Publications by authors named "Xia Gong"

121 Publications

Association of renal function with diabetic retinopathy and macular oedema among Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Eye (Lond) 2022 Jul 21. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Ocular Diseases, Guangzhou, 510060, China.

Objectives: To investigate the associations of renal function with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic macular oedema (DMO) in diabetic patients.

Methods: A total of 1877 diabetic participants aged 30 to 80 years were consecutively recruited between October 2017 and April 2019. The presence of DR, vision-threatening DR (VTDR) and DMO were graded using seven-field fundus photographs. Renal function was defined as normal, mildly impaired or indicative of chronic kidney disease (CKD) based on different estimated glomerular filtration rates (GFR).

Results: In the multivariable logistic regression model, decreased GFR was associated with the presence of any DR only in the presence of microalbuminuria (OR = 2.40 for mildly impaired and 3.37 for CKD, all P < 0.05), while an impaired GFR was an independent risk factor for VTDR regardless of microalbuminuria status (all P < 0.05). The risks of any DR (OR = 1.74 for quartile 2 and 3.09 for quartile 4) and VTDR (OR = 3.27 for quartile 2 and 6.41 for quartile 4) increased gradually along with microalbuminuria quartile (all P < 0.05). CKD (OR = 3.07, P = 0.012) and high microalbuminuria (OR = 3.22 for quartile 3 and 5.25 for quartile 4, all P < 0.05) were independent DMO risk factors.

Conclusions And Relevance: There is a strong association between GFR and VTDR, whereas the association between GFR and any DR was significant only under the premise of microalbuminuria. High microalbuminuria and CKD were significantly associated with DMO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41433-022-02173-5DOI Listing
July 2022

Peripapillary Microvasculature Predicts the Incidence and Development of Diabetic Retinopathy: An SS-OCTA Study.

Am J Ophthalmol 2022 Jul 16;243:19-27. Epub 2022 Jul 16.

From the State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Ocular Diseases, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To examine the associations of peripapillary microvascular metrics with diabetic retinopathy (DR) incidence and development using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA).

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Methods: A total of 1033 eyes from 1033 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were included, with 2-year follow-up. The peripapillary microvascular metrics at the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) were measured by SS-OCTA at the baseline, including peripapillary vascular density (pVD) and peripapillary vascular length density (pVLD). The DR incidence and progression were evaluated with 7 standard fields of stereoscopic color fundus photographs. The associations were tested with logistic regression models after adjusting for established risk factors and confounding factors. The prediction value of OCTA metrics was examined with the elevation of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC).

Results: The 2-year incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) was 25.1% (n = 222) in non-DR (NDR) eyes, 7.4% DR progression (n = 11) in DR eyes, and 4.17% RDR eyes (n = 43) in all eyes. After adjusting for established factors, lower whole-image pVD (wi-pVD) (relative risk [RR] = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.68-0.96; P = .015), circular pVD (circ-pVD) (RR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.66-0.95; P = .013), whole-image pVLD (wi-pVLD) (RR = 0.79; 95% CI = 0.67-0.94; P = .008), and circular pVLD (circ-pVLD) (RR = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.63-0.91; P = .003) were significantly associated with increased risk of DR incidence; wi-pVD (RR = 0.48; 95% CI = 0.35-0.67; P < .001), circ-pVD (RR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.45-0.94; P = .023), and wi-pVLD (RR = 0.46; 95% CI = 0.33-0.66; P < .001) were associated with incident risk of RDR. Both pVD and pVLD of SCP were not significantly associated with DR progression. The AUROC for the DR incidence risk prediction model increased from 0.631 to 0.658 (4.28%; P = .041) by circ-pVLD; the AUC of the RDR incidence risk prediction model increased from 0.631 to 0.752 by wi-pVD (19.18%; P = .009), to 0.752 by circ-pVD (19.18%; P=.009), and to 0.752 by wi-pVLD (19.18%; P = .009).

Conclusion: Lower pVD and pVLD of SCP are associated with 2-year incident DR and RDR among the T2DM population. The peripapillary metrics imaged by SS-OCTA can provide additional value to the prediction of DR incidence and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2022.07.001DOI Listing
July 2022

Interaction Analysis between the Transcription Repressor VAL1 and Transcription Coregulators SIN3-LIKEs (SNLs).

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jun 23;23(13). Epub 2022 Jun 23.

State Key Laboratory of Biocatalysis and Enzyme Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China.

() encodes a DNA-binding B3 domain protein and plays essential roles in seed maturation and flowering transition by repressing genes through epigenetic silencing in . ()- (), which encode scaffold proteins for the assembly of histone deacetylase complexes and have six SIN3 homologues () in , directly repress gene expression to regulate seed maturation and flowering transition. However, it remains unclear whether VAL1 and SNLs work together in repressing the expression of related genes. In this study, yeast two-hybrid and firefly luciferase complementation imaging assays revealed that VAL1 interacts with SNLs, which can be attributed to its own zinc-finger CW (conserved Cys (C) and Trp (W) residues) domain and the PAH (Paired Amphipathic Helices) domains of SNLs. Furthermore, pull-down experiments confirmed that the CW domain of VAL1 interacts with both intact protein and the PAH domains of SNLs proteins, and the co-immunoprecipitation assays also confirmed the interaction between VAL1 and SNLs. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that and were expressed in seedlings, and transient expression assays showed that VAL1 and SNLs were localized in the nucleus. Considered together, these results reveal that VAL1 physically interacts with SNLs both in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that VAL1 and SNLs may work together to repress the expression of genes related to seed maturation and flowering transition in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23136987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9266683PMC
June 2022

Altered fecal microbial and metabolic profile reveals potential mechanisms underlying iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women in China.

Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2022 Jul 9. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Institute of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Diagnostics, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, Guangdong, China.

