Publications by authors named "Xian Li"

1,047 Publications

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Domestication history reveals multiple genetic improvements of Chinese bayberry cultivars.

Hortic Res 2022 30;9:uhac126. Epub 2022 May 30.

Laboratory of Systematic & Evolutionary Botany and Biodiversity, College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hr/uhac126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9347015PMC
May 2022

Label-free hairpin probe for the rapid detection of Hg(II) based on T-Hg(II)-T.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 Aug 23;1221:340113. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Silkworm Bioreactor and Biomedicine, College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, 310018, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

A simple thymine-rich mercury-specific oligonucleotide (G9T24C9) was designed to quickly detect Hg(Ⅱ) via thymine-Hg(II)-thymine (T-Hg(Ⅱ)-T) coordination chemistry by using 4',6-diamidinyl-2-phenylindole (DAPI). When the stable GC-paired stem of the DNA hairpin occurred, DPAI could intercalate into the T-Hg(Ⅱ)-T base pairs as a fluorescent recognizer. As a result, the hairpin structure was able to promote the rapid formation of T-Hg(Ⅱ)-T mismatches in the presence of Hg(Ⅱ), trigger DAPI to recognize T-Hg(Ⅱ)-T as well as TA/AT base pairs and restore fluorescence; moreover, fluorescence increases were not observed when Hg(Ⅱ) was not introduced. This method represents a simple strategy to detect Hg(Ⅱ). Taking advantage of the hairpin structure, the fluorescence intensity of the G9T24C9 hairpin probe was positively correlated with the concentration of Hg(Ⅱ) from 2.87 to 1400 nM (R = 0.9968), and the limit of detection (3σ) was as low as 2.87 nM. Furthermore, this probe had high selectivity for Hg(Ⅱ) detection. The probe was applied to real samples of pond water for the detection of Hg(Ⅱ), and a recovery rate from 95.9% to 104.4% was obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2022.340113DOI Listing
August 2022

Identification of TARDBP Gly298Ser as a founder mutation for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Southern China.

BMC Med Genomics 2022 Aug 5;15(1):173. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Neurology, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No.45 Changchun Street, Beijing, 100053, China.

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by predominant impairment of upper and lower motor neurons. Over 50 TARDBP mutations have been reported in both familial (FALS) and sporadic ALS (SALS). Some mutations in TARDBP, e.g. A382T and G294V, have genetic founder effects in certain geographic regions. However, such prevalence and founder effect have not been reported in Chinese.

Methods: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed in 16 Chinese FALS patients, followed by Sanger sequencing for the TARDBP p.Gly298Ser mutation (G298S) in 798 SALS patients and 1,325 controls. Haplotype analysis using microsatellites flanking TARDBP was conducted in the G298S-carrying patients and noncarriers. The geographic distribution and phenotypic correlation of the TARDBP mutations reported worldwide were reviewed.

Results: WES detected the TARDBP G298S mutation in 8 FALS patients, and Sanger sequencing found additional 8 SALS cases, but no controls, carrying this mutation. All the 16 cases came from Southern China, and 7 of these patients shared the 117-286-257-145-246-270 allele for the D1S2736-D1S1151-D1S2667-D1S489-D1S434-D1S2697 markers, which was not found in the 92 non-carrier patients (0/92) (p < 0.0001) and 65 age-matched and neurologically normal individuals (0/65) (p < 0.0001). The A382T and G298S mutations were prevalent in Europeans and Eastern Asians, respectively. Additionally, carriers for the M337V mutation are dominated by bulbar onset with a long survival, whereas those for G298S are dominated by limb onset with a short survival.

Conclusions: Some prevalent TARDBP mutations are distributed in a geographic pattern and related to clinical profiles. TARDBP G298S mutation is a founder mutation in the Southern Chinese ALS population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12920-022-01327-4DOI Listing
August 2022

Induction of fetomaternal tolerance? Suppressing B cells!

Am J Transplant 2022 Aug;22(8):1939

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16668DOI Listing
August 2022

TRIM18 is a critical regulator of viral myocarditis and organ inflammation.

J Biomed Sci 2022 Jul 31;29(1):55. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

Department of Surgery and Immunobiology and Transplant Science Center, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background: Infections by viruses including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 could cause organ inflammations such as myocarditis, pneumonia and encephalitis. Innate immunity to viral nucleic acids mediates antiviral immunity as well as inflammatory organ injury. However, the innate immune mechanisms that control viral induced organ inflammations are unclear.

Methods: To understand the role of the E3 ligase TRIM18 in controlling viral myocarditis and organ inflammation, wild-type and Trim18 knockout mice were infected with coxsackievirus B3 for inducing viral myocarditis, influenza A virus PR8 strain and human adenovirus for inducing viral pneumonia, and herpes simplex virus type I for inducing herpes simplex encephalitis. Mice survivals were monitored, and heart, lung and brain were harvested for histology and immunohistochemistry analysis. Real-time PCR, co-immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, luciferase assay, flow cytometry, over-expression and knockdown techniques were used to understand the molecular mechanisms of TRIM18 in regulating type I interferon (IFN) production after virus infection in this study.

