Publications by authors named "Xi Wu"

506 Publications

Crosstalk between Environmental Inflammatory Stimuli and Non-Coding RNA in Cancer Occurrence and Development.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 2;13(17). Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210003, China.

There is a clear relationship between inflammatory response and different stages of tumor development. Common inflammation-related carcinogens include viruses, bacteria, and environmental mutagens, such as air pollutants, toxic metals, and ultraviolet light. The expression pattern of ncRNA changes in a variety of disease conditions, including inflammation and cancer. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have a causative role in enhancing inflammatory stimulation and evading immune responses, which are particularly important in persistent pathogen infection and inflammation-to-cancer transformation. In this review, we investigated the mechanism of ncRNA expression imbalance in inflammation-related cancers. A better understanding of the function of inflammation-associated ncRNAs may help to reveal the potential of ncRNAs as a new therapeutic strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13174436DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8430834PMC
September 2021

Systems of conductive skin for power transfer in clinical applications.

Eur Biophys J 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Institute for Mechanical Systems, ETH Zurich, Leonhardstrasse 21, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland.

The primary aim of this article is to review the clinical challenges related to the supply of power in implanted left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) by means of transcutaneous drivelines. In effect of that, we present the preventive measures and post-operative protocols that are regularly employed to address the leading problem of driveline infections. Due to the lack of reliable wireless solutions for power transfer in LVADs, the development of new driveline configurations remains at the forefront of different strategies that aim to power LVADs in a less destructive manner. To this end, skin damage and breach formation around transcutaneous LVAD drivelines represent key challenges before improving the current standard of care. For this reason, we assess recent strategies on the surface functionalization of LVAD drivelines, which aim to limit the incidence of driveline infection by directing the responses of the skin tissue. Moreover, we propose a class of power transfer systems that could leverage the ability of skin tissue to effectively heal short diameter wounds. In this direction, we employed a novel method to generate thin conductive wires of controllable surface topography with the potential to minimize skin disruption and eliminate the problem of driveline infections. Our initial results suggest the viability of the small diameter wires for the investigation of new power transfer systems for LVADs. Overall, this review uniquely compiles a diverse number of topics with the aim to instigate new research ventures on the design of power transfer systems for IMDs, and specifically LVADs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00249-021-01568-8DOI Listing
September 2021

High-Q ultrasensitive integrated photonic sensors based on slot-ring resonator on a 3C-SiC-on-insulator platform.

Opt Lett 2021 Sep;46(17):4316-4319

We demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, the first high- silicon carbide (SiC) integrated photonic sensor based on slot-ring resonators on a 3C-SiC-on-insulator (SiCOI) platform. We experimentally demonstrate an intrinsic of 17,400 at around 1310 nm wavelength for a slot-ring resonator with 40 µm radius with water cladding. By applying different concentrations of a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution that covers the devices, measured bulk sensitivities of 264-300 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) are achieved in the slot-ring resonator with a 400-450 nm rail width and a 100-200 nm slot width. The device performance for biomolecular layer sensing (BMLS) is proved by the detection of the cardiac biomarker troponin with 248-322 pm/nm surface sensitivity. The reported slot-ring resonators can be of great interest for diverse sensing applications from visible to infrared wavelengths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.434689DOI Listing
September 2021

Whole-genome sequencing of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) provides insights into adaptive evolution and growth differences.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Life Sciences School, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an important species of fish in the coral reef ecosystem and marine aquaculture industry. In this study, a high-quality chromosome-level genome of brown-marbled grouper was assembled using Oxford Nanopore technology and Hi-C technology. The GC content and heterozygosity were approximately 42% and 0.35%, respectively. A total of 230 contigs with a total length of 1047 Mb and contig N50 of 13.8 Mb were assembled, and 228 contigs (99.13%) were anchored into 24 chromosomes. A total of 24,005 protein-coding genes were predicted, among which 23,862 (99.4%) predicted genes were annotated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that brown-marbled grouper and humpback grouper were clustered into one clade that separated approximately 11-23 million years ago. Collinearity analyses showed that there was no obvious duplication of large fragments between chromosomes in the brown-marbled grouper. Genomes of the humpback grouper and giant grouper showed a high collinearity with that of the brown-marbled grouper. A total of 305 expanded gene families were detected in the brown-marbled grouper genome, which is mainly involved in disease resistance. In addition, a genetic linkage map with 3061.88 cM was constructed. Based on the physical and genetic map, one growth-related quantitative trait loci was detected in 32,332,447 bp of chromosome 20, and meox1 and etv4 were considered candidate growth-related genes. This study provides pivotal genetic resources for further evolutionary analyses and artificial breeding of groupers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13494DOI Listing
August 2021

A study of negative life events driven depressive symptoms and academic engagement in Chinese college students.

Sci Rep 2021 Aug 25;11(1):17160. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1954 Huashan Road, Shanghai, 200030, China.

