Publications by authors named "Xia Jiang"

527 Publications

The impact of body position and exercise on the measurement of liver Young's modulus by real-time shear wave elastography.

Technol Health Care 2021 Sep 30. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Background: In the past ten years, liver biopsies have been used as a method to accurately diagnose the stage of fibrosis.

Objective: This study aimed to evaluate whether body position and exercise affect the measurement of liver Young's modulus of healthy volunteers by real-time shear wave elastography (RT-SWE).

Methods: RT-SWE was used to measure liver Young's modulus in the supine and left lateral positions of 70 healthy volunteers at rest and measure the liver Young's modulus in the lying position before exercise, and at zero, five, and ten minutes of rest after exercise.

Results: The liver Young's modulus in the left lateral position was significantly higher than in the supine position (P< 0.05), and the measured value in the supine position was more stable than the left lateral position. The liver Young's modulus measured at zero minutes after exercise was significantly higher than that measured before exercise (P< 0.05). The liver Young's modulus measured at five minutes after exercise was significantly higher than that measured at zero minutes after exercise (P<0.05) and was not statistically different from the measured value before exercise (P> 0.05). The liver Young's modulus measured at ten minutes after exercise was significantly higher from that measured at zero minutes after exercise (P< 0.05) and was not statistically different from the measured value at five minutes after exercise (P> 0.05).

Conclusion: Body position and exercise have a significant impact on the measurement of liver Young's modulus. It is recommended that the examinees take a supine position during the measurement, and measurement should be conducted at least ten minutes after exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/THC-213218DOI Listing
September 2021

The effect of cofilin 1 expression and phosphorylation dynamics on cell fate determination and neuron maturation in neural stem cells.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Oct 13;764:136292. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Key Laboratory of Research and Utilization of Ethnomedicinal Plant Resources of Hunan Province College of Biological and Food Engineering, Huaihua University, Huaihua 418008, China. Electronic address:

Previous studies showed that neural stem cells (NSCs) have an ability to differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. However, the mechanisms that govern the fate of neural stem cell determination have not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we demonstrated that expression and activation of cofilin 1, a F-actin depolymerizing factor, are significantly changed during the development of brain, cortex or NSCs. Using Neuro-2a cells as a model, we found that overexpression of cofilin 1 significantly inhibit the cell differentiation and neurite outgrowth, while inhibition of intracellular cofilin 1 phosphorylation was significantly promoted. In cultured NSCs, we observed that cofilin 1 reduced the proportion of neurons derived from NSC due to inhibition of the phosphorylation, while the morphological maturation of neurons was promoted. Together, our findings revealed that cofilin 1 plays dynamic regulatory role on NSC cell fate determination and enhance neuronal maturation through regulating its activity and expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2021.136292DOI Listing
October 2021

Waste straw derived Mn-doped carbon/mesoporous silica catalyst for enhanced low-temperature SCR of NO.

Waste Manag 2021 Oct 9;136:28-35. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, People's Republic of China; National Engineering Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

This work proposed a new strategy for the high value utilization of waste straw, in which a Mn-doped carbon/mesoporous silica composite catalyst was prepared by simultaneous utilization of carbon and silicon source from straw for low-temperature denitration. The results showed that the NO conversion rate reached 93% at 180℃ for the composite catalyst with Si/C mass ratio of 35% (Mn/ACMS (35%)). This was significantly higher than those of the activated carbon catalyst (Mn/AC) and mesoporous silica catalyst (Mn/MS), i.e., 58% and 50%, respectively. The SEM images showed that mesoporous silica nanoparticles were dispersed evenly on the carbon surface to form composite materials. XPS results indicated that Mn/ACMS (35%) catalyst showed higher content of chemically adsorbed oxygen (O) and Mn (54.67% and 46.81%) than Mn/AC catalyst (34.38% and 17.49%) and Mn/MS catalyst (32.71% and 30.18%), which was responsible for the improved catalytic activity. Moreover, NH-TPD results revealed that Mn/ACMS (35%) had high surface acidity of 6.47 mmol·g, significantly higher than Mn/AC catalyst of 1.51 mmol·g, which was beneficial for adsorbing NH. H-TPR results suggested that Mn/ACMS (35%) catalyst had much higher H consumption of 1.32 mmol·g than Mn/AC and Mn/MS catalyst, suggesting better redox performance. The results demonstrated that the straw derived Mn-doped carbon/mesoporous silica composite catalyst can be a potential material for low-temperature denitration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.09.035DOI Listing
October 2021

Antibiotic-loaded bone cement combined with vacuum sealing drainage to treat deep sternal wound infection following cardiac surgery: the first case report.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Oct 10;16(1):292. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Wuxi People's Hospital/Wuxi Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, 214203, China.

Background: Deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) is a rare but serious complication after median sternotomy, and treatment success depends mainly on surgical experience. Here we first present a case of a patient successfully treated for antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) combined with vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) of DSWI.

