Publications by authors named "Xiang Guo"

411 Publications

Application of weighted gene co-expression network analysis to identify the hub genes in H1N1.

Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol 2021 15;13(3):69-85. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University Chengde 067000, P. R. China.

Objective: Identifying the disease-associated interactions between different genes helps us to find novel therapeutic targets and predictive biomarkers.

Methods: Gene expression data GSE82050 from H1N1 and control human samples were acquired from the NCBI GEO database. Highly co-expressed genes were grouped into modules. Through Person's correlation coefficient calculation between the module and clinical phenotype, notable modules were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were conducted, and the hub genes within the module of interest were identified. Also, gene expression data GSE27131 were acquired from the GEO database to verify differential key gene expression analysis. The CIBERSORT was used to evaluate the immune cells infiltration and the GSVA was performed to identify the differentially regulated pathways in H1N1. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to assess the diagnostic values of the hub genes.

Result: The black module was shown to have the highest correlation with the clinical phenotype, mainly functioning in the signaling pathways such as the mitochondrial inner membrane, DNA conformation change, DNA repair, and cell cycle phase transition. Through analysis of the black module, we found 5 genes that were highly correlated with the H1N1 phenotype. The H1N1 project from GSE27131 confirmed an increased expression of these genes.

Conclusion: By using the WGCNA we analyzed and predicted the key genes in H1N1. BRCA1, CDC20, MAD2L1, MCM2, and UBE2C were found to be the most relevant genes, which may be therapeutic targets and predictive biomarkers for H1N1 therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8310883PMC
June 2021

Acceptability of COVID-19 vaccine in the working-age population in Shanghai city: a cross-sectional study.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Jul 29:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Departmen of Immunization Program, Shanghai Municipal Centers for Disease Prevention and Control, Shanghai, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is still an enormous threat to global health and the economy. Although China has adopted effective measures to control the outbreak, there is still a risk of local transmission from imported cases. Meanwhile, considering the high mortality rate and rapid spread of the disease, a safe and effective vaccine is urgently needed to control the pandemic. With COVID-19 vaccines becoming available to the population, it has become important to know about their acceptance in the population. This is important to enable high vaccination coverage rates and reflects the demand within the general population. An cross-sectional survey was conducted during October 2020 in Shanghai using a well-designed questionnaire, which aimed to evaluate the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines and to identify the factors affecting its acceptability among working-age adults in Shanghai, China. We found that the acceptability of COVID-19 vaccines was high in work-age adults in Shanghai, China. The factors affecting the acceptability of vaccination identified in this study can provide guides to increase COVID-19 vaccine acceptability in future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1949951DOI Listing
July 2021

Influence of Pyroligneous Acid on Fermentation Parameters, CO Production and Bacterial Communities of Rice Straw and Stylo Silage.

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:701434. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Guangdong Key Laboratory for Innovative Development and Utilization of Forest Plant Germplasm, State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Guangdong Province Research Center of Woody Forage Engineering Technology, Guangdong Research and Development Center of Modern Agriculture (Woody forage) Industrial Technology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Carbon dioxide (CO) is a primary greenhouse gas and the main cause of global warming. Respiration from plant cells and microorganisms enables CO to be produced during ensiling, a method of moist forage preservation applied worldwide. However, limited information is available regarding CO emissions and mitigation during ensiling. Pyroligneous acid, a by-product of plant biomass pyrolysis, has a strong antibacterial capacity. To investigate CO production and the influence of pyroligneous acid, fresh stylo, and rice straw were ensiled with or without 1% or 2% pyroligneous acid. Dynamics of the fermentation characteristics, CO production, and bacterial communities during ensiling were analyzed. Pyroligneous acid increased the lactic acid content and decreased the weight losses, pH, ammonia-N content, butyric acid content, and coliform bacterial numbers (all < 0.05). It also increased the relative abundance of and decreased the relative abundances of harmful bacteria such as and . Adding pyrolytic acids reduced the gas production, especially of CO. It also increased the relative abundances of CO-producing bacterial genera and of genera with the potential for CO fixation. In conclusion, adding pyroligneous acid improved the fermentation quality of the two silages. During ensiling, CO production was correlated with bacterial community alterations. Using pyroligneous acid altered the bacterial community to reduce CO production during ensiling. Given the large production and demand for silage worldwide, application of pyroligneous acid may be an effective method of mitigating global warming via CO emissions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.701434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8297647PMC
July 2021

HA of H1N1 enhanced the expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6 in HUVECs and pathological injury in the lungs in mice.

Gene 2021 Jul 16;801:145854. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical University, Chengde 067000, Hebei, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Both COVID-19 and influenza are viral respiratory tract infections and the epidemics of viral respiratory tract infections remain highly prevalent with lethal consequences in susceptible individuals. Expression of ICAM-1 on vascular endothelium recruits leukocytes which initiates inflammation. IL-6 induces ICAM-1. Both ICAM-1 and IL-6 can be enhanced in influenza virus infection and COVID-19 patients. Besides initiation of virus entry host cells, whether HA alone, instead of whole virus, of influenza has the effects on expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6 in vascular endothelium with injury in the lungs, remains to be demonstrated.

Methods: RT-qPCR and Western blot as well as histopathologic examination were used to examine mRNA and protein of ICAM-1 and IL-6 as well as pathological injury in the lung tissues, respectively.

Results: After incubation of the Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) with HA of H1N1 for 24 h, the mRNA and protein of ICAM-1 and IL-6 in HUVECs were increased in group of 5 μg/ml concentration with statistical significance (p < 0.05). Pathological injury in lung tissues of the mice was shown 12 h after tail intravenous injection with 100 μl of HA (50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml in normal saline), including widened alveolar spaces with angiotelectasis in alveolar wall, alveolar luminal and interstitial inflammatory infiltrates, alveolar luminal erythrocyte effusion.

Conclusions: HA alone, instead of whole H1N1 virus, induced more expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6, two molecules involving in pathological and inflammatory responses, in HUVECs and pathological injury in lung tissues of the mice. This knowledge provides a new HA-targeted potential direction for prevention and treatment of disease related to H1N1 infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2021.145854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8302257PMC
July 2021

A Hyperthermophilic Argonaute From With Specificity on Guide Binding Pattern.

