Publications by authors named "Xiang Deng"

76 Publications

Sparsity-control ternary weight networks.

Neural Netw 2021 Oct 29;145:221-232. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, NY, United States.

Deep neural networks (DNNs) have been widely and successfully applied to various applications, but they require large amounts of memory and computational power. This severely restricts their deployment on resource-limited devices. To address this issue, many efforts have been made on training low-bit weight DNNs. In this paper, we focus on training ternary weight {-1, 0, +1} networks which can avoid multiplications and dramatically reduce the memory and computation requirements. A ternary weight network can be considered as a sparser version of the binary weight counterpart by replacing some -1s or 1s in the binary weights with 0s, thus leading to more efficient inference but more memory cost. However, the existing approaches to train ternary weight networks cannot control the sparsity (i.e., percentage of 0s) of the ternary weights, which undermines the advantage of ternary weights. In this paper, we propose to our best knowledge the first sparsity-control approach (SCA) to train ternary weight networks, which is simply achieved by a weight discretization regularizer (WDR). SCA is different from all the existing regularizer-based approaches in that it can control the sparsity of the ternary weights through a controller α and does not rely on gradient estimators. We theoretically and empirically show that the sparsity of the trained ternary weights is positively related to α. SCA is extremely simple, easy-to-implement, and is shown to consistently outperform the state-of-the-art approaches significantly over several benchmark datasets and even matches the performances of the full-precision weight counterparts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2021.10.018DOI Listing
October 2021

Sleep duration and risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality in adult cancer survivors.

J Evid Based Med 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Sociology & Institute for Empirical Social Science Research, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jebm.12451DOI Listing
October 2021

Low-Bandgap Organic Bulk-Heterojunction Enabled Efficient and Flexible Perovskite Solar Cells.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 3:e2105539. Epub 2021 Oct 3.

Department of Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, 999077, Hong Kong.

Lead halide perovskite and organic solar cells (PSCs and OSCs) are considered as the prime candidates currently for clean energy applications due to their solution and low-temperature processibility. Nevertheless, the substantial photon loss in near-infrared (NIR) region and relatively large photovoltage deficit need to be improved to enable their uses in high-performance solar cells. To mitigate these disadvantages, low-bandgap organic bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) layer into inverted PSCs to construct facile hybrid solar cells (HSCs) is integrated. By optimizing the BHJ components, an excellent power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 23.80%, with a decent open-circuit voltage (V ) of 1.146 V and extended photoresponse over 950 nm for rigid HSCs is achieved. The resultant devices also exhibit superior long-term (over 1000 h) ambient- and photostability compared to those from single-component PSCs and OSCs. More importantly, a champion PCE of 21.73% and excellent mechanical durability can also be achieved in flexible HSCs, which is the highest efficiency reported for flexible solar cells to date. Taking advantage of these impressive device performances, flexible HSCs into a power source for wearable sensors to demonstrate real-time temperature monitoring are successfully integrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202105539DOI Listing
October 2021

Case Report: A Severe and Multi-Site Infection Rapidly and Precisely Identified by Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 24;8:669552. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

genus is an aerobic, gram-positive, and opportunistic pathogen, which mainly affects cell-mediated immunosuppressed patients. Early diagnosis and treatment greatly improve prognosis. However, the limitation of golden standard-bacterial culture exists. Here, we report a 61-year-old male with pneumonia, sepsis and intermuscular abscesses induced by . Venous blood culture reported negative results. Former improper diagnosis and treatment did not improve his condition. With the assistant of metagenomic next-generation sequencing, the pathogen was identified as . He was then applied with accurate treatment and had a remarkable clinical and radiological improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2021.669552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183679PMC
May 2021

[Analysis of reduction effect of the evoked nystagmus in the non-affect side during Dix-Hallpike or Roll-test in unilateral posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2020 Nov;34(11):1027-1029

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery,Shenzhen Second People's Hospital,Shenzhen,518000,China.

Comparative analysis of the reduction effect of the evoked nystagmus in the non-affect side during Dix-Hallpike(D-H) or Roll-test in unilateral posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo(PC-BPPV) and PC-BPPV without above evoked nystagmus. Retrospective analysis of 210 patients diagnosed with unilateral PC-BPPV by G-Force BPPV CRP system was made. Among them, 18 patients exhibited positive nystagmus only when the non-affected side was stimulated by D-H test(Group A), 30 was evoked only when stimulated by Roll-test(Group B), 26 was evoked when stimulated by both Roll-test and the non-affected side D-H test(Group C), 136 without nystagmus in the above positions(Group D). All the patients were diagnosed by G-Force BPPV and were treated through simulative Epley or Semont CRP. Compare the reduction effect among the groups. At the first time ,the reduction effect of nystagmus in Group D was superior to those in Group A and Group C(<0.05). There was no difference between Group D and Group B(>0.05). The difference between Group A and Group C was also non-significant(>0.05). The average CRP times of the four groups(CRP until nystagmus disappeared or no longer alleviated) were 1.44±0.63(Group A), 1.46±0.65(Group B), 1.52±0.87(Group C) and 1.48±0.73(Group D)respectively. There were no statistic difference between four groups(>0.05). The differences of final reduction effect between groups were the same as those at the first time. The first time reduction effect was less effective when nystagmus evoked the non-affect side during D-H test in unilateral PC-BPPV, while it might be irrelevant to the nystagmus evoked only in Roll-test. Although the times of CRP were similar among the groups, the final reduction effect of groups with nystagmus evoked the non-affect side during D-H was poorer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13201/j.issn.2096-7993.2020.11.016DOI Listing
November 2020

Regulating Surface Termination for Efficient Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells with Greater Than 23% Efficiency.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 Nov 15;142(47):20134-20142. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, United States.