Case Presentation: This case report presented a patient who underwent open heart surgery, and suffered postoperatively from a DSWI associated with enterococcus cloacae. Focus debridement combined with ALBC filling and VSD was conducted in stage I. Appropriate antibiotics were started according to sensitivity to be continued for 2 weeks until the inflammatory markers decreased to normal. One month after the surgery, patient's wound was almost healed and was discharged from hospital with a drainage tube. Two months after the stage I surgery procedure, the major step was removing the previous ALBC, and extensive debridement in stage II. The patient fully recovered without further surgical treatment.

Conclusions: The results of this case suggest that ALBC combined with VSD may be a viable and safe option for deep sternal wound reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-021-01673-xDOI Listing
October 2021

On-Resin Ugi Reaction for C-Terminally Modified and Head-to-Tail Cyclized Antibacterial Peptides.

Org Lett 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Chemistry, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Here we report a method to synthesize C-terminally modified peptides on resin. A four-component Ugi reaction of isocyanide resin, an Fmoc-protected amino acid, an amine, and a 6-nitroveratrylaldehyde gives C-terminal photocaged peptide amides, which can be photolyzed to generate C-terminal peptide amides. Changing the amine component in the Ugi reaction gives peptides with different C-terminal modifications including substituted anilides, alkyne, and azide. By installing an N-terminal azide and C-terminal alkyne, we synthesized a head-to-tail cyclized antibacterial peptide through copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The cyclized peptide exhibited higher proteolytic stability and antibacterial activity than the linear peptide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c03014DOI Listing
October 2021

Blood cell-derived extracellular vesicles: diagnostic biomarkers and smart delivery systems.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):7929-7940

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen Second People's Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released by most of the cells or tissues and act as nanocarriers to transfer nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids. The blood system is the most abundant source of extracellular vesicles for purification, and it has attracted considerable attention as a source of diagnostic biomarkers. Blood-derived extracellular vesicles, especially vesicles released from erythrocytes and platelets, are highly important in nanoplatform-based therapeutic interventions as potentially ideal drug delivery vehicles. We reviewed the latest research progress on the paracrine effects and biological functions of extracellular vesicles derived from erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and plasma. From a clinical perspective, we summarize selected useful diagnostic biomarkers for therapeutic intervention and diagnosis. Especially, we describe and discuss the potential application of erythrocyte-derived extracellular vesicles as a new nano-delivery platform for the desired therapeutics. We suggest that blood-derived extracellular vesicles are an ideal nanoplatform for disease diagnosis and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1982320DOI Listing
December 2021

Akt isoforms differentially provide for chemoresistance in prostate cancer.

Cancer Biol Med 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Objective: Early prostate cancer micrometastatic foci undergo a mesenchymal to epithelial reverting transition, not only aiding seeding and colonization, but also rendering the tumor cells generally chemoresistant. We previously found that upregulated E-cadherin in the epithelial micrometastases activated canonical survival pathways, including PI3K-Akt, that protected the tumor cells from death; however, the extent of protection from blocking the pathway in its entirety was modest, because different isoforms may have alternately affected cell functioning. Here, we characterized Akt isoform expressions in primary and metastatic prostate cancers, as well as their individual contributions to chemoresistance.

Methods: Akt isoforms and E-cadherin were manipulated with drugs, knocked down, and over expressed. Tumor cell killing was determined and . Overall survival was calculated from patient records and specimens.

Results: Pan-Akt inhibition sensitized tumor cells to chemotherapy, and specific blockade of Akt1 or/and Akt2 caused cells to be more chemoresponsive. Overexpression of Akt3 induced apoptosis. A low dose of Akt1 or Akt2 inhibitor enabled standard chemotherapies to significantly eradicate metastatic prostate tumors in a mouse model, acting as chemosensitizers. In human specimens, we found Akt1 and Akt2 positively correlated, whereas Akt3 inversely correlated, with the overall survival of prostate cancer patients. Akt1high/Akt2high/Akt3low tumors had the worst outcomes.

Conclusions: E-cadherin-induced activation of Akt1/2 isoforms was the essential mechanism of chemoresistance, whereas Akt3 made cells more fragile. These findings emphasized the need to target Akt1/2, rather than pan-Akt, as a rational therapeutic approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20892/j.issn.2095-3941.2020.0747DOI Listing
October 2021

Stem Cell-Derived Nanovesicles: A Novel Cell-Free Therapy for Wound Healing.

Stem Cells Int 2021 14;2021:1285087. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Shenzhen Kangning Hospital, Shenzhen Mental Health Center, Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Psychological Healthcare & Shenzhen Institute of Mental Health, Shenzhen 518020, China.

Wound healing and regeneration are a dynamic and complex process that requires a collaborative effort between growth factors, epidermal cells, dermal cells, extracellular matrix, and vessels local to the wound area. Mesenchymal stem cells participate in the recruitment site, mainly by releasing secretory factors and matrix proteins to promote wound healing. Stem cell-derived nanovesicles (CDNs), including microvesicles, exosomes, and exosome mimetics, contain most of the biologically active substances of their parent cells and have similar effects. CDNs can shuttle various proteins, messenger RNAs, and microRNAs to regulate the activity of receptor cells, and they play important roles in skin wound healing. This article reviews recent research progress on CDNs for wound repair. We summarize current knowledge on how CDNs regulate immunity, fibroblast activity, angiogenesis, and scar formation in the wound healing process. This review can help researchers explore new treatment strategies to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of CDNs, which have a promising future as naturally cell-free therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/1285087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457964PMC
September 2021

Six-month versus nine-month therapy for intestinal tuberculosis: a protocol for a randomized controlled study.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Aug;10(8):9223-9228

Affiliated Hangzhou Chest Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: The optimal duration of treatment for intestinal tuberculosis (TB), which remains a common disease worldwide, has not yet been established. The proposed randomized controlled study will aim to compare the efficacy of short-term six-month with nine-month anti-TB therapy for treating intestinal TB.