Front Microbiol 2021 9;12:654345. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Argonaute proteins (Agos) from thermophilic archaea are involved in several important processes, such as host defense and DNA replication. The catalytic mechanism of Ago from different microbes with great diversity and genome editing potential is attracting increasing attention. Here, we describe an Argonaute from hyperthermophilic (Ago), with a typical DNA-guided DNA endonuclease activity but adopted with only a short guide 15-20 nt length rather than a broad guide selectivity for reported Agos. Ago performed the precise cleavage of phosphodiester bonds between 10 and 11 nt on the target strand (counting from the guide strand) guided strictly by 5'-phosphorylated DNA at temperatures ranging from 75 to 99°C. The cleavage activity was regulated by the divalent cations Mn, Mg, Co, and Ni. In addition, Ago possesses guide/target mismatch tolerance in the seed region but is sensitive to mismatches in the 3'-guide region. Notably, the EMSA assay revealed that the Ago-guide-target ternary complex exhibited a stronger binding affinity for short 15 and 16 nt guide DNAs than longer guides. Moreover, we performed structural modeling analyses that implied the unique PAZ domain of Ago for 3'-guide recognition and binding to affect guide length specificity. This study broadens our understanding of thermophilic Agos and paves the way for their use in DNA manipulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.654345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8248672PMC
June 2021

Highly Efficient Biosynthesis of Glycyrrhetinic Acid Glucosides by Coupling of Microbial Glycosyltransferase to Plant Sucrose Synthase.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 8;9:645079. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic and Developmental Sciences, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is a principal bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoid from . Uridine diphosphate-dependent glycosyltransferases (UGTs) have been widely used to catalyze glycosylation of diverse nature products for the development of potential therapeutic compounds. In this study, we have characterized a UGT109A3 from , which can glycosylate both the free C3 hydroxyl and C30 carboxyl groups of GA to yield a unique 3, 30-O-β-D-diglucoside-GA. By coupling the microbial UGT109A3 to plant sucrose synthase (SUS), GA-diglucoside could be biosynthesized in an efficient and economical way. With a fed-batch glycosylation, a large scale of GA-diglucoside (6.26 mM, 4.98 g/L in 8 h) could be enzymatically transformed from GA. The obtained GA-diglucoside showed a significant water solubility improvement of around 3.4 × 10 fold compared with that of the parent GA (29 μM). Moreover, it also exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity toward human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cell line according to MTT assay, having an IC at 160 μM. This study not only establishes efficient platform for producing GA-glucosides, but is also valuable for developing further the biosynthesis of other complex glycosylated natural products.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.645079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218813PMC
June 2021

Epigenetic Manipulation to Trigger Production of Guaiane-Type Sesquiterpenes from a Marine-Derived sp. Fungus with Antineuroinflammatory Effects.

J Nat Prod 2021 Jul 23;84(7):1993-2003. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, Peking University, Beijing 100191, P.R. China.

Epigenetic manipulation of a deep-sea sediment-derived sp. fungus using suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) induction resulted in the activation of a terpene-related biosynthetic gene cluster, and nine new guaiane-type sesquiterpenes, spiromaterpenes A-I (-), were isolated. Their structures were determined using various spectroscopic techniques, in association with the modified Mosher's method, computed electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, and chemical conversion for configurational assignments. Compounds - exhibited significant effects against the NO production on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglia cells BV2, and the preliminary SAR analyses demonstrated that a 2(),11-diol unit is favorable. The most active abolished LPS-induced NF-κB translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus in BV-2 microglial cells, accompanied by the marked reduction of the transcription levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α dose-dependently in both LPS-induced BV-2 and BV-2 cells, as well as the protein and mRNA levels of iNOS and COX-2. This study complements the gap in knowledge regarding the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids at the cellular level and suggests that is promising for further optimization as a multifunctional agent for antineuroinflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.1c00293DOI Listing
July 2021

NbC MXene-Functionalized Scaffolds Enables Osteosarcoma Phototherapy and Angiogenesis/Osteogenesis of Bone Defects.

Nanomicro Lett 2021 Jan 4;13(1):30. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, People's Republic of China.

Early surgical resection and chemotherapy of bone cancer are commonly used in the treatment of bone tumor, but it is still highly challenging to prevent recurrence and fill the bone defect caused by the resection site. In this work, we report a rational integration of photonic-responsive two-dimensional (2D) ultrathin niobium carbide (NbC) MXene nanosheets (NSs) into the 3D-printed bone-mimetic scaffolds (NBGS) for osteosarcoma treatment. The integrated 2D NbC-MXene NSs feature specific photonic response in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) biowindow with high tissue-penetrating depth, making it highly efficient in killing bone cancer cells. Importantly, Nb-based species released by the biodegradation of NbC MXene can obviously promote the neogenesis and migration of blood vessels in the defect site, which can transport more oxygen, vitamins and energy around the bone defect for the reparative process, and gather more immune cells around the defect site to accelerate the degradation of NBGS. The degradation of NBGS provides sufficient space for the bone remodeling. Besides, calcium and phosphate released during the degradation of the scaffold can promote the mineralization of new bone tissue. The intrinsic multifunctionality of killing bone tumor cell and promoting angiogenesis and bone regeneration makes the engineered NbC MXene-integrated composite scaffolds a distinctive implanting biomaterial on the efficient treatment of bone tumor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40820-020-00547-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187678PMC
January 2021

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Program for the Elderly Aged 60 Years or Older in Shanghai, China.