Passivating surface and bulk defects of perovskite films has been proven to be an effective way to minimize nonradiative recombination losses in perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). The lattice interference and perturbation of atomic periodicity at the perovskite surfaces often significantly affect the material properties and device efficiencies. By tailoring the terminal groups on the perovskite surface and modifying the surface chemical environment, the defects can be reduced to enhance the photovoltaic performance and stability of derived PVSCs. Here, we report a rationally designed bifunctional molecule, piperazinium iodide (), containing both RNH and RNH groups on the same six-membered ring, behaving both as an electron donor and an electron acceptor to react with different surface-terminating ends on perovskite films. The resulting perovskite films after defect passivation show released surface residual stress, suppressed nonradiative recombination loss, and more -type characteristics for sufficient energy transfer. Consequently, charge recombination is significantly suppressed to result in a high open-circuit voltage () of 1.17 V and a reduced loss of 0.33 V. A very high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 23.37% (with 22.75% certified) could be achieved, which is the highest value reported for inverted PVSCs. Our work reveals a very effective way of using rationally designed bifunctional molecules to simultaneously enhance the device performance and stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c09845DOI Listing
November 2020

Synthetic Lethal Drug Combinations Targeting Proteasome and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in TP53-Mutated Cancers.

Arch Cancer Biol Ther 2020 ;1(2):42-47

Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: We have recently published SL-BioDP, a web resource for querying, exploration and visualization of potential synthetic lethal targets and possible synergistic drug combinations for 18 cancer types.

Methods: From our predictive synthetic lethality model used in SL-BioDP, we inferred TP53 mutation lead to potential synergistic drug combination of Bortezomib and Vorinostat. Here we show, how to extrapolate the drug combination results by combining drug screening data from cancer cell lines and showed the potential synergy of the drug targets, proteasome, and histone deacetylase (HDAC) pathways respectively, for patient survival advantage.

Results: We found that TP53 mutation is potentially synthetic lethal with multiple genes from the proteasome and HDAC pathways exclusively in many cancer types. Also, HDAC and proteasomes were found to have potential synthetic lethal relationship. Using drug screening data in cancer cell line, the sensitivity of the HDAC inhibitor drug Vorinostat was found to be increased in TP53 mutated cells where the proteasome pathway was downregulated.

Conclusions: Our in-silico pharmacogenomic study indicates that the potential synergistic drug combination of proteasome and HDAC inhibitors may be considered as potential treatment for TP53-mutant cancers.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7644110PMC
January 2020

Knockdown of Bcl-2-Associated Athanogene-3 Can Enhance the Efficacy of BGJ398 via Suppressing Migration and Inducing Apoptosis in Gastric Cancer.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 09 22;66(9):3036-3044. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of General Surgery, Chongqing Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, No. 6 Panxi Qizhi Road, Jiangbei District, Chongqing, 400000, China.

Background: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies of the digestive tract worldwide, and cancer cell resistance against anticancer drugs remains a major challenge for GC treatment. Nvp-BGJ398 (BGJ398) is considered as a common drug for cancer treatment; however, Bcl-2-associated athanogene-3 (BAG3) plays an important role in drug resistance.

Aims: To investigate the function of BAG3 on the sensitivity of GC cells to BGJ398.

Methods: The expression of BAG3 in GC cells and GC resistance cells was examined by qRT-PCR and western blot. The resistance to BGJ398 was detected by viability assay, and a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) was calculated. The cell migration and apoptosis were determined by wound-healing assay and flow cytometry assay.

Results: BAG3 was highly expressed in drug-resistant cells Fu97R and Snu16R. BAG3 was also associated with sensitivity of Snu16 cells to BGJ398, promoting migration but inhibiting apoptosis. However, knockdown of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) suppressed BAG3 expression and lowered the sensitivity to BGJ398 in Snu16R cells. Knockdown of BAG3 inhibited tumor growth and cell apoptosis but induced cell apoptosis and amplified the sensitivity to BGJ398 in Snu16R cells, followed by enhancing BGJ398-induced antitumor function in a Snu16R-derived xenograft mouse model.

Conclusion: The mechanism of resistance to BGJ398 in GC is mediated by BAG3/HSF1, and combined treatment with shBAG3 could improve the efficacy of BGJ398 in GC. Thus, BAG3-targeted therapy improves the antitumor efficacy of BGJ398, which might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-020-06640-5DOI Listing
September 2021

GATA6 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis through MUC1/β-catenin pathway in cholangiocarcinoma.

Cell Death Dis 2020 10 15;11(10):860. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Southwest Hospital, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, 400038, China.