The gut microbiome and its metabolism may provide crucial insight into the cause of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in pregnant women. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the gut microbiome and its related metabolites on pregnant women with iron deficiency (ID) and IDA. Maternal cubital venous blood and stool samples were collected from healthy control pregnant women (HC, non-anemic, n=10), pregnant women with ID non-anemia (ID, n=10), and IDA (n=10). All groups were subjected to fecal metagenomics and metabolomics. The composition and function of the gut microbiome were then compared in pregnant women with ID and IDA with HC after excluding the possibility of inflammation and insufficient iron absorption capacity. Whole-genome shotgun libraries were prepared by quantifying metagenomic DNA samples with Quant-iT PicoGreen dsDNA Assay. The levels of 41 microbial species, including 21 Streptococci and ten metabolites (catechol), which could serve as siderophores, were increased. In contrast, 3 Bacteroides and six metabolites were decreased in pregnant women with IDA (p<0.05). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that the bio-pathways, including biosynthesis of siderophore group non-ribosomal peptides (p<0.01), ABC transporters (p<0.05) and membrane transport of the gut microbiota (p<0.01) in IDA patients were expressed differently compared with HC. Correlation analysis also indicates that these increased bacteria formed strong co-occurring relationships with metabolites in the occurrence and development of IDA in pregnant women. The current study identified that streptococci and catechol (fecal metabolite) were significantly increased in pregnant women with IDA. Therefore, adjusting the intestinal homeostasis using long-term living and eating habits on oral Streptococcus in pregnant women with IDA before iron supplementation may be more conducive to iron supplementation, thus providing novel therapies for IDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2022.7091DOI Listing
July 2022

MFG-E8 Knockout Aggravated Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Promoting the Activation of TLR4/NF-B Signaling in Mice.

Mediators Inflamm 2022 20;2022:5791915. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Department of Anatomy, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the common liver disease characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis; there are no approved drugs to treat this disease because of incomplete understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of NASH. Milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor-factor 8 (MFG-E8), a multifunctional glycoprotein, has shown anti-inflammation and antifibrosis. Here, MFG-E8 was shown to play a key role in NASH progression. Using methionine and choline deficient (MCD) diet-fed mice, we found MFG-E8 knockout exacerbated hepatic damage and steatosis as indicated by increased plasma transaminases activities and hepatic histopathologic change, higher hepatic triglycerides (TGs), and lipid accumulation. Moreover, liver fibrosis and inflammation elicited by MCD were aggravated in MFG-E8 knockout mice. Mechanistically, MFG-E8 knockout facilitated activation of hepatic toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-B) signaling pathway in MCD-fed mice. experiment, the TLR4 specific antagonist TAK-242 rescued palmitic acid- (PA-) primed lipid formation and inflammation in MFG-E8 knockout primary murine hepatocytes. These findings indicated that MFG-E8 is involved in the progression of NASH and the possible mechanism by which MFG-E8 knockout exacerbated NASH in mice is associated with activation of the TLR4/NF-B signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5791915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9236848PMC
July 2022

Two-Year Choroidal Thickness Attenuation and Its Associations in Healthy Chinese Adults.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2022 06;11(6):21

Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Identifying clinical associations causing attenuation in choroidal thickness (CT) among healthy Chinese adults.

Methods: A 2-year longitudinal study was conducted in volunteers aged over 30 years from China. All participants had no history of eye disease or surgery. All subjects underwent swept-source optical coherence tomography to measure the CT in the macular region at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. The regression models were based on the generalized estimating equation.

Results: A total of 603 eyes of 336 healthy participants were included in the final analysis (mean [SD] age, 58.88 [8.82] years; 74.70% female). Mean (SD) choroidal thickness (MCT) was reduced significantly from 206.62 (72.42) to 194.02 (72.08) µm (difference, -12.60 µm; 95% confidence interval [CI], -13.62 to -11.57). Among the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) grid, CT at the subfoveal sector showed the greatest 2-year reduction (difference, -14.55 µm; 95% CI, -15.87 to -13.22). The largest 2-year change was observed in the 50 to 59 years group (difference, -14.51 µm; 95% CI, -16.71 to -12.32). Multivariate regression showed female gender (β = -2.85; 95% CI, -5.65 to -0.56) and baseline MCT (β = -0.040; 95% CI, -0.056 to -0.024) were significantly and independently associated with greater 2-year CT decrease.

Conclusions: These results indicated that CT among Chinese healthy adults decreased during the 2-year follow-up, and the greater choroidal thinning rate was significantly associated with female gender and larger baseline MCT.

Translational Relevance: Longitudinal CT data of healthy adults provide a reference range when evaluating pathologic variations, especially for the age-related retinal-choroidal disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.11.6.21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9233293PMC
June 2022

Allicin attenuated hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice by regulating PPARγ-IRAK-M-TLR4 signal pathway.

Food Funct 2022 Jul 4;13(13):7361-7376. Epub 2022 Jul 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China.

: Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to the liver is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following liver surgery, trauma, and hemorrhagic shock. It was reported that allicin, a type of garlic compound, had a protective effect against other hepatic diseases. Allicin's ability to protect against liver injury caused by ischemic reperfusion remains unknown. As a result, we conducted this study to determine allicin's effects and mechanism of action in hepatic I/R injury. : The liver I/R injury model was established by clamping the blood supply to the left and middle liver lobes. Three days prior to the hepatic I/R injury, different concentrations of allicin were gavaged. Then, hepatic function, histological changes, apoptosis markers, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines were measured, and the molecular mechanisms were evaluated using western blot. Another separation experiment used IRAK-M knockout mice and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) inhibitor to deduce the molecular mechanisms. : Pretreatment with allicin prior to hepatic I/R injury reduced liver damage by inhibiting aminotransferase activity and alleviating liver injury. It significantly decreased cell apoptosis, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production, and hepatic oxidative stress. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that GW9662 (inhibitor of PPARγ) abrogated allicin's positive effect by inhibiting PPARγ expression while suppressing IRAK-M expression. Thus, the depletion of IRAK-M cannot influence the expression of PPARγ. The down-regulation of PPARγ-IRAK-M disabled the protection of allicin in I/R injury. : Allicin protects against hepatic I/R injury dose-dependent regulation of the PPARγ-IRAK-M-TLR4 signaling pathway, and it may be a potential drug in future clinical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2fo00751gDOI Listing
July 2022

Differential Effect of Generalized and Abdominal Obesity on the Development and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy in Chinese Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2022 27;9:774216. Epub 2022 May 27.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Guangdong Provincial Clinical Research Center for Ocular Disease, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The relationship between obesity and diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the association of generalized obesity [assessed by body mass index (BMI)] and abdominal obesity [assessed by waist to hip ratio (WHR)] with incident DR, and vision-threatening DR (VTDR), and DR progression among Chinese adults with type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM).