Methods: This multicenter, open-label, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial conducted in the Affiliated Hangzhou Chest Hospital of Zhejiang University will include a total of 80 patients. Patients who meet the inclusion criteria will be randomly assigned to either the six-month (n=40) or nine-month (n=40) treatment group. The primary outcome will be complete response, which is defined as endoscopy displaying active lesion healing at the end of treatment. Participants will be scheduled for follow-up visits once a month in the first three months, then once every three months until the end of the treatment. The last follow-up will be one year after the treatment. Recurrence will be assessed one year after the end of treatment, which is defined as endoscopy displaying recurrent lesions after complete response.

Discussion: In addition to the reports of tuberculous lymphadenitis and spinal TB, there are few appropriate randomized trials for the treatment of extrapulmonary TB with appropriate clinical endpoints. We believe that the proposed randomized controlled trial will provide further data on the efficacy of short-term six-month anti-TB therapy in intestinal TB patients.

Trial Registration: This trial will be registered on ClinicalTrial.gov.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-1642DOI Listing
August 2021

Bacteriophage endolysins against gram-positive bacteria, an overview on the clinical development and recent advances on the delivery and formulation strategies.

Crit Rev Microbiol 2021 Sep 3:1-24. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

School of Pharmacy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Facing the increasing threat of multi-drug antimicrobial resistance (AMR), humans strive to search for antibiotic drug candidates and antibacterial alternatives from all possible places, from soils in remote areas to deep in the sea. In this "gold rush for antibacterials," researchers turn to the natural enemy of bacterial cells, bacteriophage (phages), and find them a rich source of weapons for AMR bacteria. Endolysins (lysins), the enzymes phages use to break the bacterial cells from within, have been shown to be highly selective and efficient in killing their target bacteria from outside while maintaining a low occurrence of bacterial resistance. In this review, we start with the structures and mechanisms of action of lysins against Gram-positive (GM+) bacteria. The developmental history of lysins is also outlined. Then, we detail the latest preclinical and clinical research on their safety and efficacy against GM+ bacteria, focusing on the formulation strategies of these enzymes. Finally, the challenges and potential hurdles are discussed. Notwithstanding these limitations, the trends in development indicate that the first, approved lysin drugs will be available soon in the near future. Overall, this review presents a timely summary of the current progress on lysins as antibacterial enzymes for AMR GM+ bacteria, and provides a guidebook for biomaterial researchers who are dedicating themselves to the battle against bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1040841X.2021.1962803DOI Listing
September 2021

Investigation of Volatile Compounds, Microbial Succession, and Their Relation During Spontaneous Fermentation of Petit Manseng.

Front Microbiol 2021 12;12:717387. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Food College, Shihezi University, Shihezi, China.

Petit Manseng is widely used for fermenting sweet wine and is popular among younger consumers because of its sweet taste and attractive flavor. To understand the mechanisms underlying spontaneous fermentation of Petit Manseng sweet wine in Xinjiang, the dynamic changes in the microbial population and volatile compounds were investigated through high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology, respectively. Moreover, the relationship between the microbial population and volatile compounds was deduced multivariate data analysis. and were dominant genera in Petit Manseng wine during spontaneous fermentation. Many fermentative aroma compounds, including ethyl octanoate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl decanoate, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl laurate, isopropyl acetate, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid, were noted and found to be responsible for the strong fruity and fatty aroma of Petit Manseng sweet wine. Multivariate data analysis indicated that the predominant microorganisms contributed to the formation of these fermentative aroma compounds. and displayed a significantly positive correlation with the 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one produced. The current results provide a reference for producing Petit Manseng sweet wine with desirable characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.717387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8406806PMC
August 2021

Structure-activity relationship, and evaluation of novel dienyl sulphonyl fluorides as selective BuChE inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2021 Dec;36(1):1860-1873

School of Pharmacy, Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Major Autoimmune Diseases, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

To discover novel scaffolds as leads against dementia, a series of δ-aryl-1,3-dienesulfonyl fluorides with α-halo, α-aryl and α-alkynyl were assayed for ChE inhibitory activity, in which compound was identified as a selective BuChE inhibitor (IC = 0.021 μM for eqBChE, 3.62 μM for hBuChE). SAR of BuChE inhibition showed: (i) - > - > -; -OCH > -CH > -Cl (-Br) for -aryl; (ii) α-Br > α-Cl, α-I. Compound exhibited neuroprotective, BBB penetration, mixed competitive inhibitory effect on BuChE ( = 29 nM), and benign neural and hepatic safety. Treatment with could almost entirely recover the A-induced cognitive dysfunction to the normal level, and the assessment of total amount of A confirmed its anti-amyloidogenic profile. Therefore, the potential BuChE inhibitor is a promising effective lead for the treatment of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14756366.2021.1959571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8386747PMC
December 2021

Exosomes as Targeted Delivery Platform of CRISPR/Cas9 for Therapeutic Genome Editing.