Negative life events (NLEs) are an important predictor of depressive symptoms (DS). College students experiencing NLEs are at risk of developing DS that could further weaken their academic engagement (AE), while social supports may assuage such negative effect. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between negative life events, depressive symptoms, and academic engagement, and how the NLE-DS-AE relationship is affected by the level of social support among Chinese college students. To test this hypothesis, we applied data from the Decoding Happiness Gene Cohort Study (DHGCS). Baseline depressive symptoms and academic engagement were measured at the beginning of the first academic year. Approximately 12 months later, negative life events and social support over the past year were assessed retrospectively along with current depressive symptoms and academic engagement. A total of 3629 college students (Age = 18.67 ± 0.82) were included in the study. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 26.7% and 36.7% in college students at the beginning of the first and second academic year, respectively. Depressive symptoms predicted subsequent academic engagement rather than the reverse based on cross-lagged analyses. Using structural equation modeling analyses, findings revealed a partial mediation effect of social support between negative life events and the development of depressive symptoms, and a partial mediation effect between negative life events and academic engagement. The findings presented negative life events jeopardize the academic engagement via depressive symptoms, while social supports are able to cancel such negative effect among college students under the Chinese cultural context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-96768-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8387499PMC
August 2021

Sex difference in comorbid depression in first-episode and drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia: Baseline results from the Depression in Schizophrenia in China study.

Psychosom Med 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Neurology, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China Qingdao Mental Health Center, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China Shenzhen Kangning Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, China. Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai, China Department of Psychiatry, The First Clinical Medical College, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Objective: Comorbid depression is common in schizophrenia, and sex differences are prominent in many aspects of schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated sex difference in comorbid depression in schizophrenia. This large sample study aimed to investigate sex differences in first-episode drug-naive (FEDN) patients with schizophrenia comorbid major depressive episode (MDE) (SZ-MDE).

Methods: A total of 996 FEDN patients with schizophrenia (472 males/524 females) were recruited. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were applied.

Results: There was no difference in the prevalence of comorbid MDE between male and female patients with schizophrenia. Among SZ-MDE patients, men had more severe psychotic symptoms (scores of PANSS total scale, negative scale, and general psychopathology scale), more severe depressive symptoms and higher proportion of severe depression than women (all p < 0.001). The early onset age of schizophrenia, smoking and PANSS positive score were the risk factors for comorbid MDE only in female patients with schizophrenia (all p < 0.05). Furthermore, in female patients with SZ-MDE, smoking was associated with the severity category of depression (p = 0.001, OR = 2.70). Multiple variable regression demonstrated HAMD17 score correlated with PANSS general psychopathology (p = 0.01) and total scores (p = 0.04) in female SZ-MDE.

Conclusions: Our results indicate sex differences in proportion of severe depression, clinical symptoms, and factors of comorbid MDE in FEDN patients with schizophrenia. These sex differences have clinical implications for the treatment of depression as related to the nature and severity of psychopathological symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000998DOI Listing
August 2021

Genome-wide study of copy number variation implicates multiple novel loci for schizophrenia risk in Han Chinese family trios.

iScience 2021 Aug 22;24(8):102894. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, China.

Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the global population. Copy number variations (CNVs) have been shown to play a critical role in its pathophysiology; however, only case-control studies on SCZ susceptibility CNVs have been conducted in Han Chinese. Here, we performed an array comparative genomic hybridization-based genome-wide CNV analysis in 100 Chinese family trios with SCZ. Burden test suggested that the SCZ probands carried more duplications than their healthy parents and unrelated healthy controls. Besides, five CNV loci were firstly reported to be associated with SCZ here, including both unbalanced transmitted CNVs and enriched CNVs. Moreover, two genes ( and ) in these CNVs showed significant SCZ relevance in the expression level. Our findings support the crucial role of CNVs in the etiology of SCZ and provide new insights into the underlying mechanism of SCZ pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358640PMC
August 2021

Enhancing the flow field in parallel spiral-flow column photobioreactor to improve CO fixation with Spirulina sp.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 30;799:149314. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

College of Energy, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China. Electronic address:

A parallel spiral-flow column photobioreactor (PSCP) composed of eight spiral-flow columns, and two pipe headers was designed for scale-up cultivation of microalgae to capture CO. To solve the disturbance of spiral flow fields among parallel columns, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was used to optimize the main structural parameters, such as the number and the height of microalgae solution outlet (MSO), to improve flow field structure and enhance the cells' light/dark cycle. The horizontal velocity in the direction of optical path and the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) reached the peak values of 0.214 m/s and 5.28 m/s when MSO number was four and MSO height was 1.05 m. Meanwhile, the disturbance of the spiral flow field among parallel columns are minimum, and microalgae light/dark cycle frequency was 33.3% higher than that of conventional bubble column photobioreactor. Therefore, the biomass yield and CO fixation rate of microalgae increased by 81.5% and 100.5%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149314DOI Listing
July 2021

Is intravenous iodinated contrast medium administration really harmful in hospitalized acute kidney injury patients: a propensity score-matched study.

Eur Radiol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease and Blood Purification, 139 Renmin Road, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of intravenous iodinated contrast medium (ICM) administration on the deterioration of renal function (DRF), new renal replacement therapy (RRT) induction and mortality of hospitalized acute kidney injury (AKI) patients.