Front Public Health 2021 24;9:647725. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The pneumococcal vaccine has been considered as the most effective measure to prevent pneumococcal diseases. In 2013, Shanghai launched a major public health program to vaccinate people aged 60 years or older with 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (PPSV-23) free of charge. By the end of June 2020, a total of 1.56 million old people had been vaccinated free of charge. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PPSV-23 vaccination program in Shanghai from the health system perspective. According to the actual number of people aged 60 years or older with PPSV-23 vaccination in Shanghai from 2013 to 2018, a multi-cohort Markov model for life-time was developed to compare health and economic outcomes of vaccinated people vs. if they were not vaccinated for PPSV-23. Cost effectiveness was reported as incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER). A 5% discount rate was used for both costs and health outcomes. In addition, one-way sensitivity analysis was used to test the model's robustness. By the end of 2018, a total of 1,091,967 people aged 60 years or older were vaccinated with PPSV-23 in Shanghai, China. Comparing with the unvaccinated circumstances, PPSV-23 vaccination would cost US $19.62 million more and receive an additional 10,321.3 quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). PPSV-23 was associated with the ICER of $190.1 per QALY gained. The Results were sensitive to the variation of vaccine effectiveness against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), and disease incidence, mortality, and costs of CAP. In all sensitivity analysis, the PPSV-23 was economical. The PPSV-23 vaccination program in Shanghai was cost-effective. With the further development of the project, the administrative costs of the vaccine will be reduced, making it more cost-effective.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.647725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8181136PMC
June 2021

Long-term Survivals, Toxicities and the Role of Chemotherapy in Early-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Treated with Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy: A Retrospective Study with 15-year Follow-up.

Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center; State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine; Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: To investigate long-term survivals and toxicities of early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in endemic area, evaluating the role of chemotherapy in stage II patients.

Materials And Methods: Totally 187 patients with newly diagnosed NPC and restaged AJCC/UICC 8th T1-2N0-1M0 were retrospectively recruited. All received intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) ± chemotherapy (CT) from 2001 to 2010.

Results: With 15.7-year median follow-up, 10-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were 93.3%, 93.5%, 92.9% and 88.2%, respectively. Multivariable analyses showed cervical lymph nodes positive and pre-treatment prognostic nutritional index ≥52.0 could independently predict DMFS (p=0.036 and 0.011), DSS (p=0.014 and 0.026) and OS (p=0.002 and <0.001); Charlson comorbidity index <3 points could predict DSS (p=0.011); age >45 years (p=0.002) and pre-treatment lactate dehydrogenase ≥240 U/L (p<0.001) predicted OS. No grade 4 late toxicity happened; grade 3 late toxicities included subcutaneous fibrosis (4.3%), deafness or otitis (4.8%), skin dystrophy (2.1%) and xerostomia (1.1%). No differences on survivals were shown between IMRT+CT vs. IMRT alone in stage II patients, even in T2N1M0 (p>0.05). Unsurprising, patients in IMRT+CT had more acute gastrointestinal reaction, myelosuppression, mucositis, late ear toxicity and cranial nerve injury (all p < 0.05) than IMRT alone group.

Conclusion: Superior tumor control and satisfying long-term outcomes could be achieved with IMRT in early-stage NPC with mild late toxicities. As chemotherapy would bring more toxicities, it should be carefully performed to stage II patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2021.101DOI Listing
June 2021

A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Two Different Schedules for Cisplatin Treatment in Patients with Locoregionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, P.R. China.

Purpose: Previous studies suggest that a cumulative cisplatin dose of 200 mg/m might be adequate in the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) era for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LANPC). However, two cycles of once-every-3-weeks cisplatin at 100 mg/m has never been prospectively compared with standard once-a-week cisplatin regimen.

Patients And Methods: This trial was conducted at three hospitals from 2011 to 2016. Patients who met the eligibility criteria were recruited (ChiCTR-TRC-12001979) and randomly assigned (1:1) via a computer-generated sequence to receive once-every-3-weeks cisplatin at 100 mg/m for two cycles or once-a-week cisplatin at 40 mg/m for six cycles concurrently with IMRT. Primary endpoint was failure-free survival and between-group absolute difference of 10% as the noninferiority margin.

Results: A total of 510 patients were enrolled. Median follow-up time was 58.3 months with 85.4% of 3-year failure-free survival in the once-every-3-weeks group and 85.6% in the once-a-week group. An absolute difference of -0.2% (95% confidence interval, -6.3 to 5.9; = 0.0016). Acute toxicities of grade 3 or higher occurred in 55.8% in the once-every-3-weeks group and 66.3% in the once-a-week group ( = 0.015). The most common acute toxicities were hematologic abnormalities, including leukopenia (16% vs. 27%; = 0.0022) and thrombocytopenia (1% vs. 5%; = 0.015). The late grade 3-4 auditory loss rate was significantly lower in the once-every-3-weeks group than the once-a-week group (6% vs. 13%; = 0.0039).

Conclusions: Once-every-3-weeks cisplatin as concurrent chemoradiotherapy is noninferior to once-a-week cisplatin in the treatment efficacy in the LANPC. Although both regimens are well tolerated, severe acute toxicities and late-onset auditory loss are higher in the once-a-week group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-4532DOI Listing
June 2021

[Validity of the international physical activity questionnaire and bouchard diary in Chinese adults].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 May;50(3):435-441

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: Based on the accelerometer, the validity of the international physical activity questionnaire long version(IPAQ-L) and Bouchard diary were evaluated to measure the daily physical activity of Chinese adults aged 18-59 years old.

Methods: A total of 200 Chinese adults were recruited in Yinzhou District of Ningbo City in 2019, including 78 males and 122 females, the three age groups 18-29, 30-49, 50 and above accounted for 19. 5%, 61. 5% and 18. 0%, respectively. The volunteers wore Actigraph WGT3 x-BT three-dimensional accelerometer for 3 days, and completed the 3 consecutive days& apos; Bouchard diary and the IPAQ-L. The physical activity energy expenditure(PAEE), sedentary inactivity time, light physical activity time(LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity time(MVPA) measured by the three tools were estimated respectively. Spearman analysis was used to analyze the correlation, the Friedman test and the Bland-Altman plot were used to test the homogeneity of the three method.