Results: We find that knockdown or deletion of TRIM18 in human or mouse macrophages enhances production of type I IFN in response to double strand (ds) RNA and dsDNA or RNA and DNA virus infection. Importantly, deletion of TRIM18 protects mice from viral myocarditis, viral pneumonia, and herpes simplex encephalitis due to enhanced type I IFN production in vivo. Mechanistically, we show that TRIM18 recruits protein phosphatase 1A (PPM1A) to dephosphorylate TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1), which inactivates TBK1 to block TBK1 from interacting with its upstream adaptors, mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING), thereby dampening antiviral signaling during viral infections. Moreover, TRIM18 stabilizes PPM1A by inducing K63-linked ubiquitination of PPM1A.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that TRIM18 serves as a negative regulator of viral myocarditis, lung inflammation and brain damage by downregulating innate immune activation induced by both RNA and DNA viruses. Our data reveal that TRIM18 is a critical regulator of innate immunity in viral induced diseases, thereby identifying a potential therapeutic target for treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12929-022-00840-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339186PMC
July 2022

Improving Effect of the Policosanol from Wax on Learning and Memory Impairment Caused by Scopolamine in Mice.

Foods 2022 Jul 14;11(14). Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Key Laboratory of Breeding and Utilization of Resource Insects, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Institute of Highland Forest Science, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Kunming 650224, China.

Policosanol (PC) is a mixture of long-chain fatty alcohols that exhibits multiple biological activities, such as reducing blood lipid and cholesterol levels, lowering blood pressure, and extenuating liver inflammation. To assess PC's impact on cognitive behavior and function, PC was prepared from wax using a reduction method and analyzed using gas chromatography (GC). A total of 60 mice were randomly divided into six groups of 10 animals each: control (0.5% CMC-Na solution, i.g.), model (0.5% CMC-Na solution, i.g.), donepezil (3 mg/kg, i.g.), PC low- (2 g/kg, i.g.), medium (4 g/kg, i.g.), and high- (6 g/kg, i.g.) dose groups. All the groups were administered daily for 28 consecutive days. There were four parameters-escape latency, crossings of platform, swimming distance, and time spent in the target quadrant-that were recorded to evaluate the cognitive performance of mice in the Morris Water Maze (MWM). After MWM testing, the levels of acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) that were present in brain tissue were determined using assay kits. The GC data showed that PC consisted of four major components: tetracosanol (14.40%), hexacosanol (48.97%), octacosanol (25.40%), and triacontanol (4.80%). In the MWM test, PC significantly decreased the escape latency ( < 0.05) and increased the crossings of the platform ( < 0.05) and swimming distance ( < 0.05) and time in the target quadrant ( < 0.05) in rodents compared to that in the model group. Moreover, PC increased the levels of ACh, SOD, and GSH; inhibited AChE; and reduced MDA in the brain tissue of the tested animals. This is the first report to evaluate the efficacy of PC for cognitive behavior and function in animals. Our findings demonstrate that PC from wax is likely to exert an enhancing effect on learning and memory by promoting the cholinergic system and attenuating oxidative stress, which will provide a new insight into the efficacy of PC and expand its application in the food, nutraceutical, and beverage industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11142095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9317322PMC
July 2022

Hedyotis diffusa injection induces ferroptosis via the Bax/Bcl2/VDAC2/3 axis in lung adenocarcinoma.

Phytomedicine 2022 Sep 8;104:154319. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

School of Pharmacy, Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu City 233000, China. Electronic address:

Background: Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate among all cancer types. In combination with multiple chemotherapeutic options, traditional Chinese medicine has proven indispensable for the comprehensive treatment of lung cancer.

Purpose: To investigate the effects of Hedyotis diffusa on lung adenocarcinoma cell lines and a BALB/c nude mouse xenograft model, and determine whether HDI could induce ferroptosis in lung adenocarcinoma cells along with the underlying mechanism.

Methods: The anti-tumor activity of HDI was determined in vitro by cell counting kit-8, clonogenic, and transwell assays. Subsequently, electron microscopy, a lipid reactive oxygen species assay, ferrous ion staining, and a malondialdehyde assay were performed to determine the effect on ferroptosis in lung adenocarcinoma cells. The mechanism was then further investigated using small molecule inhibitors, siRNA, and plasmid overexpression in vitro. Finally, the effects of HDI were assessed in tumor-bearing BALB/c nude mice, and HE staining was performed to observe tissue damage after HDI treatment.

Results: In vitro experiments showed that HDI could inhibit the viability of lung adenocarcinoma cells and induce lung adenocarcinoma cells ferroptosis via mechanisms independent of GPX4 and PUFA-PLS pathways but closely associated with VDAC2/3. HDI regulated VDAC2/3 activity by promoting Bax via inhibiting Bcl2, thereby inducing ferroptosis in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed that HDI significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneous tumors in BALB/c nude mice with less organ damage and toxicity, and significantly increased the expression of the ferroptosis-related indicators 4HNE, TFR, and HMOX1 in tumor tissue.

Conclusion: HDI can significantly reduce the survival of lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro, inhibit the growth of subcutaneously transplanted tumors in BALB/c nude mice in vivo, and induce ferroptosis in lung adenocarcinoma cells via Bcl2 inhibition to promote Bax regulation of VDAC2/3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2022.154319DOI Listing
September 2022

Development and Validation of a Predictive Nomogram for Possible REM Sleep Behavior Disorders.

Front Neurol 2022 29;13:903721. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Neurology, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Diseases, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Objectives: To develop and validate a predictive nomogram for idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in a community population in Beijing, China.

