Publications by authors named "Xian Zhao"

185 Publications

Awake CT-guided percutaneous stylomastoid foramen puncture and radiofrequency ablation of facial nerve for treatment of hemifacial spasm.

J Neurosurg 2021 Apr 16:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

2Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

Objective: Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a debilitating neuromuscular disorder with limited treatment options. The current study describes a novel minimally invasive procedure that provided effective and sustained relief for patients with HFS. The authors provide a detailed description of the awake CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of the facial nerve for treatment of HFS, and they examine its clinical efficacy. This is the first time in the literature that this procedure has been applied and systematically analyzed for HFS.

Methods: Patients with a history of HFS were recruited between August 2018 and April 2020. Those with a history of cerebellopontine lesions, coagulopathy, ongoing pregnancy, cardiac pacemaker or defibrillator implants, or who declined the procedure were excluded from the study. Fifty-three patients who met the study criteria were included and underwent awake CT-guided RFA. Under minimal sedation, a radiofrequency (RF) needle was used to reach the stylomastoid foramen on the affected side under CT guidance, and the facial nerve was localized using a low-frequency stimulation current. Patients were instructed to engage facial muscles as a proxy for motor monitoring during RFA. Ablation stopped when the patients' hemifacial contracture resolved. Patients were kept for inpatient monitoring for 24 hours postoperatively and were followed up monthly to monitor resolution of HFS and complications for up to 19 months.

Results: The average duration of the procedure was 32-34 minutes. Postoperatively, 91% of the patients (48/53) had complete resolution of HFS, whereas the remaining individuals had partial resolution. A total of 48 patients reported mild to moderate facial paralysis immediately post-RFA, but most resolved within 1 month. No other significant complication was observed during the study period. By the end of the study period, 5 patients had recurrence of mild HFS symptoms, whereas only 2 patients reported dissatisfaction with the treatment results.

Conclusions: The authors report for the first time that awake CT-guided RFA of the facial nerve at the stylomastoid foramen is a minimally invasive procedure and can be an effective treatment option for HFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.10.JNS203209DOI Listing
April 2021

Exploiting the single-photon detection performance of InGaAs negative-feedback avalanche diode with fast active quenching.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(7):10150-10161

InGaAs/InP-based negative-feedback avalanche diodes (NFADs) for 1550 nm single-photon detection with easy-to-use and low-afterpulsing features have attracted many researchers on lidar and quantum optics. Here we present a fast active-quenching circuit specifically designed to exploit the performance of a multi-mode fiber coupled NFAD for free-running operation by a further suppression on afterpulsing effects. The quenching and recovery processes of the device were characterized using electroluminescent method and a novel dual-pulse method, respectively. Results show that the proposed circuit was capable of reducing the time required for quenching and recovery process of the NFAD by approximately 20 ns, and contributed to a reduction in the number of avalanche carriers by up to 30%. As a result, the total afterpulse probability (TAP) of the NFAD with active quenching was reduced by up to 70% compared with the condition without active quenching, and by approximately 90% compared with a standard InGaAs SPAD at the photon detection efficiency (PDE) of 20%. The TAP of the proposed detector was lower than 11% when the dead time was longer than 200 ns, 600 ns, and 2 μs at the PDE of 10%, 15%, and 25%, respectively, and the usable dead time was down to 80 ns with a TAP of 20.4% at the PDE of 10%, 1550 nm, 223 K, where the DCR was as low as 918 Hz. The low-afterpulsing, low-dead-time, low-DCR features of this compact detector makes it especially suitable for use in lidar applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.420368DOI Listing
March 2021

The Distinct Roles of Zinc Finger CCHC-type (ZCCHC) Superfamily Proteins in the Regulation of RNA Metabolism.

RNA Biol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Inflammation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China.

The zinc finger CCHC-type (ZCCHC) superfamily proteins, characterized with the consensus sequence C-X-C-X-H-X-C, are accepted to have high-affinity binding to single-stranded nucleic acids, especially single-stranded RNAs. In human beings 25 ZCCHC proteins have been annotated in the HGNC database. Of interest is that among the family, most members are involved in the multiple steps of RNA metabolism. In this review, we focus on the diverged roles of human ZCCHC proteins on RNA transcription, biogenesis, splicing, as well as translation and degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15476286.2021.1909320DOI Listing
March 2021

Lyciumamide A, a dimer of phenolic amide, protects against NMDA-induced neurotoxicity and potential mechanisms in vitro.

J Mol Histol 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Pharmacy, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, China.

Currently, the excessive activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) is considered to be a crucial mechanism of brain injury. Lycium barbarum A (LyA) is a dimer of phenol amides isolated from the fruit of Lycium barbarum. Our previous studies have shown that LyA has potential antioxidant activity. This study aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect of LyA and its potential mechanism. Firstly, the molecular docking was used to preliminarily explore the potential function of LyA to block NMDAR. Then, the ability of LyA was further verified by NMDA-induced human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in vivo. Treatment with LyA significantly attenuated NMDA-induced neuronal insults by increasing cell viability, reducing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and increasing cell survival. Meanwhile, LyA significantly reversed the increase in intracellular calcium and in ROS production induced by NMDA. Finally, the western blot indicated that LyA could suppress the Ca influx and increase the p-NR2B, p-CaMKII, p-JNK, and p-p38 level induced by NMDA. These above findings provide evidence that LyA protect against brain injury, and restraining NMDARs and suppressing mitochondrial oxidative stress and inhibiting cell apoptosis may be involved in the protective mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10735-020-09952-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Short-wave infrared real-time high dynamic range imaging and display based on correlated double sampling.