Method: This prospective cohort study was conducted at the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, from November 2017 to December 2020. DR was assessed based on the 7-filed fundus photographs using the modified Airlie House Classification. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations of BMI and WHR with the development and progression of DR after adjusting for age, sex, traditional risk factors, and mutually for BMI and WHR.

Results: Among the 1,370 eligible participants, 1,195 (87.2%) had no sign of any DR and 175 (12.8%) had DR at baseline examination. During the 2 years follow-up visit, 342 (28.6%) participants had incident DR, 11 (0.8%) participants developed VTDR, 15 (8.6%) demonstrated DR progression. After adjusting for confounders, the BMI was negatively associated with incident DR [relative risk (RR) =0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26-0.38; < 0.001] and incident VTDR (RR = 0.22; 95%CI, 0.11-0.43; < 0.001), while WHR was positively associated with incident DR (RR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.27-1.71; < 0.001). BMI and WHR level were not significantly associated with 2-year DR progression in multivariate models (all > 0.05).

Conclusions: This study provides longitudinal evidence that generalized obesity confer a protective effect on DR, while abdominal obesity increased the risk of DR onset in Chinese patients, indicating that abdominal obesity is a more clinically relevant risk marker of DR than generalized obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.774216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9184733PMC
May 2022

Responsible governance of human germline genome editing in China†.

Biol Reprod 2022 07;107(1):261-268

State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Considerable improvements have been made to gene editing technology, which has been increasingly applied to research involving humans. Nevertheless, human heritable germline genome editing is associated with a series of potential ethical, legal, and social risks, which have generated major controversies and discussions worldwide, especially after the "gene-edited babies" incident. Influenced by this incident, China has realized the importance of ethical governance in the field of life science and technology, has accelerated legislative and policy efforts in this field, and has gradually moved toward the direction of "precautionary" ethical governance. Black letter analysis, big data public opinion analysis, and other research methods are used in this paper. This paper explores the scientific background, ethical debates, and latest developments regarding China's regulatory framework for human germline gene editing after the "gene-edited babies" controversy and provides several recommendations on the future governance system of human germline gene editing in China. This paper argues that in recent years, the ethics governance of germline genome editing in China has been accelerated and great changes have been made. However, the regulatory system for germline genome editing requires further improvement in three aspects: coordination of legislation and agencies, establishment of an ethics review system at high levels, and public participation and education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biolre/ioac114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9310509PMC
July 2022

Association of different kinds of obesity with diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

BMJ Open 2022 05 19;12(5):e056332. Epub 2022 May 19.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China

Introduction: Although obesity is one of the established risk factors of diabetes mellitus, the relationship between obesity and diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains unclear in different studies. This study aimed to investigate the association of DR with four obesity-related indexes, including body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), waist to height ratio (WHtR) and body adiposity index (BAI) in patients with diabetes.

Research Design And Methods: We prospectively enrolled 2305 patients with diabetes (2305 eyes) in the Guangzhou Diabetic Eye Study between November 2017 and December 2019 to investigate the prevalence and the association of different types of obesity with DR using BMI, WHR, WHtR and BAI. DR, diabetic macular oedema (DME) and vision-threatening DR (VTDR) were selected as primary outcomes. BMI was categorised as normal (18.5-22.9 kg/m), overweight (23.0-25.0 kg/m) and obese (>25.0 kg/m); WHR, WHtR and BAI were categorised into quarters.

Results: A total of 336 (14.58%), 93 (4.03%) and 98 (4.25%) developed DR, DME and VTDR, respectively. The prevalence of DR, DME and VTDR was higher in patients with higher BMI/WHR or lower WHtR/BAI. In the univariate regression model, WHR correlated positively with DR, while WHtR and BAI correlated negatively with DR, DME and VTDR. The association remained independent of age, sex and lipid metabolism parameters. In the multivariate model, obese presented as a protective factor for DME and VTDR, while the second quarter of WHtR(Q2-WHtR) presented as a risk factor.

Conclusions: As high as 67.8% of patients with diabetes were overweight or obese. Obese presented as a significant protective factor of VTDR, while Q2-WHtR presented as a significant risk factor. Therefore, more attention should be paid to centripetal obesity as well as general obesity. Further research is also needed to focus on the improvement of sex-specific weight management in patients with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-056332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9121435PMC
May 2022

Knowledge graphs of ethical concerns of cerebral organoids.

Cell Prolif 2022 Aug 17;55(8):e13239. Epub 2022 May 17.

Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Objectives: The rapid development of cerebral organoid technology and the gradual maturity of cerebral organoids highlight the necessity of foresighted research on relevant ethical concerns. We employed knowledge graphs and conducted statistical analysis with CiteSpace for a comprehensive analysis of the status quo of the research on the ethical concerns of cerebral organoids from a bibliometric perspective.

Materials And Methods: We performed a statistical analysis of published papers on cerebral organoid ethics, keyword co-occurrence graph, literature co-citation and knowledge clustering graph to examine the status of the ethics research, internal relationship between technological development and ethical research, and ethical concerns of the academia. Finally, we used a keyword time zone graph and related statistics to analyze and predict the trends and popular topics of future cerebral organoids ethics research.

Results: We demonstrated that although the ethical concerns of cerebral organoids have long been discussed, it was not until 2017 that the ethical issues began to receive more attention, when cerebral organoids were gradually mimicking the human brain more closely and increasingly being combined with chimera research. The recent key ethical concerns are primarily divided into three categories: concerns that are common in life sciences, specific to cerebral organoids, and present in cross-fields. These increasing ethical concerns are inherently related to the continual development of technology. The analysis pointed out that future research should focus on the ethical concerns of consciousness that are unique to cerebral organoids, ethical concerns of cross-fields, and construction and improvement of legislative and regulatory systems.