Methods: Adult hospitalized patients undergoing a contrast-enhanced or unenhanced CT scan within 7 days after AKI diagnosis from January 2015 to December 2019 were identified in this retrospective study. Propensity score matching was performed. Outcomes in 7 and 30 days after CT scan were compared between the contrast and non-contrast groups. Additional analyses were also performed in patients stratified by SCr levels at AKI diagnosis, times and time of CT scan, and in patients without chronic kidney disease or RRT requirement prior to CT scan.

Results: In total, 1172 pairs were generated after 1:1 propensity score matching from 1336 cases exposed to ICM and 2724 unexposed. No significant differences were found in the outcomes between the two groups: DRF, 7.8% vs 9.0% (odds ratio (OR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62-1.11) in 7 days, 5.1% vs 5.4% (OR 0.93, 95%CI 0.64-1.34) in 30 days; new RRT induction, 2.3% vs 3.3% (OR 0.72,95%CI 0.43-1.18) in 7 days, 4.2% vs 4.5% (OR 0.95,95%CI 0.64-1.41) in 30 days; and mortality, 3.9% vs 4.8% (OR 0.83,95%CI 0.56-1.22) in 7 days, 9.0% vs 10.2% (OR 0.88,95%CI 0.68-1.15) in 30 days. Subset analyses showed similar results.

Conclusion: Intravenous ICM administration during AKI duration did not increase the risks of DRF, new RRT induction, and mortality in 7 and 30 days after CT scan.

Key Points: • Intravenous ICM administration in hospitalized AKI patients does not increase the risks of deterioration of renal function, RRT induction, and mortality in 7 and 30 days after CT scan. • The effects of intravenous ICM on adverse outcomes are minimal even in AKI patients with high level of SCr values or multiple CT scans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08192-2DOI Listing
August 2021

Development of mortality prediction model in the elderly hospitalized AKI patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 26;11(1):15157. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Hunan Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease and Blood Purification, Department of Nephrology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, 410011, Hunan, China.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) correlates with increased health-care costs and poor outcomes in older adults. However, there is no good scoring system to predict mortality within 30-day, 1-year after AKI in older adults. We performed a retrospective analysis screening data of 53,944 hospitalized elderly patients (age > 65 years) from multi-centers in China. 944 patients with AKI (acute kidney disease) were included and followed up for 1 year. Multivariable regression analysis was used for developing scoring models in the test group (a randomly 70% of all the patients). The established models have been verified in the validation group (a randomly 30% of all the patients). Model 1 that consisted of the risk factors for death within 30 days after AKI had accurate discrimination (The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves, AUROC: 0.90 (95% CI 0.875-0.932)) in the test group, and performed well in the validation groups (AUROC: 0.907 (95% CI 0.865-0.949)). The scoring formula of all-cause death within 1 year (model 2) is a seven-variable model including AKI type, solid tumor, renal replacement therapy, acute myocardial infarction, mechanical ventilation, the number of organ failures, and proteinuria. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves of model 2 was > 0.80 both in the test and validation groups. Our newly established risk models can well predict the risk of all-cause death in older hospitalized AKI patients within 30 days or 1 year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94271-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313696PMC
July 2021

Corrigendum: Neuroprotective Effects of Celastrol on Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia Rats via Regulating HMGB1/NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

Front Neurosci 2021 6;15:637004. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2020.00847.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.637004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292231PMC
July 2021

Discovery of Novel 2,4-Dianilinopyrimidine Derivatives Containing 4-(Morpholinomethyl)phenyl and -Substituted Benzamides as Potential FAK Inhibitors and Anticancer Agents.

Molecules 2021 Jul 9;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Chemistry, Changzhi University, Changzhi 046011, China.

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is responsible for the development and progression of various malignancies. With the aim to explore novel FAK inhibitors as anticancer agents, a series of 2,4-dianilinopyrimidine derivatives - and - containing 4-(morpholinomethyl)phenyl and -substituted benzamides have been designed and synthesized. Among them, compound displayed potent anti-FAK activity (IC = 0.047 ± 0.006 μM) and selective antiproliferative effects against H1975 (IC = 0.044 ± 0.011 μM) and A431 cells (IC = 0.119 ± 0.036 μM). Furthermore, compound also induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, arresting the cells in S/G2 phase and inhibiting the migration of H1975 cells, all of which were superior to those of TAE226. The docking analysis of compound was performed to elucidate its possible binding modes with FAK. These results established as our lead compound to be further investigated as a potential FAK inhibitor and anticancer agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26144187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304610PMC
July 2021

