Publications by authors named "Xia Feng"

332 Publications

Association Between Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Chinese Women.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 10;13:630409. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Taian, China.

Dementia, as a global public health problem, is becoming increasingly serious. As a precursor of dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) plays an important role in the diagnosis and prevention of dementia. Recent studies have found a correlation between gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels and cognitive function in men. The relationship between GGT levels and cognitive function in women remains unclear because GGT activity and expression differ between the sexes. We recruited a total of 2,943 Chinese women from Jidong and Taian in 2019. We grouped the participants according to GGT levels, diagnosed MCI using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) scale, and modeled the study outcomes using logistic regression to explore the relationship between GGT level and MCI. We also analyzed the interaction of obesity, sleep duration, and hyperuricemia with GGT in the development of MCI. The prevalence of MCI increased with increasing GGT level, from the lowest quartile to the highest quartile of GGT: 8.4% (66/786), 14.2% (119/840), 17.6% (108/613), and 21.4% (151/704), respectively. At the same time, as GGT levels increased, so did the risk of MCI. In the fully adjusted model, compared with those for participants in the lowest GGT quartiles, the odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for MCI for participants in the second, third, and fourth GGT quartiles were 1.49 (1.04-2.12), 1.53(1.06-2.21), and 1.88 (1.33-2.65), respectively. The risk of developing MCI was further increased in people with high GGT levels who were obese (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.39-2.76, < 0.001), slept less (OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.35-2.71, < 0.001), had high levels of uric acid (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.03-2.32, < 0.001), or after menopause (OR = 2.92, 95% CI: 2.07-4.12, < 0.001). We found that MCI is more common in women with elevated GGT levels, so GGT could be a potential diagnostic marker for MCI. Meanwhile, our findings indicated that women with high GGT levels had an increased risk of MCI when they were obese, sleep deprived, had high serum uric acid (SUA) levels or underwent menopause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.630409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902766PMC
February 2021

Excited state electronic structures and photochemistry of different oxidation states of 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS).

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Jan 29;253:119503. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Education, National Virtual Simulation Experimental Teaching Center for Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Education, Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354, China. Electronic address:

The molecular structures of 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), were calculated by using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) model with M062X method with 6-311G (d, p) basis set. In this work, the ABTS were theoretically investigated from the geometric structure, the energy levels of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), the energy level gap ΔE of the molecular ground state, excited stated properties and the electronic absorption spectra of different oxidation states. We studied the energy levels of LUMO and HOMO of ABTS in different oxidation states. Frontier molecular orbital analysis can provide insight into the nature of excited states. ABTS was synthesized from N-ethylamine by total synthesis. Then, we measured the UV-Vis spectra of ABTS before and after being oxidized by KSO. The calculated electronic structures and photochemical properties of different oxidation state of ABTS were in accordance with the experimental result. This work demonstrates the relationship between the electronic structures and photochemistry of different oxidation states ABTS hence paves the way for the rationally synthesis and deepen understanding of the photophysical properties of ABTS materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2021.119503DOI Listing
January 2021

Actively tunable bi-functional metamirror in a terahertz band.

Opt Lett 2021 Feb;46(3):464-467

In this work, we have proposed an actively tunable bi-functional metamirror based on a bi-layer graphene structure. The metamirror acts as a spin-selective absorber under circularly polarized incidence, which behaves as nearly perfect absorption and reflection for right and left circularly polarized waves, respectively, leading to giant circular dichroism. On the other hand, it is a polarization converter under linearly polarized incidence, which reflects the linearly polarized wave into a left circularly polarized wave. Both the spin-selective absorber and the polarization converter can be actively switched between ON and OFF states, with the working frequency controlled by the voltages applied to graphene. Moreover, the metamirror is insensitive to the incidence angle, which contributes to its application as a stable single-mode spin-selective absorber and polarization converter. This bi-layer graphene structure offers a method to construct actively tunable bi-functional metamirrors, which may achieve potential applications in integrated devices, such as active spin detectors, absorbers, and quarter-wave plates for terahertz waves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.410758DOI Listing
February 2021

Excitons competition regulation via organic cation-site and halogen-site co-halogenation of (X-p-PEA)Pb(Cl/Br) perovskites.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 28;588:494-500. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Sciences, Department of Chemistry, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Education, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354, China. Electronic address:

In this work, we report a family of co-halogenated two-dimensional hybrid perovskites (2DHPs) based on phenethylammonium lead halogen ((PEA)Pb(Cl/Br)) in which the organic cation-site (PEA) is substituted with halogen at the para-site, namely the formation of 4-halophenethylamine (X-p-PEA) (X = Cl, Br; p: para-site). The organic cations are regulated by introducing halogen ions at the para-site of the benzene ring to promote the structural distortion of the lead halide octahedral inorganic layer. Furthermore, (X-p-PEA) causes a shift in the energy band distribution of 2DHPs. In this case, the photoluminescence competition of free excitons (FEs) and self-trapped excitons (STEs) changes the microscopic relaxation process of excitons. In addition, we found that (Br-p-PEA) can increase the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY). At the same time, we regulate the halogen-site of perovskites from lead-chloride perovskites (LCPs) to lead bromine perovskites (LBPs), achieving emission from white light to blue light. Therefore, the co-halogenation regulation strategy of organic cation-site and halogen-site can effectively regulate the photoluminescence wavelength and improve the PLQY. This is of great significance for the development of perovskite materials with specific optoelectronic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2020.12.094DOI Listing
April 2021

Transplanted embryonic retinal stem cells have the potential to repair the injured retina in mice.

