostate gland and PCa lesion segmentation) based on the ADC maps using the primary cohort. Another cohort of 128 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) with extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) for PCa was used as the testing cohort between February 2020 and October 2021. The performance of the models was evaluated in terms of discrimination and clinical usefulness using the area under the curve (AUC) and decision curve analysis (DCA). The optimal radiomics model was further compared with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) and Briganti 2017 nomograms, and PI-RADS assessment.

Results: 17 (13.28%) Patients with PLNM were included in the testing cohort. The radiomics model based on the mask of automatically segmented prostate obtained the highest AUC among the four radiomics models (0.73 vs. 0.63 vs. 0.70 vs. 0.56). Briganti 2017, MSKCC nomograms, and PI-RADS assessment-yielded AUCs of 0.69, 0.71, and 0.70, respectively, and no significant differences were found compared with the optimal radiomics model (P = 0.605-0.955).

Conclusion: The radiomics model based on the mask of automatically segmented prostate offers a non-invasive method to predict PLNM for patients with PCa. It shows comparable accuracy to the current MKSCC and Briganti nomograms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-022-03583-5DOI Listing
June 2022

Long-Term Expanding Porcine Airway Organoids Provide Insights into the Pathogenesis and Innate Immunity of Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus Infection.

J Virol 2022 07 28;96(14):e0073822. Epub 2022 Jun 28.

Key Laboratory of Animal Epidemiology of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural Universitygrid.22935.3f, Beijing, China.

Respiratory coronaviruses cause serious health threats to humans and animals. Porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCoV), a natural transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) mutant with partial spike deletion, causes mild respiratory disease and is an interesting animal respiratory coronavirus model for human respiratory coronaviruses. However, the absence of robust models of porcine airway epithelium hinders an understanding of the pathogenesis of PRCoV infection. Here, we generated long-term porcine airway organoids (AOs) derived from basal epithelial cells, which recapitulate the airway complicated epithelial cellularity. Both 3D and 2D AOs are permissive for PRCoV infection. Unlike TGEV, which established successful infection in both AOs and intestinal organoids, PRCoV was strongly amplified only in AOs, not intestinal organoids. Furthermore, PRCoV infection in AOs mounted vigorous early type I and III interferon (IFN) responses and upregulated the expression of overzealous inflammatory genes, including pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and proinflammatory cytokines. Collectively, these data demonstrate that stem-derived porcine AOs can serve as a promising disease model for PRCoV infection and provide a valuable tool to study porcine respiratory infection. Porcine respiratory CoV (PRCoV), a natural mutant of TGEV, shows striking pathogenetic similarities to human respiratory CoV infection and provides an interesting animal model for human respiratory CoVs, including SARS-CoV-2. The lack of an model recapitulating the complicated cellularity and structure of the porcine respiratory tract is a major roadblock for the study of PRCoV infection. Here, we developed long-term 3D airway organoids (AOs) and further established 2D AO monolayer cultures. The resultant 3D and 2D AOs are permissive for PRCoV infection. Notably, PRCoV mediated pronounced IFN and inflammatory responses in AOs, which recapitulated the inflammatory responses associated with PRCoV infection. Therefore, porcine AOs can be utilized to characterize the pathogenesis of PRCoV and, more broadly, can serve as a universal platform for porcine respiratory infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/jvi.00738-22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9327677PMC
July 2022
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