Differences in patterns of metabolic abnormality and metabolic syndrome between early-onset and adult-onset first-episode drug-naive schizophrenia patients.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Jun 29;132:105344. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Although metabolic abnormalities and metabolic syndrome (MetS) often occur in schizophrenia, few studies have investigated them in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) patients. To our knowledge, this was the first to compare clinical correlates of metabolic abnormalities between first-episode drug-naïve (FEDN) EOS and adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) patients. A total of 489 Chinese FEDN schizophrenia patients (116 EOS and 373 AOS) and 451 healthy controls were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), Body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin and insulin resistance were measured. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was applied to evaluate the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia patients, and higher scores on PANSS indicate increased severity. EOS patients had lower rates of: MetS, elevated WC, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hyper-LDLC than EOS patients (all p < 0.05). In EOS patients, WC was positively associated with PANSS general psychopathology score (p = 0.04). In AOS patients, WC (p = 0.01; p = 0.02) and glucose (p < 0.001; p < 0.001) were positively associated with PANSS general psychopathology and total score. HOMA-IR was positively associated with PANSS total score (p = 0.04). Systolic BP, triglycerides and HDLC were main contributors to MetS in AOS (all p < 0.05), but not in EOS. BMI was a risk factor of MetS in EOS, while BMI and HOMA-IR were risk factors of MetS in AOS (all p < 0.05). Our results indicate differences in metabolic abnormalities patterns, risk factors and their association with clinical characteristics between Chinese EOS and AOS patients. DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT: The datasets that support the findings of this study are not publically available due to ongoing analyses for further publications, but are available from the corresponding author X.Z. upon reasonable request.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2021.105344DOI Listing
June 2021

Construction and characterization of novel bifunctional fusion proteins composed of alcohol dehydrogenase and NADH oxidase with efficient oxidized cofactor regeneration.

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Sub-Institute of Agriculture and Food Standardization, China National Institute of Standardization, Beijing, China.

To tune the efficiency of oxidized cofactor recycling between alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and NADH oxidase (NOX) for the production of aromatic chiral alcohols, we designed and constructed four novel bifunctional fusion proteins composed of thermostable ADH and NOX from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1. ADH was linked to the N- or C-terminus of NOX with a typical rigid linker (EAAAK) and a flexible linker (GGGGS) , respectively. Compared with the parental enzymes, the NOX moieties in the four fusion proteins exhibited higher specific activities (141%-282%), while the ADH moieties exhibited varying levels of specific activity (69%-167%). All fusion proteins showed decreased affinities toward the cofactors, with increased K values toward NADH (159%-406%) and NAD (202%-372%). In the enantioselective oxidation of (RS)-1-phenylethanol coupled with cofactor regeneration, the four fusion proteins displayed different positive and negative effects on the recycling efficiency of the oxidized cofactor. The two fusion proteins composed of NOX at the N-terminus exhibited higher total turnover numbers than the corresponding mixtures of individual enzymes with equal activities, particularly at low cofactor concentrations. These findings suggest high cofactor recycling efficiencies of the fusion proteins with appropriate design and their potential application in the biosynthesis of chiral alcohols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bab.2225DOI Listing
July 2021

Regional tissue oxygen saturation as a predictor of post-spinal anesthesia hypotension for cesarean delivery.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology Union ShenZhen Hospital, ShenZhen, Guangdong 518000, China Department of Anesthesiology, The 6th Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University Health Science Center, ShenZhen, Guangdong 518000, China Department of Anesthesiology, Institute of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430022, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001647DOI Listing
July 2021

Comorbid major depression in first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia: Analysis of the Depression in Schizophrenia in China (DISC) study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Nov 5;294:33-38. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Psychology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Depression is very common in patients with schizophrenia, but few studies have investigated the diagnosed major depressive episode (MDE) in first episode and drug naive (FEDN) schizophrenia. To our best knowledge, this is the first large sample study to examine the prevalence, clinical correlates and associated factors of diagnosed MDE in FEDN schizophrenia, as well as the relationship between depressive symptoms and psychopathological symptoms in these schizophrenia patients.

Methods: A total of 996 FEDN schizophrenia patients were recruited. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were used to assess the severity of depression and psychopathology, respectively.

Results: Our results demonstrated that MDE coexisted in nearly half (49.30%) of FEDN schizophrenia patients. Male gender, smoking, PANSS general psychopathology and early age of onset were associated with MDE in patients with FEDN schizophrenia (all p<0.05). In schizophrenia patients with MDE, oridinal logistic regression showed that men (OR=6.65, 95%CI: 4.12-10.45, p<0.001) and smoking (OR=1.94, 95%CI: 1.25-3.01, p=0.003) were positively associated with severity category of depression (all p<0.05), while multivariate regression showed that HAMD17 total score was significantly associated with the PANSS general psychopathology (B=0.06, t=2.72, p=0.007) and total scores (B=0.04, t=2.57, p=0.01).

Conclusion: Our study shows that the prevalence of comorbid MDE is high in FEDN schizophrenia patients. Some demographic and clinical variables are associated with the severity of depression in these schizophrenia patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.06.075DOI Listing
November 2021

Fabricating polyoxometalates-stabilized single-atom site catalysts in confined space with enhanced activity for alkynes diboration.