BMC Ophthalmol 2021 Jan 9;21(1):26. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, No324, Jingwu Road, 250021, Jinan, China.

Background: Stem cell transplantation has been reported as one of the promising strategies to treat retinal degenerative diseases. But, the application and the role of retina stem cells (RSCs) in the treatment of patients with retinal degenerative diseases have not been fully revealed. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of transplantation of the embryo-derived RSCs into the vitreous cavity in repairing the damaged retina in mice.

Methods: RSCs were isolated from Kunming mice E17 embryonic retina and ciliary body tissues, and labeled with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridin (BrdU). Retinal optic nerve crush injury was induced in left eyes in male Kunming mice by ring clamping the optic nerve. The 6th -generation of BrdU-labeled RSCs were transplanted into the damaged retina by the intravitreal injection, and saline injected eyes were used as the control. Hematoxylin and eosin histological staining, and BrdU, Nestin and Pax6 immunostaining were performed. Electroretinogram (ERG) was used for assessing the electrical activity of the retina.

Results: Embryo-derived RSCs were identified by the positive stains of Pax6 and Nestin. BrdU incorporation was detected in the majority of RSCs. The damaged retina showed cellular nuclear disintegration and fragmentation in the retinal tissue which progressed over the periods of clamping time, and decreased amplitudes of a and b waves in ERG. In the damaged retina with RSCs transplantation, the positive staining for BrdU, Pax6 and Nestin were revealed on the retinal surface. Notably, RSCs migrated into the retinal ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear. Transplanted RSCs significantly elevated the amplitudes of a waves in retina injured eyes.

Conclusions: Embryonic RSCs have similar characteristics to neural stem cells. Transplantation of RSCs by intravitreal injection would be able to repair the damaged retina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12886-020-01795-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797095PMC
January 2021

Second-harmonic generation of single-mode Laguerre-Gaussian beams with an improved quasi-phase-matching method.

Opt Express 2020 Dec;28(26):39241-39249

In the second-harmonic generation processes involving Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams, the generated second-harmonic wave is generally composed of multiple modes with different radial quantum numbers. To generate single-mode second-harmonic LG beams, a type of improved quasi-phase-matching method is proposed. The Gouy phase shift has been considered in the optical superlattice designing and an adjustment phase item is introduced. By changing the structure parameters, each target mode can be phase-matched selectively, whose purity can reach up to 95%. The single LG mode generated from the optical superlattice can be modulated separately and used as the input signals in the mode division multiplexing system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.412145DOI Listing
December 2020

Chemotherapeutic efficacy of cucurmosin for pancreatic cancer as an alternative of gemcitabine: a comparative metabolomic study.

Gland Surg 2020 Oct;9(5):1428-1442

Department of General Surgery, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

Background: As the preferred drug for single chemotherapeutic application in pancreatic cancer, gemcitabine often demonstrated low sensitivity and strong chemotherapy resistance in patients. Therefore, the search for other drugs with high efficiency and low side effects has become of high importance. The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic effects of cucurmosin on pancreatic cancer as an alternative of gemcitabine and explore its underlying biochemical mechanism.

Methods: The subcutaneous xenograft mice with pancreatic cancer were treated by high- and low-dose cucurmosin and gemcitabine, respectively. A comparative metabolomic analysis was performed on the serum samples from the different groups by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques and then subjected to univariate and multivariate statistical analysis.

Results: Cucurmosin demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition to the pancreatic tumors. High-dose cucurmosin provided similar chemotherapeutic efficacy with gemcitabine by positively regulating pyruvate metabolism, glycolysis or gluconeogenesis, and cysteine and methionine metabolism. Inactivating GFR signaling pathway and further inducing apoptosis of tumor cells are the important mechanism of anti-tumor function of cucurmosin.

Conclusions: Cucurmosin is a promising chemotherapeutic drug for pancreatic cancer. However, the dose selection and surface modification should be optimized according to the stage of pancreatic cancer, and an expanded study in both laboratory and clinical regimes needs to be performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/gs-20-202DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7667084PMC
October 2020

LncRNA HOTAIR Influences the Growth, Migration, and Invasion of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma via Affection on the miR-488-5p/NUP205 Axis.

Technol Cancer Res Treat 2020 Jan-Dec;19:1533033820962125

Department of Radiology, Hubei Maternal and Children's Hospital, Wuhan, China.

Objective: The study was aim to investigate the effect of HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) on the growth, migration, and invasion of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and its underlying mechanisms.

Methods: Cell growth, invasion, and migration was respectively investigated using the MTT assay, trans-well assay, and wound healing assay. The expression of genes and proteins was respectively determined by Western blot analysis and RT-PCR experiments.