Appl Opt 2021 Feb;60(6):1774-1779

A real-time high dynamic range (HDR) imaging and display method based on correlated double sampling is proposed for short-wave infrared (SWIR) cameras in order to effectively improve its range of brightness and contrast, as well as to obtain more image details. The method utilizes the correlated double sampling technique of the SWIR detector to extend the 14-bit raw image into a 16-bit HDR image and achieve 4 times the HDR imaging. Subsequently, a dynamic range compression process, including logarithmic mapping and histogram equalization, is performed for the 16-bit HDR image to be mapped to an 8-bit display. Finally, the experimental results show that the method can enrich the details of SWIR images under the premise of ensuring real-time imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.415352DOI Listing
February 2021

The ubiquitination-deubiquitination cycle on the ribosomal protein eS7A is crucial for efficient translation.

iScience 2021 Mar 5;24(3):102145. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Laboratory of Protein Metabolism, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.

Ubiquitination is a major post-translational modification of ribosomal proteins. The role of ubiquitination in the regulation of ribosome functions is still being elucidated. However, the importance of ribosome deubiquitination remains unclear. Here, we show that the cycle of ubiquitination and deubiquitination of the 40S ribosome subunit eS7 is important for efficient translation. eS7 ubiquitination at lysine 83 is required for efficient protein translation. We identified Otu2 and Ubp3 as the deubiquitinating enzymes for eS7. An ΔΔ mutation caused a defect in protein synthesis. Ubp3 inhibited polyubiquitination of eS7 in polysomes to keep eS7 in a mono-ubiquitinated form, whereas Otu2 was specifically bound to the free 40S ribosome and promoted the dissociation of mRNAs from 40S ribosomes in the recycling step. Our results provide clues for understanding the molecular mechanism of the translation system via a ubiquitination-deubiquitination cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900223PMC
March 2021

SUMOylation of YTHDF2 promotes mRNA degradation and cancer progression by increasing its binding affinity with m6A-modified mRNAs.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 03;49(5):2859-2877

State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology & Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Inflammation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China.

N 6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant modification within diverse RNAs including mRNAs and lncRNAs and is regulated by a reversible process with important biological functions. Human YTH domain family 2 (YTHDF2) selectively recognized m6A-RNAs to regulate degradation. However, the possible regulation of YTHDF2 by protein post-translational modification remains unknown. Here, we show that YTHDF2 is SUMOylated in vivo and in vitro at the major site of K571, which can be induced by hypoxia while reduced by oxidative stress and SUMOylation inhibitors. SUMOylation of YTHDF2 has little impact on its ubiquitination and localization, but significantly increases its binding affinity of m6A-modified mRNAs and subsequently results in deregulated gene expressions which accounts for cancer progression. Moreover, Disease-free survival analysis of patients with lung adenocarcinoma derived from TCGA dataset reveals that higher expression of YTHDF2 together with higher expression of SUMO1 predicts poor prognosis. Our works uncover a new regulatory mechanism for YTHDF2 recognition of m6A-RNAs and highlight the importance of YTHDF2 SUMOylation in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation and cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969013PMC
March 2021

An energy screening and morphology characterization-based hybrid expert scheme for automatic identification of micro-sleep event K-complex.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 29;201:105955. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Center for Intelligent Medical Electronics (CIME), School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China; Human Phenome Institute, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: K-complexes, as a significant indicator in sleep staging and sleep protection, are an important micro-event in sleep analysis. Clinically, K-complexes are recognized through the expert visual inspection of electroencephalogram (EEG) during sleep. Since this process is laborious and has high inter-observer variability, developing automated K-complex detection methods can alleviate the burden on clinicians while providing reliable recognition results. However, existing methods face the following issues. First, most work only identifies the K-complexes in stage 2, which requires distinguishing the sleep stages as the prerequisite for further events' identification. Second, most approaches can only detect the occurrence of events without the ability to predict their location and duration, which are also essential to sleep analysis.

Methods: In this work, a novel hybrid expert scheme for K-complex detection is proposed by integrating signal morphology with expert knowledge into the decision-making process. To eliminate artifacts, and to minimize the individual variability in raw sleep EEG signals, the potential K-complex candidates are first screened by combining Teager energy operator (TEO) and personalized thresholds. Then, to distinguish signal shapes from background activity, a novel frame of filtering based on morphological filtering (MF) is devised to differentiate morphological components of K-complex waveforms from EEG series. Finally, K-complex waveforms are identified from the extracted morphological information by judgment rules, which are inspired by expert knowledge of micro-sleep events.