Nat Commun 2021 Jul 9;12(1):4205. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Effecting the synergistic function of single metal atom sites and their supports is of great importance to achieve high-performance catalysts. Herein, we successfully fabricate polyoxometalates (POMs)-stabilized atomically dispersed platinum sites by employing three-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as the finite spatial skeleton to govern the accessible quantity, spatial dispersion, and mobility of metal precursors around each POM unit. The isolated single platinum atoms (Pt) are steadily anchored in the square-planar sites on the surface of monodispersed Keggin-type phosphomolybdic acid (PMo) in the cavities of various MOFs, including MIL-101, HKUST-1, and ZIF-67. In contrast, either the absence of POMs or MOFs yielded only platinum nanoparticles. [email protected] are seven times more active than the corresponding nanoparticles in the diboration of phenylacetylene, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of the preconcentration of organic reaction substrates by porous MOFs skeleton and the decreased desorption energy of products on isolated Pt atom sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24513-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271022PMC
July 2021

Global patterns in genomic diversity underpinning the evolution of insecticide resistance in the aphid crop pest Myzus persicae.

Commun Biol 2021 07 7;4(1):847. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Biosciences, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, UK.

The aphid Myzus persicae is a destructive agricultural pest that displays an exceptional ability to develop resistance to both natural and synthetic insecticides. To investigate the evolution of resistance in this species we generated a chromosome-scale genome assembly and living panel of >110 fully sequenced globally sampled clonal lines. Our analyses reveal a remarkable diversity of resistance mutations segregating in global populations of M. persicae. We show that the emergence and spread of these mechanisms is influenced by host-plant associations, uncovering the widespread co-option of a host-plant adaptation that also offers resistance against synthetic insecticides. We identify both the repeated evolution of independent resistance mutations at the same locus, and multiple instances of the evolution of novel resistance mechanisms against key insecticides. Our findings provide fundamental insights into the genomic responses of global insect populations to strong selective forces, and hold practical relevance for the control of pests and parasites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02373-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263593PMC
July 2021

The role of EUS in diagnosing focal autoimmune pancreatitis and differentiating it from pancreatic cancer.

Endosc Ultrasound 2021 Jul-Aug;10(4):280-287

Department of Gastroenterology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background And Objectives: The clinical presentation of focal autoimmune pancreatitis (FAIP) and together with radiological overlap can mimic pancreatic cancer (PC). The aim of this study is to construct and validate a prediction model for differentiating FAIP from PC according to EUS characteristics.

Patients And Methods: Ninety patients with FAIP and 196 patients with PC, who consecutively underwent EUS at our center from January 2013 to December 2018, were retrospectively included in the study. The enrolled patients were randomly divided into either a derivation sample or a validation sample. According to EUS characteristics, multivariate stepwise logistic regression and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were used to construct a prediction model in derivation sample, and then, the efficacy was assessed in validation sample.

Results: EUS characteristics that were suggestive of FAIP included diffuse hypoechogenicity, hyperechoic foci/stands or lobularity (parenchymal heterogeneity), bile duct wall thickening and peripancreatic hypoechoic margin; and EUS features favoring PC included focal hypoechogenicity, absence of parenchymal heterogeneity, pancreatic duct dilation, and vessel involvement. The prediction model, with an area under the ROC curve of more than 0.95, had a good capability to distinguish FAIP from PC. By using the optimal cutoff value, the efficacy of model for diagnosing PC showed 83.7%-91.8% sensitivity and 93.3%-95.6% specificity.

Conclusions: It is feasible to differentiate FAIP from PC based on EUS characteristics. The prediction model built in this study needs to be further confirmed by multicenter prospective researches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/EUS-D-20-00212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8411560PMC
July 2021

A MYB4-MAN3-Mannose-MNB1 signaling cascade regulates cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis.

PLoS Genet 2021 Jun 28;17(6):e1009636. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

School of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China.

Our previous studies showed that MAN3-mediated mannose plays an important role in plant responses to cadmium (Cd) stress. However, the underlying mechanisms and signaling pathways involved are poorly understood. In this study, we showed that an Arabidopsis MYB4-MAN3-Mannose-MNB1 signaling cascade is involved in the regulation of plant Cd tolerance. Loss-of-function of MNB1 (mannose-binding-lectin 1) led to decreased Cd accumulation and tolerance, whereas overexpression of MNB1 significantly enhanced Cd accumulation and tolerance. Consistently, expression of the genes involved in the GSH-dependent phytochelatin (PC) synthesis pathway (such as GSH1, GSH2, PCS1, and PCS2) was significantly reduced in the mnb1 mutants but markedly increased in the MNB1-OE lines in the absence or presence of Cd stress, which was positively correlated with Cd-activated PC synthesis. Moreover, we found that mannose is able to bind to the GNA-related domain of MNB1, and that mannose binding to the GNA-related domain of MNB1 is required for MAN3-mediated Cd tolerance in Arabidopsis. Further analysis showed that MYB4 directly binds to the promoter of MAN3 to positively regulate the transcript of MAN3 and thus Cd tolerance via the GSH-dependent PC synthesis pathway. Consistent with these findings, overexpression of MAN3 rescued the Cd-sensitive phenotype of the myb4 mutant but not the mnb1 mutant, whereas overexpression of MNB1 rescued the Cd-sensitive phenotype of the myb4 mutant. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that a MYB4-MAN3-Mannose-MNB1 signaling cascade regulates cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis through the GSH-dependent PC synthesis pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270467PMC
June 2021

Using high-throughput multiple optical phenotyping to decipher the genetic architecture of maize drought tolerance.