Chembiochem 2021 Aug 21. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Chemistry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, P. R. China.

Therapeutic genome editing harnesses the power of genome editing tools to correct erroneous genes associated with disease pathology. To bring the CRISPR/Cas9 tool from the bench to the bedside, a critical hurdle is the safe and efficient delivery of this nucleic acid tool to the desired type of cells in patients. This review discusses the use of natural carriers, extracellular vesicles (EVs), in particular exosomes, to fill the gap. Exosomes are lipid-containing nanovesicle released by various types of cells to mediate cell-cell communications. Their inherent long-distance transportation capability, biocompatibility, and engineerability have made EVs potential vehicles for delivering therapeutic drugs. We summarize the recent progress of harnessing exosomes as delivery vehicles for the CRISPR/Cas system to achieve therapeutic gene editing for disease treatment, with a focus on various strategies to achieve selective delivery to a particular type of cell and efficient packaging of the genome editing tools in the vesicles. Critical issues and possible solutions in the design and engineering of the targeting vehicles are highlighted. Taken together, we demonstrate EV/exosome-mediated packaging of the nucleic acid/protein tools and the cell/tissue-targeted delivery to be a viable way towards the clinical translation of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbic.202100359DOI Listing
August 2021

ITGB4 as a novel serum diagnosis biomarker and potential therapeutic target for colorectal cancer.

Cancer Med 2021 Oct 20;10(19):6823-6834. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Hebei Key Laboratory of Colorectal Cancer Precision Diagnosis and Treatment, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, P.R. China.

Purpose: To develop new and effective biomarkers for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC).

Experimental Design: The serum expression of ITGB4 (49 CRC and 367 HC) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and its diagnostic value was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The sensitivity and specificity of ITGB4 in CRC diagnosis were calculated through statistical analysis. The optimal clinical cutoff value was calculated using the Youden index, and diagnostic efficacy was analyzed in a larger serum sample (98 CRC and 1631 non-CRC). The expression of ITGB4 was measured by CyTOF (cell experimental technology) at the single-cell level, and characteristics were analyzed using viSNE and SPADE TREE.

Results: Serum ITGB4 and CEA levels were significantly higher in CRC patients than in HC and non-CRC patients. The use of serum ITGB4 levels for the diagnosis of CRC has a high sensitivity (79%) but not high specificity when the clinical cutoff value was 0.70 ng/mL. However, the optimal cutoff value was 1.6 ng/mL with 86.2% specificity and 52.0% sensitivity, and the diagnostic efficacy was greatly improved with high specificity (82.0%) and sensitivity (71.4%) when combined with CEA. ITGB4 expression characteristics were measured and related to the expression of EpCAM, Ck8/18, and perforin at the single-cell level. Single-cell analysis showed that cell clusters with low expression of CK8/18 and ITGB4 were more sensitive to 5FU and radiotherapy (RT).

Conclusions: ITGB4 is an effective diagnostic serum biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8495272PMC
October 2021

Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis of DNA Methylation Biomarkers in Thyroid Cancer Based on TCGA Database.

Biochem Genet 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Tianjin First Center Hospital, No. 24, Fu-Kang Road, Nankai District, Tianjin, 300192, China.

Previous studies have reported a cluster of aberrant promoter methylation changes associated with silencing of tumor suppressor genes in thyroid cancer (TC), but these results of individual genes are far from enough. In this work, we aimed to investigate the onset and pattern of methylation changes during the progression of TC by informatics analysis. We downloaded the DNA methylation and RNA sequencing datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas focusing on TC. Abnormally methylated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were sorted and pathways were analyzed. The KEGG and GO were then used to perform enrichment and functional analysis of identified pathways and genes. Gene-drug interaction network and human protein atlas were applied to obtain feature DNA methylation biomarkers. In total, we identified 2170 methylation-driven DEGs, including 1054 hypermethylatedlow-expression DEGs and 1116 hypomethylated-high-expression DEGs at the screening step. Further analysis screened total of eight feature DNA methylation biomarkers (RXRG, MET, PDGFRA, FCGR3A, VEGFA, CSF1R, FCGR1A and C1QA). Pathway analysis showed that aberrantly methylated DEGs mainly associated with transcriptional misregulation in cancer, MAPK signaling, and intrinsic apoptotic signaling in TC. Taken together, we have identified novel aberrantly methylated genes and pathways linked to TC, which might serve as novel biomarkers for precision diagnosis and disease treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10528-021-10117-zDOI Listing
August 2021

Source profiles and reactivity of volatile organic compounds from anthropogenic sources of a megacity in southwest China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Oct 29;790:148149. Epub 2021 May 29.