Results: 196 volunteers were included in this study. The correlation coefficients of PAEE between IPAQ and diary and accelerometer were 0. 32 and 0. 58, respectively, the correlation coefficients of sedentary behavior were 0. 17, 0. 25, and LPA time was 0. 33, and the estimated IPAQ for MVPA time better than diary. The difference test result showed that, except for IPAQ in the measurement of MVPA, there was no statistical difference from the accelerometer measurement result(P=0. 684), and the difference between other estimated values and the accelerometer measurement result was statistically significant(P& lt; 0. 01), Bland-Altman plot result showed that the diary and IPAQ had good consistency in the measurement of PAEE and IPAQ in the estimation of MVPA time, but there was an overestimation in PAEE. In addition, IPAQ had poor validity in measuring sedentary behavior and LPA.

Conclusion: IPAQ and Bouchard diary have better validity in evaluating PAEE, and the diary is better than IPAQ. IPAQ has better validity in evaluating MVPA time, but has poor validity in estimating sedentary behavior and LPA time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.19813/j.cnki.weishengyanjiu.2021.03.015DOI Listing
May 2021

Preliminary study of the characteristics of rib fractures and their impact on pulmonary ventilatory function.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 May 31;16(1):155. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, No. 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai, 200233, China.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the pulmonary ventilation function (PVF) according to different types of rib fractures and pain levels.

Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with thoracic trauma admitted to our ward from May 1, 2015, to February 1, 2017. Vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured on admission. A numerical rating scale (NRS) was used for pain assessment.

Results: A total of 118 (85 males and 33 females) were included. The location of rib fractures did not affect the PVF. When the number of rib fractures was ≥5, the PVF was lower than in those with ≤4 fractures (VC: 0.40 vs. 0.47, P = 0.009; FEV1: 0.37 vs. 0.44, P = 0.012; PEF: 0.17 vs. 0.20, P = 0.031). There were no difference in PVF values between rib fractures with multiple locations and those with non-multiple locations (VC: 0.41 vs. 0.43, P = 0.202; FEV1: 0.37 vs. 0.39, P = 0.692; PEF: 0.18 vs. 0.18, P = 0.684). When there were ≥ 5 breakpoints, the PVF parameters were lower than those with ≤4 breakpoints (VC: 0.40 vs. 0.50, P = 0.030; FEV1: 0.37 vs. 0.45, P = 0.022; PEF: 0.18 vs. 0.20, P = 0.013). When the NRS ≥ 7, the PVF values were lower than for those with NRS ≤ 6 (VC: 0.41 vs. 0.50, P = 0.003; FEV1: 0.37 vs. 0.47, P = 0.040; PEF: 0.18 vs. 0.20, P = 0.027).

Conclusions: When the total number of fractured ribs is ≥5, there are ≥5 breakpoints, or NRS is ≥7, the VC, FEV1, and PEF are more affected.

Trial Registration: The trial was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (as revised in 2013). The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, and individual consent for this retrospectively registered analysis was waived.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-021-01538-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8165336PMC
May 2021

Discovery of cyclohexadepsipeptides with anti-Zika virus activities and biosynthesis of the nonproteinogenic building block (3S)-methyl-l-proline.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jul 23;297(1):100822. Epub 2021 May 23.

State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China; Institute of Ocean Research, Peking University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The fungal cyclohexadepsipeptides destruxins (DTXs), isaridins (ISDs), and isariins (ISRs) are nonribosomal peptides whose structures include a 19-membered ring composed of five amino acid residues and one α- or β-hydroxy acid residue. These cyclohexadepsipeptides contain unusual nonproteinogenic amino acid-building blocks and possess a range of antiviral, antibacterial, and other activities. The biosynthetic gene clusters for ISDs and ISRs have not been identified, and the biosynthesis of the nonproteinogenic (3S)-methyl-l-proline residue, which is found in DTXs, ISDs, and many other natural products, lacks full characterization. In an ongoing effort to identify compounds that can inhibit the Zika virus (ZIKV), we examined the extract of marine-derived fungus Beauveria felina SX-6-22 and discovered 30 DTXs, ISDs, and ISRs (1-30) including seven new compounds (1-7). The anti-ZIKV assays showed that 9-12 and 16-18 possess inhibitory activities against ZIKV RNA replication and NS5 (nonstructural protein 5) production in ZIKV-infected A549 cells. We sequenced the genome of B. felina SX-6-22 and identified three biosynthetic gene clusters detx, isd and isr, which are responsible for the biosynthesis of DTXs, ISDs, and ISRs, respectively. Comparative analyses of the three gene clusters clarified the biosynthetic relationships among these cyclohexadepsipeptides. Finally, we characterized the entire biosynthesis of nonproteinogenic building block (3S)-methyl-l-proline. The Δ-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductases (P5CRs), also used in the biosynthesis of l-proline, were demonstrated to catalyze the final reduction step in (3S)-methyl-l-proline formation, suggesting potential cross talk between primary and secondary metabolisms. These results provide opportunities for biosynthetic pathway engineering to generate new anti-ZIKV cyclohexadepsipeptides.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8233208PMC
July 2021

An interpretable machine learning prognostic system for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma based on tumor burden features.

Oral Oncol 2021 Jul 21;118:105335. Epub 2021 May 21.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060, PR China. Electronic address:

Objectives: We aimed to build a survival system by combining a highly-accurate machine learning (ML) model with explainable artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to predict distant metastasis in locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based tumor burden features.

Materials And Methods: 1643 patients from three hospitals were enrolled according to set criteria. We employed ML to develop a survival model based on tumor burden signatures and all clinical factors. Shapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) was utilized to explain prediction results and interpret the complex non-linear relationship among features and distant metastasis. We also constructed other models based on routinely used cancer stages, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA, or other clinical features for comparison. Concordance index (C-index), receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis and decision curve analysis (DCA) were executed to assess the effectiveness of the models.

Results: Our proposed system consistently demonstrated promising performance across independent cohorts. The concordance indexes were 0.773, 0.766 and 0.760 in the training, internal validation and external validation sets. SHAP provided personalized protective and risk factors for each NPC patient and uncovered some novel non-linear relationships between features and distant metastasis. Furthermore, high-risk patients who received induction chemotherapy (ICT) and concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) had better 5-year distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) than those who only received CCRT, whereas ICT + CCRT and CCRT had similar DMFS in low-risk patients.

