Publications by authors named "Xian Zhou"

202 Publications

Common-mode noise self-suppressed 3-component fiber optic accelerometer based on low-reflectivity Bragg gratings.

Opt Lett 2021 Apr;46(7):1596-1599

Common-mode noises (CMNs) are frequent in the fiber optic accelerometer, and their suppression is extremely important, particularly in the ultra-weak signal detection application, e.g., micro-seismic monitoring. This Letter proposes a 3-component (3C) low-reflectivity fiber Bragg gratings accelerometer for CMN self-suppression. When compared with the traditional CMN suppression method, the proposed 3C accelerometer is able to improve the CMN suppression effect by an average value larger than 4.5 dB in three axes, as well as double the effective signal amplitude due to the push-pull structure, which brings an enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. Besides, the proposed 3C accelerometer does not need an additional reference interferometer to achieve such a CMN suppression effect; hence, it largely reduces the volume and cost of the sensing system, which shows huge advantages, particularly in the large-scale quasi-distributed array. The proposed 3C accelerometer provides a promising candidate for the weak vector vibration detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.417034DOI Listing
April 2021

Drug-herb interactions between Scutellaria baicalensis and pharmaceutical drugs: Insights from experimental studies, mechanistic actions to clinical applications.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Mar 10;138:111445. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

NICM Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia. Electronic address:

Whilst the popular use of herbal medicine globally, it poses challenges in managing potential drug-herb interaction. There are two folds of the drug-herb interaction, a beneficial interaction that may improve therapeutic outcome and minimise the toxicity of drug desirably; by contrast, negative interaction may evoke unwanted clinical consequences, especially with drugs of narrow therapeutic index. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi is one of the most popular medicinal plants used in Asian countries. It has been widely used for treating various diseases and conditions such as cancer, diabetes, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Studies on its extract and bioactive compounds have shown pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions with a wide range of pharmaceutical drugs as evidenced by plenty of in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. Notably, S. baicalensis and its bioactives including baicalein, baicalin and wogonin exhibited synergistic interactions with many pharmaceutical drugs to enhance their efficacy, reduce toxicity or overcome drug resistance to combat complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes and infectious diseases. On the other hand, S. baicalensis and its bioactives also affected the pharmacokinetic profile of many drugs in absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination via the regulatory actions of the efflux pumps and cytochrome P450 enzymes. This review provides comprehensive references of the observed pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic drug interactions of Scutellaria baicalensis and its bioactives. We have elucidated the interaction with detailed mechanistic actions, identified the knowledge gaps for future research and potential clinical implications. Such knowledge is important for the practice of both conventional and complementary medicines, and it is essential to ensure the safe use of related herbal medicines. The review may be of great interest to practitioners, consumers, clinicians who require comprehensive information on the possible drug interactions with S. baicalensis and its bioactives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111445DOI Listing
March 2021

Broad-spectrum pharmacological activity of Australian propolis and metabolomic-driven identification of marker metabolites of propolis samples from three continents.

Food Funct 2021 Mar 8;12(6):2498-2519. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

NICM Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, Australia.

Propolis is a by-product of honeybee farming known for its broad therapeutic benefits around the world and is extensively used in the health food and beverage industry. Despite Australia being one of the world's megadiverse countries with rich flora and fauna, Australian propolis samples have not been explored adequately with most in vitro and in vivo studies centred on their Brazilian and Chinese counterparts. In view of this, our study was designed to investigate the chemical composition and anti-proliferative, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Australian propolis (AP-1) extract to draw a comparison with Brazilian (BP-1) and Chinese propolis (CP-1) extracts. The AP-1 extract displayed significantly greater anti-proliferative activity against the MCF7 and the MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast adenocarcinoma cell lines compared to BP-1 and CP-1 (p < 0.05). Similar trends were also observed in the antibacterial (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus), anti-inflammatory (lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 macrophages) and antioxidant assays (ABTS, DPPH and CUPRAC) with AP-1 exhibiting more potent activity than BP-1 and CP-1. The ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole high-resolution time of flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS) and chemometrics implementing unsupervised PCA and supervised OPLS-DA analyses of the propolis samples from Australia, China and Brazil revealed 67 key discriminatory metabolites belonging to seven main chemical classes including flavonoids, triterpenes, acid derivatives, stilbenes, steroid derivatives, diterpenes and miscellaneous compounds. Additionally, seven common phenolic compounds were quantified in the samples. Further mechanistic studies are necessary to elucidate the modes of action of Australian propolis for its prospective use in the food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1fo00127bDOI Listing
March 2021

Unraveling the effect of inter-basin water transfer on reducing water scarcity and its inequality in China.

Water Res 2021 Apr 15;194:116931. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Centre for Water Systems, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK. Electronic address:

Securing water supply in the face of increasing water scarcity is one important challenge faced by humanity in sustainable development. Inter-basin water transfer is widely applied to provide water supply security in regions where water demand exceeds water availability. However, the effect of inter-basin water transfer on alleviating water scarcity and its inequality is poorly understood especially at the national scale. Based on a newly compiled database of inter-basin water transfer projects in China, here we report a first national assessment of their effect on securing water supply in different basins. We developed a number of indices to facilitate quantifying the effect of water transfer on water scarcity and its inequality. The capacity of inter-basin transfer projects has been steadily increased, which achieved ~48.5 billion m yr by 2016 (equivalent to ~8% of the national water use). The results indicate that water transfer has impacted water supply of 43 sub-basins out of a total of 76 sub-basins, but it hardly changes a basin's water scarcity level (e.g., from water scarcity to low water scarcity). Approximately three quarters of people in China are affected by water transfer. More than a half of the national population (705 million) benefit from alleviated water scarcity, leading to the inequality coefficient reduced from 0.64 under natural water availability condition to 0.59 considering water transfer in 2016. However, 357 million people in water transfer source basins are subject to increased water scarcity, in which ~21% are from water stressed sub-basins. This study reveals for the first time water transfer induced water scarcity and inequality change across sub-basins in China, and highlights the challenges to secure water supply across basins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.116931DOI Listing
April 2021

Scoping Review and Bibliometric Analysis of the Most Influential Publications in Achalasia Research from 1995 to 2020.