Results: It was demonstrated that high expression of HOTAIR in PTC cells (BCPAP) and tissues resulted in fast tumor growth and poor survival time of the PTC-bearing mice models. Moreover, overexpression of HOTAIR leaded to markedly enhanced proliferation, migration, and invasion of BCPAP cells. Increase the levels of HOTAIR in BCPAP cells signally down-regulated the miR-488-5p levels which was able of inhibiting the growth rate, increasing the apoptosis rate, and decreasing the invasion/migration ability of BCPAP cells. Further studies indicated that HOTAIR promoted BCPAP cell growth, invasion, and migration mainly through regulating the miR-488-5p/NUP205 axis and the levels of Bcl-2 as well.

Conclusion: HOTAIR promoted the growth, migration, and invasion of papillary thyroid carcinoma mainly through regulating the miR-488-5p/NUP205 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533033820962125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7607809PMC
October 2020

Optimization of microemulsion cleaning sludge conditions using response surface method.

J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2021 23;56(1):63-74. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.

Microemulsion cleaning method has been proved to be an effective way to clean oily sludge with low interfacial tension and high solubilizing ability for non-miscible liquids. In this paper, the percentage range of the microemulsion in the formulation was obtained by studying phase behavior of the microemulsion. The response surface method was used to model and optimize the microemulsion to obtain the best formulation: n-BuOH content at 9.89%, NaCl content at 2.24% and AES/APG ratio at 3.75, and the oil removal rate reached 97.28%. Meanwhile, the cleaning conditions of oil sludge were also optimized by the response surface method and the optimal cleaning parameters were determined as liquid-solid ratio at 4.2, stirring rate at 157 r·min, and stirring time at 38 min. In addition, some experiments were carried out to confirm the simulation results, affording the oil removal rate of 98.79%. SEM and FTIR confirmed that the oil on the sludge can be removed by microemulsion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934529.2020.1836920DOI Listing
January 2021

Very high contrast volume holographic gratings recorded in photopolymerizable nanocomposite materials.

Opt Express 2020 Sep;28(19):28366-28382

Volume holographic phase gratings possessing the saturated refractive index modulation amplitudes as large as 4.5×10 were recorded at a wavelength of 532 nm in a photopolymerizable nanoparticle-polymer composite (NPC) film dispersed with ultrahigh refractive index hyperbranched-polymer (HBP) organic nanoparticles. This prominent result was achieved by a combination of the HBP nanoparticles with triazine and aromatic ring units and an electron donor/acceptor photo-initiator system doped in an acrylate monomer blend with low viscosity. As a result, efficient mutual diffusion of HBP nanoparticles and monomer having their very large refractive index difference took place. Obtained results suggest a potentiality of our newly developed HBP-dispersed NPC gratings as efficient volume holographic optical elements for various photonic applications including wearable headsets for augmented and mixed reality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.400092DOI Listing
September 2020

Fighting with COVID-19.

Authors:
Xia Feng Sai Chen

Anesthesiology 2021 01;134(1):129-130

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000003555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7448707PMC
January 2021

Impact of Chronic Stress on Attention Control: Evidence from Behavioral and Event-Related Potential Analyses.

Neurosci Bull 2020 Nov 15;36(11):1395-1410. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality (Ministry of Education), Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, 400715, China.

Chronic stress affects brain function, so assessing its hazards is important for mental health. To overcome the limitations of behavioral data, we combined behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) in an attention network task. This task allowed us to differentiate between three specific aspects of attention: alerting, orienting, and execution. Forty-one participants under chronic stress and 31 non-stressed participants were enrolled. On the performance level, the chronically stressed group showed a significantly slower task response and lower accuracy. Concerning ERP measures, smaller cue-N1, cue-N2, and larger cue-P3 amplitudes were found in the stressed group, indicating that this group was less able to assign attention to effective information, i.e., they made inefficient use of cues and had difficulty in maintaining alerting. In addition, the stressed group showed larger target-N2 amplitudes, indicating that this group needed to allocate more cognitive resources to deal with the conflict targets task. Subgroup analysis revealed lower target-P3 amplitudes in the stressed than in the non-stressed group. Group differences associated with the attention networks were found at the ERP level. In the stressed group, excessive depletion of resources led to changes in attention control. In this study, we examined the effects of chronic stress on individual executive function from a neurological perspective. The results may benefit the development of interventions to improve executive function in chronically stressed individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12264-020-00549-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7674527PMC
November 2020

Sex, race, and risk of dementia diagnosis after traumatic brain injury among older veterans.

Neurology 2020 09 4;95(13):e1768-e1775. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

From the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Health Care System (E.K., C.B.P., F.X., T.N.-A., K.Y.); Department of Neurology (B.P.), Duke University, Durham, NC; and Departments of Psychiatry (E.K., T.N.-A., K.Y.), Neurology (K.Y.), and Epidemiology and Biostatistics (K.Y.), University of California San Francisco.

Objective: To investigate whether sex and race differences exist in dementia diagnosis risk associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) among older veterans.

Methods: Using Fine-Gray regression models, we investigated incident dementia diagnosis risk with TBI exposure by sex and race.