Results: Detection performance is evaluated by its application on the public database MASS-C1 (Montreal archives of sleep studies cohort one) which includes the recordings of 19 healthy adults. The detection performance demonstrates an F-measure of 0.63 with a recall of 0.81 and a precision of 0.53 on average. The duration error between events and detections is 0.10 s.

Conclusions: The presented scheme has detected the occurrence of events. Meanwhile, it has recognized their locations and durations. The favorable results exhibit that the proposed scheme outperforms the state-of-the-art studies and has great potential to help release the burden of experts in sleep EEG analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.105955DOI Listing
April 2021

The Paradox of the Moderate Muslim Discourse: Subtyping Promotes Support for Anti-muslim Policies.

Front Psychol 2020 21;11:612780. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY, United States.

Tolerant discourse in the United States has responded to heightened stereotyping of Muslims as violent by countering that "not all Muslims are terrorists." This subtyping of Muslims-as some radical terrorists among mostly peaceful "moderates"-is meant to protect a image of the group but leaves the original negative stereotype unchanged. We predicted that such discourse may paradoxically increase people's support of anti-Muslim policies because the subtyping and its associated negative stereotypes justify hostile actions toward Muslims. In Study 1, subtyping predicted support for three anti-Muslim policies, but only among political moderates and conservatives. In Study 2, participants who were exposed to subtyping narratives expressed greater support for surveillance of Muslims in the United States. The effect of subtyping narrative exposure was stronger on support for hawkish anti-terror policy when participants' preexisting endorsement of subtyping was low. Irrespective of the well-meaning intentions of peaceful vs. radical subtyping, its expression can justify ongoing "War on Terror" policies. As the population of Muslims increases in North America, the intuition that most Muslims do not meet the negative stereotype may ironically reduce inclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.612780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7779589PMC
December 2020

Invasive Bacterial Infections in Afebrile Infants Diagnosed With Acute Otitis Media.

Pediatrics 2021 Jan 7;147(1). Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence of invasive bacterial infections (IBIs) and adverse events in afebrile infants with acute otitis media (AOM).

Methods: We conducted a 33-site cross-sectional study of afebrile infants ≤90 days of age with AOM seen in emergency departments from 2007 to 2017. Eligible infants were identified using emergency department diagnosis codes and confirmed by chart review. IBIs (bacteremia and meningitis) were determined by the growth of pathogenic bacteria in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture. Adverse events were defined as substantial complications resulting from or potentially associated with AOM. We used generalized linear mixed-effects models to identify factors associated with IBI diagnostic testing, controlling for site-level clustering effect.

Results: Of 5270 infants screened, 1637 met study criteria. None of the 278 (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-1.4%) infants with blood cultures had bacteremia; 0 of 102 (0%; 95% CI: 0%-3.6%) with CSF cultures had bacterial meningitis; 2 of 645 (0.3%; 95% CI: 0.1%-1.1%) infants with 30-day follow-up had adverse events, including lymphadenitis (1) and culture-negative sepsis (1). Diagnostic testing for IBI varied across sites and by age; overall, 278 (17.0%) had blood cultures, and 102 (6.2%) had CSF cultures obtained. Compared with infants 0 to 28 days old, older infants were less likely to have blood cultures ( < .001) or CSF cultures ( < .001) obtained.

Conclusion: Afebrile infants with clinician-diagnosed AOM have a low prevalence of IBIs and adverse events; therefore, outpatient management without diagnostic testing may be reasonable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-1571DOI Listing
January 2021

Systemic Importance of China's Financial Institutions: A Jump Volatility Spillover Network Review.

Entropy (Basel) 2020 May 24;22(5). Epub 2020 May 24.

School of Mathematics and Statistics, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha 410114, China.

The investigation of the systemic importance of financial institutions (SIFIs) has become a hot topic in the field of financial risk management. By making full use of 5-min high-frequency data, and with the help of the method of entropy weight technique for order preference by similarities to ideal solution (TOPSIS), this paper builds jump volatility spillover network of China's financial institutions to measure the SIFIs. We find that: (i) state-owned depositories and large insurers display SIFIs according to the score of entropy weight TOPSIS; (ii) total connectedness of financial institution networks reveal that Industrial Bank, Ping An Bank and Pacific Securities play an important role when financial market is under pressure, especially during the subprime crisis, the European sovereign debt crisis and China's stock market disaster; (iii) an interesting finding shows that some small financial institutions are also SIFIs during the financial crisis and cannot be ignored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/e22050588DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7517124PMC
May 2020

Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Preclinical Target Organ Damage Among Adults in Ghana: Findings From a National Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 12 7;9(24):e017492. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coronary Heart Disease Prevention Department of Cardiology Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute Guangdong Provincial People's HospitalGuangdong Academy of Medical Sciences Guangzhou China.