Conclusions: Although research on cerebral organoids can benefit the biomedicine field, the relevant ethical concerns are significant and have received increasing attention, which are inherently related to the continual development of technology. Future studies in ethics regarding cerebral organoid research should focus on the ethical concerns of consciousness, and cross-fields, as well as the improvement of regulatory systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpr.13239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9357362PMC
August 2022

Flow and geometrical alterations in retinal microvasculature correlated with the occurrence of diabetic retinopathy: evidence from a longitudinal study.

Retina 2022 May 2. Epub 2022 May 2.

Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To assess the relationship between flow and geometric parameters in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images and the risk of incident diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Methods: This prospective, observational cohort study recruited patients with type 2 diabetes without DR in Guangzhou, China and followed up annually. A commercially available OCTA device (DRI-OCT Triton; Topcon Inc., Tokyo, Japan) was used to obtain a variety of flow (foveal avascular zone [FAZ] area, vessel density [VD], vessel length density [VLD]) and geometric (fractal dimension [FD] and blood vessel tortuosity [BVT]) parameters in superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP). The odds ratio [OR] and its 95% confidential interval [CI] were calculated per 1-SD increase in each OCTA parameter.

Results: Over a follow-up of one year, 182 of 1,698 participants (10.7%) developed incident DR. After adjusting for conventional risk factors and image quality score, the higher risk of DR onset was significantly associated with the reduced parafoveal VD of SCP (OR=0.81; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.96; P = 0.016), reduced parafoveal VLD of SCP (OR=0.73; 95% CI: 0.59, 0.90; P = 0.003), reduced FD of SCP (OR=0.73; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.87; P < 0.001), increased BVT of SCP (OR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.64; P < 0.001) and increased BVT of DCP (OR=1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.40; P = 0.033) .

Conclusion: Reduced vessel density and impaired vessel geometry posed higher susceptibility for DR onset in patients with type 2 diabetes, supporting the adoption of OCTA parameters as early monitoring indicators of the newly incident DR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000003518DOI Listing
May 2022

Investigation of nickel sulfate-induced cytotoxicity and underlying toxicological mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells through oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and MAPK signaling pathways.

Environ Toxicol 2022 Aug 2;37(8):2058-2071. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Growing evidence indicates that nickle and its compounds have adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. In this study, the cytotoxic insults caused by nickel sulfate (NiSO ) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were explored by examining cell viability, oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and MAPK signaling pathway activity. Cultured HUVECs were treated with varying concentrations of NiSO (0, 62.5, 250, and 1000 μM) for 24 h. Subsequently, markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and MAPK signaling pathways were analyzed using biochemical assays, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and western blot. Rates of apoptosis were evaluated using flow cytometry. The results showed that NiSO exerted dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effects on cell growth. It induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by increasing the generation of reactive oxygen species, the oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH ratio), and malondialdehyde levels. Further, it inhibited superoxide dismutase activity in HUVECs. Flow cytometry analysis results revealed that NiSO (62.5-1000 μM) could induce apoptosis in HUVECs. The protein and gene expressions of cleaved Caspase 3 and Bax were elevated, and those of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were reduced after NiSO treatment. Additionally, NiSO triggered inflammation in HUVECs, increasing the protein and mRNA levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and reducing those of TGF-β. Furthermore, western blot findings revealed that NiSO could activate MAPK signaling pathways, upregulating p38, JNK, and ERK1/2 in HUVECs by increasing the levels of p-P38,p-JNK, and p-ERK1/2 in a dose-dependent manner. MAPK pathway inhibitors (10 μM SB203580 and 10 μM SP600125) could attenuate the NiSO -induced increase in apoptosis and inflammation in HUVECs. They could also attenuate the dysregulation of inflammatory factors and related proteins caused by high-dose NiSO exposure. Interestingly, while the MEK inhibitor U0126 (10 μM) enhanced NiSO -induced apoptosis in HUVECs, it reduced cell inflammation. Taken together, these experimental results suggest that NiSO can inhibit cell growth, induce oxidative stress, and trigger subsequent inflammatory responses and apoptosis in HUVECs. These effects may be mediated by the P38 and JNK MAPK stress response pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.23550DOI Listing
August 2022

Macular Choroidal Thickness and the Risk of Referable Diabetic Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetes: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2022 04;63(4)

Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between choroidal thickness (CT) and the 2-year incidence of referable diabetic retinopathy (RDR).

Methods: This was a prospective cohort study. Patients with type 2 diabetes in Guangzhou, China, aged 30 to 80 years underwent comprehensive examinations, including standard 7-field fundus photography. Macular CT was measured using a commercial swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) device (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon, Tokyo, Japan). The relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was used to quantify the association between CT and new-onset RDR. The prognostic value of CT was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI).

Results: A total of 1345 patients with diabetes were included in the study, and 120 (8.92%) of them had newly developed RDR at the 2-year follow-up. After adjusting for other factors, the increased RDR risk was associated with greater HbA1c (RR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.17-1.55, P < 0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (SBP; RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01-1.03, P = 0.005), lower triglyceride (TG) level (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.69-0.96, P = 0.015), presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR; RR = 8.16, 95% CI = 4.47-14.89, P < 0.001), and thinner average CT (RR = 0.903, 95% CI = 0.871-0.935, P < 0.001). The addition of average CT improved NRI (0.464 ± 0.096, P < 0.001) and IDI (0.0321 ± 0.0068, P < 0.001) for risk of RDR, and it also improved the AUC from 0.708 (95% CI = 0.659-0.757) to 0.761 (95% CI = 0.719-0.804).