Genome Biol 2021 06 24;22(1):185. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, National Center of Plant Gene Research, and Hubei Key Laboratory of Agricultural Bioinformatics, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Background: Drought threatens the food supply of the world population. Dissecting the dynamic responses of plants to drought will be beneficial for breeding drought-tolerant crops, as the genetic controls of these responses remain largely unknown.

Results: Here we develop a high-throughput multiple optical phenotyping system to noninvasively phenotype 368 maize genotypes with or without drought stress over a course of 98 days, and collected multiple optical images, including color camera scanning, hyperspectral imaging, and X-ray computed tomography images. We develop high-throughput analysis pipelines to extract image-based traits (i-traits). Of these i-traits, 10,080 were effective and heritable indicators of maize external and internal drought responses. An i-trait-based genome-wide association study reveals 4322 significant locus-trait associations, representing 1529 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and 2318 candidate genes, many that co-localize with previously reported maize drought responsive QTLs. Expression QTL (eQTL) analysis uncovers many local and distant regulatory variants that control the expression of the candidate genes. We use genetic mutation analysis to validate two new genes, ZmcPGM2 and ZmFAB1A, which regulate i-traits and drought tolerance. Moreover, the value of the candidate genes as drought-tolerant genetic markers is revealed by genome selection analysis, and 15 i-traits are identified as potential markers for maize drought tolerance breeding.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that combining high-throughput multiple optical phenotyping and GWAS is a novel and effective approach to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits and clone drought-tolerance associated genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-021-02377-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223302PMC
June 2021

Smoking affects the patterns of metabolic disorders and metabolic syndrome in patients with first-episode drug-naive schizophrenia - a large sample study based on Chinese Han population.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: Although metabolic disorders and smoking are common in schizophrenia, few studies investigated the effects of smoking on metabolic disorders or metabolic syndrome (MetS) in schizophrenia patients, especially in first-episode drug-naïve (FEDN) patients. To investigate the differences in metabolic disorders and MetS between smoking and non-smoking FEDN schizophrenia patients.

Methods: A total of 428 FEDN schizophrenia patients and 435 controls were recruited. Blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), lipid profiles and glucose metabolism were measured. The psychopathology was evaluated by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS).

Results: FEDN schizophrenia patients had higher smoking rate than controls (23.8% vs. 14.0%, p<0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables, the prevalence of MetS, overweight, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, elevated insulin and insulin resistance in smoking patients were higher than those in non-smoking patients, while overweight and hypertension in the smoking controls were higher than those in non-smoking controls (all p<0.05). In smoking patients, triglyceridemia, HDLC and fasting blood glucose were the main contributing components to MetS, while in non-smoking patients, waist circumference, systolic BP, triglyceridemia, HDLC and fasting blood glucose were the main contributing components to MetS. In smoking patients, BMI and HOMA-IR were associated factors of MetS (both p<0.05). In non-smoking patients, sex, BMI, insulin and HOMA-IR were associated factors of MetS (all p<0.05).

Conclusions: Our study indicates that smoking schizophrenia patients have a higher prevalence of MetS and metabolic disorders than non-smoking patients. Moreover, smoking and non-smoking patients have different contributing components and associated factors for MetS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ijnp/pyab038DOI Listing
June 2021

Characterizing Brain Tumor Regions Using Texture Analysis in Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Front Neurosci 2021 3;15:634926. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Biomedical Engineering and Informatics, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Purpose: To extract texture features from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of patients with brain tumors and use them to train a classification model for supporting an early diagnosis.

Methods: Two groups of regions (control and tumor) were selected from MRI scans of 40 patients with meningioma or glioma. These regions were analyzed to obtain texture features. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS (version 20.0), including the Shapiro-Wilk test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, which were used to test significant differences in each feature between the tumor and healthy regions. T-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) was used to visualize the data distribution so as to avoid tumor selection bias. The Gini impurity index in random forests (RFs) was used to select the top five out of all features. Based on the five features, three classification models were built respectively with three machine learning classifiers: RF, support vector machine (SVM), and back propagation (BP) neural network.

Results: Sixteen of the 25 features were significantly different between the tumor and healthy areas. Through the Gini impurity index in RFs, standard deviation, first-order moment, variance, third-order absolute moment, and third-order central moment were selected to build the classification model. The classification model trained using the SVM classifier achieved the best performance, with sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of 94.04%, 92.3%, and 0.932, respectively.

Conclusion: Texture analysis with an SVM classifier can help differentiate between brain tumor and healthy areas with high speed and accuracy, which would facilitate its clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.634926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209330PMC
June 2021

Impact of sense of coherence, resilience and loneliness on quality of life amongst older adults in long-term care: A correlational study using the salutogenic model.

J Adv Nurs 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Alice Lee Centre for Nursing Studies, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

Aims: This study aimed to identify the predicting factors of quality of life (QoL) from a set of psychosocial, sociodemographic and clinical variables amongst older adults in a long-term care setting.

Design: A cross-sectional, descriptive correlational study.