Background Although sub-Saharan Africa has a high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), there remains a lack of systematic and comprehensive assessment of risk factors and early CVD outcomes in adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and Results Using a stratified multistage random sampling method, we recruited 1106 men and women, aged >18 years, from the general population in Ghana to participate in a national health survey from 2016 to 2017. In Ghanaian adults, the age-standardized prevalence of known CVD risk factors was 15.1% (95% CI, 12.9%-17.3%) for obesity, 6.8% (95% CI, 5.1%-8.5%) for diabetes mellitus, 26.1% (95% CI, 22.9%-29.4%) for hypertension, and 9.3% (95% CI, 7.1%-11.5%) for hyperuricemia. In addition, 10.1% (95% CI, 7.0%-13.2%) of adults had peripheral artery disease, 8.3% (95% CI, 6.7%-10.0%) had carotid thickening, 4.1% (95% CI, 2.9%-5.2%) had left ventricular hypertrophy, and 2.5% (95% CI, 1.5%-3.4%) had chronic kidney disease. Three CVD risk factors appeared to play prominent roles in the development of target organ damage, including obesity for peripheral artery disease (odds ratio [OR], 2.22; 95% CI, 1.35-3.63), hypertension for carotid thickening (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.22-3.08), and left ventricular hypertrophy (OR, 5.28; 95% CI, 2.55-12.11) and hyperuricemia for chronic kidney disease (OR, 5.49; 95% CI, 2.84-10.65). Conclusions This comprehensive health survey characterized the baseline conditions of a national cohort of adults while confirming the prevalence of CVD risk factors, and early CVD outcomes have reached epidemic proportions in Ghana. The distinct patterns of risk factors in the development of target organ damage present important challenges and opportunities for interventions to improve cardiometabolic health among adults in Ghana.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955390PMC
December 2020

Apigenin-7---D-(-6"--coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside treatment elicits a neuroprotective effect through GSK-3β phosphorylation-mediated Nrf2 activation.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 11 18;12(23):23872-23888. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Pharmacy, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical School, Xi'an 710032, Shaanxi, China.

The current study was designed to seek the role of the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-β)-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway in the antioxidant effect induced by Apigenin-7-O-β-D-(-6"-p-coumaroyl)-glucopyranoside (APG). Rat primary cultured cortical neurons were challenged by oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) and then treated with APG. Cell viability, phosphorylation of GSK-β at Ser9 and nuclear expression of Nrf2 were measured. Male Sprague Dawley rats challenged by 2-h middle cerebral artery occlusion were treated with 50 mg/kg APG, and the neurological score, infarct volume, phosphorylation of GSK-3β and nuclear expression of Nrf2 were analyzed. The neuroprotective effect of APG and the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative products were also examined in the presence and absence of Nrf2-siRNA and PI3K inhibitors. APG reduced the apoptotic proportion, attenuated LDH release and increased cell viability, and APG improved neurological scores and reduced infarct volume. APG increased GSK-3β phosphorylation and Nrf2 nuclear translocation, while these effects were prevented by PI3K inhibitors or Nrf2-siRNA treatment in both OGD/R cell cultures and ischemic/reperfusion rats. These findings reveal that GSK-3β phosphorylation-mediated Nrf2 activation is involved in the neuroprotective effect of APG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.104050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7762462PMC
November 2020

Linearly polarized single-frequency fiber laser based on the Yb:YAG-crystal derived silica fiber.

Appl Opt 2020 Nov;59(32):9931-9936

A linearly polarized low-noise single-frequency fiber laser was demonstrated by using a homemade 1.2-cm-long Yb:YAG crystal derived silica fiber. A maximum output power of greater than 60 mW was obtained with a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼80 and a polarization extinction ratio of 27.8 dB. Additionally, the relative intensity noise was measured to be -145/ above 6.5 MHz. A frequency fluctuation of less than 20 MHz was also obtained. The output power was scaled up to 14.5 W with a one-stage all-fiber amplifier scheme with a slope efficiency of 56.4%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.400882DOI Listing
November 2020

BAP1 suppresses prostate cancer progression by deubiquitinating and stabilizing PTEN.

Mol Oncol 2021 01 20;15(1):279-298. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Inflammation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Deubiquitinase BAP1 is an important tumor suppressor in several malignancies, but its functions and critical substrates in prostate cancer (PCa) remain unclear. Here, we report that the mRNA and protein expression levels of BAP1 are downregulated in clinical PCa specimens. BAP1 can physically bind to and deubiquitinate PTEN, which inhibits the ubiquitination-mediated degradation of PTEN and thus stabilizes PTEN protein. Ectopically expressed BAP1 in PCa cells increases PTEN protein level and subsequently inhibits the AKT signaling pathway, thus suppressing PCa progression. Conversely, knockdown of BAP1 in PCa cells leads to the decrease in PTEN protein level and the activation of the Akt signaling pathway, therefore promoting malignant transformation and cancer metastasis. However, these can be reversed by the re-expression of PTEN. More importantly, we found that BAP1 protein level positively correlates with PTEN in a substantial fraction of human cancers. These findings demonstrate that BAP1 is an important deubiquitinase of PTEN for its stability and the BAP1-PTEN signaling axis plays a crucial role in tumor suppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.12844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782096PMC
January 2021

Remarkable temperature-dependent second-harmonic-generation performance of a YCOB crystal.