Conclusions: CT thinning measured by SS-OCT is an early imaging biomarker for the development of RDR, suggesting that alterations in CT play an essential role in DR occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.63.4.9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9034727PMC
April 2022

Quantitative Lipidomics and Spatial MS-Imaging Uncovered Neurological and Systemic Lipid Metabolic Pathways Underlying Troglomorphic Adaptations in Cave-Dwelling Fish.

Mol Biol Evol 2022 04;39(4)

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Sinocyclocheilus represents a rare, freshwater teleost genus endemic to China that comprises the river-dwelling surface fish and the cave-dwelling cavefish. Using a combinatorial approach of quantitative lipidomics and mass-spectrometry imaging (MSI), we demonstrated that neural compartmentalization of lipid distribution and lipid metabolism is associated with the evolution of troglomorphic traits in Sinocyclocheilus. Attenuated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis via the Δ4 desaturase pathway led to reductions in DHA-phospholipids in cavefish cerebellum. Instead, cavefish accumulates arachidonic acid-phospholipids that may disfavor retinotectal arbor growth. Importantly, MSI of sulfatides coupled with immunostaining of myelin basic protein and transmission electron microscopy images of hindbrain axons revealed demyelination in cavefish raphe serotonergic neurons. Demyelination in cavefish parallels the loss of neuroplasticity governing social behavior such as aggressive dominance. Outside the brain, quantitative lipidomics and qRT-PCR revealed systemic reductions in membrane esterified DHAs in the liver, attributed to suppression of genes along the Sprecher pathway (elovl2, elovl5, and acox1). Development of fatty livers was observed in cavefish; likely mediated by an impeded mobilization of storage lipids, as evident in the diminished expressions of pnpla2, lipea, lipeb, dagla, and mgll; and suppressed β-oxidation of fatty acyls via both mitochondria and peroxisomes as reflected in the reduced expressions of cpt1ab, hadhaa, cpt2, decr1, and acox1. These neurological and systemic metabolic adaptations serve to reduce energy expenditure, forming the basis of recessive evolution that eliminates nonessential morphological and behavioral traits and giving cavefish a selective advantage to thrive in caves where proper resource allocation becomes a major determinant of survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msac050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9011034PMC
April 2022

INFLUENCE OF HIGH MYOPIA ON CHORIOCAPILLARIS PERFUSION AND CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS WITHOUT DIABETIC RETINOPATHY.

Retina 2022 06;42(6):1077-1084

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To investigate the impact of high myopia on choriocapillaris perfusion and choroidal thickness (CT) in diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy.

Methods: Healthy subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus were recruited from communities in Guangzhou. They were divided into four groups according to the presence of diabetes and high myopia: healthy control (n = 77), diabetes (n = 77), high myopia (n = 77), and diabetes with high myopia (n = 77). Swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) measured choriocapillaris perfusion and CT. Choriocapillaris perfusion was quantified using the choriocapillaris perfusion index (CPI).

Results: A total of 308 subjects (308 eyes) were included in the study. The average CPI was 91.11 ± 0.84, 90.16 ± 1.46, 89.80 ± 1.42, and 89.36 ± 1.19% in the control, diabetes, high myopia, and diabetes with high myopia groups, respectively (P < 0.001); the average CT was 227.55 ± 43.13, 205.70 ± 59.66, 158.38 ± 45.24, and 144.22 ± 45.12 µm, respectively (P < 0.001). After adjusting for age and sex, the average CPI decreased 0.95 ± 0.20% (P < 0.001) in the diabetes group, 1.33 ± 0.20% (P < 0.001) in the high myopia group, and 1.76 ± 0.20% (P < 0.001) in the diabetes with high myopia group relative to the control group; the average CT decreased 23.53 ± 8.12 (P = 0.004), 70.73 ± 9.41 (P < 0.001), and 85.90 ± 8.12 µm (P < 0.001), respectively. Further adjustment for other risk factors yielded a similar result.

Conclusion: Diabetes and high myopia significantly affect CPI and CT, and the presence of both conditions is more damaging to CPI and CT than diabetes or high myopia alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000003427DOI Listing
June 2022

Longitudinal associations of ocular biometric parameters with onset and progression of diabetic retinopathy in Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Br J Ophthalmol 2022 Feb 3. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China

Aims: To investigate the associations of ocular biometric parameters with incident diabetic retinopathy (DR), incident vision-threatening DR (VTDR) and DR progression.

Methods: This community-based prospective cohort study recruited participants with type 2 diabetes aged 35-80 years from 2017 to 2019 in Guangzhou, China. Refractive error and ocular biometric parameters were measured at baseline, including axial length (AL), axial length-to-corneal radius (AL/CR) ratio, corneal curvature (CC), lens thickness (LT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens power and corneal diameter (CD).

Results: A total of 1370 participants with a mean age of 64.3±8.1 years were followed up for two consecutive years. During the follow-up period, 342 out of 1195 (28.6%) participants without DR at baseline had incident DR, 15 out of 175 (8.57%) participants with baseline DR had DR progression and 11 of them progressed to VTDR. After multiple adjustments, a longer AL (OR=0.76; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.86; p<0.001) and a larger AL/CR ratio (OR=0.20; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.55; p=0.002) were associated with significantly reduced risks of incident DR but were not associated with incident VTDR or DR progression. Refractive status and other ocular biometric parameters investigated, including ACD, CC, CD, lens power and LT were not associated with any of the DR outcomes (all p>0.05).

Conclusions: A longer AL and a larger AL/CR ratio are protective against incident DR. These parameters may be incorporated into future DR risk prediction models to individualise the frequency of DR screening and prevention measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-320046DOI Listing
February 2022

Choriocapillaris perfusion assessed using swept source optical coherence tomographic angiography and the severity of diabetic retinopathy.

Br J Ophthalmol 2022 Feb 3. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China

Aims: To investigate the relationship between choriocapillaris (CC) blood perfusion and the severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA).

Methods: Type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Guangzhou was recruited. DR was graded according to the standardised seven-field colour retinal images adhering to the ETDRS scale. CC perfusion was quantified by evaluating the flow deficit (FD) density, FD number and FD size using SS-OCTA. Multivariable linear regressions were used to evaluate the correlation between CC FD metrics and DR severity.