College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China; National Engineering Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China. Electronic address:

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from anthropogenic sources are deleterious to air quality, climate, human health and vegetation. However, research on VOCs source profiles of the non-solvent use in some industries and the emission characteristics of motor vehicles under actual road conditions is limited in China. In this research, VOCs source profiles of industries (wood-based panel manufacturing and pharmacy) based on all product processes were constructed, and those of light and medium duty vehicles exhaust based on actual road conditions at different speeds were acquired in Chengdu, a megacity in southwest China. The results show that VOCs groups of various sources were dominated by oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), which accounted for 27-84% of the total VOCs emission. Due to the great contribution of OVOCs to industrial source reactivity (SR), attention should be paid to the control over the emissions of the species with high reactivity, such as aromatics and alkenes, but also to the production processes with relatively large proportions of OVOCs species emission. VOCs emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles running at a speed ranging from 0 to 40 km/h have approximately the same ozone formation potential (OFP), while the contribution of VOCs emission from diesel vehicles to the formation of urban ozone pollution deserves further attention. It is found that VOCs emission characteristics of some industries in China have changed as the upgrading of production processes in automobile manufacturing and other industries, such as the extensive use of water-based coatings instead of outdated solvent-based coatings, which increased the uncertainty of judgment parameters (B/T ratio, etc.) in source apportionment research. The ranges of B/T ratio of industrial process sources, solvent use sources and motor vehicles are 0.00-0.23, 0.01-0.75 and 0.35-0.92, respectively. Therefore, updating existing source profiles and further understanding the emission constitutions of characteristic species in these source profiles (such as BTEX ratio) will be conducive to further research on emission inventory, source apportionment for O pollution control effectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148149DOI Listing
October 2021

Novel cannabidiol-carbamate hybrids as selective BuChE inhibitors: Docking-based fragment reassembly for the development of potential therapeutic agents against Alzheimer's disease.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Nov 2;223:113735. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

School of Pharmacy, Inflammation and Immune Mediated Diseases Laboratory of Anhui Province, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032, China. Electronic address:

Cannabidiol (CBD) and rivastigmine have been launched as drugs for treating dementia and cholinesterases (ChEs) are ideal drug targets. This study focused on developing novel ChE inhibitors as drug leads against dementia through molecular modeling and fragment reassembly approaches. A potent carbamate fragment binding to active site gorge of BuChE was found via a docking-based structural splicing approach, thus, 17 novel compounds were designed by structural reassembly. Compound C16 was identified as a highly selective potent BuChE inhibitor (IC = 5.3 nM, SI > 4000), superior to CBD (IC = 0.67 μM). C16 possessed BBB penetrating ability, benign safety, neuroprotection, antioxidant and pseudo-irreversible BuChE inhibition (K = 13 nM, k = 0.26 min), showing good drug-like properties. In vivo studies confirmed that C16 significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognition impairment, almost entirely recovered the Aβ (icv)-impaired cognitive function to the normal level, showed better behavioral performance than donepezil and good anti-amyloidogenic effect. Hence, the potential BuChE inhibitor C16 can be developed as a promising disease-modifying treatment of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113735DOI Listing
November 2021

Origin, Succession, and Control of Biotoxin in Wine.

Front Microbiol 2021 22;12:703391. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Food Science and Technology, Shihezi University, Shihezi, China.

Wine is a worldwide alcoholic beverage with antioxidant active substances and complex flavors. Moderate drinking of wine has been proven to be beneficial to health. However, wine has some negative components, such as residual pesticides, heavy metals, and biotoxins. Of these, biotoxins from microorganisms were characterized as the most important toxins in wine. Wine fermentation mainly involves alcoholic fermentation, malolactic fermentation, and aging, which endue wine with complex flavors and even produce some undesirable metabolites. These metabolites cause potential safety risks that are not thoroughly understood. This review aimed to investigate the origin, evolution, and control technology of undesirable metabolites (e.g., ochratoxin A, ethyl carbamate, and biogenic amines) in wine. It also highlighted current wine industry practices of minimizing the number of biotoxins in wine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.703391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339702PMC
July 2021

Identification of prognostic immune-related gene signature associated with tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer.

BMC Cancer 2021 Aug 8;21(1):905. Epub 2021 Aug 8.

Academy of Medical Engineering and Translational Medicine, Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300072, China.

Background: The tumor microenvironment (TME) has significantly correlation with tumor occurrence and prognosis. Our study aimed to identify the prognostic immune-related genes (IRGs)in the tumor microenvironment of colorectal cancer (CRC).

Methods: Transcriptome and clinical data of CRC cases were downloaded from TCGA and GEO databases. Stromal score, immune score, and tumor purity were calculated by the ESTIMATE algorithm. Based on the scores, we divided CRC patients from the TCGA database into low and high groups, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Immune-related genes (IRGs) were selected by venn plots. To explore underlying pathways, protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and functional enrichment analysis were used. After utilizing LASSO Cox regression analysis, we finally established a multi-IRGs signature for predicting the prognosis of CRC patients. A nomogram consists of the thirteen-IRGs signature and clinical parameters was developed to predict the overall survival (OS). We investigated the association between prognostic validated IRGs and immune infiltrates by TIMER database.