GATA6 acts as an oncogene or tumour suppressor in different cancers. Previously, we found that aberrant expression of GATA6 promoted metastasis in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). However, the mechanism by which GATA6 promotes metastasis in CCA is unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of GATA6 in CCA cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our results showed that GATA6 expression was positively associated with N-cadherin and vimentin expression but negatively associated with E-cadherin expression in 91 CCA samples. GATA6 promoted EMT and metastasis in CCA cells in vitro and in vivo based on knockdown and overexpression analyses. ChIP-sequencing data revealed that MUC1 is a novel downstream target of GATA6. GATA6 upregulated MUC1 expression through binding to both the 1584 and 1456 GATA-motifs in the promoter region and enhancing its transcription by luciferase reporter assays and point-mutant assays. MUC1 expression was positively associated with N-cadherin and vimentin expression but negatively associated with E-cadherin expression in 91 CCA samples. In addition, MUC1 promoted EMT in CCA cells based on knockdown and overexpression analyses. Moreover, MUC1 knockdown significantly abrogated the GATA6-induced EMT in CCA cells, indicating that MUC1 promoted EMT through upregulating MUC1 in CCA cells. β-Catenin is a putative transcriptional coactivator that regulates EMT in cancers. Our data showed that MUC1 expression was positively associated with nuclear β-catenin expression in 91 CCA samples. MUC1 upregulated nuclear β-catenin expression in CCA cells. Moreover, MUC1 bound to β-catenin in CCA cells based on protein immunoprecipitation analyses. MUC1 knockdown significantly decreased the binding of MUC1 to β-catenin, and thereby decreased nuclear β-catenin protein levels in CCA cells, indicating that MUC1 bound to β-catenin and increased its nuclear expression in CCA cells. Together, our results show that GATA6 promotes EMT through MUC1/β-catenin pathway in CCA, indicating potential implications for anti-metastatic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03070-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567063PMC
October 2020

Facile Room-Temperature Synthesis of a Highly Active and Robust Single-Crystal Pt Multipod Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Nov 23;12(44):49510-49518. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, 771 Ferst Drive, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245, United States.

Economical production of highly active and robust Pt catalysts on a large scale is vital to the broad commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Here, we report a low-cost, one-pot process for large-scale synthesis of single-crystal Pt multipods with abundant high-index facets, in an aqueous solution without any template or surfactant. A composite consisting of the Pt multipods (40 wt %) and carbon displays a specific activity of 0.242 mA/cm and a mass activity of 0.109 A/mg at 0.9 V (versus a reversible hydrogen electrode) for oxygen reduction reaction, corresponding to ∼124% and ∼100% enhancement compared with those of the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst (0.108 mA/cm and 0.054 A/mg). The single-crystal Pt multipods also show excellent stability when tested for 4500 cycles in a potential range of 0.6-1.1 V and another 2000 cycles in 0-1.2 V. More importantly, the superior performance of the Pt multipods/C catalyst is also demonstrated in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), achieving a power density of 774 mW/cm (1.29 A/cm) at 0.6 V and a peak power density of ∼1 W/cm, representing 34% and 20% enhancement compared with those of a MEA based on the state-of-the-art commercial Pt/C catalyst (576 and 834 mW/cm).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c06652DOI Listing
November 2020

Circular RNA circCCDC66 Contributes to Malignant Phenotype of Osteosarcoma by Sponging miR-338-3p to Upregulate the Expression of PTP1B.

Biomed Res Int 2020 10;2020:4637109. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500, China.

In recent years, the mechanism of cancer research has become hotspots of life science and medicine, especially due to the rapid development of molecular medicine and bioinformatics research. Similarly, the molecular mechanism also has received increasing attention in osteosarcoma (OS) research. Also, a considerable amount of research confirmed that circular RNAs (circRNAs) could regulate cancer cell growth and metastasis. This study aimed to explore the effect of a circRNA, circCCDC66, on OS and reveal its potential molecular mechanism. High circCCDC66 expression level was found in OS patient-derived tissue samples and OS cell lines by qRT-PCR. The abilities cell proliferation and metastatic of U2OS and SW1353 cells were then assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 and transwell assay, respectively. The interaction between circCCDC66 and its target miRNAs were verified by the dual-luciferase reporter assay. Through functional experiments, we found that circCCDC66 knockdown promoted the inhibition of cell proliferation and metastatic of OS cell lines. From mechanistic perspective, circCCDC66 upregulated PTP1B by sponging miR-338-3p. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that circCCDC66 contributed to malignant behaviors of OS cells by miR-338-3p/PTP1B pathway, which suggested circCCDC66/miR-338-3p/PTP1B axis might be a potential therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4637109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7439191PMC
April 2021

Analysis of the predictors of surgical treatment and intestinal necrosis in children with intestinal obstruction.