Results: A total of 1692 patients (eyes) were included in the final analysis. Participants with DR had a significantly higher FD density than the NDR group, with the differences of 1.61% (95% CI 1.04 to 2.18; p<0.001) among mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR) patients, 2.23% (95% CI 1.76 to 2.70; p<0.001) among moderate NPDR patients and 3.31% (95% CI 2.27 to 4.36; p<0.001) among severe DR than NDR patients after adjusting for confounding factors. Similarly, the higher FD number and size were also correlated with severer degree of DR (all p<0.05). Furthermore, the addition of FD density to conventional risk factors significantly improved the performance for discriminating DR from NDR patients (AUC 0. 829, 95% CI 0. 804 to 0. 855; p<0.001).

Conclusion: Quantitative FD density, number and size assessed by using SS-OCTA were independently correlated with the severity of DR. The assessment of the CC perfusion metrics in the macula may be a sensitive biomarker of DR changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2021-320163DOI Listing
February 2022

A touch-actuated glucose sensor fully integrated with microneedle array and reverse iontophoresis for diabetes monitoring.

Biosens Bioelectron 2022 May 24;203:114026. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Sensor Technology and Biomedical Instrument, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shenzhen Campus of Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen, 518107, China. Electronic address:

The development of non-invasive biosensor for monitoring glucose in interstitial fluid (ISF) is still challenging, because ISF extraction through classical reverse iontophoresis (RI) is limited by low extraction flux and consistency. Here, we developed a touch-actuated biosensor for monitoring glucose in ISF. The biosensor is composed of three main components: 1) the solid microneedle array (MA) for painless skin penetration; 2) the RI unit for ISF extraction through the MA-created microchannels; and 3) the sensing unit for glucose monitoring. The sensing strategy of this biosensor is "skin penetration-RI extraction-electrochemical detection". Compared with RI extraction only, the reported skin penetration-RI extraction sampling strategy obviously increased the glucose extraction flux by ∼1.6 times not only in vitro but also in vivo. Moreover, we developed a wearable glucose monitoring system by incorporating this touch-actuated biosensor, a wireless electrochemical detector, and a smartphone application. In vivo experiments using healthy and diabetic rats revealed a high correlation between the results measured by the reported wearable system and commercially blood glucometer. This sampling strategy which combined skin penetration and RI extraction paves the way to develop wearable platforms for not only glucose monitoring but also various ISF biomarkers without the need of painful finger-stick blood sampling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2022.114026DOI Listing
May 2022

Associations Between Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Choroidal Thickness With the Development and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2022 02;63(2)

Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To evaluate the role of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and peripapillary choroidal thickness (pCT) in the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Methods: This is a cohort study based on the baseline and 2-year follow-up data of the Guangzhou Diabetic Eye Study. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus between the ages of 30 and 80 years were recruited from communities in Guangzhou. DR was graded by seven-field fundus photography after dilation of the pupil. pRNFL and pCT were measured via swept-source optical coherence tomography.

Results: A total of 895 patients were included in the study; of these, 748 did not have DR at baseline and 147 had DR at baseline. During the 2-year follow-up, 80 developed DR (10.7%), and 11 experienced DR progression (7.5%). After adjusting for confounding factors, a higher risk of incident DR was strongly associated with a lower average thickness of the pRNFL (risk ratio [RR] per 1 SD, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-0.72; P < 0.001) and average pCT (RR per 1 SD, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.34-0.70; P < 0.001). Adding both metrics to the DR prediction model significantly improved the discriminant ability of the model for incidences of DR (area under the curve increased by 15.38% from 0.673 to 0.777; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Neurodegeneration shown by the thinning of pRNFL and impaired choroidal circulation shown by the thinning of pCT are independently associated with DR onset, and assessing both metrics can improve the risk assessment for DR incidences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.63.2.7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8819282PMC
February 2022

Facilitators and Barriers to Using Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT) as First-Line Treatment for Glaucoma: Physician and Patient Views Gathered during an Exploratory Descriptive Qualitative Study.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2022 Jan 24:1-8. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

Centre for Public Health, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast, UK.

Purpose: To explore the perception of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) among physicians and patients and the acceptance of using SLT as first-line treatment for glaucoma.

Methods: Exploratory descriptive qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with glaucoma specialists and patients in two eye hospital of Zhejiang and Guangdong Provinces, China. Data were analyzed using the thematic analysis framework approach.

Results: 11 glaucoma specialists and 12 glaucoma patients were interviewed. Four themes were identified in the data: Physicians' preferences for treatment types, patient views on treatment types, decision-making during the physician-patient encounter and feasibility of SLT as a first-line therapy. Advantages of SLT include safety and repeatability with limited side effects. However, concerns about the durability of the effect of the treatment were often mentioned by both physicians and patients. Some factors such as practice preference, personal motivation and patient characteristics may influence treatment choice. Most patients lack knowledge about SLT and hold high expectations of their treatments. Physicians report insufficient evidence supporting the use of SLT as first line therapy. Physicians report the need for locally relevant, evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of SLT in the treatment of glaucoma.

Conclusions: SLT was suggested as the first-line treatment of glaucoma due to its reliable efficacy and potential advantage. Results from our study offer important insight into barriers of increasing the uptake of SLT, which also provides some guidance for the use of SLT in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2022.2029500DOI Listing
January 2022

Recent Progress in Microneedles-Mediated Diagnosis, Therapy, and Theranostic Systems.

Adv Healthc Mater 2022 05 27;11(10):e2102547. Epub 2022 Jan 27.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Sensor Technology and Biomedical Instrument, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shenzhen Campus of Sun Yat-Sen University, Shenzhen, 518107, P. R. China.