Results: Gene expression profiles and clinical information of 1635 CRC patients were collected from the TCGA and GEO databases. Higher stromal score, immune score and lower tumor purity were observed positive correlation with tumor stage and poor OS. Based on stromal score, immune score and tumor purity, 1517 DEGs, 1296 DEGs, and 1892 DEGs were identified respectively. The 948 IRGs were screened by venn plots. A thirteen-IRGs signature was constructed for predicting survival of CRC patients. Nomogram with a C-index of 0.769 (95%CI, 0.717-0.821) was developed to predict survival of CRC patients by integrating clinical parameters and thirteen-IRGs signature. The AUC for 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS were 0.789, 0.783 and 0.790, respectively. Results from TIMER database revealed that CD1B, GPX3 and IDO1 were significantly related with immune infiltrates.

Conclusions: In this study, we established a novel thirteen immune-related genes signature that may serve as a validated prognostic predictor for CRC patients, thus will be conducive to individualized treatment decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-021-08629-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8349485PMC
August 2021

GB Tags: Small Covalent Peptide Tags Based on Protein Fragment Reconstitution.

Bioconjug Chem 2021 08 30;32(8):1926-1934. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Chemistry, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada.

Developing peptide tags that can bind target proteins covalently under mild conditions is of great importance for a myriad of applications, ranging from chemical biology to biotechnology. Here we report the development of a small covalent peptide tag system, termed as GB tags, that can covalently label the target protein with high specificity and high yield under oxidizing conditions. The GB tags consist of a pair of short peptides, GN and GC (GN contains 45 residues and GC contains 19 residues). GN and GC, which are split from a parent protein GB1, can undergo protein fragment reconstitution to reconstitute the folded structure of the parent protein spontaneously. The engineered cysteines in GN and GC can readily form a disulfide bond oxidized by air oxygen after protein reconstitution. Using thermally stable variants of GB1, we identified two pairs of GB tags that display improved thermodynamic stability and binding affinity. They can serve as efficient covalent peptide tags for various applications, including specific labeling of mammalian cell surface receptors. We anticipate that these new GB tags will find applications in biochemical labeling as well as biomaterials, such as protein hydrogels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.1c00325DOI Listing
August 2021

Manganese dioxide nanozyme for reactive oxygen therapy of bacterial infection and wound healing.

Biomater Sci 2021 Sep 28;9(17):5965-5976. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Pharmacy, Changzhou University, Changzhou, Jiangsu 213164, China.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the weapons of neutrophiles against bacterial pathogens, and also the central effectors in reactive oxygen therapy for skin and soft tissue infection. Nanozymes that spontaneously generate ROS under physiological conditions are new antibacterials that hold promise towards multidrug resistant pathogens. The clinical use of the nanozymes is however limited by their low biocompatibility and toxicity in vivo. Here, we develop an oleic acid (OA) nanoemulsion template method for the one-pot synthesis of OA-manganese dioxide (MnO) nanozyme. The OA-MnO nanozyme showed high stability and biocompatibility under physiological conditions with marked oxidase-like activity. The ROS generated by the OA-MnO nanozyme effectively kill the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Escherichia coli strains. Moreover, the OA-MnO nanozyme shows promising abilities to prevent and destruct biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, and result in superior in vivo antibacterial performance as compared to vancomycin. The reactive oxygen therapy based on OA-MnO nanozyme cures the infected skin and promotes wound healing in mice, manifesting its potential use in skin and soft tissue infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1bm00683eDOI Listing
September 2021

Salusin‑β participates in high glucose‑induced HK‑2 cell ferroptosis in a ‑dependent manner.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Sep 23;24(3). Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Nephrology, Center of Blood Purification, The Second People's Hospital of Nantong, Nantong, Jiangsu 226002, P.R. China.

Ferroptosis is critically involved in the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy (DN). As a bioactive peptide, salusin‑β is abundantly expressed in the kidneys. However, it is unclear whether salusin‑β participates in the pathologies of diabetic kidney damage by regulating ferroptosis. The present study found that high glucose (HG) treatment upregulated the protein expressions of salusin‑β in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner. Genetic knockdown of salusin‑β retarded, whereas overexpression of salusin‑β aggravated, HG‑triggered iron overload, antioxidant capability reduction, massive reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation in HK‑2 cells. Mechanistically, salusin‑β inactivated nuclear factor erythroid‑derived 2‑like 2 () signaling, thus contributing to HG‑induced ferroptosis‑related changes in HK‑2 cells. Notably, the protein expression of salusin‑β was upregulated by ferroptosis activators, such as erastin, RSL3, FIN56 and buthionine sulfoximine. Pretreatment with ferrostatin‑1 (a ferroptosis inhibitor) prevented the upregulated protein expression of salusin‑β in HK‑2 cells exposed to HG. Taken together, these results suggested that a positive feedback loop between salusin‑β and ferroptosis primes renal tubular cells for injury in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8335735PMC
September 2021

Two New Methods of Supine Venographically Guided Popliteal Vein Puncture: A Retrospective Study.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 Oct 7;62(4):622-628. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Hebei Key Laboratory of Colorectal Cancer Precision Diagnosis and Treatment, the First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: Presently, the prone position is necessary for popliteal vein puncture access, but it makes the patients uncomfortable and does not allow traditional femoral or jugular access. To address these deficiencies, this study introduces two new methods, anterior and medial access carried out in the supine position.