J Pediatr Surg 2020 Dec 27;55(12):2766-2771. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of General Surgery, Jiangxi Provincial Children's Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330006, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To explore the surgical treatment and predictors of intestinal necrosis in children with intestinal obstruction through analyzing blood biochemical indicators, and to establish a predictive model and evaluate its predictive accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

Methods: The data of children with intestinal obstruction hospitalized in Jiangxi Provincial Children's Hospital from January 2014 to June 2019 were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Thirty-six substances in the blood of children with successful conservative management and those requiring surgical treatment were significantly different. The model composed of 7 variables, including age, white blood cell count, creatine kinase, troponin I, myoglobin, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, can be used to predict the unsuccessful conservative management in children with intestinal obstruction, whom need further operation. The average prediction accuracy was 83.50%, the false positive rate was 16.67% (32/192), AUROC is 0.9160 (95% CI, 0.8930-0.9390), and the sensitivity and specificity were 83.20% and 92.70% respectively. A prediction model based on the white blood cell count, creatine kinase, troponin I and myoglobin could predict the occurrence of intestinal necrosis. The average prediction accuracy was 73.70%, false positive rate was 4.49% (15/334), AUROC was 0.7390 (95% CI, 0.6820-0.7960), and the sensitivity and specificity were 71.70% and 64.70%, respectively.

Conclusions: Combination of age, white blood cell count, creatine kinase, troponin I, myoglobin, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen can be used to predict whether the children with intestinal obstruction need surgical treatment or not. Leukocyte count, creatine kinase, troponin I and myoglobin are closely related to the condition of children with intestinal obstruction and can be used to predict whether intestinal necrosis occurs.

Type Of Study: Retrospective Study LEVELS OF EVIDENCE: Level I.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.07.017DOI Listing
December 2020

Circular RNA DGKB Promotes the Progression of Neuroblastoma by Targeting miR-873/GLI1 Axis.

Front Oncol 2020 23;10:1104. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of General Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Accumulated evidences suggested that circular RNAs (circRNA) played critical roles in tumorigenesis and progression. To our knowledge, no study reported the function of circular RNA DGKB (circDGKB, circRNA ID: hsa_circ_0133622) on progression of neuroblastoma (NB). Here, we showed that circDGKB was upregulated in NB tissues compared to the normal dorsal root ganglia. Moreover, the expression level of circDGKB was negatively correlated with the survival rate of NB patients. Mechanically, overexpression of circDGKB promoted the proliferation, migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis of NB cells and reduced cell apoptosis, and vice versa. In addition, qRT-PCR and/or Western blot results showed that circDGKB overexpression inhibited the expression level of miR-873 and enhanced GLI1 expression. Moreover, miR-873 functioned an opposite role to circDGKB and significantly weakened circDGKB role in promoting NB progression. Furthermore, GLI1 upregulation also rescued the miR-873 role in inhibiting NB progression. In conclusion, our work proved that circDGKB promoted NB progression via targeting miR-873/GLI1 axis and . Our study provided a new target for NB treatment and indicated that circDGKB could act as a novel diagnostic marker for NB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7390925PMC
July 2020

Hsp70 Is a Potential Therapeutic Target for Echovirus 9 Infection.

Front Mol Biosci 2020 17;7:146. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Echovirus is an important cause of viral pneumonia and encephalitis in infants, neonates, and young children worldwide. However, the exact mechanism of its pathogenesis is still not well understood. Here, we established an echovirus type 9 infection mice model, and performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based comparative proteomics analysis to investigate the differentially expressed host proteins in mice brain. A total of 21 differentially expressed proteins were identified by MS/MS. The annotation of the differentially expressed proteins by function using the UniProt and GO databases identified one viral protein (5%), seven cytoskeletal proteins (33%), six macromolecular biosynthesis and metabolism proteins (28%), two stress response and chaperone binding proteins (9%), and five other cellular proteins (25%). The subcellular locations of these proteins were mainly found in the cytoskeleton, cytoplasm, nucleus, mitochondria, and Golgi apparatus. The protein expression profiles and the results of quantitative RT-PCR in the detection of gene transcripts were found to complement each other. The differential protein interaction network was predicted using the STRING database. Of the identified proteins, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), showing consistent results in the proteomics and transcriptomic analyses, was analyzed through Western blotting to verify the reliability of differential protein expression data in this study. Further, evaluation of the function of Hsp70 using siRNA and quercetin, an inhibitor of Hsp70, showed that Hsp70 was necessary for the infection of echovirus type 9. This study revealed that echovirus infection could cause the differential expression of a series of host proteins, which is helpful to reveal the pathogenesis of viral infection and identify therapeutic drug targets. Additionally, our results suggest that Hsp70 could be a useful therapeutic host protein target for echovirus infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2020.00146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7379509PMC
July 2020

Dopant-Free Crossconjugated Hole-Transporting Polymers for Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Jul 28;7(13):1903331. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Chemistry City University of Hong Kong Kowloon 999077 Hong Kong SAR.

Currently, there are only very few dopant-free polymer hole-transporting materials (HTMs) that can enable perovskite solar cells (PVSCs) to demonstrate a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of greater than 20%. To address this need, a simple and efficient way is developed to synthesize novel crossconjugated polymers as high performance dopant-free HTMs to endow PVSCs with a high PCE of 21.3%, which is among the highest values reported for single-junction inverted PVSCs. More importantly, rational understanding of the reasons why two isomeric polymer HTMs ( and ) with almost identical photophysical properties, hole-transporting ability, and surface wettability deliver so distinctly different device performance under similar device fabrication conditions is manifested. is found to improve the quality of perovskite films cast on top with larger grain sizes and more oriented crystallization. These results help unveil the new HTM design rules to influence the perovskite growth/crystallization for improving the performance of inverted PVSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.201903331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341082PMC
July 2020

Promoting or Inhibiting? The Impact of Environmental Regulation on Corporate Financial Performance-An Empirical Analysis Based on China.