Theranostic system combined diagnostic and therapeutic modalities is critical for the real-time monitoring of disease-related biomarkers and personalized therapy. Microneedles, as a multifunctional platform, are promising for transdermal diagnostics and drug delivery. They have shown attractive properties including painless skin penetration, easy self-administration, prominent therapeutic effects, and good biosafety. Herein, an overview of the microneedles-based diagnosis, therapies, and theranostic systems is given. Four microneedles-based detection methods are concluded based on the sensing mechanism: i) electrochemistry, ii) fluorometric, iii) colorimetric, and iv) Raman methods. Additionally, robust microneedles are suitable for implantable drug delivery. Microneedles-assisted transdermal drug delivery can be primarily classified as passive, active, and responsive drug release, based on the release mechanisms. Microneedles-assisted oral and implantable drug delivery mechanisms are also presented in this review. Furthermore, the key frontier developments in microneedles-mediated theranostic systems as the major selling points are emphasized in this review. These systems are classified into open-loop and closed-loop theranostic systems based on the indirectness and directness of feedback between the transdermal diagnosis and therapy, respectively. Finally, conclusions and future perspectives for next-generation microneedles-mediated theranostic systems are also discussed. Taken together, microneedle-based systems are promising as the new avenue for diagnosis, therapy, and disease-specific closed-loop theranostic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202102547DOI Listing
May 2022

Identification of Immune-Related Genes in Sepsis due to Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Comput Math Methods Med 2021 26;2021:8020067. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Emergency, Minhang Hospital, Fudan University, No. 170 Xinsong Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 201199, China.

Background: Immunosuppression has a key function in sepsis pathogenesis, so it is of great significance to find immune-related markers for the treatment of sepsis.

Methods: Datasets of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with sepsis from the ArrayExpress database were extracted. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the CAP group and normal group by Limma package were performed. After calculation of immune score through the ESTIMATE algorithm, the DEGs were selected between the high immune score group and the low immune score group. Enrichment analysis of the intersected DEGs was conducted. Further, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) of the intersected DEGs was drawn by Metascape tools. Related publications of the key DEGs were searched in NCBI PubMed through Biopython models, and RT-qPCR was used to verify the expression of key genes.

Results: 360 intersected DEGs (157 upregulated and 203 downregulated) were obtained between the two groups. Meanwhile, the intersected DEGs were enriched in 157 immune-related terms. The PPI of the DEGs was performed, and 8 models were obtained. In sepsis-related research, eight genes were obtained with degree ≥ 10, included in the models.

Conclusion: CXCR3, CCR7, HLA-DMA, and GPR18 might participate in the mechanism of CAP with sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8020067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413041PMC
December 2021

Nursing Research of Optic Canal Decompression Operation under Nasal Endoscopic Medical Treatment Based on Intelligent Internet of Things for Traumatic Vision Disorders.

J Healthc Eng 2021 1;2021:9999863. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Ophthalmology Department of Jinan Second People's Hospital, Jinan 250001, Shandong, China.

Traumatic vision is an important factor that causes people to have a vision. In our country, the vast majority of vision is caused by trauma. To understand the role of optic nerve decompression in the treatment of traumatic visual disturbances based on the pathological states of traumatic visual disturbances and intelligent Internet of tumors medical nasal endoscopy optic nerve decompression. This article collects relevant information by investigating patients, investigating relevant literature, interviewing professionals, etc., constructing a case template and using a comprehensive quantitative and qualitative analysis method to create a damage assessment matrix. The results of the study found that most traumatic vision disorders occur in the young and middle-aged stage, which is more than three times that of other age groups. The permanent blindness rate of patients reaches 8%, which is extremely harmful. Optic canal decompression surgery can play a great role in the treatment of patients. It can greatly reduce the patient's neurological damage. The effect is about 30% higher than that of general treatment methods, and it can also play a certain role in the prognosis of rehabilitation. It can effectively prevent related postoperative complications. This shows that optic canal decompression in the treatment of traumatic vision disorders should attract people's attention and increase research and development efforts and promotion efforts so that optic canal decompression can be used in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with traumatic vision disorders based on smart Internet of things China can play a greater role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9999863DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266442PMC
April 2022

Analysis of Iris volume using swept-source optical coherence tomography in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Acta Ophthalmol 2022 Mar 16;100(2):e553-e559. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Purpose: To evaluate iris volume before and after pupil dilation using swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SS-ASOCT) and investigate the associated factors of iris volume and iris volume change after pupil dilation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center among T2DM registered patients in the community of Guangzhou, China. Anterior chamber volume (ACV), iris volume, anterior chamber depth (ACD), angle opening distance at 500 μm (AOD 500) and pupil diameter were estimated using SS-ASOCT (CASIA; Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Venous blood was taken for the measurement of glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbAlc). All biometric measurements were performed before and after pharmacologic pupil dilation.

Results: A total of 117 subjects were included in the analysis. The mean age (±SD) was 64.96 ± 7.75 years, and 62.4% were females. After pupil dilation, iris volume decreased in all eyes. Shorter duration of diabetes (p = 0.035), longer axial length (p < 0.001) and smaller pupil diameter (p < 0.001) were associated with larger iris volume. The change in iris volume per millimetre change in pupil diameter was 1.35mm /mm. Smaller baseline iris volume (p = 0.002) and higher HbA1c level (p = 0.010) were associated with smaller change in iris volume per millimetre change in pupil diameter, after adjusting for other factors.

Conclusion: Iris volume can be estimated by SS-ASOCT. Diabetic duration was associated with static anatomy of iris volume, while HbA1c level indicated the dynamic response of iris volume. It is likely that diabetic duration and HbA1c level could affect the macroscopic and microscopic composition of the iris in the diabetic population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.14931DOI Listing
March 2022

The complete chloroplast genome of var. with distinct leaf shapes.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2021 May 27;6(6):1768-1769. Epub 2021 May 27.