Biomed Res Int 2021 4;2021:8836395. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

Objective: To identify and evaluate characteristics of the most influential articles in achalasia research during the period 1995-2020.

Methods: Articles in Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC), and PubMed were scanned from 1995 to 2020 with achalasia as the keyword. We retrieved the articles that met all criteria by descending order after using EndNote to remove the duplicated references. Our bibliometric analysis highlighted publication year, country, journals, and networks of keywords.

Results: Fifteen percent of the top 100 most-cited articles were published in They were performed in 15 countries, and most ( = 55) were from the USA. The number of citations of the 482 articles ranged from 30 to 953, 38 of which had been published in . Those articles were from 31 countries, and most of the studies ( = 217) had been performed in the USA. Most of articles ( = 335) were clinical research. Treatments were hotspots in the field of achalasia in the past years. The most influential title words were "achalasia," "esophagomyotomy," "pneumatic dilation," and "lower esophageal sphincter."

Conclusion: Our study offers a historical perspective on the progress of achalasia research and identified the most significant evolution in this field. Results showed treatment was the most influence aspect in achalasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8836395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884120PMC
February 2021

Improving Pulmonary Infection Diagnosis with Metagenomic Next Generation Sequencing.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 26;10:567615. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Pulmonary infections are among the most common and important infectious diseases due to their high morbidity and mortality, especially in older and immunocompromised individuals. However, due to the limitations in sensitivity and the long turn-around time (TAT) of conventional diagnostic methods, pathogen detection and identification methods for pulmonary infection with greater diagnostic efficiency are urgently needed. In recent years, unbiased metagenomic next generation sequencing (mNGS) has been widely used to detect different types of infectious pathogens, and is especially useful for the detection of rare and newly emergent pathogens, showing better diagnostic performance than traditional methods. There has been limited research exploring the application of mNGS for the diagnosis of pulmonary infections. In this study we evaluated the diagnostic efficiency and clinical impact of mNGS on pulmonary infections. A total of 100 respiratory samples were collected from patients diagnosed with pulmonary infection in Shanghai, China. Conventional methods, including culture and standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) panel analysis for respiratory tract viruses, and mNGS were used for the pathogen detection in respiratory samples. The difference in the diagnostic yield between conventional methods and mNGS demonstrated that mNGS had higher sensitivity than traditional culture for the detection of pathogenic bacteria and fungi (95% vs 54%; p<0.001). Although mNGS had lower sensitivity than PCR for diagnosing viral infections, it identified 14 viral species that were not detected using conventional methods, including multiple subtypes of human herpesvirus. mNGS detected viruses with a genome coverage >95% and a sequencing depth >100× and provided reliable phylogenetic and epidemiological information. mNGS offered extra benefits, including a shorter TAT. As a complementary approach to conventional methods, mNGS could help improving the identification of respiratory infection agents. We recommend the timely use of mNGS when infection of mixed or rare pathogens is suspected, especially in immunocompromised individuals and or individuals with severe conditions that require urgent treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.567615DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7874146PMC
January 2021

Transcriptional E2F1/2/3/6 as potential prognostic biomarkers in cutaneous melanoma.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(1):420-433. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Chongqing Key Laboratory of Translational Research for Cancer Metastasis and Individualized Treatment, Chongqing University Cancer Hospital Chongqing 400030, China.

Although the abnormal expression of members of the E2F family has been reported to participate in carcinogenesis in many human types of cancer, the bioinformatics role of the E2F family in melanoma is unknown. This research was designed to detect the expression, methylation, prognostic value and potential effects of the E2F family in melanoma. We investigated E2F family mRNA expression from the Oncomine and GEPIA databases and their methylation status in the MethHC database. Meanwhile, we detected the relative E2F family expression levels by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Plotter was used to draw survival analysis charts, and gene functional enrichment analyses were applied through cBioPortal database analysis. E2F1/2/3/4/5/6 mRNA and proteins were clearly upregulated in cutaneous melanoma patients, and high expression levels of E2F1/2/3/6 were statistically related to high methylation levels. Increased mRNA expression of E2F1/2/3/6 was related to lower overall survival rates (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in cutaneous melanoma cases. Meanwhile, E2F1/2/3/6 carried out these effects through regulating multiple signaling pathways, including the MAPK, PI3K-Akt and p53 signaling pathways. Taking together, our findings suggest that E2F1/2/3/6 could act as potential targets for precision therapy in cutaneous melanoma patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847504PMC
January 2021

A Novel Gold Film-Coated V-Shape Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber Polarization Beam Splitter Covering the E + S + C + L + U Band.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 12;21(2). Epub 2021 Jan 12.

State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China.