Authors:
Xiang Deng Li Li

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 28;17(11). Epub 2020 May 28.

School of Economics, Sichuan University, No. 24 South Section 1 Yihuan Road, Chengdu 610065, China.

Today, environmental protection has become a global issue, and various environmental regulations have been actively adopted. However, are these measures promoting or harming enterprise values? Is this effect the same for enterprises with different ownership backgrounds? In order to address these problems, we conducted an empirical analysis of China's A-share market to investigate the relationship between the New Environmental Protection Law (NEPL) launched in China and corporate financial performance, and further explore the impact of environmental supervision intensity (ESI) from the perspective of ownership. The empirical results show that there is a negative correlation between NEPL and the financial performance of high pollution enterprises. Further analysis demonstrates that there is an inverted U-shape relationship between ESI and corporate financial performance for both state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and non-state-owned enterprises (non-SOEs), while the financial performance of SOEs is more sensitive and tolerant to environmental regulation than that of non-SOEs. Finally, we make recommendations for the future direction of China's ecological civilization construction and sustainable development of enterprises based on three aspects: environmental awareness, policy considerations, and sustainable development. The innovation of this paper lies in putting NEPL and corporate financial performance in the same analytical framework for the first time, which enriches the research in this field. Meanwhile, it provides a new perspective for understanding the relationship between ESI and corporate financial performance through the analysis of nonlinearity and owner heterogeneity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312506PMC
May 2020

SL-BioDP: Multi-Cancer Interactive Tool for Prediction of Synthetic Lethality and Response to Cancer Treatment.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Oct 29;11(11). Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Bioinformatics core facility, Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Synthetic lethality exploits the phenomenon that a mutation in a cancer gene is often associated with new vulnerability which can be uniquely targeted therapeutically, leading to a significant increase in favorable outcome. DNA damage and survival pathways are among the most commonly mutated networks in human cancers. Recent data suggest that synthetic lethal interactions between a tumor defect and a DNA repair pathway can be used to preferentially kill tumor cells. We recently published a method, DiscoverSL, using multi-omic cancer data, that can predict synthetic lethal interactions of potential clinical relevance. Here, we apply the generality of our models in a comprehensive web tool called Synthetic Lethality Bio Discovery Portal (SL-BioDP) and extend the cancer types to 18 cancer genome atlas cohorts. SL-BioDP enables a data-driven computational approach to predict synthetic lethal interactions from hallmark cancer pathways by mining cancer's genomic and chemical interactions. Our tool provides queries and visualizations for exploring potentially targetable synthetic lethal interactions, shows Kaplan-Meier plots of clinical relevance, and provides in silico validation using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and drug efficacy data. Our method would thus shed light on mechanisms of synthetic lethal interactions and lead to the discovery of novel anticancer drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11111682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6895978PMC
October 2019

Discovery of a new communication branch of the portal-vena cava system: Splenic vein-left ovarian vein.

Asian J Surg 2020 Jan 30;43(1):381-382. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of General Surgery, Chongqing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 400021 Chongqing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2019.08.004DOI Listing
January 2020

The interaction of LOXL2 with GATA6 induces VEGFA expression and angiogenesis in cholangiocarcinoma.

Int J Oncol 2019 Sep 15;55(3):657-670. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Hepatobiliary Surgery Institute, Southwest Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing 400038, P.R. China.

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the second most common hepatobiliary cancer after hepatocellular carcinoma. Antiangiogenic therapy has been administered to patients with CCA, but the benefits of this therapy remain unsatisfactory. Improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying angiogenesis in CCA is required. In the present study, the expression of GATA‑binding protein 6 (GATA6), lysyl oxidase‑like 2 (LOXL2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), in addition to the microvessel density (MVD), were evaluated by performing immunohistochemical staining of human CCA microarrays. The expression of GATA6/LOXL2 was associated with poor overall survival (P=0.01) and disease‑free survival (P=0.02), and was positively associated with VEGFA expression (P=0.02) and MVD (P=0.04). In vitro, western blotting, reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR analysis and ELISAs revealed that altered GATA6 and LOXL2 expression regulated the expression levels of secreted VEGFA. Co‑immunoprecipitation demonstrated a physical interaction between GATA6 and LOXL2 in CCA cell lines, and the scavenger receptor cysteine‑rich domain of LOXL2 interacted with GATA6, which regulated VEGFA mRNA expression and protein secretion, and promoted tube formation. In vivo analyses further revealed that GATA6/LOXL2 promoted VEGFA expression, angiogenesis and tumor growth. The GATA6/LOXL2 complex represents a novel candidate prognostic marker for stratifying patients with CCA. Drugs targeting this complex may possess great therapeutic value in the treatment of CCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2019.4837DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6685595PMC
September 2019

Side-Chain Polymers as Dopant-Free Hole-Transporting Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells-The Impact of Substituents' Positions in Carbazole on Device Performance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Jul 18;11(30):26928-26937. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

School of Advanced Materials , Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School , Shenzhen , Guangdong Province 518055 , China.