Conclusions: The interpretable machine learning system demonstrated superior performance in predicting metastasis in locoregionally advanced NPC. High-risk patients might benefit from ICT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2021.105335DOI Listing
July 2021

Encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) treatment of moyamoya syndrome: evaluation by computed tomography perfusion imaging.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, China.

Objective: To explore the value of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging for evaluating the efficacy of encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS) treatment of moyamoya syndrome (MMS).

Methods: Forty-three patients with MMS (48 hemispheres) who received EDAS treatment were examined using CTP and DSA before and after surgery. CTP of the ipsilateral cortex, contralateral mirror area, and pons region were measured, and the relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and volume (rCBV), mean transit time (rMTT), and time-to-peak (rTTP) were calculated. Based on postoperative DSA, 48 hemispheres were apportioned to two groups based on rich (grades 2, 3) or poor (grades 0, 1) collateral vessel formation, and the pre- and post-operative differences in perfusion changes were compared. The association between clinical outcome, CTP, and the degree of DSA collateral vessels was explored.

Results: rCBF and rMTT significantly improved in both the poor and rich collateral vessel formation groups (n = 21 and 27, respectively), while rTTP significantly improved only in the latter. Postoperative CTP improved in the rich and the grade 1 collateral vessel groups (p < 0.01). The clinical improvement was consistent with the improvement of CTP (p = 0.07), but less consistent with the degree of collateral angiogenesis (p = 0.003).

Conclusion: CTP can quantitatively evaluate the improvement of brain tissue perfusion in the operated area after EDAS. Brain tissue perfusion in operated areas improved regardless of postoperative rich or poor collateral vessel formation observed via DSA. A significant improvement in rTTP in the operated area may indicate the formation of abundant collateral vessels.

Key Points: • CTP showed that brain tissue perfusion in the operated area after EDAS improved regardless of rich or poor collateral vessel formation observed via DSA. • Significant improvement of rTTP in the operated area may indicate the formation of abundant collateral vessels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07960-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Argonaute integrated single-tube PCR system enables supersensitive detection of rare mutations.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 07;49(13):e75

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Technological advances in rare DNA mutations detection have revolutionized the diagnosis and monitoring of tumors, but they are still limited by the lack of supersensitive and high-coverage procedures for identifying low-abundance mutations. Here, we describe a single-tube, multiplex PCR-based system, A-Star, that involves a hyperthermophilic Argonaute from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfAgo) for highly efficient detection of rare mutations beneficial from its compatibility with DNA polymerase. This novel technique uses a specific guide design strategy to allow PfAgo selective cleavage with single-nucleotide resolution at 94°C, thus mostly eliminating wild-type DNA in the denaturation step and efficiently amplifying rare mutant DNA during the PCR process. The integrated single-tube system achieved great efficiency for enriching rare mutations compared with a divided system separating the cleavage and amplification. Thus, A-Star enables easy detection and quantification of 0.01% rare mutations with ≥5500-fold increase in efficiency. The feasibility of A-Star was also demonstrated for detecting oncogenic mutations in solid tumor tissues and blood samples. Remarkably, A-Star achieved simultaneous detection of multiple oncogenes through a simple single-tube reaction by orthogonal guide-directed specific cleavage. This study demonstrates a supersensitive and rapid nucleic acid detection system with promising potential for both research and therapeutic applications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287959PMC
July 2021

Efficacy and Safety of Tofacitinib Retreatment for Ulcerative Colitis After Treatment Interruption: Results From the OCTAVE Clinical Trials.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 04 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Division of Gastroenterology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Background And Aims: Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Here, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib retreatment following treatment interruption in patients with ulcerative colitis.

Methods: Here, patients with clinical response to tofacitinib 10mg b.d. induction therapy were randomised to receive placebo in OCTAVE Sustain. Those experiencing treatment failure after Week 8 of OCTAVE Sustain entered OCTAVE Open and reinitiated tofacitinib 10mg b.d. [retreatment subpopulation]; efficacy and safety data are presented up to Month 36 of OCTAVE Open.

Results: Median time to treatment failure following interruption was 169 [95% CI, 94.0-179.0] and 123 [95% CI, 91.0-168.0] days for induction remitters and induction responders but nonremitters, respectively. Following retreatment with tofacitinib, rates (non-responder imputation after a patient discontinued; last observation carried forward imputation after a patient advanced to a subsequent study [NRI-LOCF]) of clinical response, remission, and endoscopic improvement were 74.0%, 39.0%, and 55.0% at Month 2, and 48.5%, 37.4%, and 42.4% at Month 36, respectively. Among induction remitters and induction responders but non-remitters, clinical response rates at Month 36 were 60.6% and 42.4% [NRI-LOCF], respectively. Efficacy was recaptured regardless of prior tumour necrosis factor inhibitor failure status. The safety profile of tofacitinib 10mg b.d. retreatment was consistent with the overall cohort and demonstrated no new safety risks associated with exposure ≤36 months.

Conclusions: Median time to treatment failure was numerically higher in induction remitters versus induction responders but non-remitters. Following treatment interruption, efficacy was safely and successfully recaptured with tofacitinib 10mg b.d. retreatment in a substantial proportion of patients. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01458574;NCT01470612.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab065DOI Listing
April 2021