Methods: Based on the validated RBD questionnaire-Hong Kong (RBDQ-HK), we identified 78 individuals with possible RBD (pRBD) in 1,030 community residents from two communities in Beijing. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was applied to identify candidate features and develop the nomogram. Internal validation was performed using bootstrap resampling. The discrimination of the nomogram was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the predictive accuracy was assessed a calibration curve. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was performed to evaluate the clinical value of the model.

Results: From 31 potential predictors, 7 variables were identified as the independent predictive factors and assembled into the nomogram: family history of Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia [odds ratio (OR), 4.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-14.45; = 0.011], smoking (OR, 3.24; 95% CI, 1.84-5.81; < 0.001), physical activity (≥4 times/week) (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.12-0.42; < 0.001), exposure to pesticides (OR, 3.73; 95%CI, 2.08-6.65; < 0.001), constipation (OR, 6.25; 95% CI, 3.58-11.07; < 0.001), depression (OR, 3.66; 95% CI, 1.96-6.75; < 0.001), and daytime somnolence (OR, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.65-6.38; = 0.001). The nomogram displayed good discrimination, with original AUC of 0.885 (95% CI, 0.845-0.925), while the bias-corrected concordance index (C-index) with 1,000 bootstraps was 0.876. The calibration curve and DCA indicated the high accuracy and clinical usefulness of the nomogram.

Conclusions: This study proposed an effective nomogram with potential application in the individualized prediction for pRBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.903721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9277017PMC
June 2022

Anthocyanins' effects on diabetes mellitus and islet transplantation.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2022 Jul 13:1-24. Epub 2022 Jul 13.

The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

The incidence of diabetes mellitus is dramatically increasing every year, causing a huge global burden. Moreover, existing anti-diabetic drugs inevitably bring adverse reactions, and the application of islet transplantation is often limited by the damage caused by oxidative stress after transplantation. Thus, new approaches are needed to combat the growing burden of diabetes mellitus. Anthocyanins are of great nutritional interest and have been documented that have beneficial effects on chronic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. Here, we describe the health effects of anthocyanins on diabetes mellitus and islet transplantation. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that moderate intake of anthocyanins leading to a reduction in risk of diabetes mellitus. Numerous experiments both animal and clinical studies also showed positive effects of anthocyanins on prevention and treatment of diabetes and diabetic complications. These effects of anthocyanins may be related to mechanisms of improving glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin resistance, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. In addition, damage and function of pancreatic islets after transplantation are also improved by anthocyanins. These findings suggest that daily intake of anthocyanins may not only improve nutritional metabolism in healthy individuals to prevent from diabetes, but also as a supplementary treatment of diabetes mellitus and islet transplantation. Thus, more evidence is needed to better understand the potential health benefits of anthocyanins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2022.2098464DOI Listing
July 2022

A Structural and Bioinformatics Investigation of a Fungal Squalene Synthase and Comparisons with Other Membrane Proteins.

ACS Omega 2022 Jul 17;7(26):22601-22612. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States.

There is interest in the development of drugs to treat fungal infections due to the increasing threat of drug resistance, and here, we report the first crystallographic structure of the catalytic domain of a fungal squalene synthase (SQS), SQS (AfSQS), a potential drug target, together with a bioinformatics study of fungal, human, and protozoal SQSs. Our X-ray results show strong structural similarities between the catalytic domains in these proteins, but, remarkably, using bioinformatics, we find that there is also a large, highly polar helix in the fungal proteins that connects the catalytic and membrane-anchoring transmembrane domains. This polar helix is absent in squalene synthases from all other lifeforms. We show that the transmembrane domain in AfSQS and in other SQSs, stannin, and steryl sulfatase, have very similar properties (% polar residues, hydrophobicity, and hydrophobic moment) to those found in the "penultimate" C-terminal helical domain in squalene epoxidase, while the final C-terminal domain in squalene epoxidase is more polar and may be monotopic. We also propose structural models for full-length AfSQS based on the bioinformatics results as well as a deep learning program that indicate that the C-terminus region may also be membrane surface-associated. Taken together, our results are of general interest given the unique nature of the polar helical domain in fungi that may be involved in protein-protein interactions as well as being a future target for antifungals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c01924DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9260892PMC
July 2022

Assembled Reduced Graphene Oxide/Tungsten Diselenide/Pd Heterojunction with Matching Energy Bands for Quick Banana Ripeness Detection.

Foods 2022 Jun 24;11(13). Epub 2022 Jun 24.

Agricultural Information Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

The monitoring of ethylene is of great importance to fruit and vegetable quality, yet routine techniques rely on manual and complex operation. Herein, a chemiresistive ethylene sensor based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/tungsten diselenide (WSe)/Pd heterojunctions was designed for room-temperature (RT) ethylene detection. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and quick p-type response/recovery (33/13 s) to 10-100 ppm ethylene at RT, and full reversibility and excellent selectivity to ethylene were also achieved. Such excellent ethylene sensing behaviors could be attributed to the synergistic effects of ethylene adsorption abilities derived from the negative adsorption energy and the promoted electron transfer across the WSe/Pd and rGO/WSe interfaces through band energy alignment. Furthermore, its application feasibility to banana ripeness detection was verified by comparison with routine technique through simulation experiments. This work provides a feasible methodology toward designing and fabricating RT ethylene sensors, and may greatly push forward the development of modernized intelligent agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods11131879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9265317PMC
June 2022

Lung radiomics features for characterizing and classifying COPD stage based on feature combination strategy and multi-layer perceptron classifier.