In this paper, a novel gold film-coated V-shape dual-core photonic crystal fiber (V-DC-PCF) polarization beam splitter (PBS) based on surface plasmon resonance effect is proposed. The coupling lengths of the X-polarization (X-pol) and Y-polarization (Y-pol) and the corresponding coupling length ratio of the proposed V-DC-PCF PBS without gold film and with gold film are compared. The fiber structure parameters and thickness of the gold film are optimized through investigating their effects on the coupling lengths and coupling length ratio. As the propagation length increases, the normalized output powers of the X-pol and Y-pol of the proposed V-DC-PCF PBS at the three wavelengths 1.610, 1.631, and 1.650 μm are demonstrated. The relationships between the extinction ratio (ER), insertion loss (IL) and wavelength for the three splitting lengths (SLs) 188, 185, and 182 μm are investigated. Finally, it is demonstrated that for the proposed V-DC-PCF PBS, the optimal SL is 188 μm, the ILs of the X-pol and Y-pol are less than 0.22 dB, and the splitting bandwidth (SB) can cover the E + S + C + L + U band. The proposed V-DC-PCF PBS has the ultra-short SL, ultra-wide SB, and ultra-low IL, so it is expected to have important applications in the laser, sensing, and dense wavelength division multiplexing systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21020496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826817PMC
January 2021

Partitioning behaviors of zinc in eight coal-fired power plants with different fueled coals and air pollution control devices.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

School of Resources and Environment, Zunyi Normal College, Zunyi, 563006, China.

Emissions from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) have a negative impact on the environment and metals are one of the categories of substances that have received considerable attention. In the present study, atmospheric zinc (Zn) emissions from eight CFPPs with different kinds of boilers and air pollution control devices (APCDs) in Guizhou Province, Southwest China, were investigated as well as the partitioning of this metal among boilers and APCDs. During the investigation of a CFPP, samples were taken of input and output materials during the same period. Our results give a Zn content of 32-165 mg kg for feed coal, 52-237 mg kg for bottom ash, 108-725 mg kg for fly ash, 1.2-6.0 mg kg for limestone, 1.6-7.3 mg kg for gypsum, and 1.39-7.06 μg Nm for stack gas. Most of the zinc content in the feed coal goes with the flue gas after combustion and amounts to 94.2-96.1% and 60.5-78.1% for pulverized coal-fired boilers (PC) and circulating fluidized bed boilers (CFB), respectively. Based on input Zn, a larger share (80.8-96.4%) ends up the captured fly ash of PC boilers than the case of CFB boilers (66.1-73.6%). In turn, a minor portion is captured into the flue gas desulfurization gypsum, while we found a maximum of 0.05‰ is emitted into the atmosphere. The atmospheric emission factors (EMFs) of Zn for the eight CFPPs are 7.55-57.22 mg ton coal, 4.17-22.75 μg (kWh), or 0.39-2.36 g TJ using different benchmarks. Overall, the calculated emission factors here are distinctively low with the upgrading of APCDs in recent years. An estimation of 1276 ± 1047 kg year (range: 498-3777 kg year) of Zn is emitted into the atmosphere from the CFPPs of Guizhou Province in 2017 by coupling the EMFs obtained from this study and the coal consumption by this category of power plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11524-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase-Mediated Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Availability Supports Humoral Immunity.

Cell Rep 2021 Jan;34(1):108601

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA; Department of Immunology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Immune cells can metabolize glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids (FAs) to generate energy. The roles of different FA species and their impacts on humoral immunity remain poorly understood. Here, we report that proliferating B cells require monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) to maintain mitochondrial metabolism and mTOR activity and to prevent excessive autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Furthermore, B cell-extrinsic stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity generates MUFA to support early B cell development and germinal center (GC) formation in vivo during immunization and influenza infection. Thus, SCD-mediated MUFA production is critical for humoral immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7839063PMC
January 2021

Mercury Bioaccumulation in Freshwater Snails as Influenced by Soil Composition.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jan 3;106(1):153-159. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Key Laboratory of Karst Georesources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025, China.

Soil properties largely control the fate of mercury (Hg), including the synthesis of neurovirulent methylmercury (MeHg). Here, the freshwater snail (Cipangopaludina cahayensis), a snail species commonly bred in flooded farmland, was used in a test of biotoxicity exposure to explore the effects of soil components on Hg bioavailability. The results show that snails incubated on the surface of slightly Hg-polluted flooded soil (2.0 mg/kg) have MeHg concentrations of 7.9 ± 1.5 mg/kg, which greatly exceed the limit of contaminants in food in China (0.5 mg/kg). The addition of ferrous disulfide can significantly increase the MeHg concentrations in soils while reducing the concentrations of total Hg (THg) and MeHg levels in snails by 59.1% and 64.3%, respectively. Peat-derived fulvic acid has the capacity to reduce the MeHg concentrations in soils and snails by 23.8% and 33.2%, respectively, whereas it increases the dissolved Hg levels in overlying water by 104.3%. Moreover, Fe-Mn oxides and humic acid can consistently reduce THg and MeHg concentrations in snails. Overall, freshwater snails bred in Hg-polluted areas may suffer from a high risk of Hg exposure, and importantly, some soil components such as ferrous disulfide and humic acid have strong inhibitory effects on Hg bioaccumulation in snails.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-03071-wDOI Listing
January 2021

Five new species of the leafhopper genus Limassolla Dlabola (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae).

Zootaxa 2020 Nov 16;4878(3):zootaxa.4878.3.7. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management of Ministry of Education, Entomological Museum, Northwest AF University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, 712100, China.

Five new species of the leafhopper genus Limassolla Dlabola, Limassolla bicruralis, L. kunyica, L. uncata, L. nigropunctata, L. spinulata spp. nov., are described and illustrated and a key to separate males of those species is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4878.3.7DOI Listing
November 2020

Functional analysis of a novel gene () from .