Method: The study was conducted in a nursing home and a day care centre from July to December 2019. Two hundred older adults were recruited. Guided by the salutogenic model, the sense of coherence (SOC) scale, Connor-Davidson resilience scale, de Jong Gierveld loneliness scale and World Health Organization quality of life instrument-older adults (WHOQOL-OLD) were used. The sociodemographic and clinical profiles of participants were collected. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, independent-samples t test, one-way analysis of variance and stepwise regression were utilised in the analysis.

Results: The mean score for WHOQOL-OLD was 94.42 ± 19.55. The highest mean score was observed in the "Death and Dying" facet, while the lowest mean scores were reflected in the "Autonomy" and "Intimacy" facets of QoL. Regardless of resident type, most QoL scores were similar across different variables. Based on the stepwise regression, higher manageability and meaningfulness in SOC, higher resilience, lower social loneliness, lower emotional loneliness and hearing impairments are significantly associated with higher QoL.

Conclusion: Manageability, meaningfulness and resilience should be enhanced while ameliorating feelings of loneliness to improve the QoL amongst older adults receiving long-term care. Age, marital status, educational level, care arrangement, body mass index, performance in activities of daily living, comorbidities and hearing and mobility impairments could influence QoL and thus warrant more attention.

Impact: Future interventions can be conducted in group sessions to facilitate social interaction and alleviate loneliness. More resources should be allocated to enhance older adults' care arrangements and coping mechanisms to provide them with the support, as they face challenges in daily life due to mobility impairment and other restrictions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.14940DOI Listing
June 2021

Anomalous fractional quantum Hall effect and multi-valued Hamiltonians.

Authors:
Xi Wu M A Zubkov

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Jul 5;33(35). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Physics Department, Ariel University, Ariel 40700, Israel.

We discuss anomalous fractional quantum Hall effect that exists without external magnetic field. We propose that excitations in such systems may be described effectively by non-interacting particles with the Hamiltonians defined on the Brillouin zone with a branch cut. Hall conductivity of such a system is expressed through the one-particle Green function. We demonstrate that for the Hamiltonians of the proposed type this expression takes fractional values times Klitzing constant. Possible relation of the proposed construction with degeneracy of ground state is discussed as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ac0becDOI Listing
July 2021

Multi-modal MRI Image Synthesis via GAN with Multi-scale Gate Mergence.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Jun 14;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a critical role in clinical diagnosis and treatment nowadays. Each modality of MRI presents its own specific anatomical features which serve as complementary information to other modalities and can provide rich diagnostic information. However, due to the limitations of time consuming and expensive cost, some image sequences of patients may be lost or corrupted, posing an obstacle for accurate diagnosis. Although current multi-modal image synthesis approaches are able to alleviate the issues to some extent, they are still far short of fusing modalities effectively. In light of this, we propose a multi-scale gate mergence based generative adversarial network model, namely MGM-GAN, to synthesize one modality of MRI from others. Notably, we have multiple down-sampling branches corresponding to input modalities to specifically extract their unique features. In contrast to the generic multi-modal fusion approach of averaging or maximizing operations, we introduce a gate mergence (GM) mechanism to automatically learn the weights of different modalities across locations, enhancing the task-related information while suppressing the irrelative information. As such, the feature maps of all the input modalities at each down-sampling level, i.e., multi-scale levels, are integrated via GM module. In addition, both the adversarial loss and the pixel-wise loss, as well as gradient difference loss (GDL) are applied to train the network to produce the desired modality accurately. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art multi-modal image synthesis methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JBHI.2021.3088866DOI Listing
June 2021

Acute kidney disease in hospitalized acute kidney injury patients.

PeerJ 2021 24;9:e11400. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Nephrology, The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University; Hunan Key Laboratory of Kidney Disease and Blood Purification, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have become worldwide public health problems, but little information is known about the epidemiology of acute kidney disease (AKD)-a state in between AKI and CKD. We aimed to explore the incidence and outcomes of hospitalized patients with AKD after AKI, and investigate the prognostic value of AKD in predicting 30-day and one-year adverse outcomes.

Methods: A total of 2,556 hospitalized AKI patients were identified from three tertiary hospitals in China in 2015 and followed up for one year.AKD and AKD stage were defined according to the consensus report of the Acute Disease Quality Initiative 16 workgroup. Multivariable regression analyses adjusted for confounding variables were used to examine the association of AKD with adverse outcomes.

Results: AKD occurred in 45.4% (1161/2556) of all AKI patients, 14.5% (141/971) of AKI stage 1 patients, 44.6% (308/691) of AKI stage 2 patients and 79.6% (712/894) of AKI stage 3 patients. AKD stage 1 conferred a greater risk of Major Adverse Kidney Events within 30 days (MAKE30) (odds ratio [OR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval 95% CI [1.66-3.36]) than AKD stage 0 but the association only maintained in AKI stage 3 when patients were stratified by AKI stage. However, compared with AKD stage 0, AKD stage 2-3 was associated with higher risks of both MAKE30 and one-year chronic dialysis and mortality independent of the effects of AKI stage with OR being 31.35 (95% CI [23.42-41.98]) and 2.68 (95% CI [2.07-3.48]) respectively. The association between AKD stage and adverse outcomes in 30 days and one year was not significantly changed in critically ill and non-critically ill AKI patients. The results indicated that AKD is common among hospitalized AKI patients. AKD stage 2-3 provides additional information in predicting 30-day and one-year adverse outcomes over AKI stage. Enhanced follow-up of renal function of these patients may be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158174PMC
May 2021

Experimental Evidence of Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Kekulé-Ordered Graphene.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 May;126(20):206804

State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics and Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People's Republic of China.