Methods: Venous interventions with punctures in the popliteal vein of 120 limbs in 97 patients were performed during the period from February 2017 to April 2019. After puncture, venographic guidance was achieved by dorsal vein injection of contrast medium. Interventional therapy was performed after puncture and insertion of the introducer sheath.

Results: In all, 120 limbs were punctured in the popliteal vein, with technical success in 118 (98.3% in total) cases: 100%, 96.1%, and 100% successful punctures in, respectively, 32 anterior, 49 medial, and 37 posterior access cases. A comparison of the three groups revealed that the fluoroscopy time and duration of puncture were longer in the medial and anterior access groups than in the posterior access group. The rate of intra-operative and post-operative complications was 7.5% (9/120), with no statistically significant difference between the three access groups. Compared with the pre-operative median score of 2.5, the post-operative SVS (Society of Vascular Surgery) score of the popliteal vein was reduced to 1.5 in the anterior and 0.5 in the medial groups.

Conclusion: Medial and anterior puncture of the popliteal vein in the supine position can be used as a safe alternative in venous endovascular therapy. The two new methods can mitigate frailty or respiratory problems resulting from the prone position and facilitate traditional femoral and jugular access.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2021.05.011DOI Listing
October 2021

Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Common Autoimmune Inflammatory Diseases-Evidence From a Large-Scale Genetic Analysis Totaling 1 Million Individuals.

Front Genet 2021 22;12:687745. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Observational studies have suggested a protective effect of alcohol intake with autoimmune disorders, which was not supported by Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses that used only a few (<20) instrumental variables. We systemically interrogated a putative causal relationship between alcohol consumption and four common autoimmune disorders, using summary-level data from the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) conducted on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We quantified the genetic correlation to examine a shared genetic similarity. We constructed a strong instrument using 99 genetic variants associated with drinks per week and applied several two-sample MR methods. We additionally incorporated excessive drinking as reflected by alcohol use disorder identification test score. We observed a negatively shared genetic basis between alcohol intake and autoimmune disorders, although none was significant ( = -0.07 to -0.02). For most disorders, genetically predicted alcohol consumption was associated with a slightly (10-25%) decreased risk of onset, yet these associations were not significant. Meta-analyzing across RA, MS, and IBD, the three Th1-related disorders yielded to a marginally significantly reduced effect [OR = 0.70 (0.51-0.95), = 0.02]. Excessive drinking did not appear to reduce the risk of autoimmune disorders. With its greatly augmented sample size and substantially improved statistical power, our MR study does not convincingly support a beneficial role of alcohol consumption in each individual autoimmune disorder. Future studies may be designed to replicate our findings and to understand a causal effect on disease prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.687745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258244PMC
June 2021

Analysis of the Isotopic Purity of DO with the Characteristic NIR-II Phosphorescence of Singlet Oxygen from a Photostable Polythiophene Photosensitizer.

Anal Chem 2021 07 8;93(28):9737-9743. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

DO plays important roles in a variety of fields (such as the nuclear industry and bioorganic analysis), and thus its isotopic purity (HO contents) is highly concerned. Due to its highly similar physical properties to HO and large excess amounts of HO over DO, it is challenging to distinguish DO from HO. On the basis of the characteristic NIR-II phosphorescence of singlet oxygen (O), and the fact that HO is a more efficient quencher for O than DO, here, we proposed to simply use the 1275 nm emission of O for the analysis of the isotopic purity of DO. In normal cases (a xenon lamp for excitation), such steady-state emission is extremely weak for valid analytical applications, we thus employed laser excitation for intensification. To this goal, a series of photosensitizers were screened, and eventually polythiophene PT10 was selected with high singlet oxygen quantum yield (Φ = 0.51), high HO/DO contrast, and excellent photostability. Upon excitation with a 445 nm laser, a limit of detection (LOD, 3σ) of 0.1% for HO in DO was achieved. The accuracy of the proposed method was verified by the analysis of the isotopic purity of several DO samples (with randomly added HO). More interestingly, the hygroscopicity of DO was sensitively monitored with the proposed probe in a real-time manner; the results of which are important for strengthening the care of DO storage and the importance of humidity control during related investigations. Besides DO isotopic purity evaluation, this work also indicated the potential usefulness of the NIR-II emission of singlet oxygen in future analytical detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01160DOI Listing
July 2021

Membrane-Permeable Antibacterial Enzyme against Multidrug-Resistant .