Math Biosci Eng 2022 May;19(8):7826-7855

College of Medicine and Biological Information Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110169, China.

Computed tomography (CT) has been the most effective modality for characterizing and quantifying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Radiomics features extracted from the region of interest in chest CT images have been widely used for lung diseases, but they have not yet been extensively investigated for COPD. Therefore, it is necessary to understand COPD from the lung radiomics features and apply them for COPD diagnostic applications, such as COPD stage classification. Lung radiomics features are used for characterizing and classifying the COPD stage in this paper. First, 19 lung radiomics features are selected from 1316 lung radiomics features per subject by using Lasso. Second, the best performance classifier (multi-layer perceptron classifier, MLP classifier) is determined. Third, two lung radiomics combination features, Radiomics-FIRST and Radiomics-ALL, are constructed based on 19 selected lung radiomics features by using the proposed lung radiomics combination strategy for characterizing the COPD stage. Lastly, the 19 selected lung radiomics features with Radiomics-FIRST/Radiomics-ALL are used to classify the COPD stage based on the best performance classifier. The results show that the classification ability of lung radiomics features based on machine learning (ML) methods is better than that of the chest high-resolution CT (HRCT) images based on classic convolutional neural networks (CNNs). In addition, the classifier performance of the 19 lung radiomics features selected by Lasso is better than that of the 1316 lung radiomics features. The accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score and AUC of the MLP classifier with the 19 selected lung radiomics features and Radiomics-ALL were 0.83, 0.83, 0.83, 0.82 and 0.95, respectively. It is concluded that, for the chest HRCT images, compared to the classic CNN, the ML methods based on lung radiomics features are more suitable and interpretable for COPD classification. In addition, the proposed lung radiomics combination strategy for characterizing the COPD stage effectively improves the classifier performance by 12% overall (accuracy: 3%, precision: 3%, recall: 3%, F1-score: 2% and AUC: 1%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2022366DOI Listing
May 2022

Allograft rejection: Be aware of tissue-resident T cells.

Authors:
Xian C Li

Am J Transplant 2022 07;22(7):1733

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16664DOI Listing
July 2022

Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes in Beijing, China.

J Diabetes Investig 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Endocrinology, National Center of Gerontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Hospital, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Beijing, China.

Aims/introduction: To estimate the prevalence, and patient clinical and demographic profile, as well as risk factors associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Beijing, China.

Materials And Methods: Hospitalized adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were consecutively screened and invited for an overnight polysomnography from four hospitals in Beijing, China, from May 2016 to February 2017. We used the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2012 polysomnography recording techniques and scoring criteria to identify the type of apnea and the severity of OSAS. The χ -test was used to evaluate differences between groups regarding the prevalence, and demographic and other clinical parameters.

Results: A total of 735 patients were found eligible for the study, of whom 309 patients completed the overnight polysomnography. The mean age of the patients was 58.2 ± 10.9 years, and most (67.3%) were men. The prevalence of overall (apnea hypopnea index ≥5/h), moderate-to-severe (apnea hypopnea index ≥15/h) and severe (apnea hypopnea index ≥30/h) OSAS was 66.3% (95% confidence interval 60.8-71.6%), 35.6% (95% confidence interval 30.3-41.2%) and 16.5% (95% confidence interval 12.5-21.1%), respectively. Central and mixed apnea contributed 12% to all sleep-disordered breathing. With the aggravation of OSAS, the combined prevalence for central, mixed and obstructive apnea increased from 57% to 70%. We found OSAS to be associated with older age, obesity, self-reported snoring and apnea, and diabetes complications.

Conclusions: Guidelines on screening and treatment of OSAS among hospitalized patients with diabetes are needed to direct the routine practice for diabetes endocrinologists for optimal clinical care of such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jdi.13868DOI Listing
June 2022

Prognostic value of PaO/FiO, SOFA and D-dimer in elderly patients with sepsis.

J Int Med Res 2022 Jun;50(6):3000605221100755

Department of Nursing, Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, Changsha, Hunan Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the prognostic value for predicting mortality of partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO/FiO), the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and D-dimer in elderly patients with sepsis.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study enrolled elderly patients with sepsis admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) between January 2019 and October 2020. Patients were divided into a survival group and a non-survival group. Biomarkers, SOFA, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and Glasgow Coma Scale scores were recorded within 24 h after admission to the ICU.

Results: A total of 135 elderly patients with sepsis were enrolled in the study: 89 were in the survival group and 46 were in the non-survival group at 28 days. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses demonstrated that PaO/FiO, SOFA and D-dimer were independently associated with 28-day mortality. The predictive performance for mortality of the combination of PaO/FiO, SOFA score and D-dimer (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.926) was higher than the values for the individual factors (0.761, 0.745 and 0.878, respectively).

Conclusion: The combination of PaO/FiO, SOFA score and D-dimer represents a promising tool and biomarker for predicting 28-day mortality of the elderly patients with sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03000605221100755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9234855PMC
June 2022

The modulatory effect of high salt on immune cells and related diseases.