Plant Signal Behav 2021 Feb 1;16(2):1850627. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

College of Art, Yangtze University , Jingzhou, Hubei, China.

Cryptochrome (CRY) is a blue light receptor that is widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. as a coding gene of cryptochrome that regulates the organism gene expression and plays an important role in organism growth and development. In this study, we identified four photolyase/cryptochrome (PHR/CRY) members from the genome of . Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the Ginkgo PHR/CRY family members were closely related to and . We isolated a cryptochrome gene, , from and analyzed its structure and function. shared high similarity with from expression level was higher in stems and leaves and lower in roots, male strobili, female strobili. expression level fluctuated periodically within 24 h, gradually increased in the dark, and decreased under blue light. The newly germinated ginkgo seedlings were cultured under dark, white light, and blue light conditions. The blue light normally induced photomorphogenesis of ginkgo seedlings, which included hypocotyl elongation inhibition, leaf expansion inhibition, and chlorophyll formation. Treating dark-adapted ginkgo leaves with blue light could induce stomatal opening. At the same time, blue light reduced the expression level of in the process of inducing photomorphogenesis and stoma opening. Our results provide evidence that expression is affected by space, circadian cycle and light, and also proves that is related to ginkgo circadian clock, photomorphogenesis and stoma opening process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15592324.2020.1850627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7849775PMC
February 2021

Promoted oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils by dual persulfate/calcium peroxide system.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 21;758:143680. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Institute of Organic Contaminant Control and Soil Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. Electronic address:

In situ chemical oxidations (ISCO) have been demonstrated as effective ways for remediating soils contaminated with organic pollutants by complete mineralization. This work aims to develop a technology for the oxidation remediation of soils contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a dual calcium peroxide (CP)/persulfate (PS) oxidant system activated by oxalic acid (OA)-chelating Fe. The dual peroxide system was set up, and the effects of 5 single factors (i.e., CP dosage, PS dosage, Fe dosage, OA concentration, and soil/water ratio) on PAHs degradation were studied using the single-factor experiment. The response surface method was then introduced to obtain the optimized experimental conditions (CP dosage, PS dosage, OA concentration) of the dual peroxide system. The result shows that the dual peroxide system significantly increased the PAHs degradation and the maximum PAHs degradation efficiency (70.8%) was achieved by the dual peroxide system under optimal conditions (PS dosage, CP concentration, Fe/PS ratio, and Fe/OA ratio was 8.89 g/kg, 0.18 mol/L, 1/4 and 0.62) at neutral soil condition. This study is an illustration of the promising efficiency of the dual peroxide system for PAH oxidation in the neutral soil and has great potential for remediation of PAHs contaminated farmland soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143680DOI Listing
March 2021

Behavior of thallium in pulverized coal utility boiler installations in Southwest China.

J Air Waste Manag Assoc 2021 Apr 13;71(4):488-500. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang, People's Republic of China.

Thallium (Tl) is a toxic element that exists in coal at trace level. Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) consume large amounts of coal and can potentially release this element into surrounding environment. However, knowledge of fates of Tl inside CFPPs and associated atmospheric emissions is still very limited. In this study, five CFPPs with pulverized coal boilers (PC) in Guizhou province, southwest China, were selected for investigation. All input and output solid materials and the stack flue gas samples were collected simultaneously. Tl concentrations in feed coal (0.10-0.34 mg·kg) of the five CFPPS were only a third to one half of the national average value. Tl concentrations were obviously higher in fly ash (0.39-1.13 mg·kg) than in bottom ash (0.09-0.25 mg·kg), indicating notable redistribution of Tl during coal combustion. Tl concentrations were low in limestone (0.01-0.02 mg·kg), flue gas desulfurization gypsum (0.01-0.03 mg·kg), and the stack flue gas (0.006-0.011 μg·Nm). Most Tl inside these CFPPs was captured by electrostatic precipitator or electrostatic precipitator-fabric filter (ESP/ESP-FF) fly ash (88.66%-97.44%), followed by bottom ash (2.13%-10.73%), gypsum (<3.89%), and stack emissions (0.01%-0.05%). Atmospheric emission factors of Tl from different CFPPs are in the range of 0.04-0.09 mg Tl·t coal, 0.02-0.04 μg·(kW·h), or 0.002-0.004 g Tl·TJ. Using these emission factors, a total of 3.96 ± 1.32 kg (range: 2.64-5.94 kg) Tl is estimated to be released into the atmosphere annually from CFPPs in Guizhou in 2017. To avoid the cross-media contamination from the combustion products, careful treatment of the captured fly ash, bottom ash, and gypsum is needed, considering that a large amount of Tl (average: 728 kg·yr; range: 664-792 kg·yr) is retained in these solid combustion products and the possibility of formation of more toxic Tl during the combustion process.: Thallium (Tl) is a rare but toxic element. Identifying and quantifying its source are high priorities for controling its contamination. Coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) were thought an important source of Tl, but few field studies had been conducted for this area. In this article, we investigated the fate of Tl in five pulverized coal utility power plants in Guizhou province, Southwest China, and found the Tl concentration in stack gas is in low levels of 0.006-0.011 μg·Nm, and less than 0.05% of total input of Tl is escaped into the ambient atmosphere. The majority of Tl (88.7%-97.4% of the total output) is detained by the ESP/ESP-FF fly ashes. Compared to the little amount (~4 kg·yr) of Tl that discharged into the atmosphere from Guizhuo's CFPPs in 2017, more Tl (over 700 kg) ends up in the solid coal combustion products each year, which makes the need of careful disposal of this solid combustion waste to prevent the mobilization of Tl into the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10962247.2020.1853630DOI Listing
April 2021

Acid-etched Fe/FeO nanoparticles encapsulated into carbon cloth as a novel voltammetric sensor for the simultaneous detection of Cd and Pb.