Opt Express 2020 Oct;28(22):33274-33284

For the first time, the temperature stability of second-harmonic-generation (SHG) is reported for the entire space of a YCaO(BO) (YCOB) crystal for a temperature range of -10 - 520 °C. Both theoretical calculations and experimental data indicate an optimum phase-matching (PM) direction of (θ = 149.2°, ϕ = 0°), which is located in the XZ principle plane (90° < θ < 180°). A special regression phenomenon of the PM angle was found in this direction, which further increased the SHG output at high temperature (> 200 °C). As a result, for SHG of the Nd:YAG laser, the measured temperature bandwidth of a YCOB crystal cut along the optimum PM direction is larger than 490 °C·cm. As demonstrated in this study, among all nonlinear optical crystals, this cut-type is currently the best choice when temperature-insensitive SHG is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.410606DOI Listing
October 2020

EEG data augmentation: towards class imbalance problem in sleep staging tasks.

J Neural Eng 2020 10 15;17(5):056017. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Center for Intelligent Medical Electronics, Department of Electronic Engineering, School of Information Science and Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China. Human Phenome Institute, Fudan University, 825 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 201203, People's Republic of China.

Objective: Automatic sleep staging models suffer from an inherent class imbalance problem (CIP), which hinders the classifiers from achieving a better performance. To address this issue, we systematically studied sleep electroencephalogram data augmentation (DA) approaches. Furthermore, we modified and transferred novel DA approaches from related research fields, yielding new efficient ways to enhance sleep datasets.

Approach: This study covers five DA methods, including repeating minority classes, morphological change, signal segmentation and recombination, dataset-to-dataset transfer, as well as generative adversarial network (GAN). We evaluated these mentioned DA methods by a sleep staging model on two datasets, the Montreal archive of sleep studies (MASS) and Sleep-EDF. We used a classification model with a typical convolutional neural network architecture to evaluate the effectiveness of the mentioned DA approaches. We also conducted a comprehensive analysis of these methods.

Main Results: The classification results showed that DA methods, especially DA by GAN, significantly improved the total classification performance in comparison with the baseline. The improvement of accuracy, F1 score and Cohen Kappa coefficient range from 0.90% to 3.79%, 0.73% to 3.48%, 2.61% to 5.43% on MASS and 1.36% to 4.79%, 1.47% to 4.23%, 2.22% to 4.04% on Sleep-EDF, respectively. DA methods improved the classification performance in most cases, whereas the performance of class N1 showed a subtle degradation in the F1 scores.

Significance: Overall, our study proved that DA approaches are efficient in alleviating CIP lying in sleep staging tasks. Meanwhile, this study provided avenues for further improving the sleep staging accuracy using DA methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/abb5beDOI Listing
October 2020

Evaluation of Apgar Scores and Non-Nutritive Sucking Skills in Infants Using a Novel Sensitized Non-Nutritive Sucking System.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2020 07;2020:4282-4285

One of the challenges in examining development of newborns is measuring activities which are correlated to their health. Oral feeding is the most important factor in an infant's healthy development. Here, we present a new device that can measure intraoral and expression pressures produced in a newborn's mouth by non-nutritive sucking. We then develop a method to extract time-intervals that a sucking has occurred. To show an application of this device, we use Apgar score as a reference of the general health of newborns, and we evaluate these scores with the non-nutritive sucking patterns demonstrated by the infants. We show that for the pairs of infant with the same background but different Apgar scores, those with lower Apgar scores have lower pressure amplitudes while sucking. Importance of non-nutritive sucking skills in the development of newborns and ease of using our device make it useful for clinical studies of infantile health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC44109.2020.9176146DOI Listing
July 2020

Role of autophagy in the periodontal ligament reconstruction during orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

J Dent Sci 2020 Sep 24;15(3):351-363. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Discipline of Orthodontics, Department of Oral Science, Sir John Walsh Research Institute, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Background/purpose: Autophagy, a lysosome-based degradation pathway that is reportedly activated by mechanical stress and nutrient deprivation, plays an important role in various physiological and pathological events. The present study investigated the level of autophagy and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) expression in the periodontal ligaments (PDLs) of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to analyze the involvement of autophagy and inflammatory cytokines in orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and maintaining periodontal tissue homeostasis.

Materials And Methods: SD rats (n = 100) were randomly divided into a control group (n = 10) and an experimental group (n = 90). An orthodontic appliance was placed in each rat in the experimental group, and 10 rats were randomly euthanized 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, 12 h, 1 d, 3 d and 7 d after mechanical loading. The OTM distance was then measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining was used to analyze the morphology of the PDL. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining were also performed.

Results: After the application of orthodontic force and under the dual effects of mechanical force and starvation caused by compressed vessels, the level of autophagy and TNF-α expression in the PDL fluctuated and exhibited a similar trend.

Conclusion: Our data suggest a significant correlation between the initiation of autophagy and TNF-α expression, which both exerted positive effects on PDL remodeling during OTM in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jds.2020.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7486518PMC
September 2020

Repair of Bone Defects With Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells With Tissue-Engineered Bone in Rabbits.

Ann Plast Surg 2020 10;85(4):430-436

From the Department of Plastic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the repair of bone defects in rabbits with tissue-engineered bones using cocultured endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) as seeding cells.