Cell Prolif 2022 Jun 23:e13250. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Laboratory of Aging Research and Cancer Drug Target, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Background: The adverse effect of excessive salt intake has been recognized in decades. Researchers have mainly focused on the association between salt intake and hypertension. However, studies in recent years have proposed the existence of extra-renal sodium storage and provided insight into the immunomodulatory function of sodium.

Objectives: In this review, we discuss the modulatory effects of high salt on various innate and adaptive immune cells and immune-regulated diseases.

Methods: We identified papers through electronic searches of PubMed database from inception to March 2022.

Results: An increasing body of evidence has demonstrated that high salt can modulate the differentiation, activation and function of multiple immune cells. Furthermore, a high-salt diet can increase tissue sodium concentrations and influence the immune responses in microenvironments, thereby affecting the development of immune-regulated diseases, including hypertension, multiple sclerosis, cancer and infections. These findings provide a novel mechanism for the pathology of certain diseases and indicate that salt might serve as a target or potential therapeutic agent in different disease contexts.

Conclusion: High salt has a profound impact on the differentiation, activation and function of multiple immune cells. Additionally, an HSD can modulate the development of various immune-regulated diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpr.13250DOI Listing
June 2022

[Analysis of food sources of in rice-crab integrated ecosystem based on stable isotopes in saline-alkali land of the Yellow River Delta].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2022 Jun;33(6):1489-1496

Dongying Yibang Agricultural Science and Technology Development Co. Ltd., Dongying 257091, Shandong, China.

To explore food composition of Chinese mitten crab () in rice-crab integrated ecosystem in saline-alkali land of the Yellow River Delta, we analyzed carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δC and δN) in the crab and that in food sources, including plants (, , , , stem and leaf, rice grain), animals (benthos, zooplankton), organic debris and artificial feed (compound feed, corn meal) in Kenli District, Dongying, Shandong Province in June to October of 2020. Substantial differences in δC and δN were found among food sources. The δC and δN values of different food sources were in a range of -30.09‰--11.24‰ and 0.03‰-12.78‰, respectively, while those of the crab muscle were in range of -24.61‰--20.08‰ and 4.74‰-9.21‰, respectively, indicating diverse food sources for the crab. During the experiment, the contribution rate of different food sources followed the order: plant (46.7%-57.1%)>animal (21.5%-24.5%)>artificial feed (10.9%-21.3%)>organic detritus (7.1%-7.9%). It suggested that the natural bait of the paddy field could meet the feeding needs of Chinese mitten crabs in saline-alkali land. Even the crabs were fed with non-animal artificial feed, the contribution rates of the main food sources were not altered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.202206.010DOI Listing
June 2022

An Emerging Role of on Psoriasis: Evidence from a Psoriasis-Like Mouse Model.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2022 8;2022:5800586. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Department of Dermatology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, China.

Background: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated, chronic inflammatory disease, and genetic, immune, oxidative stress (OS), and environmental factors are all thought to contribute to its occurrence. Proanthocyanidins (PCs) are natural flavonoids consisting of catechins and epicatechins which have anti-inflammatory and anti-OS activities. PCs have been widely used to treat various diseases, but reports regarding psoriasis are rare.

Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanisms of action of PCs in a psoriasis-like mouse model.

Methods: Thirty male BALB/c hairless mice were assigned to six groups ( = 5): normal, model, low-dose PCs, medium-dose PCs, high-dose PCs, and control groups. The final five groups were dorsally exposed to 5% imiquimod (IMQ) cream once a day for 6 consecutive days, while the normal group received no intervention. Following the first day of IMQ application, mice in the PC-treated group were dosed with different amounts of PCs daily by oral gavage for six days, whereas mice in the control group received normal saline in the same way. One week later, skin lesions were evaluated by the severity of scoring system based on (PASI), and pathological alterations were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Indicators of inflammation or OS, such as interleukin- (IL-) 17, IL-23, phosphorylated-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p-PI3K), phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), were determined by ELISA, RT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis.

Results: IMQ administration induced the formation of large dark red plaques with thickly layered scales on the dorsal skin of mice; nevertheless, the lesions were substantially alleviated by PC administration. Histopathological alterations were observed in both model and control groups with epidermal hyperkeratosis, granulosa layer thinning, acanthosis, downward extension of rete ridges, dermal papillae expansion, capillary hyperplasia, and infiltration by inflammatory cells around blood vessels. These pathological changes, however, were restored by a range of doses of PCs, high-dose PCs in particular. Different doses of PCs significantly lowered the spleen index, levels of inflammatory or oxidative proteins (IL-17, IL-23, MDA, ROS, p-PI3K, and p-STAT3), and the mRNA expression of , , , and . Protein and mRNA levels of anti-OS and anti-inflammatory biomarkers, including SOD, CAT, GSH, and HO-1, greatly increased after PC treatment, especially at the highest dose.

Conclusions: Our findings reveal that PCs ameliorate psoriasis-like symptoms, suppressing the inflammatory response and mitigating OS damage in an IMQ-induced psoriasis-like mouse model. These effects are probably related to the inactivation of STAT3 and PI3K and activation of HO-1 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5800586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9200549PMC
June 2022

Effects of molten salt thermal treatment on the properties improvement of waste tire pyrolytic char.