Analyst 2021 Jan 19;146(2):691-697. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Chemistry Education, College of Chemistry & Material Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China.

A portable electrode with usability, availability, and high-sensitivity is of great significance for effective on-site detection in practical situations. In this paper, a novel flexible, disposable sensor for Cd and Pb with ultrahigh sensitivity and a fast response, based on acid-etched Fe/FeO encapsulated into a disposable carbon cloth electrode, has been successfully fabricated. Differential pulse anode stripping voltammetry (DPASV) was used to investigate the stripping behavior of Cd and Pb, achieving high sensitivity for Cd and Pb (338.7 and 408.0 μA mM cm) with limits of detection (LODs) of 0.42 ppb and 0.50 ppb, respectively. Meanwhile, remarkable stability and reproducibility were obtained. Such an electrode can detect Cd and Pb in actual water samples so this is a good candidate to act as a simple and convenient sensor for general applications. More importantly, the novel disposable electrode exhibited the unique advantages of convenience, portability, and reliability compared to a conventional electrode, which may make it an alternative advantageous choice for practical on-site detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0an01861aDOI Listing
January 2021

International Survey Reveals Opportunities to Improve Tuberculous Meningitis Management and the Need for Standardized Guidelines.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Nov 23;7(11):ofaa445. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery and Neuroscience Institute, University of Cape Town, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a medical emergency, yet there are no standardized treatment guidelines for the medical or neurosurgical management of these patients and little data on neurocritical care. We conducted an international survey to understand current medical and neurosurgical TBM management and resource availability to provide baseline data needed for future multicenter trials addressing unanswered clinical research questions and the establishment of standardized guidelines.

Methods: An online survey of 77 questions covering medical and neurosurgical TBM management aimed at clinicians/nurses treating TBM was distributed as an anonymous link through email invitation, international organizations' membership distribution, and direct links on organizational webpages or social media. The survey remained open for 5 months. Data were summarized with frequencies and percentages.

Results: The survey had 222 responses from 43 countries representing 6 continents. Most respondents were from tertiary care facilities, with broad access to medical and neurosurgical resources. There was significant heterogeneity in general supportive care, and TBM-specific management demonstrated considerable divergence from current standard-of-care practices. The lack of standardized guidelines was identified as a major challenge in TBM management. General and neurocritical care were largely absent. Resources for bedside supportive care and noninvasive monitoring were broadly accessible.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that current TBM management could be improved by the establishment of internationally accepted treatment guidelines based on available evidence, and that numerous centers have resources available to participate in future multicenter trials, even for basic interventions, that may further improve patient outcomes globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652100PMC
November 2020

Hollow-Core Negative Curvature Fiber with High Birefringence for Low Refractive Index Sensing Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Effect.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Nov 16;20(22). Epub 2020 Nov 16.

State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876, China.

In this paper, a hollow-core negative curvature fiber (HC-NCF) with high birefringence is proposed for low refractive index (RI) sensing based on surface plasmon resonance effect. In the design, the cladding region of the HC-NCF is composed of only one ring of eight silica tubes, and two of them are selectively filled with the gold wires. The influences of the gold wires-filled HC-NCF structure parameters on the propagation characteristic are investigated by the finite element method. Moreover, the sensing performances in the low RI range of 1.20-1.34 are evaluated by the traditional confinement loss method and novel birefringence analysis method, respectively. The simulation results show that for the confinement loss method, the obtained maximum sensitivity, resolution, and figure of merit of the gold wires-filled HC-NCF-based sensor are -5700 nm/RIU, 2.63 × 10 RIU, and 317 RIU, respectively. For the birefringence analysis method, the obtained maximum sensitivity, resolution, and birefringence of the gold wires-filled HC-NCF-based sensor are -6100 nm/RIU, 2.56 × 10 RIU, and 1.72 × 10, respectively. It is believed that the proposed gold wires-filled HC-NCF-based low RI sensor has important applications in the fields of biochemistry and medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20226539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697069PMC
November 2020

Differential expression of CD64 in patients with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: A potential biomarker for clinical diagnosis and prognosis.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 12 8;24(23):13961-13972. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

To evaluate the clinical utility of neutrophil (n)CD64 index to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary TB (ePTB) and to predict the outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We recruited 189 patients with active TB and 140 controls and measured the differential expression of nCD64 index using flow cytometry. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to estimate the diagnostic performance of the nCD64 index and T-SPOT.TB assay for the diagnosis of TB. Furthermore, we analysed whether the nCD64 index in patients with TB was correlated with inflammatory indicators. Finally, we assessed the prognosis of patients by following the dynamic changes of the nCD64 index once a week. The nCD64 index was significantly higher in active TB group (PTB and ePTB), than in the anti-TB and healthy controls (HC) groups. The sensitivity and specificity of nCD64 index for the differential diagnosis of PTB and pneumonia (PN) patients were 68.33% and 77.55%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of nCD64 index for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) were 53.85% and 100%, respectively. Furthermore, there was a weak correlation between the nCD64 index and inflammatory indicators. More importantly, with the improvement in patient condition, the nCD64 index started to decline in the first week of anti-TB therapy and significantly decreased at 4 weeks after treatment. Our study demonstrated that the CD64 assay is a rapid, non-invasive and stable method for clinical application, and the nCD64 index can serve as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7753880PMC
December 2020

Correlation Between Plasma CircRNA-089763 and Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction in Elderly Patients Undergoing Non-cardiac Surgery.