Induction chemotherapy with lobaplatin and fluorouracil versus cisplatin and fluorouracil followed by chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage III-IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma: an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 05 12;22(5):716-726. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Centre, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Centre for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: Cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma has been recommended in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Guidelines. However, cisplatin is associated with poor patient compliance and has notable side-effects. Lobaplatin, a third-generation platinum drug, has shown promising antitumour activity against several malignancies with less toxicity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of lobaplatin-based induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy over a cisplatin-based regimen in patients with locoregional, advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Methods: In this open-label, non-inferiority, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial done at five hospitals in China, patients aged 18-60 years with previously untreated, non-keratinising stage III-IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma; Karnofsky performance-status score of at least 70; and adequate haematological, renal, and hepatic function were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenously either lobaplatin-based (lobaplatin 30 mg/m on days 1 and 22, and fluorouracil 800 mg/m on days 1-5 and 22-26 for two cycles) or cisplatin-based (cisplatin 100 mg/m on days 1 and 22, and fluorouracil 800 mg/m on days 1-5 and 22-26 for two cycles) induction chemotherapy, followed by concurrent lobaplatin-based (two cycles of intravenous lobaplatin 30 mg/m every 3 weeks plus intensity-modulated radiotherapy) or cisplatin-based (two cycles of intravenous cisplatin 100 mg/m every 3 weeks plus intensity-modulated radiotherapy) chemoradiotherapy. Total radiation doses of 68-70 Gy (for the sum of the volumes of the primary tumour and enlarged retropharyngeal nodes), 62-68 Gy (for the volume of clinically involved gross cervical lymph nodes), 60 Gy (for the high-risk target volume), and 54 Gy (for the low-risk target volume), were administered in 30-32 fractions, 5 days per week. Randomisation was done centrally at the clinical trial centre of Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Centre by means of computer-generated random number allocation with a block design (block size of four) stratified according to disease stage and treatment centre. Treatment assignment was known to both clinicians and patients. The primary endpoint was 5-year progression-free survival, analysed in both the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. If the upper limit of the 95% CI for the difference in 5-year progression-free survival between the lobaplatin-based and cisplatin-based groups did not exceed 10%, non-inferiority was met. Adverse events were analysed in all patients who received at least one cycle of induction chemotherapy. This trial is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR-TRC-13003285 and is closed.

Findings: From June 7, 2013, to June 16, 2015, 515 patients were assessed for eligibility and 502 patients were enrolled: 252 were randomly assigned to the lobaplatin-based group and 250 to the cisplatin-based group. After a median follow-up of 75·3 months (IQR 69·9-81·1) in the intention-to-treat population, 5-year progression-free survival was 75·0% (95% CI 69·7-80·3) in the lobaplatin-based group and 75·5% (70·0 to 81·0) in the cisplatin-based group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·98, 95% CI 0·69-1·39; log-rank p=0·92), with a difference of 0·5% (95% CI -7·1 to 8·1; p=0·0070). In the per-protocol population, the 5-year progression-free survival was 74·8% (95% CI 69·3 to 80·3) in the lobaplatin-based group and 76·4% (70·9 to 81·9) in the cisplatin-based group (HR 1·04, 95% CI 0·73 to 1·49; log-rank p=0·83), with a difference of 1·6% (-6·1 to 9·3; p=0·016). 63 (25%) of 252 patients in the lobaplatin-based group and 63 (25%) of 250 patients in the cisplatin-based group had a progression-free survival event in the intention-to-treat population; 62 (25%) of 246 patients in the lobaplatin-based group and 58 (25%) of 237 patients in the cisplatin-based group had a progression-free survival event in the per-protocol population. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were mucositis (102 [41%] of 252 in the lobaplatin-based group vs 99 [40%] of 249 in the cisplatin-based group), leucopenia (39 [16%] vs 56 [23%]), and neutropenia (25 [10%] vs 59 [24%]). No treatment-related deaths were reported.

Interpretation: Lobaplatin-based induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy resulted in non-inferior survival and fewer toxic effects than cisplatin-based therapy. The results of our trial indicate that lobaplatin-based induction chemotherapy plus concurrent chemoradiotherapy might be a promising alternative regimen to cisplatin-based treatment in patients with locoregional, advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Funding: National Science and Technology Pillar Program, International Cooperation Project of Science and Technology Program of Guangdong Province, Planned Science and Technology Project of Guangdong Province, and Cultivation Foundation for the Junior Teachers at Sun Yat-sen University.

Translation: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00075-9DOI Listing
May 2021

A Novel Method for the Complex Tube System Reconstruction and Measurement.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 22;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China.

Pipe structures are at the base of the entire industry. In the industry structure, heat and vibration are transmitted in each pipe. The minimum distance between each pipe is significant to the security. The assembly error and the deformation of the pipeline positions after multiple runs are significant problems. The reconstruction of the multi-pipe system is a critical technical difficulty in the complex tube system. In this paper, a new method for the multi-pipes structure inspection is presented. Images of the tube system are acquired from several positions. The photogrammetry technology calculates positions, and the necessary coordination of the structure is reconstructed. A convolution neural network is utilized to detect edges of tube-features. The new algorithm for tube identification and reconstruction is presented to extract the tube feature in the image and reconstruct the 3D parameters of all tubes in a multi-pipes structure. The accuracy of the algorithm is verified by simulation experiments. An actual engine of the aircraft is measured to verify the proposed method.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21062207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004274PMC
March 2021

Association of circulating protein biomarkers with clinical outcomes of durvalumab in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Oncoimmunology 2021 03 17;10(1):1898104. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Clinical Pharmacology & Safety Sciences, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

The potential for durvalumab, a programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1)-blocking monoclonal antibody, to treat head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is being evaluated in multiple clinical trials. We assessed circulating proteins at baseline to identify potential biomarkers and to understand pathways related to clinical outcomes for durvalumab. Prior to treatment, 66 serum proteins were measured using multiplex immunoassays for 158 durvalumab-treated HNSCC patients in the phase II HAWK and CONDOR trials as a discovery dataset and 209 durvalumab-treated HNSCC patients in the phase III EAGLE trial as a validation dataset. Multivariate Cox modeling of HAWK and CONDOR datasets established that higher baseline concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein, S100 calcium-binding protein A12, and angiopoietin-2 (ANGPT2) were associated with shorter overall survival (OS), while higher concentrations of osteocalcin correlated with longer OS after durvalumab treatment ( < .05). All five proteins remained significantly correlated with OS after adjusting for baseline clinical factors, with consistent results across clinical efficacy endpoints based on univariate correlation analyses. The validation dataset from the EAGLE trial confirmed the independent association of IL-6 and osteocalcin with OS, and preserved directional trends for the other biomarkers identified in the discovery dataset. Our results demonstrate the important role of immunosuppressive proteins in the resistance of HNSCC to durvalumab treatment. Osteocalcin showed a positive correlation with clinical outcomes, which remains to be further investigated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2021.1898104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993189PMC
March 2021