Waste Manag 2022 Jul 14;149:53-59. Epub 2022 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Pyrolysis is a technical means for waste tires recycling, which can promote the enrichment of carbon black and facilitate the subsequent recovery. However, carbon black particles aggregated and the inorganic impurities tended to be enriched in pyrolytic char during the waste tire pyrolysis process, which is not conducive to the substitution of commercial carbon black by pyrolytic char. In the present study, a novel method using molten salts thermal treatment was proposed for the impurities removal from pyrolytic chars with different characteristics. In addition, the proper thermal treatment conditions were further estimated to obtain better performance for the physical-chemical properties improvement of pyrolytic char. Six kinds of char samples were chosen to conduct molten salts thermal treatment (MSTT) experiments at 350, 400, and 450 °C. The experimental results show that MSTT can effectively remove the impurities of different pyrolytic chars, and the most optimum reaction conditions are at 400 °C, 2 h of reaction time, and molten salt/char ratio of 10:1. In addition, after MSTT, the pyrolytic char was depolymerized, and the average particle size reduced from 36.63 μm to 19.08 μm, the specific surface area increased from 49 m/g to 73 m/g. At the same time, the graphite carbon content of the pyrolytic char increased from 24.41% to 70.90%, and the hydroxyl content on the pyrolytic char surface increased significantly. In summary, the physical-chemical properties of waste tire pyrolytic char were improved by MSTT, which is close to the carbon black N550 level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2022.05.028DOI Listing
July 2022

Modification of adipose mesenchymal stem cells-derived small extracellular vesicles with fibrin-targeting peptide CREKA for enhanced bone repair.

Bioact Mater 2023 Feb 31;20:208-220. Epub 2022 May 31.

National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006, PR China.

The process of bone repair is highly regulated by a large number of bioactive factors. Thus, a "cocktail" of bioactive factors supplemented to the defect sites is desirable for bone repair. In this regard, small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells hold great potential in tissue repair. Nevertheless, the poor homing and retention of sEVs greatly limited their possible clinical application. In the present work, DMPE-PEG-CREKA was inserted into the membrane of sEVs released from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to obtain CREKA functionalized sEVs (CREKA-sEVs), which could target fibrin to accumulate and retain in bone defects. Our results showed that CREKA-sEVs, like sEVs, promoted the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, the angiogenic property of HUVECs, and modulated the polarization of macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, due to the improved fibrin-binding and retention capacity of CREKA-sEVs, they enhanced the bone repair substantially in the rat femoral defect model. This study provided a new strategy to improve the therapeutic efficiency of sEVs and showed that CREKA-sEVs had great application value in bone tissue repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2022.05.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9163428PMC
February 2023

Sirt5 Inhibits BmNPV Replication by Promoting a Relish-Mediated Antiviral Pathway in .

Front Immunol 2022 23;13:906738. Epub 2022 May 23.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Agro-Animal Genomics and Molecular Breeding, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China.

Silent information regulators (Sirtuins) belong to the family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) that have diverse functions in cells. Mammalian Sirtuins have seven isoforms (Sirt1-7) which have been found to play a role in viral replication. However, Sirtuin members of insects are very different from mammals, and the function of insect Sirtuins in regulating virus replication is unclear. The silkworm, , as a model species of Lepidoptera, is also an important economical insect. nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a major pathogen that specifically infects silkworms and causes serious losses in the sericulture industry. Here, we used the infection of the silkworm by BmNPV as a model to explore the effect of Sirtuins on virus replication. We initially knocked down all silkworm Sirtuins, and then infected with BmNPV to analyze its replication. Sirt2 and Sirt5 were found to have potential antiviral functions in the silkworm. We further confirmed the antiviral function of silkworm Sirt5 through its effects on viral titers during both knockdown and overexpression experiments. Additionally, Suramin, a Sirt5 inhibitor, was found to promote BmNPV replication. In terms of molecular mechanism, it was found that silkworm Sirt5 might promote the immune pathway mediated by Relish, thereby enhancing the host antiviral response. This study is the first to explore the role of Sirtuins in insect-virus interactions, providing new insights into the functional role of members of the insect Sirtuin family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.906738DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9186105PMC
May 2022

Function of Graphene Oxide as the "Nanoquencher" for Hg Detection Using an Exonuclease I-Assisted Biosensor.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 5;23(11). Epub 2022 Jun 5.

College of Life Sciences and Medicine, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018, China.

Graphene oxide is well known for its excellent fluorescence quenching ability. In this study, positively charged graphene oxide (pGO25000) was developed as a fluorescence quencher that is water-soluble and synthesized by grafting polyetherimide onto graphene oxide nanosheets by a carbodiimide reaction. Compared to graphene oxide, the fluorescence quenching ability of pGO25000 is significantly improved by the increase in the affinity between pGO25000 and the DNA strand, which is introduced by the additional electrostatic interaction. The FAM-labeled single-stranded DNA probe can be almost completely quenched at concentrations of pGO25000 as low as 0.1 μg/mL. A simple and novel FAM-labeled single-stranded DNA sensor was designed for Hg detection to take advantage of exonuclease I-triggered single-stranded DNA hydrolysis, and pGO25000 acted as a fluorescence quencher. The FAM-labeled single-stranded DNA probe is present as a hairpin structure by the formation of T-Hg-T when Hg is present, and no fluorescence is observed. It is digested by exonuclease I without Hg, and fluorescence is recovered. The fluorescence intensity of the proposed biosensor was positively correlated with the Hg concentration in the range of 0-250 nM (R = 0.9955), with a seasonable limit of detection (3σ) cal. 3.93 nM. It was successfully applied to real samples of pond water for Hg detection, obtaining a recovery rate from 99.6% to 101.1%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23116326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9180964PMC
June 2022

Biomimetic smart mesoporous carbon nanozyme as a dual-GSH depletion agent and O generator for enhanced photodynamic therapy.