Front Behav Neurosci 2020 6;14:587715. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

In our previous experiment, we found that there were abnormal levels of circRNA-089763 in the plasma exosomes of patients with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after cardiac surgery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between plasma circRNA-089763 level and POCD in elderly patients after non-cardiac surgery. A prospective cohort study was conducted to select elderly patients undergoing elective non-cardiac surgery. A total of 72 patients were enrolled in this study, and cognitive functions were assessed 1 day before and 3 days after surgery by a series of neuropsychological measurements. Next, patients were divided into POCD and non-POCD (NPOCD) groups according to the score method. Blood was collected the day before and 3 days after surgery, and the plasma circRNA-089763 level was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Then, the difference and correlation in plasma circRNA-089763 levels between the POCD and NPOCD groups were analyzed. On the third day after surgery, the incidence of POCD was 30.56%. The relative level of circRNA-089763 in the POCD group was 2.41 times higher than that in the NPOCD group ( = 4.711, < 0.001), patients in POCD group had higher age ( = 5.971, < 0.001), higher American Society of Anesthesiologists classification (χ = 14.726, < 0.001), less years of education ( = 2.449, = 0.017), more intraoperative blood loss ( = 3.196, = 0.002), and higher visual analog scale (VAS) scores ( = 10.45, < 0.001). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that the circRNA-089763 level, age, and intraoperative blood loss were independently associated with POCD (OR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.261-5.999, = 0.011; OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.114-1.565, = 0.001; OR: 1.017, 95% CI: 1.004-1.03, = 0.011). These results demonstrated that the circRNA-089763 plasma level was related to POCD after non-cardiac surgery in elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2020.587715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7573279PMC
October 2020

Portable electrochemical carbon cloth analysis device for differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry determination of Pb.

Mikrochim Acta 2020 Oct 17;187(11):613. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Chemistry Education, College of Chemistry and Material Science, Northwest University, Xi'an, 710127, China.

A novel electrochemical carbon cloth (CC) analysis device (eCAD) is proposed for the determination of Pb in environmental water samples, which was assembled using a single-step functional CC as both the sensing and the substrate material. The modified CC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectra, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The increase in electrochemical activity is due to the increased defective extent and excellent electrochemical activity of CC. Under optimum conditions (viz. a pH value of 4.5, deposition time of 160 s), the sensor is capable of determining Pb by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) at a typical working potential of - 1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Response is linear from 5.0 × 10 to 3.0 × 10 M Pb, and the detection limit is 4.8 nM (at S/N = 3). The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of Pb in real samples, with apparent recoveries from 96.0 to 102.0% and a relative standard deviation of less than 3.4%. In addition, the integration of the sensor with signal collection components has enabled us to realize on-site analysis of Pb, which is highlighted as a new generation of electrode platform for the development of a portable analysis device.Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-020-04549-4DOI Listing
October 2020

Characterization of the Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Two Species with Preliminary Investigation on Phylogenetic Status of Zyginellini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae).

Insects 2020 Oct 10;11(10). Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Key Laboratory of Plant Protection Resources and Pest Management of Ministry of Education, Entomological Museum, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

To explore the characteristics of mitogenomes and reveal phylogenetic relationships of the tribes of Zyginellini and Typhlocybini in Typhlocybinae, mitogenomes of two species of the Zyginellini, and sp., were sequenced. Mitogenomes of both species contain 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) and a large non-coding region (A + T-rich region). These characteristics are similar to other Membracoidea mitogenomes. All PCGs initiate with the standard start codon of ATN and terminate with the complete stop codon of TAA/G or with an incomplete T codon. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, except which has a reduced DHU arm and the acceptor stem of is 5 or 6 bp in some species, an unusual feature here reported for the first time in Typhlocybinae. The A + T-rich region is highly variable in length and in numbers of tandem repeats present. Our analyses indicate that and exhibit higher evolutionary rates compared to other PCGs. Phylogenetic analyses by both maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods based on 13 protein-coding genes of 12 species of Typhlocybinae suggest that Zyginellini are paraphyletic with respect to Typhlocybini.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects11100684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600600PMC
October 2020

A novel tri-culture model for neuroinflammation.

J Neurochem 2021 01 27;156(2):249-261. Epub 2020 Sep 27.

NICM Health Research Institute, Western Sydney University, Penrith, NSW, Australia.

Neuroinflammation is believed to play a primary role in the pathogenesis of most neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. Currently, suitable in vitro neuroinflammation models for studying cellular interactions and inflammatory mechanisms at the neurovascular unit are still scarce. In this study, we established an experimentally flexible tri-culture neuroinflammation model combining murine microglial cells (N11), mouse neuroblastoma Nuro2A cell lines and brain microvascular endothelial MVEC(B3) cells in a transwell co-culture system stimulated with lipopolysaccharides. Neuroinflammation was induced in this tri-culture model as manifested by activated N11 cells via toll-like receptor 4, resulting in increased release of proinflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α) through the activation of nuclear factor-κB signalling pathway. The released inflammatory cytokines from N11 in turn, damaged the tight junction in microvascular endothelial MVEC(B3) cells, increased permeability of endothelial barrier, and induced tau phosphorylation and up-regulated caspase-3 expression in mouse neuroblastoma Nuro2A cell lines, leading to neuroinflammation injury. In summary, this tri-culture inflammation model mimics the microenvironment, the cellular crosstalk and the molecular events that take place during neuroinflammation. It provides a robust in vitro model for studying neuroinflammation mechanisms and screening for potential therapeutics to treat various neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnc.15171DOI Listing
January 2021

SGLT2 inhibitors for prevention of cardiorenal events in people with type 2 diabetes without cardiorenal disease: A meta-analysis of large randomized trials and cohort studies.