The low-energy excitations of graphene are relativistic massless Dirac fermions with opposite chiralities at valleys K and K^{'}. Breaking the chiral symmetry could lead to gap opening in analogy to dynamical mass generation in particle physics. Here we report direct experimental evidences of chiral symmetry breaking (CSB) from both microscopic and spectroscopic measurements in a Li-intercalated graphene. The CSB is evidenced by gap opening at the Dirac point, Kekulé-O type modulation, and chirality mixing near the gap edge. Our work opens up opportunities for investigating CSB related physics in a Kekulé-ordered graphene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.126.206804DOI Listing
May 2021

Brain changes correlate with neuropathic pain in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Aug 28;53:103048. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Background: Neuropathic pain (NP) is a highly disturbing sensory experience in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). However, the brain changes in NMOSD patients with NP have rarely been studied.

Objective: The aim of the cross-sectional and follow-up longitudinal study was to investigate the brain changes in NMOSD patients with NP.

Methods: In the cross-sectional study, comparisons were performed between groups with NP (W-NP) and without NP (Wo-NP), and age, sex and years of education were adjusted. We compared the voxel-wise whole-brain gray matter (GM) volume, cortical thickness (CT), cortical surface area (CSA) and local gyrification index (LGI). Probabilistic tractography started from regions with significant between-group differences in GM volume, CT, CSA and LGI. We also compared fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) of the white matter (WM) skeleton using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). In the longitudinal study, the patients were followed for 2.0±0.0 years and underwent the same imaging scanning as the cross-sectional study. Changes of the CT, CSA, LGI and WM were obtained.

Results: Patients in the W-NP group were older than those in the Wo-NP group and showed significantly reduced LGI of the left temporal lobe and adjacent regions(regions of interest, ROIs), which participated in neuropathic pain processing, possibly by emotion and attention control. Probabilistic tractography started from ROIs, and the generated WM tracts showed decreased MD and RD in the W-NP group compared to the Wo-NP group. Using TBSS, both MD and RD decreased in extensive WM skeleton in the right hemisphere of the patients in the W-NP group. Additionally, in the follow-up longitudinal study, compared with patients in the Wo-NP group, patients in the W-NP group showed lower mean reduction rates of LGI of ROIs, and less increase of FA and more increases of MD, AD and RD in the extensive WM skeleton.

Conclusions: These findings support the hypothesis that brain changes might correlate with NP in NMOSD patients and predict the changes related to NP over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.103048DOI Listing
August 2021

The unique molecular mechanism of diabetic nephropathy: a bioinformatics analysis of over 250 microarray datasets.

Clin Kidney J 2021 Jun 18;14(6):1626-1638. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Nephrology, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Wuxi People's Hospital, Wuxi, Jiangsu, China.

Background/aims: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the main causes of end-stage kidney disease worldwide. Emerging studies have suggested that its pathogenesis is distinct from nondiabetic renal diseases in many aspects. However, it still lacks a comprehensive understanding of the unique molecular mechanism of DN.

Methods: A total of 255 Affymetrix U133 microarray datasets (Affymetrix, Santa Calra, CA, USA) of human glomerular and tubulointerstitial tissues were collected. The 22 215 Affymetrix identifiers shared by the Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 and U133A Array were extracted to facilitate dataset pooling. Next, a linear model was constructed and the empirical Bayes method was used to select the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of each kidney disease. Based on these DEG sets, the unique DEGs of DN were identified and further analyzed using gene ontology and pathway enrichment analysis. Finally, the protein-protein interaction networks (PINs) were constructed and hub genes were selected to further refine the results.

Results: A total of 129 and 1251 unique DEGs were identified in the diabetic glomerulus (upregulated  = 83 and downregulated  = 203) and the diabetic tubulointerstitium (upregulated  = 399 and downregulated  = 874), respectively. Enrichment analysis revealed that the DEGs in the diabetic glomerulus were significantly associated with the extracellular matrix, cell growth, regulation of blood coagulation, cholesterol homeostasis, intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway and renal filtration cell differentiation. In the diabetic tubulointerstitium, the significantly enriched biological processes and pathways included metabolism, the advanced glycation end products-receptor for advanced glycation end products signaling pathway in diabetic complications, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway, the FoxO signaling pathway, autophagy and ferroptosis. By constructing PINs, several nodes, such as AGR2, CSNK2A1, EGFR and HSPD1, were identified as hub genes, which might play key roles in regulating the development of DN.

Conclusions: Our study not only reveals the unique molecular mechanism of DN but also provides a valuable resource for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery. Some of our findings are promising and should be explored in future work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfaa190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162860PMC
June 2021
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