Side-chain polymers have the potential to be excellent dopant-free hole-transporting materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells (PSCs) because of their unique characteristics, such as tunable energy levels, high charge mobility, good solubility, and excellent film-forming ability. However, there has been less research focusing on side-chain polymers for PSCs. Here, two side-chain polystyrenes with triphenylamine substituents on carbazole moieties were designed and characterized. The properties of the side-chain polymers were tuned finely, including the photophysical and electrochemical properties and charge mobilities, by changing the positions of triphenylamine substituents on carbazole. Owing to the higher mobility and charge extraction ability, the polymer with the triphenylamine substituent on the 3,6-positions of the carbazole unit showed higher performance with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.45%, which was much higher than the PCE (16.78%) of with 2,7-positions substituted. These results clearly demonstrated that side-chain polymers can act as promising HTMs for PSC applications and the performance of side-chain polymers could be optimized by carefully tuning the structure of the monomer, which provides a new strategy to design new kinds of side-chain polymers and obtain high-performance dopant-free HTMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b07859DOI Listing
July 2019

MicroRNA‑708 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma cells by directly targeting ZEB1.

Mol Med Rep 2019 May 6;19(5):3948-3954. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500, P.R. China.

Numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as aberrantly expressed in osteosarcoma (OS). miRNAs serve important roles in the pathogenesis of OS as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Recent studies revealed that miR‑708‑5p (miR‑708) was dysregulated in various types of human cancer; however, its roles and underlying molecular mechanisms in OS remain unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine miR‑708 expression in OS, investigate the roles of miR‑708 in the progression of OS and reveal the potential mechanisms involved. It was demonstrated using reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction that miR‑708 was downregulated in OS tissues and cell lines. Cell Counting Kit‑8 and Transwell assays revealed that miR‑708 overexpression suppressed the proliferation and invasion of OS cells in vitro. Additionally, zinc finger E‑box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) was validated as a direct target gene of miR‑708 in OS cells. ZEB1 was upregulated in OS tissues; elevated ZEB1 expression was negatively correlated with the levels of miR‑708 expression. Rescue experiments indicated that ZEB1 reintroduction significantly counteracted the inhibitory effects of miR‑708 overexpression on the proliferation and invasion of OS cells. The findings may improve understanding of the roles of miR‑708 in the development of OS, and suggest that miR‑708 may be a potential novel therapeutic target in the treatment of patients with this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2019.10013DOI Listing
May 2019

Novel role of SF1 in alleviating thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy through the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway.

Gene 2019 Apr 15;691:132-140. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Endocrinology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background/aim: Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by an increased volume of adipose/connective tissue. This study aims to explore whether steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) is implicated in development of TAO through the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.

Methods: Initially, we extracted orbital preadipocytes from 10 TAO patients for culture and identification. After differentiation, cells were inoculated with plasmids with overexpressed SF1, and plasmids with siRNA against SF1, respectively. Then fat content and PGE secretion were measured by using ELISA. The levels of SF1, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase3, Pref-1, PPARγ, Leptin, Adiponectin, p-AMPKα, p-mTOR, and p-S6K were detected by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by EdU and flow cytometry.

Results: TAO patients showed reduced SF1 expression in orbital preadipocytes. Overexpression of SF1 led to inhibited expression of Bcl-2, PPARγ, Leptin, Adiponectin and p-AMPKα, fat content, cell proliferation and differentiation, but increased levels of Bax, Caspase3, Pref-1, p-mTOR and p-S6K, PGE secretion and apoptosis rate.

Conclusion: Our result showed up-regulated SF1 may relieve TAO through suppressing cell proliferation and differentiation, but accelerating cell apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of the AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2018.11.097DOI Listing
April 2019

LncRNA BLACAT1 is involved in chemoresistance of non‑small cell lung cancer cells by regulating autophagy.

Int J Oncol 2019 Jan 31;54(1):339-347. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052, P.R. China.

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the long non‑coding RNA (lncRNA) bladder cancer‑associated transcript 1 (BLACAT1) in chemoresistance of non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Expression of lncRNA BLACAT1, microRNA (miR)‑17, autophagy‑related protein 7 (ATG7), multidrug‑resistance protein 1 (MRP1), and the autophagy‑associated proteins light chain 3 (LC3)‑II/LC3‑I and Beclin 1 were detected using the reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Cell viability was determined using an MTT assay. The interaction between BLACAT1 and miR‑17 was determined using RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull‑down assays. A cisplatin (DDP)‑resistant NSCLC cell A549/DDP xenograft model in nude mice was established to investigate the effect of BLACAT1 on the chemoresistance of NSCLC cells. Compared with in DDP‑sensitive NSCLC cells, expression of BLACAT1, ATG7, MRP1, LC3‑II/LC3‑I and Beclin 1 was significantly upregulated in DDP‑resistant NSCLC cells, whereas miR‑17 was downregulated in DDP‑resistant NSCLC cells. Short interfering RNA against BLACAT1 decreased the viability of DDP‑resistant NSCLC cells. In addition, BLACAT1 interacted with miR‑17, and negatively regulated miR‑17. BLACAT1 promoted ATG7 expression through miR‑17, and facilitated autophagy and promoted chemoresistance of NSCLC cells through miR‑17/ATG7. Finally, in vivo experiments indicated that inhibition of BLACAT1 ameliorated the chemoresistance of NSCLC. BLACAT1 was upregulated in DDP‑resistant NSCLC cells, and promoted autophagy and chemoresistance of NSCLC cells through the miR‑17/ATG7 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2018.4614DOI Listing
January 2019

Simultaneous Detection of Hydroquinone and Catechol Using Platinum Nanoparticles Decorated Graphene/Poly-Cyclodextrin/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) Nanocomposite Based Biosensor.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2018 12;18(12):8118-8123

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials, College of Chemistry, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, P. R. China.