Pharmacol Res 2020 11 26;161:105175. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, China.

To investigate whether sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) can reduce important cardiorenal endpoints in type 2 diabetic adults without established cardiovascular disease (ECD), in those without heart failure (HF), and in those without chronic kidney disease (CKD). We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and clinicaltrials.gov. Event-driven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies were included. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis, respectively based on RCTs and cohort studies, on eight cardiorenal endpoints in three type 2 diabetic subgroups. Thirteen large studies were included. Meta-analysis of RCTs showed the high quality evidences: compared with placebo, SGLT2is significantly reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiovascular death or hospitalization for HF, and progression of CKD in type 2 diabetic adults without ECD [HRs (95 % CIs): 0.88 (0.82, 0.94), 0.76 (0.70, 0.82), and 0.59 (0.52, 0.66), respectively; risk differences (95 % CIs): -1.6 (-2.4, -0.8), -2.6 (-3.3, -2.0), and -2.4 (-2.8, -2.0) per 1000 patient-years, respectively], in those without HF [HRs (95 % CIs): 0.89 (0.82, 0.95), 0.74 (0.67, 0.81), and 0.61 (0.55, 0.67), respectively; risk differences (95 % CIs): -1.7 (-2.9, -0.8), -5.8 (-7.3, -4.2), and -2.3 (-2.6, -1.9) per 1000 patient-years, respectively], and in those without CKD [HRs (95 % CIs): 0.88 (0.82, 0.94), 0.77 (0.71, 0.83), and 0.63 (0.57, 0.70), respectively; risk differences (95 % CIs): -2.4 (-3.6, -1.2), -6.1 (-7.6, -4.5), and -2.2 (-2.6, -1.8) per 1000 patient-years, respectively]. Meta-analysis of cohort studies also showed the benefits of SGLT2is on the three composite outcomes in the three diabetic subgroups. SGLT2is also significantly reduced some other cardiorenal endpoints in these diabetic subgroups. SGLT2is can significantly reduce important cardiorenal events in type 2 diabetic adults without ECD, in those without HF, and in those without CKD; which supports SGLT2is used in these diabetic subpopulations to prevent cardiorenal events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105175DOI Listing
November 2020

Risks and features of secondary infections in severe and critical ill COVID-19 patients.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):1958-1964

Department of Infectious Disease, Huashan Hospital affiliated to Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Severe or critical COVID-19 is associated with intensive care unit admission, increased secondary infection rate, and would lead to significant worsened prognosis. Risks and characteristics relating to secondary infections in severe COVID-19 have not been described. Severe and critical COVID-19 patients from Shanghai were included. We collected lower respiratory, urine, catheters, and blood samples according to clinical necessity and culture and mNGS were performed. Clinical and laboratory data were archived. We found 57.89% (22/38) patients developed secondary infections. The patient receiving invasive mechanical ventilation or in critical state has a higher chance of secondary infections (<0.0001). The most common infections were respiratory, blood-stream and urinary infections, and in respiratory infections, the most detected pathogens were gram-negative bacteria (26, 50.00%), following by gram-positive bacteria (14, 26.92%), virus (6, 11.54%), fungi (4, 7.69%), and others (2, 3.85%). Respiratory Infection rate post high flow, tracheal intubation, and tracheotomy were 12.90% (4/31), 30.43% (7/23), and 92.31% (12/13) respectively. Secondary infections would lead to lower discharge rate and higher mortality rate. Our study originally illustrated secondary infection proportion in severe and critical COVID-19 patients. Culture accompanied with metagenomics sequencing increased pathogen diagnostic rate. Secondary infections risks increased after receiving invasive respiratory ventilations and intravascular devices, and would lead to a lower discharge rate and a higher mortality rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1812437DOI Listing
December 2020

Modified clay mineral: A method for the remediation of the mercury-polluted paddy soil.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Nov 12;204:111121. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Key Laboratory of Karst Georesources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025, China.

Rice is easy to accumulate mercury (Hg), especially methylmercury (MeHg) with high toxicity, and this leads to a serious health risk for residents in some Hg-polluted areas of Asia. Thus, there is an urgent need to find soil remediation techniques that can both guarantee agricultural production and protect human health in these Hg-contaminated areas. In this study, montmorillonite (Mont) and medical stone (Med) were modified by a thiol-based material (-SH) and by chitosan to obtain modified clay mineral adsorbents. Pot experiments were then performed to explore their ability to reduce the levels of Hg and MeHg in rice and their reduction mechanisms. Compared with unmodified clay minerals, modified clay minerals had better Hg reduction efficiencies in rice. The amendment of SH-modified Med (Med-SH) had the highest THg and MeHg reduction efficiencies in rice, reaching up to 78% and 81%, respectively, and brought the THg concentration in the rice below China's health guidelines for rice (20 ng g). Not only did amendment of the SH-modified clay minerals reduce the exchangeable and specially adsorbed Hg in the soil, as did the other amendments, but they also significantly reduced the amount of oxide-bound Hg and MeHg in the soil, and greatly enhanced the retention of Hg and MeHg in soil, thus significantly reduced the concentration of Hg and MeHg in rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111121DOI Listing
November 2020