Altering bacterial community: A possible way of lactic acid bacteria inoculants reducing CO production and nutrient loss during fermentation.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jun 2;329:124915. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, Guangdong Province Research Center of Woody Forage Engineering Technology, Guangdong Research and Development Centre of Modern Agriculture (Woody Forage) Industrial Technology, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Innovative Development and Utilization of Forest Plant Germplasm, State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

CO production during ensiling is a source of greenhouse gases emissions and a cause of nutrient loss of silage. To investigate the influence of additives on CO production and relevant bacterial communities, stylo and rice straw were ensiled with sucrose and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP). After 30 days fermentation, LP reduced CO production (from 66.2 to 0 mL/100 g fresh matter in stylo, from 83.7 to 16.6 mL/100 g fresh matter in rice straw) and weight loss (from 2.71 to 1.72% in stylo, from 2.75 to 2.40% in rice straw). CO production was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with Lactococcus (0.99), Leuconostoc (0.55), Lachnoclostridium (0.45), Prevotella (0.23) and was negatively correlated (P < 0.05) with Serratia (-0.66), Sphingobacterium (-0.58), Pediococcus (-0.36). LP decreased the relative abundance of genera positively correlated with CO production and increased that of genera negatively correlated. In conclusion, LP could reduce CO production by altering bacterial community during ensiling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124915DOI Listing
June 2021

Asymmetric Adaptive Fusion in a Two-Stream Network for RGB-D Human Detection.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 29;21(3). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Faculty of Information Technology, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China.

In recent years, human detection in indoor scenes has been widely applied in smart buildings and smart security, but many related challenges can still be difficult to address, such as frequent occlusion, low illumination and multiple poses. This paper proposes an asymmetric adaptive fusion two-stream network (AAFTS-net) for RGB-D human detection. This network can fully extract person-specific depth features and RGB features while reducing the typical complexity of a two-stream network. A depth feature pyramid is constructed by combining contextual information, with the motivation of combining multiscale depth features to improve the adaptability for targets of different sizes. An adaptive channel weighting (ACW) module weights the RGB-D feature channels to achieve efficient feature selection and information complementation. This paper also introduces a novel RGB-D dataset for human detection called RGBD-human, on which we verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that AAFTS-net outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods and can maintain stable performance under conditions of frequent occlusion, low illumination and multiple poses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21030916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866388PMC
January 2021

Computed tomographic angiography may be used for assessing the dilatation of the anterior choroidal and posterior communicating arteries in patients with moyamoya syndrome.

Eur Radiol 2021 Aug 9;31(8):5544-5551. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Radiology, the Affiliated Hospital of Jining Medical University, Jining, China.

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of CT angiography (CTA) for assessing anterior choroidal artery (AChA) and posterior communicating artery (PComA) dilatation in patients with moyamoya syndrome (MMS).

Methods: Eighty-eight MMS patients who underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CTA within 1 month were enrolled. The AChA was graded using both DSA and CTA. Given the features of dual blood supply, DSA was firstly used for grading of the PComA. Then, the calibers of PComA, P1 or P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), were recorded from CTA. Taking DSA as a reference standard, the optimal cutoff values of the PComA/P1 or PComA/P2 were calculated to determine the dilatation of PComA. Both the AChA and PComA were classified as extreme dilatation (ED, grade 2) or non-extreme dilatation (NED, grade 0 or 1).

Results: The AChA was evaluated in 149 affected hemispheres of 88 patients while the PComA was evaluated in 70 affected hemispheres of 49 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of CTA in diagnosing AChA-ED were 92% and 93.5% respectively. Both the PComA/P1 (p < 0.001) and PComA/P2 (p = 0.4) ratios were increased in the PComA-ED group with the former yielding a better detecting performance than the latter (AUC = 0.92 vs 0.85, p = 0.046). When using 0.71 as a cutoff value, the sensitivity and specificity of the PComA/P1 ratio for diagnosis of PComA-ED cases were 91.3% and 83.3% respectively.

Conclusions: CTA could be used for the AChA classification in MMS patients, while a PComA/P1 ratio greater than 0.71 indicates the existence of PComA-ED.

Key Points: • CTA showed a high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in diagnosing AChA-ED in patients with MMS. • PComA/P1 ratio greater than 0.71 on CTA signified an extremely dilated PComA. • CTA could be used to assess the dilatation of AChA and PComA in MMS patients, especially for routine postoperative follow-up.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-07722-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Tumour heterogeneity and intercellular networks of nasopharyngeal carcinoma at single cell resolution.

Nat Commun 2021 02 2;12(1):741. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Guangzhou, 510060, People's Republic of China.

The heterogeneous nature of tumour microenvironment (TME) underlying diverse treatment responses remains unclear in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Here, we profile 176,447 cells from 10 NPC tumour-blood pairs, using single-cell transcriptome coupled with T cell receptor sequencing. Our analyses reveal 53 cell subtypes, including tumour-infiltrating CD8 T, regulatory T (Treg), and dendritic cells (DCs), as well as malignant cells with different Epstein-Barr virus infection status. Trajectory analyses reveal exhausted CD8 T and immune-suppressive TNFRSF4 Treg cells in tumours might derive from peripheral CX3CR1CD8 T and naïve Treg cells, respectively. Moreover, we identify immune-regulatory and tolerogenic LAMP3 DCs. Noteworthily, we observe intensive inter-cell interactions among LAMP3 DCs, Treg, exhausted CD8 T, and malignant cells, suggesting potential cross-talks to foster an immune-suppressive niche for the TME. Collectively, our study uncovers the heterogeneity and interacting molecules of the TME in NPC at single-cell resolution, which provide insights into the mechanisms underlying NPC progression and the development of precise therapies for NPC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21043-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7854640PMC
February 2021

A Novel Concentric Circular Coded Target, and Its Positioning and Identifying Method for Vision Measurement under Challenging Conditions.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 28;21(3). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