Acta Biomater 2022 08 5;148:310-322. Epub 2022 Jun 5.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110016, PR China. Electronic address:

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been thriving in the theranostics of cancer in recent years. However, due to a series of problems such as high concentration of GSH and insufficient O partial pressure in the tumor micro-environment, it is difficult to achieve the desired therapeutic effects with single PDT. Mesoporous carbon (MC-COOH) has been widely used in photothermal therapy (PTT) due to its high photothermal conversion efficiency and drug loading. In addition, we have discovered that MC-COOH owned high-efficiency glutathione oxidase-like activity for intracellular lasting GSH consumption. Hence, a smart mesoporous carbon nanozyme (CCM) was designed as a dual-GSH depletion agent and O generator combined with PTT to overcome the dilemma of PDT. MnO-doped carbon nanozyme (MC-Mn) was developed as the photothermal vehicles for the efficient loading of photosensitizer (Ce6). Subsequently, 4T1 membrane-coated nanozyme (Ce6/CCM) was constructed to achieve homologous targeting capability. The carbon nanozyme owned the sustained dual-GSH depletion function through MC-COOH and MnO, which greatly destroyed the antioxidant system of the tumor. Meanwhile, MnO could produce affluent O in the presence of HO, thereby alleviating the hypoxic state of tumor tissues and further promoting the generation of ROS. In addition, the novel carbon nanozyme was designed as photoacoustic imaging (PAI) agent and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast for real-time imaging during tumor therapy. In summary, this work showed that the biomimetic carbon nanozyme could be used as dual-GSH depletion agent and O generator for dual-mode imaging-guided PTT-PDT. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: - MC-COOH with highly efficient GSH-OXD activity was first discovered and applied in PDT. - MnO acted as an O generator and GSH depletion agent to enhance PDT. - The tumor-targeting ability of the nanozyme was improved by cell membrane camouflage. - CCM nanozyme possesses both PAI and MRI dual-mode imaging modalities to guide PDT/PTT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2022.06.001DOI Listing
August 2022

Control of tertiary lymphoid tissue revealed.

Am J Transplant 2022 06;22(6):1509

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16660DOI Listing
June 2022

Study of the heterologous gene expression characteristics of a new clone of a cell line derived from Papilio xuthus and its serum-free adaptation.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2022 May 2;58(5):365-375. Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Institute of Highland Forest Science, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Kunming, 650224, China.

The baculovirus expression vector system using insect cells as a bioreactor has been used for in vitro expression of recombinant proteins and plays an important role in the fields of biology, agronomy, and medicine. Screening suitable host cell lines is an important part of the construction of insect cell baculovirus expression systems. In previous research, we used a single-cell cloning process with the Papilio xuthus cell line RIRI-PX1 and obtained the monoclonal cell line RIRI-PX1-C31. In this study, we compared the basic biological and recombinant protein expression characteristics of RIRI-PX1-C31 and its parent cell line RIRI-PX1 and found that the expression of recombinant β-galactosidase in RIRI-PX1-C31 was significantly higher than that in the parental cell line. Further serum-free adaptation studies confirmed that RIRI-PX1-C31 can adapt to the growth environment of Express Five Serum-free medium and that its expression level of recombinant β-galactosidase was significantly higher than that before adaptation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11626-022-00687-6DOI Listing
May 2022

Evaluation of Antioxidant Capacity and Gut Microbiota Modulatory Effects of Different Kinds of Berries.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2022 May 22;11(5). Epub 2022 May 22.

Laboratory of Fruit Quality Biology/Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Integrative Biology/The State Agriculture Ministry Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Growth, Development and Quality Improvement, Zhejiang University, Zijingang Campus, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Berries are fairly favored by consumers. Phenolic compounds are the major phytochemicals in berries, among which anthocyanins are one of the most studied. Phenolic compounds are reported to have prebiotic-like effects. In the present study, we identified the anthocyanin profiles, evaluated and compared the antioxidant capacities and gut microbiota modulatory effects of nine common berries, namely blackberry, black goji berry, blueberry, mulberry, red Chinese bayberry, raspberry, red goji berry, strawberry and white Chinese bayberry. Anthocyanin profiles were identified by UPLC-Triple-TOF/MS. In vitro antioxidant capacity was evaluated by four chemical assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and ORAC). In vivo antioxidant capacity and gut microbiota modulatory effects evaluation was carried out by treating healthy mice with different berry extracts for two weeks. The results show that most berries could improve internal antioxidant status, reflected by elevated serum or colonic T-AOC, GSH, T-SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX levels, as well as decreased MDA content. All berries significantly altered the gut microbiota composition. The modulatory effects of the berries were much the same, namely by the enrichment of beneficial SCFAs-producing bacteria and the inhibition of potentially harmful bacteria. Our study shed light on the gut microbiota modulatory effect of different berries and may offer consumers useful consumption guidance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox11051020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9137550PMC
May 2022

Effective Skill Transfer From Fundamentals of Arthroscopic Surgery Training to Shoulder Arthroscopic Simulator in Novices.