Graphene cyclodextrin prepolymer (pre-CD)-multiwall carbon nanotubes (Gr-CDP-MWCNTs) nanocomposites modified on glassy carbon electrode (Gr-CDP-MWCNTs/GCE) are prepared and then platinum particles (PtNPs) are electrodeposited on it. The simultaneous determination of hydroquinone (HQ) and catechol (CC) at PtNPs/Gr-CDP-MWCNTs/GCE is reported in the present work. Synergistic effect of nanomaterials, host-guest chemical reaction ability of CDP, the stacking interaction between detected molecules and Gr-MWCNTs surface are considered as the main reasons of successfully simultaneous detection of HQ and CC. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and different pulse voltammetry (DPV) are employed to characterize the proposed PtNPs/Gr-CDP-MWCNTs electrochemical biosensor. The prepared PtNPs/Gr-CDP-MWCNTs sensor shows linear response ranges of 0.05-27.2 μM and 0.1-27.2 μM and have low detection limits (S/N = 3) of 0.015 μM and 0.03 μM for simultaneous electrochemical determination of HQ and CC, respectively. It is also applied for the measurement of HQ and CC in local river water samples with recoveries from 98.0 to 102.0% and from 99.3 to 101.5%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2018.16295DOI Listing
December 2018

DiscoverSL: an R package for multi-omic data driven prediction of synthetic lethality in cancers.

Bioinformatics 2019 02;35(4):701-702

Radiation Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Summary: Synthetic lethality is a state when simultaneous loss of two genes is lethal to a cancer cell, while the loss of the individual genes is not. We developed an R package DiscoverSL to predict and visualize synthetic lethality in cancers using multi-omic cancer data. Mutation, copy number alteration and gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas project were combined to develop a multi-parametric Random Forest classifier. The effects of selectively targeting the predicted synthetic lethal genes is tested in silico using shRNA and drug screening data from cancer cell line databases. The clinical outcome in patients with mutation in primary gene and over/under-expression in the synthetic lethal gene is evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The method helps to identify new therapeutic approaches by exploiting the concept of synthetic lethality.

Availability And Implementation: DiscoverSL package with user manual and sample workflow is available for download from github url: https://github.com/shaoli86/DiscoverSL/releases/tag/V1.0 under GNU GPL-3.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/bty673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6378931PMC
February 2019

Facile Strategy to Low-Cost Synthesis of Hierarchically Porous, Active Carbon of High Graphitization for Energy Storage.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Jun 12;10(25):21573-21581. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering , Nanjing Tech University , Nanjing 210009 , China.

To achieve high energy/power output, long serving life, and low cost of carbon-based electrodes for energy storage, we have developed a unique synthesis method for the fabrication of hierarchically porous carbon of high graphitization (HPCHG), derived from pyrolysis of an iron-containing organometallic precursor in a molten ZnCl media at relatively low temperatures. The as-prepared HPCHG has a large specific surface area (>1200 m g), abundant micro/mesopores, and plenty of surface defects. When tested in a supercapacitor (SC), the HPCHG electrode delivers 248 F g at 0.5 A g and a high capacitance retention of 52.4% (130 F g) at 50 A g. When tested in a sodium-ion battery (SIB), the HPCHG electrode exhibits a reversible capacity of 322 mA h g at 100 mA g while maintaining ∼75% of the initial stable capacity after 2000 cycles with the applied current density as high as 5000 mA g, implying that the HPCHG electrode is very promising for energy storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b04733DOI Listing
June 2018

Situs inversus totalis with solid pseudopapillary pancreatic tumor: A case report and review of literature.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Mar;97(12):e0205

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University.

Rationale: Situs inversus totalis (SIT) is a rare anatomical variation of the internal organs, and solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) is a rare tissue type of pancreatic tumors, classified as benign or low-grade malignancy. However, to our knowledge, a patient with SIT and SPTP is extremely rare and has never been reported.

Patient Concerns: We retrospectively analyzed a case of SIT with SPTP in a 45-year-old woman. The main complaints were abdominal pain and sensation of heaviness for 2 weeks. There was tenderness and a mass that could be palpated in the right upper abdomen.

Diagnoses: Heart ultrasonography (USG), chest x-ray, computed tomography (CT), and contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CECT) revealed a mirror-image dextrocardia and inversion of all abdominal viscera and a space-occupying lesion in the pancreas tail. Abdominal computed tomography angiography (CTA) showed no obvious abnormality of artery. The diagnosis of SPTP was finally made by postoperative pathological examination.

Interventions: The patient underwent resection of the pancreatic body and tail and splenectomy via laparotomy to completely remove the tumor.