Chongqing Wulipo National Nature Reserve Management Office, Chongqing, China.

var. is is a variety species of Maxim. that is characterized with small leaf plants and possess high resistant to cold stress among the genus . In the current study, the complete chloroplast genome sequences of two different leaf shapes were assembled. One type of leaflets is thin paper, and the color on both sides is obviously different after drying, and the fruit stalk is slender and elongated; the other type of leaflets are the thick paper, the leaf surface and fruit stalk are glabrous, the fruit stalk is thicker, and the lateral veins are recessed on the leaf surface and appear to be cracked. Their circular DNA lengths were all 158,565 bp. Both genomes were made up of a large single-copy (LSC), a small single-copy (SSC), and two inverted repeat (IRs) regions. Each genome encoded 132 genes, including 87 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and 8 rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that both species were closely related to the congeneric .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2021.1931509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168767PMC
May 2021

Association between renal function and retinal neurodegeneration in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):560

Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are two serious complications of diabetes. However, the association between retinal neurodegeneration in DR and renal function decline is still unclear. Our objective was to evaluate the association by measure estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL), and ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: We analyzed the baseline data of the Guangzhou Diabetic Eye Study. T2DM patients from communities in Guangzhou were enrolled and all participants went through ophthalmic and general examinations. The thickness of the macular GC-IPL and GCC in their right eyes were measured by swept-source optical coherence tomography. CKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m.

Results: One thousand three hundred and nine patients were included (mean age 64.4±7.6 years, 59.1% female), and fifty-eight (4.4%) of them had CKD. Average macular GC-IPL thickness was significantly thinner in CKD patients (96.5±9.1 µm) than non-CKD patients (101.3±9.2 µm) (P<0.01). Average macular GCC thickness was also significantly thinner in CKD patients (123.5±13.2 µm) than non-CKD patients (129.9±12.8 µm) (P<0.01). The significant thinning of macular GC-IPL and GCC thickness presented in every gird in the macula (all, P<0.05) except for central grid (P≥0.05). In the patients without DR, the eGFR was linearly correlated with the average macular GC-IPL thickness [β=0.07 (95% CI, 0.02-0.12), P<0.01] and GCC thickness [β=0.09 (95% CI, 0.03-0.16), P<0.01] after adjustment for age, sex, axial length, intraocular pressure (IOP) and combination of hypertension. However, no linear correlation was found between eGFR and macular GC-IPL or GCC thickness in DR patients.

Conclusions: Renal function decrease is associated with the thinning of the macular GC-IPL and GCC in T2DM patients, suggesting the potential value of ganglion cell lose to detect early function decline in the kidney in diabetic patients, especially in patients without DR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-6957DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105784PMC
April 2021

Comparison of Macular Thickness Measurements Using Swept-Source and Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects.

Curr Eye Res 2021 10 20;46(10):1567-1573. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

: To establish normative data for macular thickness in Chinese aged 30 to 80 years using the swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) device.: The study included 290 normal eyes, 430 NDR eyes and 150 DR eyes of community residents aged 30 to 80 years in Guangzhou, China. Mean macular thicknesses in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) subfields, central point thicknesses (CPT), and macular volume was measured by SS-OCT (Triton DRI OCT, Topcon, Tokyo, Japan) and Spectral-Domain OCT (SD-OCT; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). We assessed agreement between SS-OCT and SD-OCT measurements by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. We established a conversion equation relating central subfield (CSF), CPT and macular volume between the two OCT devices.: Macular thickness measurements in SS-OCT were significantly thinner than in SD-OCT. The mean CSF thickness in normal eyes measured by SS-OCT and SD-OCT were 227.8 ± 19.4 μm and 260.0 ± 19.7 μm ( < .0001). CSF thickness was a significantly difference between genders (SS-OCT: male 237.2 ± 18.8 μm vs female 222.0 ± 17.5 μm, < .0001). In all three groups, the agreement between SS-OCT and SD-OCT was excellent (all ICC > 0.9). The conversion equations for CSF, CPT and macular volume from SS-OCT to SD-OCT were derived, with over 95% of the predicted values fell within 10% of the actual measurements in DR and NDR eyes.: We propose SS-OCT CSF thicknesses of 275 μm for males and 260 μm for females as the minimum criteria for macular edema in Chinese aged 30 to 80 years based on 2 SDs above the mean CSF. SS-OCT measurements were significantly thinner than SD-OCT. We derived equations from converting SS-OCT measurements to SD-OCT equivalents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2021.1908566DOI Listing
October 2021

Preparation of Monolithic Silica and Polymer Capillary Columns with Ultrahigh Column Efficiencies and Comparisons between van Deemter Plots of Alkylbenzenes on These Two Kinds of Columns.

J Chromatogr Sci 2022 Jan;60(1):7-15

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, School of Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, 306 Zhaowuda Road, Saihan District, Hohhot 010018, China.

Monolithic silica and polymer capillary columns with ultrahigh column efficiencies were prepared. Permeability and electrochromatography performances of these two kinds of columns were compared. Monolithic silica columns bear higher permeability than polymer counterparts by two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the van Deemter plots of alkylbenzenes on these two kinds of columns demonstrate that monolithic silica columns produce much lower plate heights of alkylbenzes than polymer columns do. Within the range of electroosmotic flow (EOF) velocity investigated, no uptrend of plate height with the increase of EOF was observed suggesting the great capacity of fast separation and high efficiency. The plate height of thiourea on monolithic silica columns is as low as 2.67 μm, representing its corresponding column efficiency is over 430,000 plates/m. As far as we know, it is the highest ever column efficiency reported in the literature. Moreover, the separation of butylbenzene isomers was obtained on the monolithic silica column.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bmab027DOI Listing
January 2022

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of , and a comparative analysis with other species.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jun 16;5(3):2466-2468. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Sichuan Academy of Botanical Engineering, Sichuan, China.

, which is a unique plant for China. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of was characterized from Illumina pair-end sequencing. The chloroplast genome of was 156,415 bp in length, containing a large single-copy region (LSC) of 84,805 bp, a small single-copy region (SSC) of 16,505 bp, and two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 27,554 bp. The overall GC content is 36.70%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC, and IR regions are 34.5, 30.5, and 42.0%, respectively. The genome contains 131 complete genes, including 86 protein-coding genes (62 protein-coding gene species), 37 tRNA genes (29 tRNA species), and 8 rRNA genes (4 rRNA species). The Neighbour-joining phylogenetic analysis showed that and clustered together as sisters to other species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1775525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782331PMC
June 2020
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