Methods: Endothelial progenitor cells and BMSCs were isolated and purified from the peripheral blood and bone marrow, respectively, of New Zealand rabbits. The third passage of BMSCs was cultured alone or with EPCs. Cells were characterized using specific markers and then seeded on partially deproteinized biologic bones from pigs as a scaffold. The engineered bones were used to repair bone defects in rabbits. Hematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining were performed to examine vascularization and osteogenesis in the engineered bone.

Results: The cocultured EPCs and BMSCs grew well on the surface of the scaffold. Compared with monocultured BMSCs, cocultured EPCs and BMSCs promoted the formation of blood vessels and bone on the scaffold, in addition to accelerating the repair of bone defects. The collagen content was significantly increased in the scaffold with cocultured EPCs and BMSCs, compared with the scaffold seeded with mono-cultured BMSCs.

Conclusions: Tissue-engineered bones seeded with cocultured EPCs and BMSCs may be used effectively for the repair of bone defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000002454DOI Listing
October 2020

LncRNA UCA1 maintains the low-tumorigenic and nonmetastatic status by stabilizing E-cadherin in primary prostate cancer cells.

Mol Carcinog 2020 10 17;59(10):1174-1187. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Inflammation, State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) have emerged as important players in cancer biology. Increasing evidence suggests that LncRNAs are frequently dysregulated in cancer and may function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Urothelial carcinoma associated 1 (UCA1), a LncRNA, firstly identified in bladder transitional cell carcinoma, seems to act as an oncogene in many different types of human cancers by promoting cell proliferation and migration. In this study, we revealed a novel biological function of UCA1, which was different from that reported by previous studies, was responsible for maintaining the low-tumorigenic, nonmetastatic phenotypes in primary prostate epithelial cells. UCA1 could stabilize E-cadherin protein by preventing the interaction between E-cadherin and its E3 ligase MDM2, which suppressed MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of E-cadherin. In addition, we also found that UCA1 acted as a sponge of miR-296-3p, which targeted E-cadherin gene CDH1 messenger RNA at the posttranscription level. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that UCA1 had a new important role in effectively keeping E-cadherin at a high level through a dual mechanism, which maintained primary prostate cancer cells at the low-tumorigenic and nonmetastatic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.23247DOI Listing
October 2020

Phytochemical profiles, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities of red-fleshed apple as affected by in vitro digestion.

J Food Sci 2020 Sep 13;85(9):2952-2959. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Horticulture Sciences and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong, 271018, China.

The aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profiles in the extracts and digesta (after in vitro digestion) of different red-fleshed apple fruit parts and to assess the effects of digestion on the in vitro antioxidant capacity and antiproliferative activity. The main polyphenols were identified by UPLC-MS/MS and HPLC. Our results indicate that the digesta had less total phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, but more free phenolic acids, than the extracts. An analysis of the in vitro antioxidant capacity (including ABTS radical scavenging activity, DPPH radical-scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP], and cellular antioxidant activity [CAA]) revealed that the digestion decreased the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP values, but increased the CAA values, relative to the corresponding values for extracts. These results suggest that the digestion improved the effectiveness of the phenolic substances. Moreover, our findings imply that the digestion promoted the antiproliferative activity of red-fleshed apple peels and flesh relative to the extracts. Future in vivo investigations are warranted based on the results of the current study. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The effects of an in vitro digestion on the phenolic compounds as well as the antioxidative and antiproliferative activities of red-fleshed apple were evaluated. The resulting data may clarify the bioavailability of the polyphenols in red-fleshed apple and enable scientists and consumers to exploit natural polyphenols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15358DOI Listing
September 2020

Reducing Afterpulsing in InGaAs(P) Single-Photon Detectors with Hybrid Quenching.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Aug 6;20(16). Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Key Laboratory of Education Ministry for Laser and Infrared System Integration Technology, Shandong University, 72 Binhai Road, Qingdao 266237, China.

High detection efficiency appears to be associated with a high afterpulse probability for InP-based single-photon avalanche diodes. In this paper, we present a new hybrid quenching technique that combines the advantages of both fast active quenching and high-frequency gated-passive quenching, with the aim of suppressing higher-order afterpulsing effects. Our results showed that the hybrid quenching method contributed to a 10% to 85% reduction of afterpulses with a gate-free detection efficiency of 4% to 10% at 1.06 μm, with 40 ns dead time, compared with the counter-based hold-off method. With the improvement of the afterpulsing performance of high-frequency gated single-photon detectors, especially at relatively high average detection efficiencies with wide gate widths, the proposed method enables their use as high-performance free-running detectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20164384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7472072PMC
August 2020

A knowledge-based approach for automatic quantification of epileptiform activity in children with electrical status epilepticus during sleep.

J Neural Eng 2020 08 11;17(4):046032. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Center for Intelligent Medical Electronics (CIME), School of Information Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Xian Zhao and Xinhua Wang contributed equally to this work.

Objective: Electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES), as electroencephalographic disturbances, is characterized by strong activation of epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram during sleep. Quantitative descriptors of such epileptiform activity can support the diagnose and the prognosis of children with ESES. To quantify the epileptiform activity of ESES, a knowledge-based approach to mimic the clinical decision-making process is proposed.