Surg Innov 2022 May 24:15533506221104379. Epub 2022 May 24.

Clinical Skills Training Centre, Zhujiang Hospital, 70570Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: To investigate whether novices could improve performance on a shoulder arthroscopic simulator (high-fidelity) through short-term training on a Fundamentals of Arthroscopic Surgery Training (FAST) simulator (low-fidelity).

Methods: Twenty-eight novices with no experience in arthroscopy were recruited to perform a pre-test on a shoulder arthroscopic simulator. Then they were randomized into two groups: the experimental group practiced five modules on the FAST simulator three times, and the control group did nothing. The experimental group performed a post-test immediately after FAST simulator practice. Control group rested for 70 minutes after experiencing pre-test before performing post-test. All parameters were recorded by the simulator.

Results: The experimental group outperformed the control group in terms of total score, procedure time, camera path length, and grasper path length. However, there was no statistical difference in scratching of humerus cartilage or glenoid cartilage. Significant differences were found in the improvement of both groups in total score, procedure time, and camera path length.

Conclusions: Arthroscopic skills gained after short-term training on FAST simulator could be transferred to the shoulder arthroscopic simulator. This research provides important evidence of the benefits of FAST simulator in shoulder arthroscopy training program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15533506221104379DOI Listing
May 2022

Aberrantly Activated APOBEC3B Is Associated With Mutant p53-Driven Refractory/Relapsed Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

Front Immunol 2022 3;13:888250. Epub 2022 May 3.

Department of Hematology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Tumor protein 53 () mutation predicts an unfavorable prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but the molecular basis for this association remains unclear. In several malignancies, the cytidine deaminase apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3B (APOBEC3B) has been reported to be associated with the G/C-to-A/T mutation. Here, we show that the frequency of this mutation was significantly higher in relapsed/refractory (R/R) than in non-R/R DLBCL, which was positively associated with the expression level. APOBEC3B overexpression induced the G/C-to-A/T mutation , resulting in a phenotype similar to that of DLBCL specimens. Additionally, APOBEC3B-induced p53 mutants promoted the growth of DLBCL cells and enhanced drug resistance. These results suggest that APOBEC3B is a critical factor in mutant p53-driven R/R DLBCL and is therefore a potential therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2022.888250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9112561PMC
May 2022

Evolution of the Flow Patterns After Endovascular Treatment in Patients with High-Grade Carotid Artery Stenosis - the Clinical Value of Insonation of the Supratrochlear Artery and Alternating Flow.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2022 Aug 12;31(8):106542. Epub 2022 May 12.

Department of Ultrasound, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, No.119 South 4th Ring West Road, Fengtai District, Beijing 100070, China. Electronic address:

Aim: We aimed to describe the evolution of flow pattern in the ophthalmic artery (OA) and supratrochlear artery (SA) by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ipsilateral to a severe proximal carotid artery stenosis before and after staged endovascular treatment (EVT).

Methods: We insonated and recorded the flow patterns of OA and SA in 63 patients with ≥ 80% carotid artery stenosis before and after staged carotid angioplasty and stenting at 2-4 weeks apart. Based on the direction of OA and SA blood flow, we categorized patients into (1) reversed, (2) alternating, or (3) forward flow, groups. We evaluated the evolving sonographic flow patterns in OA and SA at the 3-time points and correlated them with the stenotic and flow velocity change.

Results: Despite the disconcordance between OA and SA, the evolution of flow direction were evoluted from reversed to alternating or from alternating to forward in both OA and SA. OA and SA's disagreement rate at three-time points was 19.1%, 49.2%, and 28.6%, respectively. After angioplasty alone, we detected an alternating flow in 21 (33.3%) and 46 (73.0%) patients in OA and SA, respectively. Alternating flow patterns in SA persisted in 20 patients (31.7%) after stenting. The post-angioplasty residual stenosis did not differ between the three flow pattern groups (p>0.05).

Conclusions: An alternating flow in OA or SA might mark the hemodynamic recovery after EVT. Insonation of SA may provide supporting evidence for hemodynamic change in patients with carotid artery stenosis undergoing EVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2022.106542DOI Listing
August 2022

Xanthones from Calophyllum Polyanthum Wallich ex Choisy with CYP1 Enzymes Inhibitory Activity.

Chem Biodivers 2022 Jun 27;19(6):e202200268. Epub 2022 May 27.

School of Pharmaceutical Science and Yunnan Key Laboratory of Pharmacology of Natural Products, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, 650500, Yunnan, P. R. China.

Three new xanthone compounds, 1,3,5-trihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-3-methylbut-3-enyl)-4-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)xanthone (1), toxyloxanthone E (2), dehydrocycloguanandin B (3) along with 15 known xanthones (4-18) were isolated from the aerial parts of Calophyllum polyanthum Wall. ex Choisy. Their structures were fully characterised using spectroscopic data, as well as comparison with the previous literature data. All isolated compounds had inhibitory effects against CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 enzymes at working concentration of 10 μM, 1 μM and 10 μM, respectively. Among them, compounds 10, 11, and 12 exhibited better CYP1A2 enzyme inhibitory effects than that of the positive control α-naphthoflavone, with 51.05 %, 56.82 % and 44.93 % inhibition, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202200268DOI Listing
June 2022
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