Results: After the exclusion of baseline prevalent dementia, the final sample (all veterans ≥55 years of age diagnosed with TBI during the 2001-2015 study period and a random sample of all veterans receiving Veterans Health Administration care) included nearly 1 million veterans (4.3% female; 81.8% White, 11.5% Black, and 1.25% Hispanic), 96,178 with TBI and 903,462 without TBI. Compared to those without TBI, Hispanic veterans with TBI were almost 2 times more likely (17.0% vs 10.3%; hazard ratio [HR] 1.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51-2.01), Black veterans with TBI were >2 times more likely (11.2% vs 6.4%; HR 2.15, 95% CI 2.02-2.30), and White veterans with TBI were nearly 3 times more likely to receive a dementia diagnosis (12.0% vs 5.9%; HR 2.71, 95% CI 2.64-2.77). A significant interaction between TBI and race for dementia diagnosis was observed ( < 0.001). Both male and female veterans with TBI were more than twice as likely (men 11.8% vs 5.9%, HR 2.60, 95% CI 2.54-2.66; women 6.3% vs 3.1%, HR 2.36, 95% CI 2.08-2.69) to receive a diagnosis of dementia compared to those without. There was a significant interaction effect between sex and TBI ( = 0.02), but the magnitude of differences was small.

Conclusions: In this large, nationwide cohort of older veterans, all race groups with TBI had increased risk of dementia diagnosis, but there was an interaction effect such that White veterans were at greatest risk for dementia after TBI. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms for this discrepancy. Differences in dementia diagnosis risk for men and women after TBI were significant but small, and male and female veterans had similarly high risks of dementia diagnosis after TBI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682824PMC
September 2020

Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis to Develop an Efficacy-Safety Profile of Parenteral Analgesics Used in the Treatment of Postoperative Pain.

J Pain Res 2020 5;13:1969-1977. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Pfizer Ltd, Walton Oaks, Tadworth, UK.

Background: Identifying the optimal treatment in an acute postoperative setting remains a challenge. Multiple analgesic options are available, but comparing outcomes is limited by a lack of head-to-head trials. In addition, decisions based on efficacy only do not take drug safety into account. In such cases, multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) can be utilized to quantify and compare the efficacy and safety data of various drugs.

Methodology: The efficacy-safety profiles of eight parenteral, postoperative analgesics (acetaminophen, diclofenac, ketorolac, metamizole, morphine, nefopam, parecoxib, tramadol) widely used in Europe were evaluated using an MCDA model that included 17 criteria: three for efficacy and 14 for safety. Each drug was scored on each criterion on a scale from 0 (worst) to 100 (best), according to published data and the judgment of an expert panel. A weighting process was then applied to standardize the impact of each criterion and adjust drugs' preference scores accordingly, normalizing them on the 0-100 scale. Sensitivity analyses were also performed, including a model in which analgesic profiles were compared when opioid sparing effect was set at a zero value for all drugs.

Results: In the primary model, efficacy and safety had relative weightings of 64% and 36%, respectively. Efficacy and safety criteria with the highest values were pain relief (relative weight, 29%) and gastrointestinal effects (12%). Parecoxib received the highest overall score (93), followed by diclofenac (80), and ketorolac (75). Morphine scored the lowest (57), due to the lack of an opioid sparing effect. When opioid sparing was given a zero rating, parecoxib remained the highest scoring analgesic (93), followed by diclofenac (80), metamizole (76), and morphine (76). Parecoxib remained the most preferred analgesic in several other sensitivity analyses.

Conclusion: This MCDA-based assessment suggests that parecoxib has the most favorable efficacy-safety profile among the assessed postoperative analgesics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S255921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7415456PMC
August 2020

HIV and risk of dementia in older veterans.

AIDS 2020 09;34(11):1673-1679

Department of Psychiatry.

Objective: People living with HIV (PLWH) may be at an increased risk for dementia as they age. Surprisingly, it remains unclear whether PLWH have a higher risk of developing dementia in late life than those without. We explored whether HIV-infection is associated with incident dementia diagnosis in older U.S. veterans accounting for potential confounders and competing risk of death.

Methods: We included 1114 veterans diagnosed with HIV, ages at least 55 years (mean = 62 years, SD = 6), followed in the Veterans Health Administration healthcare system from 2004 to 2015, and a propensity-matched comparison group (n = 1114) without HIV. HIV and dementia diagnoses were determined using electronic medical records. Using Fine-Gray proportional hazards models, we examined whether HIV status was associated with a greater risk of incident dementia.

Results: During follow-up (mean = 7 years, SD = 4 from date of HIV diagnosis), 5% of veteran PLWH developed dementia compared with 3% without (P = 0.01). Accounting for the competing risk of death and adjusted for demographics, substance use, education and income, PLWH remained 50% more likely to receive a dementia diagnosis [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 0.96-2.35]. Although combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) exposure was associated with an increased risk of incident dementia, this was driven by differences in illness severity as captured by CD4 cell count. There was no evidence of a differential effect by cART class.

Conclusion: In a cohort of older USA veterans, HIV infection increased risk of dementia by 50%, while exposure to cART did not offset this risk. It is critical to understand the mechanisms by which HIV increases risk for developing dementia in later life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002597DOI Listing
September 2020

Photoluminescence spectral broadening, chirality transfer and amplification of chiral perovskite materials (R-X-p-mBZA)PbBr (X = H, F, Cl, Br) regulated by van der Waals and halogen atoms interactions.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020 Aug;22(30):17299-17305

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Sciences, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Chemistry & Chemical engineering Education, National Virtual Simulation Experimental Teaching Center for Chemistry & Chemical engineering Education, Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300354, China.