Approach: Firstly, a morphological operations-based scheme is designed to quickly locate the positive peaks/negative pits and roughly estimate the onset/offset of spike and slow-wave abnormalities. Then, to provide the accurate duration of ESES patterns, a set of rules for further adjusting these onsets/offsets are proposed by merging medical knowledge with a generalized threshold obtained from statistics. As such, the quantification is accomplished by evaluating the obtained spike and slow-wave abnormalities and their various durations.

Main Results: The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method were evaluated on a clinical dataset that collected at Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. We demonstrate that the proposed method can recognize different types of spike and slow-wave abnormalities. The sensitivity, precision, and false positive rate achieved 91.96%, 97.09%, and 1.88 min, respectively. The estimation error for the spike-wave index was 2.32%. Comparison results showed that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art.

Significance: The quantification of spike and slow-waves provides information about ESES activity. The detection of variations types of spike and slow-waves improves the performance in the quantification of ESES. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method has great potential in automatic ESES quantification and can help improve the diagnosis and researches of epileptic encephalopathy with ESES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/aba6ddDOI Listing
August 2020

[3D Porous Photothermal Materials for High Salt Wastewater Treatment].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2020 Apr;41(4):1716-1724

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310012, China.

The treatment of high salinity wastewater is complex with high cost and energy consumption. Interfacial solar vapor generation technology because of its green, high efficiency and low energy consumption has become a hot spot in the field of water resource recovery and utilization. In this study, a novel three-dimensional porous graphene composite material (3D h-CN/r-GO) was designed by a hydrothermal reaction with fibrous carbon nitrogen (h-CN) modified graphene (r-GO), and its performance for adsorption of nitrobenzene and phenol as simulated contaminants via photothermal evaporation was studied. The results showed that 3D h-CN/r-GO has a broad-spectrum absorption and multistage channel structure and presents the characteristics of fast thermal response. Its light steam conversion efficiency can reach 90.4% under the condition of simulated sunlight. The adsorption of nitrobenzene, phenol, and other common volatile pollutants can be realized in the process of treatment, and its adsorption capacities of nitrobenzene and phenol were 67.6 mg·g and 57.5 mg·g, respectively. Moreover, 3D h-CN/r-GO can realize efficient interfacial solar vapor generation with long-time stability, and its retention rate of pollutants and salts is up to 98%. The recovery and utilization of steam condensate meets the discharge standard. Therefore, this study provides a promising way for the treatment of high salinity wastewater with low energy consumption and cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.201908096DOI Listing
April 2020

Chrysophanol ameliorates renal interstitial fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.

Biochem Pharmacol 2020 10 6;180:114079. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Pharmacy, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 127, West Changle Road, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, China. Electronic address:

Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) is a major pathological feature of chronic kidney disease at middle and end stages. Chrysophanol (CP), 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, is an anthraquinone isolated from Rheum palmatum L. with a variety of pharmacological activities including the suppression of RIF. However, the effect of CP on renal fibrosis and its potential mechanism have not been elucidated. We conducted a comprehensive study by determining the expression levels of fibrotic markers and proteins including TGF-β1, α-SMA, and Smad3 related to transforming growth factor-beta/Smad (TGF-β/Smad) pathway in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice and TGF-β1-stimulated HK-2 cells with the treatment of CP using western blotting and RT-qPCR analyses. Using small interfering RNA and co-immunoprecipitation, we evaluated the influences of CP on the interactions between Smad3 and Smad7 proteins and also on TGF-β RI and TGF-βR II. We found that CP administration significantly ameliorated UUO-induced kidney damage by reversing abnormal serum and urine biochemical parameters and decreasing the production of fibrotic markers including collagen I, collagen III, fibronectin, and α-SMA. Our results showed that TGF-β1 and phospho-Smad3 (p-Smad3) expression was significantly down-regulated and Smad7 expression was up-regulated by CP in UUO mice compared to the model group; however, the expression of Smad2, Smad4, and TGF-β receptors was not affected. Furthermore, CP modulated these fibrotic markers as well as p-Smad3 and Smad7 in TGF-β1-induced HK-2 cells. The inhibitory effect of CP was markedly reduced in TGF-β1-treated HK-2 cells transfected with Smad3 siRNA. Additionally, co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that CP blocked the interaction between Smad3 and TGF-β receptor I to suppress p-Smad3 expression. These findings demonstrated that CP alleviated RIF by inhibiting Smad3 phosphorylation, which provides a molecular basis for a new drug candidate for the treatment of RIF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114079DOI Listing
October 2020

Prediction of Drug Side Effects with a Refined Negative Sample Selection Strategy.

Comput Math Methods Med 2020 9;2020:1573543. Epub 2020 May 9.

College of Information Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306, China.