College of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

Coded targets have been demarcated as control points in various vision measurement tasks such as camera calibration, 3D reconstruction, pose estimation, etc. By employing coded targets, matching corresponding image points in multi images can be automatically realized which greatly improves the efficiency and accuracy of the measurement. Although the coded targets are well applied, particularly in the industrial vision system, the design of coded targets and its detection algorithms have encountered difficulties, especially under the conditions of poor illumination and flat viewing angle. This paper presents a novel concentric circular coded target (CCCT), and its positioning and identifying algorithms. The eccentricity error has been corrected based on a practical error-compensation model. Adaptive brightness adjustment has been employed to address the problems of poor illumination such as overexposure and underexposure. The robust recognition is realized by perspective correction based on four vertices of the background area in the CCCT local image. The simulation results indicate that the eccentricity errors of the larger and smaller circles at a large viewing angle of 70° are reduced by 95% and 77% after correction by the proposed method. The result of the wing deformation experiment demonstrates that the error of the vision method based on the corrected center is reduced by up to 18.54% compared with the vision method based on only the ellipse center when the wing is loaded with a weight of 6 kg. The proposed design is highly applicable, and its detection algorithms can achieve accurate positioning and robust identification even in challenging environments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21030855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866129PMC
January 2021

Hazardous elements flow during pyrolysis of oily sludge.

J Hazard Mater 2021 05 29;409:124986. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134, PR China.

Oily sludge (OS) is a hazardous waste and pyrolysis is a promising technology to achieve energy recovery and non-hazardous disposal simultaneously. However, the distribution of hazardous elements, including N/S/Cl and heavy metals, in pyrolytic products possibly causes secondary pollution. This study conducted a systematic research on hazardous elements flow during OS pyrolysis under variant temperature. Results showed that N/S/Cl in OS were distributed 44.77-15.51 wt%, 83.29-80.22 wt%, and 78.59-73.41 wt% into the solid residues after pyrolysis, respectively. Elevating pyrolysis temperature facilitated more N/S/Cl flowing into pyrolytic oil and gas. The macromolecular N-/S-/Cl-containing compounds, including amides, amines, nitriles, sulfonates, chloroalkanes, etc., were widely distributed in pyrolytic oil and gas products. The micromolecular N-/S-/Cl-containing pollutants released between 200 and 400 °C included HCN, NH, NO, HS, CHS, CS, SO, and HCl, which originated from the decomposition of the amine N, organic sulfide and sulfone-S, and inorganic Cl, respectively. The main pollutants released at above 400 °C included NH, HCN, NO, CS, and SO, which were derived from the decomposition of heterocyclic N and inorganic pyritic-S and sulfate-S. Moreover, the solid residues intercepted more than 60.0 wt% of total heavy metals, which should be concerned in the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.124986DOI Listing
May 2021

[Penile length of the children with unilateral cryptorchidism].

Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue 2020 Feb;26(2):139-142

Department of Urology, Wuhan Children's Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430015, China.

Objective: To investigate the impact of unilateral cryptorchidism (UC) on penile development in children.

Methods: We collected the relevant data on 491 male children aged 12-24 months from January 2017 to January 2019, including 241 normal healthy subjects (the control group) and 250 UC patients (the UC group, 123 with intra-abdominal and the other 127 with inguinal cryptorchidism). We measured the stretched penile length (SPL) in the flaccid state and analyzed its association with the height and weight of the subjects.

Results: The average SPL of the UC patients was significantly shorter than that of the normal controls ([3.7 ± 0.5] vs [4.3 ± 0.8] cm, P < 0.01), and so was that of the UC patients in the 12-18 and 19-24 months age groups than that of the normal controls in the same age groups (P < 0.01). Besides, the SPL was also markedly shorter in the intra-abdominal UC than in the inguinal UC group ([3.4 ± 0.2] vs [3.8 ± 0.3] cm, P < 0.05). No statistically significant differences, however, were observed in the height and weight of the subjects between the UC and normal control groups.

Conclusions: The penile length of the boy with unilateral cryptorchidism is shorter than that of the normal healthy child, the higher the testis location, the shorter the penile length.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

C2 partial transpedicular screw technique for atlantoaxial dislocation with high-riding vertebral artery: A technique note with case series.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 01 4;200:106403. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

From the Department of Orthopedics, Changzheng Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: Although the C2 pedicle screw (C2PS) is currently the most biomechanically robust option for C2 fixation, the high-riding vertebral artery (HRVA) precludes safe C2PS placement. However, unintentional partial C2 pedicle perforation and vertebral foramen violation due to C2PS placement without neurovascular complications occurred frequently in clinic. Therefore, we have attempted to apply C2 partial transpedicular screw (C2PTS) in patients with HRVA with satisfactory preliminary outcomes. The aim of the present study is to introduce the C2PTS technique and report the preliminary radiological and clinical outcomes of application of C2PTS.

Patients And Methods: The data of 15 patients with atlantoaxial dislocation underwent atlantoaxial arthrodesis with posterior screw-rod construct were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had unilateral or bilateral HRVA that precluded safe C2PS placement and C2PTS was used as an alternative. In this technique, a Penfield dissector was used to properly mobilize the HRVA inferiorly to preclude vertebral artery injury and pave the way for C2PTS placement. The C2PTS travelled under the superior border of the isthmus and toward the ipsilateral atlantoaxial articulation. The implant position and atlantoaxial reduction were evaluated using computed tomography (CT) scans and vertebral artery (VA) was assessed using CT angiography postoperatively.

Results: Satisfactory C2PTS placement and atlantoaxial reduction were achieved in all patients. Postoperatively, no vertebral artery injury and implant failure were observed, and bone fusion was achieved in all the patients. Additionally, there were no VA occlusion or stenosis due to screws demonstrated on VA CT angiography.

Conclusion: C2PTS can achieve three-column fixation of axis and is an efficient alternative to C2PS which is prohibited due to HRVA; also, gently mobilizing the HRVA inferiorly is mandatory to prevent vertebral artery injury during C2PTS placement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106403DOI Listing
January 2021
-->