In this work, we introduced halogen-substituted chiral molecules as A-site cations to synthesize a series of novel organic-inorganic hybrid two-dimensional (2D) chiral perovskite materials (R-X-p-mBZA)2PbBr4 (X = H, F, Cl, Br; p: para-position; mBZA = α-methylbenzylamine) for the first time. This halogen-substituted cation strategy collectively solved problems of narrow emission, weak chirality and low photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) for the emerged chiral perovskites. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are significantly broadened due to the additional emission from self-trapped excitons (STEs) besides free excitons (FEs) states modulated by introducing significant disorder to the Pb-Br-Pb angle. The chirality of A-site chiral molecules is transferred and amplified to entire perovskite materials by fixing the chiral molecules at A-site via the interaction of halogen atoms. Furthermore, their PLQYs are improved with the reduction of energy gap and inhibition of the non-radiative transition from STEs to ground state. The halogen-substituted A-site cation strategy can be performed to develop organic-inorganic hybrid chiral perovskites with various optoelectronic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp02530eDOI Listing
August 2020

Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (C-PHQ-9) in patients with psoriasis: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2020 07 13;10(7):e033211. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Dermatology, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China

Objective: To evaluate the clinical reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (C-PHQ-9) in patients with psoriasis.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Tertiary care centre.

Participants: Patients with psoriasis who have not been diagnosed with depression (n=148; mean age 43.37±17.46 years; 31.19% female).

Primary And Secondary Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measures considered in this study were the C-PHQ-9 and the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). The American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition (DSM-V) was used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of depression. Cronbach's α and test-retest reliability after 1 week were evaluated using reliability analysis, and criterion and structural validity were assessed using validity analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to identify the best demarcation score and diagnostic accuracy.

Results: Compared with DSM-V (27.27%), both C-PHQ-9 (39.19%) and HAMD (31.01%) had higher rates for detecting depression. The mean completion time for C-PHQ-9 evaluation (2.02±0.84 min) was significantly less than that for HAMD (23.37±3.21 min, p<0.001). The Cronbach's α coefficient for the C-PHQ-9 was 0.938. The correlation coefficients of the nine items with the total scale ranged from 0.540 to 0.854, and the mean inter-item correlation coefficients ranged from 0.376 to 0.933. After a week, the retest coefficient was 0.955 (p<0.01). Principal component factor analysis showed that C-PHQ-9 identified a unifactorial structure. The best cut-off point was 9 points, with a sensitivity of 98.00% and a specificity of 90.80%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.979 (95% CI 0.968 to 0.991).

Conclusion: C-PHQ-9 has good reliability and validity in patients with psoriasis and can be used for primary screening of patients with psoriasis and depression. This scale has obvious time and labour advantages over the HAMD and should be considered for use in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7359185PMC
July 2020

Linking epigenetic dysregulation, mitochondrial impairment, and metabolic dysfunction in SBMA motor neurons.

JCI Insight 2020 07 9;5(13). Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Neurogenetics Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (AR). Using gene expression analysis and ChIP sequencing, we mapped transcriptional changes in genetically engineered patient stem cell-derived motor neurons. We found that transcriptional dysregulation in SBMA can occur through AR-mediated histone modification. We detected reduced histone acetylation, along with decreased expression of genes encoding compensatory metabolic proteins and reduced substrate availability for mitochondrial function. Furthermore, we found that pyruvate supplementation corrected this deficiency and improved mitochondrial function and SBMA motor neuron viability. We propose that epigenetic dysregulation of metabolic genes contributes to reduced mitochondrial ATP production. Our results show a molecular link between altered epigenetic regulation and mitochondrial metabolism that contributes to neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.136539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7406250PMC
July 2020

Tuning of the polariton modes induced by longitudinal strong coupling in the graphene hybridized DBR cavity.

Opt Lett 2020 Jul;45(13):3669-3672

In this Letter, we construct a graphene hybridized distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) cavity, where spatially longitudinal strong coupling occurs between the Tamm plasmon polaritons (TPPs) existing around the graphene layer and the cavity mode (CM) existing in the DBR cavity. As a result, two hybrid polariton modes emerge, which contain both the TPP and the CM components. In the simulation, we demonstrate that the resonant frequencies and the damping rates of the polariton modes can be actively tuned by the graphene Fermi level and the incident angle of light. Besides, the coupling strength and the damping rates are also passively tuned by the pair number of the layers in the DBR. Theoretically, we analyze the TPP-CM strong coupling by the coupled harmonic oscillator equations, which help to explain the regulation process. The controllable TPP-CM longitudinal strong coupling with two absorption bands may achieve potential applications in developing graphene-based active optoelectronic and polaritonic devices in terahertz waves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.397342DOI Listing
July 2020

Characterization of CBL-CIPK signaling complexes and their involvement in cold response in tea plant.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Sep 9;154:195-203. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

National Center for Tea Plant Improvement, Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, 310008, China; Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Hangzhou, 310008, China. Electronic address:

Calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins, a class of Ca-binding proteins, play vital roles in calcium signal transduction by interacting specifically with CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs), and these two gene families and their interacting complexes are involved in regulating plant responses to various environmental stimuli. In the present study, eight CBL and 25 CIPK genes were identified in tea plant and divided into four and five subfamilies, respectively. Analysis of the expression of these genes in response to abiotic stresses (mature leaves treated with cold, salinity, and PEG and young shoots treated with cold) revealed that CsCBL1/3/5 and CsCIPK1/4/5/6a/7/8/10b/10c/12/14a/19/23a/24 could be induced by at least two stresses. Under cold stress, CsCBL9 and CsCIPK4/6a/6b/7/11/14b/19/20 were upregulated in both mature leaves and young shoots, CsCBL1/3/5 and CsCIPK1/8/10a/10b/10c/12/14a/23a/24 were induced only in mature leaves, and CsCIPK5/25 were induced only in young shoots. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that CsCBL1 could interact with CsCIPK1/10b/12 but not with CsCIPK6a/7/11/14b/20. CsCBL9 was found to interact with CsCIPK1/10b/12/14b but not with CsCIPK6a/7/11/20. These results suggest divergent responses to cold stress regulated by CBL-CIPK complexes between tea plant and Arabidopsis, as well as between mature leaves and young shoots in tea plant. A model of Ca-CsCBL-CsCIPK module-mediated abiotic stress signaling in tea plant is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.06.005DOI Listing
September 2020

5 nm Nanogap Electrodes and Arrays by Super-resolution Laser Lithography.

Nano Lett 2020 Jul 23;20(7):4916-4923. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123, China.

The development of reliable, mass-produced, and cost-effective sub-10 nm nanofabrication technology leads to an unprecedented level of integration of photonic devices. In this work, we describe the development of a laser direct writing (LDW) lithography technique with ∼5 nm feature size, which is about 1/55 of the optical diffraction limit of the LDW system (405 nm laser and 0.9 NA objective), and the realization of 5 nm nanogap electrodes. This LDW lithography exhibits an attractive capability of well-site control and mass production of ∼5 × 10 nanogap electrodes per hour, breaking the trade-off between resolution and throughput in a nanofabrication technique. Nanosensing chips have been demonstrated with the as-obtained nanogap electrodes, where controllable surface enhancement Raman scattering of rhodamine 6G has been realized via adjusting the gap width and, especially, the applied bias voltages. Our results establish that such a low-cost and high-efficient lithography technology has great potential to fabricate compact integrated circuits and biochips.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c00978DOI Listing
July 2020

Sevoflurane Induces Hippocampal Neuronal Apoptosis by Altering the Level of Neuropeptide Y in Neonatal Rats.

Neurochem Res 2020 Sep 6;45(9):1986-1996. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Numerous studies have shown that the inhaled general anesthetic sevoflurane imposes toxicity on the central nervous system during the developmental period but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) was reported to have important neuroprotective effects, which can attenuate neuronal loss under pathological conditions. However, the effects of NPY on sevoflurane-induced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis have not been investigated. In this study, postnatal day 7 (PND7) Sprague-Dawley rats and primary cultured cells separated from hippocampi were exposed to sevoflurane (2.4% for 4 h) and the NPY expression levels after treatment were analyzed. Furthermore, neuronal apoptosis assay was conducted via immunofluorescence staining of cleaved caspase-3 and flow cytometry after exogenous NPY administration to PND7 rats as well as cultured hippocampal neurons to elucidate the role of NPY in sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. Our results showed the level of NPY gradually decreased within 24 h after sevoflurane exposure in both the hippocampus of PND7 rats and cultured hippocampal neurons, but not in cultured astrocytes. In the exogenous NPY pretreatment study, the proportion of cleaved caspase-3 positive cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was increased significantly at 24 h after sevoflurane treatment, while NPY pretreatment could reduce it. Similarly, NPY could also reverse the apoptogenic effect of sevoflurane on cultured neurons. Herein, our results showed that sevoflurane caused a significant decrease in NPY expression, whereas exogenous NPY supplementation could reduce sevoflurane-induced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11064-020-03028-9DOI Listing
September 2020

Application of deep learning methods in biological networks.

Brief Bioinform 2020 May 2. Epub 2020 May 2.

The increase in biological data and the formation of various biomolecule interaction databases enable us to obtain diverse biological networks. These biological networks provide a wealth of raw materials for further understanding of biological systems, the discovery of complex diseases and the search for therapeutic drugs. However, the increase in data also increases the difficulty of biological networks analysis. Therefore, algorithms that can handle large, heterogeneous and complex data are needed to better analyze the data of these network structures and mine their useful information. Deep learning is a branch of machine learning that extracts more abstract features from a larger set of training data. Through the establishment of an artificial neural network with a network hierarchy structure, deep learning can extract and screen the input information layer by layer and has representation learning ability. The improved deep learning algorithm can be used to process complex and heterogeneous graph data structures and is increasingly being applied to the mining of network data information. In this paper, we first introduce the used network data deep learning models. After words, we summarize the application of deep learning on biological networks. Finally, we discuss the future development prospects of this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbaa043DOI Listing
May 2020

Silica-Modified Ordered Mesoporous Carbon for Optimized Impedance-Matching Characteristic Enabling Lightweight and Effective Microwave Absorbers.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 May 8;12(20):23252-23260. Epub 2020 May 8.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009, China.

Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) is considered to be a prospective carbon-based material for microwave absorption because of its abundant well-ordered mesoporous structures, high specific surface area, numerous active sites, and facile preparation process. However, its development has been seriously hindered by its poor impedance-matching characteristic. Herein, silica-modified OMC composites with a designable impedance-matching transition layer are successfully fabricated via a self-assembly method and succeeding calcination treatment. In addition, the silica in OMC@SiO composites can maintain the mesoporous structure, which facilitates the scattering and reflection of microwaves in the tunnel structure. The as-prepared sample OMC-5@SiO exhibits a minimum reflection loss (RL) value of -40.7 dB at 10.8 GHz with 2 mm and an effective absorption bandwidth (RL ≤ -10 dB) of 4.8 GHz with a thinner absorber thickness of 1.5 mm. We believe that the as-prepared OMC@SiO composites can be prospective candidates as high-efficiency and lightweight microwave absorbers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b23287DOI Listing
May 2020

High Cognitive Flexibility Learners Perform Better in Probabilistic Rule Learning.

Front Psychol 2020 13;11:415. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Psychology, School of Education, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Cognitive flexibility reflects the ability to switch quickly between tasks or stimulus sets, which is an important feature of human intelligence. Researchers have confirmed that this ability is related to the learners' academic achievement, cognitive ability, and creativity development. The number-letter switching task is an effective tool for measuring cognitive flexibility. Previous studies have found that high flexibility individuals perform better in rule-based tasks such as the Iowa Gambling Task. It is not clear whether highly flexible learners have learning advantages when the rule tasks involve probabilistic cues. Using an inter-individual differences approach, we examined whether cognitive flexibility, as assessed by the number-letter task, is associated with the learning process of a probabilistic rule task. The results showed that the high flexibility group reached a higher level of rule acquisition, and the accuracy during the post-learning stage was significantly higher than the low flexibility group. These findings demonstrate that cognitive flexibility is associated with the performance after the rule acquisition during the probabilistic rule task. Future research should explore the internal process of learning differences between high and low flexibility learners by using other technologies across multiple modes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7083211PMC
March 2020

Ultrafast Nonadiabatic Photoisomerization Dynamics Mechanism for the UV Photoprotection of Stilbenoids in Grape Skin.

Chem Asian J 2020 May 2;15(9):1478-1483. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Optoelectronic Sciences National Demonstration Center for Experimental Chemistry & Chemical engineering Education National Virtual Simulation Experimental Teaching Center for Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Education Department of Chemistry, School of Science Tianjin University, Tianjin, 300354, P. R. China.

Natural UV photoprotection plays a vital role in physiological protection. It has been reported that UVC radiation can make resveratrol (RSV) and piceatannol (PIC) accumulate in grape skin. In this work, we demonstrated that RSV and PIC could significantly absorb UVA and UVB, and confirmed their satisfactory photostability. Furthermore, we clarified the UV photoprotection mechanism of typical stilbenoids of RSV and PIC for the first time by using combined femtosecond transient absorption (FTA) spectroscopy and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. RSV and PIC can be photoexcited to the excited state after UVA and UVB absorption. Subsequently, the photoisomerized RSV and PIC quickly relax to the ground state via nonadiabatic transition from the S state at a conical intersection (CI) position between potential energy surfaces (PESs) of S and S states. This ultrafast trans-cis photoisomerization will take place within a few tens of picoseconds. As a result, the UV energy absorbed by RSV and PIC could be dissipated by an ultrafast nonadiabatic photoisomerization process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202000219DOI Listing
May 2020

Association of Late-Onset Unprovoked Seizures of Unknown Etiology With the Risk of Developing Dementia in Older Veterans.

JAMA Neurol 2020 06;77(6):710-715

Global Brain Health Institute, University of California, San Francisco.

Importance: The incidence of unprovoked seizures and epilepsy increases considerably in late life, with approximately one-third of seizures being of unknown etiology. While individuals with dementia have a high risk of developing unprovoked seizures, it is unknown whether older adults with late-onset unprovoked seizures of unknown etiology (LOSU) are at risk of developing dementia.

Objective: To determine whether incident LOSU is associated with a higher risk of dementia among older US veterans.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective multicenter cohort study was conducted using data from US Veterans Health Administration medical centers from October 2001 to September 2015. Data were generated from all veteran inpatient and outpatient encounters that occurred within Veterans Health Administration facilities. A random sample of 941 524 veterans 55 years and older was generated. A total of 649 262 veterans previously diagnosed (using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes) with dementia, unprovoked seizures, epilepsy, and conditions that could lead to seizures (brain tumors, trauma, infections, stroke, and neurotoxin exposure) as well as veterans without follow-up data were excluded. Data were analyzed from October 2018 to July 2019.

Exposures: Late-onset unprovoked seizures of unknown etiology were defined as a new diagnosis of epilepsy or unprovoked seizures without a diagnosis of a secondary cause for seizures. Incident LOSU was assessed during a 5-year baseline period.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Veterans were assessed for incident dementia diagnosis during an outcome period. Fine-Gray proportional hazards models were used to determine whether LOSU was associated with greater risk of incident dementia. Models were adjusted for demographic variables, cardiovascular risk factors, depression, and traumatic brain injury.