Drugs are an important way to treat various diseases. However, they inevitably produce side effects, bringing great risks to human bodies and pharmaceutical companies. How to predict the side effects of drugs has become one of the essential problems in drug research. Designing efficient computational methods is an alternative way. Some studies paired the drug and side effect as a sample, thereby modeling the problem as a binary classification problem. However, the selection of negative samples is a key problem in this case. In this study, a novel negative sample selection strategy was designed for accessing high-quality negative samples. Such strategy applied the random walk with restart (RWR) algorithm on a chemical-chemical interaction network to select pairs of drugs and side effects, such that drugs were less likely to have corresponding side effects, as negative samples. Through several tests with a fixed feature extraction scheme and different machine-learning algorithms, models with selected negative samples produced high performance. The best model even yielded nearly perfect performance. These models had much higher performance than those without such strategy or with another selection strategy. Furthermore, it is not necessary to consider the balance of positive and negative samples under such a strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/1573543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7232712PMC
March 2021

The process of curricular integration and its effects on anatomical knowledge retention.

Clin Anat 2020 Sep 26;33(6):960-968. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

Introduction: Integration has been recognized as an important aspect of medical education. After transitioning from a discipline-specific to a systems-based preclinical curriculum, we examined faculty perceptions of the integrated approach and also whether it would lead to better anatomy knowledge retention.

Methods: To understand faculty perspectives, we reviewed curricular materials, interviewed block directors, and observed educational sessions. We analyzed knowledge retention through a 27-question anatomy test, comparing scores from the last class of the discipline-based curriculum and the first two classes of the integrated curriculum.

Results: Planning integrated content involves purposeful ordering, is challenging for faculty, and requires additional resources. Evaluation of the integrated approach for anatomy content demonstrated a significant increase in knowledge retention (p = .012; 56.28% vs. 63.98% for old vs. new curriculum).

Conclusions: This study helps the understanding of what is required for curricular integration. Our anatomy evaluation results corroborated the view that contextually embedded information is easier to learn and retain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ca.23632DOI Listing
September 2020

Association of triglyceride glucose index and its combination of obesity indices with prehypertension in lean individuals: A cross-sectional study of Chinese adults.

J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2020 06 22;22(6):1025-1032. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Cardiology, Changhai Hospital, Naval Military Medical University (The Second Military Medical University), Shanghai, China.

For normal-weight population, the management of prehypertension may be more beneficial by identifying insulin resistance (IR) status than relying solely on traditional indicators of obesity. We investigated the association of triglyceride glucose (TyG) index, a simple surrogate marker of IR, and its combination of obesity indices with prehypertension in lean individuals. A total of 105 070 lean adults without hypertension were included in this analysis. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WtHR), and TyG were calculated according to the corresponding formula; TyG-BMI, TyG-WC, and TyG-WHtR were calculated by multiplying the corresponding two parameters. Gardner-Altman plots, partial correlation, and logistic regression analyses were applied to explore the associations in continuous variables and quartiles. The prehypertensive ones had higher mean values of TyG, TyG-BMI, TyG-WC, and TyG-WHtR than normotensive individuals. All the four indicators showed positive correlations with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. After full adjustment, only TyG-BMI and TyG-WC were significantly associated with prehypertension in both genders. Furthermore, TyG-BMI had the highest OR for prehypertension. Our study showed that TyG-BMI might be an accessible and complementary monitor in the hierarchical management of non-obese prehypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jch.13878DOI Listing
June 2020

Amorphous TiO as a multifunctional interlayer for boosting the efficiency and stability of the CdS/cobaloxime hybrid system for photocatalytic hydrogen production.

Nanoscale 2020 May;12(20):11267-11279

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, China.

The construction of both highly efficient and stable hybrid artificial photosynthetic systems comprising semiconductors as photosensitizers and abundant metal-based molecular complexes as cocatalysts for photocatalytic H2 generation remains challenging. Herein, we report an effective and stable CdS/cobaloxime hybrid system prepared by inserting an amorphous TiO2 (a-TiO2) interlayer with adjustable thickness and by covalently-surface-attaching molecular cobaloxime catalysts. This hybrid system displayed outstanding photocatalytic H2 production and reached a maximum rate of ∼25 mmol g-1 h-1, which was ∼20.8 times that of pure CdS and 1.7 times that of the CdS/cobaloxime system without an a-TiO2 interlayer (CdS/Co). More importantly, 6 nm a-TiO2 uniformly coated CdS nanorods (CdS NRs) exhibited exceptional 200 h long-term catalytic behaviour under ≥420 nm visible light irradiation. However, the H2 production performance of the CdS/Co hybrid system decreased significantly over 10 h. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicated that the a-TiO2 surface can provide abundant bonding sites for the effective immobilization of molecular catalysts. Moreover, Mott-Schottky electrochemical measurements and femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that the a-TiO2 interlayer had favourable band levels that could fasten the photoexcited electron transfer from CdS to molecular cobaloxime and could extract holes with intraband electronic states generated by defects, thus prohibiting CdS photocorrosion and improving the stability of the hybrid system. This study proposes a strategy for designing multifunctional interlayers for the effective immobilization of molecular catalysts, beneficial regulation of photoinduced charge carriers, and improvement of the stability as well as facilitation of the construction of artificial photosynthetic hybrid systems with high efficiency and durability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr01453bDOI Listing
May 2020