Outcomes: The patient was discharged with specific discomfort on postoperative day 7. At the 1.5-year follow-up, she recovered without issue.

Lessons: Surgical resection remains the only effective treatment of SPTP. SIT with SPTP can be accurately diagnosed by heart USG, chest x-ray, CT, and CECT of the upper abdomen. Abdominal aorta CTA before surgery can decrease the injury risk of blood vessels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000010205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5895343PMC
March 2018

Genetically-modified bone mesenchymal stem cells with TGF-β improve wound healing and reduce scar tissue formation in a rabbit model.

Exp Cell Res 2018 06 15;367(1):24-29. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Extensive scar tissue formation often occurs after severe burn injury, trauma, or as one of complications after surgical intervention. Despite significant therapeutic advances, it is still a significant challenge to manage massive scar tissue formation while also promoting normal wound healing. The goal of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) that were genetically modified to overexpress transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-β), an inhibitor of myofibroblast proliferation and collagen type I deposition, on full-thickness cutaneous wound healing in a rabbit model. Twenty-four rabbits with surgically-induced full-thickness cutaneous wounds created on the external ear (1.5 × 1.5 cm, two wounds/ear) were randomized into four groups: (G1), wounds with no special treatment but common serum-free culture medium as negative controls; (G2), topically-applied recombinant adenovirus, expressing TGF-β/GFP; (G3), topically-applied BMSCs alone; (G4), topically-applied BMSCs transfected with Ad-TGF-β/GFP (BMSCs); and (G5), an additional normal control (n = 2) with neither wound nor treatment on the external ear skin. The sizes of wounds on the ear tissues were grossly examined, and the scar depth and density of wounds were histologically evaluated 21, 45, and 90 days after surgical wound creation. Our results demonstrated that G4 significantly reduced the wound scar depth and density, compared to G1~3. Numbers of cells expressing GFP significantly increased in G4, compared to G2. The protein expression of TGF-β and type III collagen in G4 significantly increased, while the ratio of type I to type III collagen was also significantly reduced, which is similar to the tissue architecture found in G5, as compared the other treatment groups. In conclusion, transplantation of BMSCs remarkably improves wound healing and reduces skin scar tissue formation in an animal model, which may potentially provide an alternative in the treatment of extensive scar tissue formation after soft tissue injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2018.02.006DOI Listing
June 2018

A Facile Photoluminescent Probe for Picric Acid Detection Using Carbon Nanodots Prepared by Sichuan Bergamot.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2018 Mar;18(3):1757-1762

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University of Arts and Science, Dazhou, Sichuan 635000, P. R. China.

A facile photoluminescent probe for picric acid (PA) detection was developed using photoluminescent carbon nanodots (C-dots), which was obtained from a traditional Chinese medicinal material Sichuan Bergamot via a one-step hydrothermal method for the first time. The as-prepared photoluminescent C-dots show favorable blue color photoluminescence with the maximum emission at 440 nm. It has been successfully applied as a photoluminescent probe for the detection of PA. This photoluminescent probe exhibits excellent sensitivity and selectivity toward PA from 0.4 μM to 80 μM with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9987. The limit of detection (LOD) for PA is 82 nM. Furthermore, the proposed C-dots for photoluminescent probe detection of PA in real water samples (river water, refinery wastewater and pharmaceutical factory wastewater) by adding 5 μM and 20 μM PA with satisfactory recoveries from 99.5% to 101.5%. These novel photoluminescent C-dots is promising in environmental analysis of PA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2018.14228DOI Listing
March 2018

Liver transplantation for decompensated liver cirrhosis caused by progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2017 Dec;96(50):e9158

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University Basic Nursing Teaching and Research Office, Nanchang City Health School Department of Infectious Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Rationale: Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) type 3, characterized by high gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), is an autosomal recessive genetic disease. It often occurs in patients' first years of age. However, high GGT type PFIC is still rare.

Patient Concerns: The present study reports a case of liver transplantation for decompensated liver cirrhosis caused by PFIC type 3. An 18-year-old male presented with a history of abdominal distension and jaundice for 2 months. He had abdominal tenderness but no rebounding pain. Moreover, his dullness was felt over the liver and the spleen was palpable 8 cm below the ribs.

Diagnoses: Computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreato graphy of the upper abdomen revealed cirrhosis, portal hypertension, collateral circulation formation, large spleen, and ascites. Blood biochemistry showed high alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and GGT. The diagnosis of decompensated liver cirrhosis caused by PFIC-3 was finally confirmed by plasma gene detecting.

Interventions: The patient received an open surgery named allogeneic liver transplantation after successful matching of immune types between the recipient and donor. Peritoneal puncture and catheter drainage under B-ultrasound was performed when an encapsulated effusion between the liver and stomach arose.

Outcomes: The patient was discharged without specific discomfort and was almost free of fluid accumulation 51 days after the surgery. At the 6-month follow-up, he had no discomfort and the blood routine, liver functions showed no abnormalities.

Lessons: We found a new mutant fragment of ABCB4 gene in the process of diagnosis. Liver transplantation remains the most definitive treatment for PFIC. Current medical therapies and surgical interventions such as biliary diversion have potentially created a synergistic outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000009158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5815735PMC
December 2017
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