Results: Of the 292 262 included veterans, 282 628 (96.7%) were male, and the mean (SD) age was 73.0 [8.8] years. During the baseline period, 2166 veterans developed LOSU. The mean (SD) follow-up after LOSU was 6.1 (2.9) years. After multivariable adjustment, veterans with LOSU had greater risk of dementia compared with veterans without seizures (hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.62-2.20). A sensitivity analysis imposing a 2-year lag between incident LOSU and dementia diagnosis led to similar results.

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest LOSU in older veterans is associated with a 2-fold risk of developing dementia. While seizures are commonly thought to occur in late stages of dementia, these findings suggest unexplained seizures in older adults may be a first sign of neurodegenerative disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.0187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063560PMC
June 2020

Clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with breakthrough varicella during varicella outbreaks.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2020 Aug 2;16(8):1851-1856. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University , Hefei, Anhui, China.

Background: Although a varicella vaccine has been available in China since 1998 in the private sector, varicella outbreaks and breakthrough varicella (BV) still occur. In 2018, four varicella outbreaks with high BV rate sequentially occurred in four schools in Lu'an, sparking local public health authority's concerns on the varicella vaccine. Therefore, we conducted this investigation to evaluate varicella vaccine effectiveness (VE), characterize BV, and detect potential risk factors associated with BV.

Methods: This was a three-stage study. First, a retrospective cohort study was done in each school to estimate the VEs of varicella vaccine  during outbreaks. Second, a descriptive epidemiological method was used to describe the characteristics of the four outbreaks and to compare the clinical characteristics between the BV cases and unvaccinated varicella cases. To identify the risk factors associated with BV, we conducted an unmatched case-control study in the third stage of the study.

Results: A total of 199 cases were identified among four outbreaks, and the overall attack rate was 14%. Of 1203 students with available vaccination information, 822 (68%) were vaccinated at least once. The overall VEs among four outbreaks ranged from 19% to 69%, whereas the VE against moderate or severe varicella ranged from 74% to 90%. Compared with unvaccinated varicella cases, the moderate or severe varicella ( < .001) and fever ( = .029) in the BV group were less common. Besides, BV cases had a shorter duration of disease ( = .007). Children vaccinated more than six years before the outbreak had a higher risk of developing BV compared with those vaccinated within the past six years (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-4.8). The risk of developing BV differed by the exposure intensity. Compared with the presence of three or fewer varicella cases in the same class, the OR was 7.8 (95% CI: 3.6-16.9) for four to nine cases in the same class and 25.2 (95% CI: 13.5 -47.2) for that of 10 or more cases.

Conclusions: The overall VE was insufficient to protect varicella infection, and the VE for moderate or severe varicella was only moderate. The manifestations of BV cases were generally milder than those seen in natural varicella infection. The time since vaccination and the intensity of exposure are risk factors for developing BV during an outbreak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1704574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7482709PMC
August 2020

Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 1 promotes invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Anticancer Drugs 2020 10;31(9):908-917

Institute of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Southwest Cancer Center, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University (Army Medical University).

Hepatocellular carcinoma is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Neural regulation plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, and activation of sympathetic nervous system can promote the migration and invasion of cancer cells. However, little research has been conducted on how the vagus nerve influences hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we found that the expression of vesicular acetylcholine transporter, a biomarker of vagus nerve, was associated with hepatocellular carcinoma patients' clinicopathological characteristics by immunohistochemistry. Further, activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 1 (M1R) promoted HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells migration and invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition via PI3K/Akt pathway. Moreover, inhibition of M1R by antagonist or shRNA suppressed hepatocellular carcinoma cells migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo, inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition and PI3K/Akt pathway. Therefore, these results indicate that activation of M1R promotes invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma through epithelial-mesenchymal transition and PI3K/Akt pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0000000000000907DOI Listing
October 2020

Effect of Body Mass Index on the Associations between Parity and Metabolic Syndrome and its Components among Northern Chinese Women.

Biomed Environ Sci 2020 Jan;33(1):11-18

Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325027, Zhejiang, China.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess the associations between parity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components and to evaluate the effects of body mass index (BMI) on these associations.

Methods: A total of 5,674 women were enrolled from Jidong and Kailuan communities (Tangshan, Hebei) in Northern China. All participants completed standardized questionnaires, physical examination, and biochemical measurements. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the associations.

Results: Compared with women with parity of one, nulliparous women had decreased odds ratios ( s ); those with parity of two had odds of abdominal obesity [ = 1.45, 95% confidence interval ( ) 1.17-1.81, < 0.001], high blood pressure ( = 1.26, 95% 1.03-1.54, = 0.025), elevated fasting glucose levels ( = 1.36, 95% 1.03-1.79, = 0.029), and MetS ( = 1.39, 95% 1.13-1.73, = 0.002); and those with parity of three or more had increased odds of elevated triglyceride levels ( = 1.42, 95% 1.04-1.94, = 0.027) and MetS ( = 1.50, 95% 1.10-2.05, = 0.011) after complete adjustment for confounders. Furthermore, BMI and age subgroups partially modified the associations between parity and MetS and its components.

Conclusions: Parity is positively associated with MetS and select components in women. BMI is an important modifier involved in the associations between parity and MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3967/bes2020.002DOI Listing
January 2020