Corticosteroid prevents COVID-19 progression within its therapeutic window: a multicentre, proof-of-concept, observational study.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):1869-1877

Departments of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Critically ill patients with coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) are of grave concern. Those patients usually underwent a stage of excessive inflammation before developing acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this study, we test the hypothesis that short-term, low-to-moderate-dose corticosteroids would benefit patients when used in the early phase of excessive inflammation, namely, the therapeutic window. Among a Shanghai cohort and a validation cohort, we enrolled COVID-19 patients showing marked radiographic progression. Short-term, low-to-moderate-dose corticosteroids were considered for them. After identifying the possible markers for the therapeutic window, we then divided the patients, based on whether they were treated with corticosteroids within the therapeutic window, into the early-start group and control group. We identified that the therapeutic window for corticosteroids was characterized by a marked radiographic progression and lactase dehydrogenase (LDH) less than two times the upper limit of normal (ULN). The Shanghai cohort comprised of 68 patients, including 47 in the early-start group and 21 in the control group. The proportion of patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation was significantly lower in the early-start group than in the control group (10.6% vs. 33.3%, difference, 22.7%, 95% confidence interval 2.6-44.8%). Among the validation cohort of 51 patients, similar difference of the primary outcome was observed (45.0% vs. 74.2%,  = 0.035). Among COVID-19 patients with marked radiologic progression, short-term, low-to-moderate-dose corticosteroids benefits patients with LDH levels of less than two times the ULN, who may be in the early phase of excessive inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1807885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7473313PMC
December 2020

Genome-wide identification and characterization of bHLH family genes from Ginkgo biloba.

Sci Rep 2020 08 13;10(1):13723. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

College of Horticulture and Gardening, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, 434025, China.

Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins, one of the most important and largest transcription factor family in plants, play important roles in regulating growth and development, stress response. In recent years, many bHLH family genes have been identified and characterized in woody plants. However, a systematic analysis of the bHLH gene family has not been reported in Ginkgo biloba, the oldest relic plant species. In this study, we identifed a total of 85 GbbHLH genes from the genomic and transcriptomic databases of G. biloba, which were classified into 17 subfamilies based on the phylogenetic analysis. Gene structures analysis indicated that the number of exon-intron range in GbbHLHs from 0 to 12. The MEME analysis showed that two conserved motifs, motif 1 and motif 2, distributed in most GbbHLH protein. Subcellular localization analysis exhibited that most GbbHLHs located in nucleus and a few GbbHLHs were distributed in chloroplast, plasma membrane and peroxisome. Promoter cis-element analysis revealed that most of the GbbHLH genes contained abundant cis-elements that involved in plant growth and development, secondary metabolism biosynthesis, various abiotic stresses response. In addition, correlation analysis between gene expression and flavonoid content screened seven candidate GbbHLH genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis, providing the targeted gene encoding transcript factor for increase the flavonoid production through genetic engineering in G. biloba.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69305-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7426926PMC
August 2020

Polarization-diversity receiver using remotely delivered local oscillator without optical polarization control.

Opt Express 2020 Jul;28(15):22882-22890

Silicon photonics coherent transceivers have integrated all the necessary optics except the lasers. The laser source has become a major obstacle to further reduce the cost, footprint, power consumption of the coherent transceivers for short-reach optical interconnects. One solution is to utilize remotely delivered local oscillator (LO) from the transmitter, which has the benefits of relaxing the requirements of wavelength stability and laser linewidth and simplifying the digital signal processing (DSP) of carrier/phase recovery. However, a sophisticated adaptive polarization controller (APC) driven by a control loop in the electrical domain with a complicated algorithm is required to dynamically track and compensate for the polarization wandering of the received LO. In this paper, we propose a hybrid single-polarization coherent receiver and Stokes vector receiver (SVR) for polarization-diversity coherent detection without a need of optical polarization control for the remotely delivered LO. With such a scheme, we successfully received a 400-Gb/s dual-polarization constellation-shaped 64-QAM signal over 80-km fibers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.394371DOI Listing
July 2020

[Characteristics, Source Analysis, and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Pollution in Marine Organisms from Estuaries of Changhua River in Hainan Province].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2020 Jun;41(6):2942-2950

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Ecology and Environment, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300, China.

To assess the contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in organisms in the estuary of Changhua River in Hainan, we determined the content of 16 priority PAHs by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The composition, source, and potential edible risk of PAHs were studied. The results showed that the total PAHs of demersal fish (wet weight, same below), crustaceans, and pelagic fish were 5.52-787.98, 12.18-154.64, and 10.20-199.79 ng·g, respectively, and the average contents were 83.21, 64.72, and 89.48 ng·g, respectively. There were some differences in the content of PAHs in various organisms. The average content followed the order of pelagic fish > demersal fish > crustaceans. Compared with other areas in the country and abroad, the content of marine organisms'PAHs in the estuary of the Changhua River was above the medium level. The result of isomer characteristic ratio showed that the PAHs of 33 organisms mainly came from the combustion sources (petroleum combustion and biomass combustion) and petroleum sources. Moreover, demersal fish were greatly affected by combustion sources, while pelagic fish were greatly affected by petroleum sources. Human risk assessment indicated that the content of benzopyrene (BaP) was within the limits set by the European Union. Most of the organisms in the estuary of Changhua River were within the safe range of consumption, but the long-term consumption of these seafoods may pose a potential health risk (1.0×10≤ILCR<1.0×10).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.201911094DOI Listing
June 2020