ACS Infect Dis 2021 08 7;7(8):2192-2204. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Bacteriophage endolysins (lysins, or murein hydrolases) are enzymes that bacteriophages utilize to degrade the cell wall peptidoglycans (PG) and subsequently disintegrate bacterial cells from within. Due to their muralytic activity, lysins are considered as potential candidates to battle against antibiotic resistance. However, most lysins in their native form lack the capability of trespassing the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative (G-ve) bacteria. To turn the bacteriophage enzymes into antibacterial weapons against G-ve bacteria, endowing these enzymes the capability of accessing the PG substrate underneath the OM is critical. Here we show that fusing a membrane-permeabilizing peptide CeA at the C-terminus of a muralytic enzyme LysAB2 renders a two-step mechanism of bacterial killing and increases the activity of LysAB2 against the multidrug resistant by up to 100 000-folds. The engineered LysAB2, termed LysAB2-KWK here, also shows remarkable activity against at the stationary phase and a prominent capability to disrupt biofilm formation. In addition, the enzyme shows a broad antibacterial spectrum against G-ve bacteria, a decent tolerance to serum, and a prolonged storage life. LysAB2-KWK rescues the larva of the greater wax moth from infection through systemic administration. Altogether, our work equips a globular lysin with OM permeabilization activity to enable effective killing of G-ve bacteria, reveals the critical role of the C-terminus of a globular lysin in the antibacterial activity, and points toward a viable route to engineer globular lysins as antibacterial enzymes for potential clinical use against multidrug resistant G-ve bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.1c00222DOI Listing
August 2021

Mendelian randomization analysis provides causality of smoking on the expression of ACE2, a putative SARS-CoV-2 receptor.

Elife 2021 07 6;10. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: To understand a causal role of modifiable lifestyle factors in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression (a putative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] receptor) across 44 human tissues/organs, and in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility and severity, we conducted a phenome-wide two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study.

Methods: More than 500 genetic variants were used as instrumental variables to predict smoking and alcohol consumption. Inverse-variance weighted approach was adopted as the primary method to estimate a causal association, while MR-Egger regression, weighted median, and MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) were performed to identify potential horizontal pleiotropy.

Results: We found that genetically predicted smoking intensity significantly increased ACE2 expression in thyroid (β=1.468, p=1.8×10), and increased ACE2 expression in adipose, brain, colon, and liver with nominal significance. Additionally, genetically predicted smoking initiation significantly increased the risk of COVID-19 onset (odds ratio=1.14, p=8.7×10). No statistically significant result was observed for alcohol consumption.

Conclusions: Our work demonstrates an important role of smoking, measured by both status and intensity, in the susceptibility to COVID-19.

Funding: XJ is supported by research grants from the Swedish Research Council (VR-2018-02247) and Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE-2020-00884).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.64188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8282334PMC
July 2021

A novel CNTs functionalized CeO/CNTs-GAC catalyst with high NO conversion and SO tolerance for low temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH.

Chemosphere 2021 Dec 28;284:131377. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065, PR China; National Engineering Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu, 610065, PR China. Electronic address:

Low-temperature selective catalytic reduction of NO by NH (NH-SCR) for diminishing SO poisoning remains an issue in flue gas denitrification (DeNO). Herein, A novel CNTs functionalized low temperature NH-SCR catalyst CeO/CNTs-GAC was prepared, which showed high NO conversion activity (100% at 150 °C) and SO resistance. The addition of CNTs restrained SO adsorption but improved the selective adsorption of NO, which restricted the deposition of (NH)SO and/or Ce(SO), and resulted in high SO resistance. The addition of CNTs facilitated the diffusion and transportation of NH and NO, and the electron transfer on CeO/CNTs-GAC, leading to higher content of Ce and adsorbed O species on the CeO/CNTs-GAC surface and promoted formation of surface-adsorbed oxygen O. Therefore, CeO/CNTs-GAC provided abundant NO adsorption and activation sites, facilitating "fast SCR" reaction and enhancing the NH-SCR reaction. The proposed CeO/CNTs-GAC catalyst exhibited higher NH-SCR activity, N selectivity, catalytic durability and SO resistance than CeO/GAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131377DOI Listing
December 2021

Erlotinib-induced reactive perforating collagenosis in a case of lung adenocarcinoma.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2021 [SEASON];87(4):548-551

Dermatology and Plastic Surgery Center, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University (General Hospital), Chongqing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/IJDVL_288_20DOI Listing
March 2020

The membrane-targeting mechanism of host defense peptides inspiring the design of polypeptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles exhibiting effective antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant .

J Mater Chem B 2021 06;9(25):5092-5101

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China. and Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, Frontiers Science Center for Materiobiology and Dynamic Chemistry, Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237, China.

Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are a grand challenge to global medical and health systems. Therefore, it is urgent to develop versatile antibacterial strategies that can combat bacterial resistance without displaying toxicity. Here, we synthesize antibacterial polypeptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles that exhibit potent antibacterial activities against clinically isolated multiple drug resistance Gram-positive bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and excellent in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility. The antibacterial mechanism study indicates that over-production of reactive oxygen species results in the killing of bacteria. The overall antibacterial performance of these polypeptide-conjugated gold nanoparticles and the convenient synthesis of these polypeptides via lithium hexamethyldisilazide-initiated fast ring-opening polymerization on α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydride imply the potential application of this strategy in treating bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1tb00533bDOI Listing
June 2021
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